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Sample records for goat ovarian differentiation

  1. Nerve Growth Factor gene ovarian expression, polymorphism identification, and association with litter size in goats.

    PubMed

    Naicy, T; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Aravindakshan, T V; Radhika, G; Raghavan, K C; Mini, M; Shyama, K

    2016-12-01

    The Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) plays an important role in reproduction by augmenting folliculogenesis. In this study, the coding regions of caprine NGF gene were analyzed to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), their association with litter size, and the relative ovarian expression of NGF gene in the two indigenous goat breeds of South India viz., the prolific Malabari and less-prolific Attappady Black. The sequence analysis of the third exon containing the entire open reading frame of NGF gene was observed to be of 808 bp with one nonsynonymous mutation at 217th position. Later, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a region of 188 bp covering the region carrying the detected mutation. The genomic DNAs from the goats under study (n = 277) were subjected to PCR and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). On analysis, four diplotypes viz., AA, AB, AC, and AD were observed with respective frequencies of 0.50, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.01. Sequencing of the representative samples revealed an additional synonymous mutation, i.e., g.291C>A. Statistical analysis indicated that NGF diplotypes and the SNP g.217G>A were associated with litter size in goats (P < 0.05). Relative expression of NGF gene was significantly higher in the ovaries of goats with history of multiple than single births (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest the significant effect of the NGF gene on litter size in goats and identified SNPs would benefit the selection of prolific animals in future marker-assisted breeding programs. The two novel PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms designed, based on the detected SNPs, would help in the rapid screening of large number of animals in a breeding population for identifying individual animals with desired genetic characteristics.

  2. Neonatal ovarian cysts: ultrasound assessment and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E

    Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts.

  3. Ovarian differentiation and development in cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum.

    PubMed

    Valentin, F N; Batlouni, S R; Nascimento, N F; Silva, R C; Manzini, B; Hilbig, C C; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O

    2016-07-01

    One thousand five hundred cachara or tiger shovelnose catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, obtained from induced reproduction, were used to determine the onset of ovarian differentiation and development and to record the main characteristics of this process. Samples were collected from 0 to 240 days post-fertilization (dpf) and the results classified into stages I-XII. Ovarian formation was histologically detected for the first time when juveniles measured mean ± s.d. 51·5 ± 8·3 mm total length (LT ) at 39-45 dpf (stages I-V), with intense somatic cell proliferation originating in the ovarian cavity. Both LT and age of fish had a positive correlation (P < 0·001) with ovarian differentiation, but LT showed a greater correlation (r(2)  = 0·95) than age (r(2)  = 0·85), especially during the initial stages of development. From stages VI to VII, the ovarian cavity was enlarged and undifferentiated oogonia were present. At stage VIII, small projections formed in the ovarian stroma towards the ventral region of the gonad (future ovarian lamellae) and the basal membrane and differentiated oogonia nests could be seen. At stages IX and X, the germ cells entered meiosis and folliculogenesis was completed by stages XI and XII, which can be considered late in comparison to other Siluriformes. This study has demonstrated that ovarian differentiation in P. fasciatum begins with an intense proliferation of squamous epithelial cells (somatic cells) during the early stages of development and that sex inversion protocols could, thus, be applied successfully before this period. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated that both size and age can influence gonad differentiation and development in this species.

  4. Differential effect of ventrolateral medullary cooling on respiratory muscles of goats.

    PubMed

    Forster, H V; Lowry, T F; Ohtake, P J; Pan, L G; Korducki, M J; Forster, A L

    1995-05-01

    The objective was to determine whether there is an inhomogeneous response of respiratory muscles during cooling-induced ventrolateral medullary (VLM) neuronal dysfunction in anesthetized and awake goats. Thermodes for cooling were chronically implanted on all or portions of rostral, intermediate, and caudal areas of the VLM of 16 adult goats. Electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from chronically implanted wires in the diaphragm (di), transversus abdominis (TA), and triangularis sterni (TS) muscles. During some periods of cooling in 9 of 16 anesthetized airway-intubated goats, complete cessation of EMGdi coincided with a reduced yet sustained inspiratory flow. In six awake tracheotomized goats, VLM cooling decreased (P < 0.05) EMGdi duration and minute activity more than inspiratory duration and minute ventilation. Cooling thus decreased activation of the diaphragm more than activation of other respiratory muscles. On the other hand, during VLM cooling in 3 of 10 airway-intact awake goats, cessation of inspiratory flow coincided with sustained EMGdi, suggesting that cooling decreased stimulation of the upper airway muscles more than stimulation of the diaphragm. Finally, VLM cooling in a majority of goats decreased EMGTA and EMGTS more than EMGdi. We conclude that VLM neuronal dysfunction has a differential effect on respiratory muscles of adult anesthetized and awake goats.

  5. Characterization and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian follicular development and hormone secretion are complex and coordinated biological processes which will usually be altered during pregnancy. Ovarian function is tightly regulated by a multitude of genes, and also by some specific miRNAs. It is necessary to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant mammals, in order to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in mammalian reproduction. Here, we performed a comprehensive search for hircine miRNAs using two small RNA sequencing libraries prepared from the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats. Results 617 conserved and 7 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the hircine ovaries. A total of 471 conserved miRNAs (76.34%) were co-expressed in both pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, and 90 pregnancy-specific and 56 non-pregnancy-specific conserved miRNAs were identified. Additionally, 407 unique miRNAs (65.96%) were significantly differentially expressed in the pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, of which 294 were upregulated and 113 were downregulated in the pregnant library compared to the non-pregnant library. Further analysis showed that miR-143 was predicted to bind to the target sequences of Frizzled-6 and -3 receptor genes in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, and let-7b may target the Activin receptor I and Smad 2/3 genes in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. The expression level of 5 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR), and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Conclusions The identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats provides important information on the role of miRNA in the regulation of the ovarian development and function. This data will be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during

  6. Positional cloning of the PIS mutation in goats and its impact on understanding mammalian sex-differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In goats, the PIS (polled intersex syndrome) mutation is responsible for both the absence of horns in males and females and sex-reversal affecting exclusively XX individuals. The mode of inheritance is dominant for the polled trait and recessive for sex-reversal. In XX PIS-/- mutants, the expression of testis-specific genes is observed very precociously during gonad development. Nevertheless, a delay of 4–5 days is observed in comparison with normal testis differentiation in XY males. By positional cloning, we demonstrate that the PIS mutation is an 11.7-kb regulatory-deletion affecting the expression of two genes, PISRT1 and FOXL2 which could act synergistically to promote ovarian differentiation. The transcriptional extinction of these two genes leads, very early, to testis-formation in XX homozygous PIS-/- mutants. According to their expression profiles and bibliographic data, we propose that FOXL2 may be an ovary-differentiating gene, and the non-coding RNA PISRT1, an anti-testis factor repressing SOX9, a key regulator of testis differentiation. Under this hypothesis, SRY, the testis-determining factor would inhibit these two genes in the gonads of XY males, to ensure testis differentiation. PMID:15601595

  7. Survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after in vitro culture of ovarian cortical slices in media containing coconut water.

    PubMed

    Silva, José R V; van den Hurk, Robert; Costa, Sonia H F; Andrade, Evelyn R; Nunes, Ana P A; Ferreira, Francisco V A; Lôbo, Raimundo N B; Figueiredo, José R

    2004-04-01

    The development of culture systems to support the initiation of growth of primordial follicles is important to the study of the factors that control the earliest stages of folliculogenesis. We investigated the effectiveness of five culture media, two supplements and three culture periods on the survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after culturing ovarian cortex. The media were based on minimal essential minimum (MEM) and coconut water solution (CWS) added in the proportion of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. The two supplements were none versus supplemented with insulin-transferrin-selenium, pyruvate, glutamine, hypoxanthine, and BSA. Pieces of goat ovarian cortex were cultured in the media for 1, 3 or 5 days and representative samples were evaluated at day 0 as non-cultured controls. The replicates were the two ovaries of five mixed breed goats. The number of primordial, intermediate, primary and secondary follicles at each period of culture and the number of degenerated follicles were evaluated. Mitotic activity of granulosa cells was studied by immunolocalization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of follicles in each stage and degenerated follicles were statistically analyzed by ANOVA using a factorial design and the significance of differences assessed using Tukey test. Chi-square test was used to compare the percentage of follicles with PCNA positive granulosa cells. As the culture period progressed, the number of primordial follicles fell and there was a significant increase in the number of primary follicles. The fall in the number of primordial follicles was particularly marked after 1 day culture. No effect of media on the number of primordial and primary follicles was observed after culture, but MEM as well as supplements increased the number of intermediate follicles. Follicular degeneration was kept at the same level after culture in the media tested, except for pure CWS that increased the number of degenerated follicles. In

  8. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in the ovaries of two goats identifies differentially expressed genes related to fecundity.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-10

    The goats are widely kept as livestock throughout the world. Two excellent domestic breeds in China, the Laiwu Black and Jining Grey goats, have different fecundities and prolificacies. Although the goat genome sequences have been resolved recently, little is known about the gene regulations at the transcriptional level in goat. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms related to the fecundities and prolificacies, we performed genome-wide sequencing of the mRNAs from two breeds of goat using the next-generation RNA-Seq technology and used functional annotation to identify pathways of interest. Digital gene expression analysis showed 338 genes were up-regulated in the Jining Grey goats and 404 were up-regulated in the Laiwu Black goats. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the reliability of the RNA-Seq data. This study suggests that multiple genes responsible for various biological functions and signaling pathways are differentially expressed in the two different goat breeds, and these genes might be involved in the regulation of goat fecundity and prolificacy. Taken together, our study provides insight into the transcriptional regulation in the ovaries of 2 species of goats that might serve as a key resource for understanding goat fecundity, prolificacy and genetic diversity between species.

  9. Effects of frutalin on early follicle morphology, ultrastructure and gene expression in cultured goat ovarian cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Soares, Maria A A; Costa, José J N; Vasconcelos, Gisvani L; Ribeiro, Regislane P; Souza, José C; Silva, André L C; Van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2017-02-15

    Frutalin is a galactose-binding lectin that has an irreversible cytotoxic effect on HeLa cervical cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. It was previously shown that after in vitro incubation, frutalin is internalized into HeLa cells nucleus, which indicates that frutalin apoptosis-inducing activity might be linked with its nuclear localization. Considering that drugs commonly used for cancer treatment have a deleterious effect on germ cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frutalin on the activation, survival, ultrastructure and gene expression in follicles cultured within ovarian tissue. Goat ovarian fragments were cultured for 6 days in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with frutalin (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200 µg/ml). Non-culturad and cultured tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis and they were also stored to evaluate the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that the frutalin, at all concentrations tested, reduced follicular survival when compared with control medium. Higher concentrations of frutalin (50, 100 or 200 µg/ml) also reduced follicular survival when compared with those tissues cultured with 1 or 10 µg/ml of frutalin. The ultrastructural analysis showed that atretic cultured follicles had retracted oocytes and a large number of vacuoles spread throughout the cytoplasm. In addition, signs of damage of mitochondrial membranes and cristae were observed. Moreover, although a dose-response effect on gene expression has not been observed, when compared with tissues culture in control medium, the presence of frutalin increased in mRNA expression pro-apoptotic genes. In conclusion, frutalin reduces follicular survival at all concentrations tested, its effects being more pronounced when high concentrations of this lectin (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) are used. Gene expression profile and ultrastrutural features of

  10. Ovarian and hormonal responses to single or continuous peripheral administration of senktide, a neurokinin 3 receptor agonist, during the follicular phase in goats.

    PubMed

    Endo, N; Rahayu, L P; Ito, Y; Tanaka, T

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of single or continuous administration of a neurokinin 3 receptor agonist, senktide, on hormonal and follicular dynamics in follicular phase goats. Goats were injected with PGF2α in the luteal phase and treated with an intravaginal progesterone device for 10 d. At 12 h after the cessation of progesterone treatment, the goats received a single intravenous injection of senktide (200 nmol, n = 4) or vehicle (n = 4), or continuous intravenous infusion of senktide (20 nmol/min, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) for 6 h. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were performed during the experiment. A single injection of senktide did not influence the number of luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses and mean LH concentration. On the other hand, continuous injection of senktide caused a sustained increase in LH secretion, and mean LH concentration in samples collected at 10-min intervals for 6 h after the start of infusion was higher than that of vehicle-treated goats (2.8 ± 1.3 vs 1.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In 4 of 6 goats, LH concentrations reached their peaks during the 6-h senktide infusion, and ovulation was observed at 48 h after the start of infusion without estrous behavior. The remaining 2 senktide-treated goats and all vehicle-treated goats showed estrus and ovulated at 72 or 96 h after treatment. These results suggest that continuous infusion of senktide in follicular phase goats can cause a sustained increase in LH and advance the time of ovulation.

  11. Large Scale Immune Profiling of Infected Humans and Goats Reveals Differential Recognition of Brucella melitensis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A.; Atluri, Vidya L.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W. John W.; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Felgner, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host. PMID:20454614

  12. Large scale immune profiling of infected humans and goats reveals differential recognition of Brucella melitensis antigens.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A; Atluri, Vidya L; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W John W; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H; Vinetz, Joseph M; Tsolis, Renée M; Felgner, Philip L

    2010-05-04

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host.

  13. Differential gene expression analysis of ovarian cancer in a population isolate.

    PubMed

    Grazio, D; Pichler, I; Fuchsberger, C; Zolezzi, F; Guarnieri, P; Heidegger, H; Scherer, A; Engl, B; Messini, S; Egarter-Vigl, E; Pramstaller, P P

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression products represent candidate biomarkers with the potential for early screening and therapy of patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. The present study, using patients that originate from the population isolate of South Tyrol, Italy, substantiates the feasibility of differential gene expression analysis in a genetically isolated population for the identification of potential markers of ovarian cancer. Gene expression profiles of fresh-frozen ovarian serous papillary carcinoma samples were analyzed and compared to normal ovarian control tissues using oligonucleotide microarrays complementary to 14,500 human genes. Supervised analysis of gene expression profiling data identified 225 genes that are down-regulated and 635 that are up-regulated in malignant compared to normal ovarian tissues. Class-prediction analysis identified 40 differentially expressed genes for further investigation as potential classifiers for ovarian cancer, including 20 novel candidates. Our findings provide a glimpse into the potential of population isolate genomics in oncological research.

  14. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  15. S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhenwen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Yang, Gong; Mok, Samuel C.; Liu, Jinsong; Bigsby, Robert M.; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the epithelial layer covering the surface of ovaries and intra-peritoneal metastasis is commonly observed at diagnosis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid signaling molecule, is potentially involved in EOC tumorigenesis. We have found that S1P is elevated in human EOC ascites. We show that physiologically relevant concentrations of S1P stimulate migration and invasion of EOC cells, but inhibit migration of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. In addition, S1P inhibits lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration in HOSE, but not in EOC cells. We have provided the first line of evidence that the expression levels of S1P receptor subtypes are not the only determinants for how cells respond to S1P. Even though S1P1 is expressed and functional in HOSE cells, the inhibitory effect mediated by S1P2 is dominant in those cells. The cellular pre-existing stress fibers are also important determinants for the migratory response to S1P. Differential S1P-induced morphology changes are noted in EOC and HOSE cells. Pre-existing stress fibers in HOSE cells are further enhanced by S1P treatment, resulting in the negative migratory response to S1P. By contrast, EOC cells lost stress fibers and S1P treatment induces filopodium-like structures at cell edges, which correlates with increased cell motility. In addition, inhibition of the protein kinase C pathway is likely to be involved in the inhibitory effect of S1P on LPA-induced cell migration in HOSE cells. These findings are important for the development of new therapeutics targeting S1P and LPA in EOC. PMID:18645009

  16. In vitro development of primordial follicles after long-term culture of goat ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Matos, M H T; Bruno, J B; Rocha, R M P; Lima-Verde, I B; Santos, K D B; Saraiva, M V A; Silva, J R V; Martins, F S; Chaves, R N; Báo, S N; Figueiredo, J R

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) on the survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles. Ovarian tissues were cultured for 1, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days in medium supplemented with FSH (FSH-2d or FSH-7d, i.e., with replacement of the culture medium every 2 or 7 days, respectively) or FSH+FGF-2 (replacement of the medium every 2 days). Non-cultured (control) and cultured ovarian fragments were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. After 28 days of culture, the media supplemented with FSH-2d was the most effective in maintaining the percentage of normal follicles and in promoting follicular growth. Furthermore, both treatments with FSH increased the percentage of the primary follicles. However, ultrastructural studies did not confirm follicular integrity from 14 days of culture onward. In conclusion, culturing tissue for up to 7 days in medium containing FSH alone or combined with FGF-2 maintains caprine preantral follicle integrity and promotes their growth in vitro.

  17. Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

  18. Overexpression of hyaluronan synthase 2 and gonadotropin receptors in cumulus cells of goats subjected to one-shot eCG/FSH hormonal treatment for ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana D R; Batista, Ribrio I T P; Magalhães, Livia C; Paula, Alexandre R; Souza, Samara S; Salamone, Daniel F; Bhat, Maajid H; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian stimulation may affect transcripts in somatic cells of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and affect the resulting oocyte quality. Here, in parallel with morphological classification and in vitro maturation (IVM) rate analysis, we investigated the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), gonadotropic receptors (FSHR and LHR) and connexin 43 (GJA1) in cumulus cells (CCs) from goat COCs after multi-dose FSH (MD) or one-shot FSH/eCG (OS) treatments, using bovine COCs as control groups. The MD treatment produced more large follicles, and the resulting COCs had a better morphology and IVM rate than were obtained with OS. The OS treatment produced COCs with increased HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression. This gene expression pattern was also observed in the CCs of COCs that showed poor morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the mRNA levels were more similar between groups after IVM; FSHR and LHR were the main genes that showed decreased expression. Some events that occurred in bovine CCs during IVM, such as cell expansion, increased HAS2 expression and decreased GJA1 expression, were less evident or did not occur in goat COCs. In conclusion, increasing HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression in goat COCs does not confer greater meiotic competence to oocytes. Instead, it may result from poor regulation of gene expression in CCs by lower quality oocytes. Finally, cumulus expansion, together with HAS2 upregulation and GJA1 downregulation, seems to be more important for bovine COCs than for goat COCs. Additional studies are needed to investigate the importance of other HAS isoforms and connexins in goat COCs.

  19. Multiorgan engraftment and differentiation of human cord blood CD34+Lin− cells in goats assessed by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanyi; Chen, Mei-jue; Baldwin, Don A.; Gong, Zhi-juan; Yan, Jing-bin; Qian, Hui; Wang, Juan; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Ren, Zhao-rui; Sun, Deming; Huang, Shu-zhen

    2006-01-01

    To investigate multitissue engraftment of human primitive hematopoietic cells and their differentiation in goats, human CD34+Lin− cord blood cells transduced with a GFP vector were transplanted into fetal goats at 45–55 days of gestation. GFP+ cells were detected in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic organs including blood, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, muscle, lung, and heart of the recipient goats (1.2–36% of all cells examined). We identified human β2 microglobulin-positive cells in multiple tissues. GFP+ cells sorted from the perfused liver of a transplant goat showed human insulin-like growth factor 1 gene sequences, indicating that the engrafted GFP+ cells were of human origin. A substantial fraction of cells engrafted in goat livers expressed the human hepatocyte-specific antigen, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor, and GFP. DNA content analysis showed no evidence for cellular fusion. Long-term engraftment of GFP+ cells could be detected in the blood of goats for up to 2 yr. Microarray analysis indicated that human genes from a variety of functional categories were expressed in chimeric livers and blood. The human/goat xenotransplant model provides a unique system to study the kinetics of hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, gene expression, and possible stem cell plasticity under noninjured conditions. PMID:16682618

  20. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, M. A.; Khafagi, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30) gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats) were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age). In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened. Results: Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) (81.08%). Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats) (76.66%). The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened, 27 (90%) samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats) were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively. Conclusion: PCR assay

  1. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Jae-Wook, Oh; Lee, Seung Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells) and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP). The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells) and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells). These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells. PMID:27973444

  2. Discovery of differentially expressed genes in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicles by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X; Wu, J H; Wu, R B; Su, R; Li, C; Zhang, Y J; Wang, R J; Zhao, Y H; Fan, Y X; Zhang, W G; Li, J Q

    2016-09-02

    The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a unique, highly regenerative organ with a distinct developmental cycle. Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) HFs can be divided into two categories based on structure and development time: primary and secondary follicles. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the primary and secondary HFs of cashmere goats, the RNA sequencing of six individuals from Arbas, Inner Mongolia, was performed. A total of 617 DEGs were identified; 297 were upregulated while 320 were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the main functions of the upregulated genes were electron transport, respiratory electron transport, mitochondrial electron transport, and gene expression. The downregulated genes were mainly involved in cell autophagy, protein complexes, neutrophil aggregation, and bacterial fungal defense reactions. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, these genes are mainly involved in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine, RNA polymerization, and the MAPK signaling pathway, and were enriched in primary follicles. A microRNA-target network revealed that secondary follicles are involved in several important biological processes, such as the synthesis of keratin-associated proteins and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. In summary, these findings will increase our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of HF development and cycling, and provide a basis for the further study of the genes and functions of HF development.

  3. Identification and validation of differentially expressed proteins in epithelial ovarian cancers using quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangming; Liu, Chongdong; Xu, Jiatong; Deng, Haiteng; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor because of its high recurrence rate. In the present work, in order to find new therapeutic targets, we identified 8480 proteins in thirteen pairs of ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovary tissues through quantitative proteomics. 498 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ovarian cancer, which involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, response to stimulus and biosynthetic process. The expression levels of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) and lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in normal ovary tissues as confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The knockdown of CLIC1 in A2780 cell line downregulated expression of CTPS1, leading to the decrease of CTP and an arrest of cell cycle G1 phase, which results into a slower proliferation. CLIC1-knockdown can also slow down the tumor growth in vivo. Besides, CLIC1-knockdown cells showed an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and cisplatin, suggesting that CLIC1 was involved in regulation of redox and drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. These results indicate CLIC1 promotes tumorgenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27825122

  4. Ovarian expression of inhibin-subunits, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase during the estrous cycle and pregnancy of shiba goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cellular localization of the inhibin subunits (α, β(A), and β (B)), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) were evaluated in the ovaries of cyclic (n=6) and pregnant (n=2) Shiba goats (Capra Hircus). The immunointensity of inhibin α and β(A) subunits showed an increase in the granulosa cells (GC) of developing follicles. Inhibin β(B) subunit and P450arom showed high expression in GC of antral follicles. 3βHSD immunoreactivity was uniform in preantral and antral follicles. In follicular phase and late pregnancy, there was a strong expression of inhibin α subunit in GC of antral follicles. Although in mid pregnancy, antral follicles GC showed moderate immunostaining of inhibin β subunits, the immunoreactivity of inhibin β(A) and β(B) subunits was high during the follicular and luteal stages, respectively. While, immunoreactivity of GC to P450arom was moderate during all studied stages, and 3βHSD immunoreactivity was plentiful in antral follicles during the luteal phase. The immunoreactivity to inhibin α subunit and P450arom was abundant during mid pregnancy in the luteal tissues. Immunoreaction to inhibin β subunits was faint-to-moderate in cyclic and pregnancy corpora lutea. Immunoexpression of 3βHSD was maximal in late pregnancy corpora lutea. The present results suggest that, in goats, the GC of antral follicles are the main source of dimeric inhibins and that corpora lutea may partially participate in the secretion of inhibin. Changes in ovarian hormonal levels might depend on the synthesizing capacity of hormones in the follicles and corpora lutea to regulate the goat's reproductive stages.

  5. Differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and PCR-RFLP of P32 gene.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, Madhusudan; Mondal, Bimalendu; Tembhurne, Prabhakar A; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Rasool, Thaha Jamal

    2004-08-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox are highly contagious viral diseases of small ruminants. These diseases were earlier thought to be caused by a single species of virus, as they are serologically indistinguishable. P32, one of the major immunogenic genes of Capripoxvirus, was isolated and Sequenced from two Indian isolates of goat poxvirus (GPV) and a vaccine strain of sheep poxvirus (SPV). The sequences were compared with other P32 sequences of capripoxviruses available in the database. Sequence analysis revealed that sheep pox and goat poxviruses share 97.5 and 94.7% homology at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. A major difference between them is the presence of an additional aspartic acid at 55th position of P32 of sheep poxvirus that is absent in both goat poxvirus and lumpy skin disease virus. Further, six unique neutral nucleotide substitutions were observed at positions 77, 275, 403, 552, 867 and 964 in the sequence of goat poxvirus, which can be taken as GPV signature residues. Similar unique nucleotide signatures could be identified in SPV and LSDV sequences also. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the Capripoxvirus could be delineated into three distinct clusters of GPV, SPV and LSDV based on the P32 genomic sequence. Using this information, a PCR-RFLP method has been developed for unequivocal genomic differentiation of SPV and GPV.

  6. Evidence for differential viral oncolytic efficacy in an in vitro model of epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jessica G; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Barrett, John W; Bell, John C; Stojdl, David; McFadden, Grant; McCart, J Andrea; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is unique among most carcinomas in that metastasis occurs by direct dissemination of malignant cells traversing throughout the intraperitoneal fluid. Accordingly, we test new therapeutic strategies using an in vitro three-dimensional spheroid suspension culture model that mimics key steps of this metastatic process. In the present study, we sought to uncover the differential oncolytic efficacy among three different viruses—Myxoma virus, double-deleted vaccinia virus, and Maraba virus—using three ovarian cancer cell lines in our metastasis model system. Herein, we demonstrate that Maraba virus effectively infects, replicates, and kills epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in proliferating adherent cells and with slightly slower kinetics in tumor spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia viruses infect and kill adherent cells to a much lesser extent than Maraba virus, and their oncolytic potential is almost completely attenuated in spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia are able to infect and spread throughout spheroids, but are blocked in the final stages of the lytic cycle, and oncolytic-mediated cell killing is reactivated upon spheroid reattachment. Alternatively, Maraba virus has a remarkably reduced ability to initially enter spheroid cells, yet rapidly infects and spreads throughout spheroids generating significant cell killing effects. We show that low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in ovarian cancer spheroids is reduced and this controls efficient Maraba virus binding and entry into infected cells. Taken together, these results are the first to implicate the potential impact of differential viral oncolytic properties at key steps of ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:27119108

  7. Androgens are differentially associated with ovarian cancer subtypes in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ose, Jennifer; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schock, Helena; Lehtinen, Matti; Arslan, Alan A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Visvanathan, Kala; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Masala, Giovanna; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Duell, Eric J; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Merritt, Melissa A; Trabert, Britton; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Tworoger, Shelley S; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2017-04-05

    Invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The etiology of EOC remains elusive; however, experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for hormone-related exposures in ovarian carcinogenesis and risk factor differences by histologic phenotypes and developmental pathways. Research on pre-diagnosis androgen concentrations and EOC risk has yielded inconclusive results, and analyses incorporating EOC subtypes are sparse. We conducted a pooled analysis of 7 nested case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis circulating androgens (testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS)), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (i.e. histology, grade, and stage). The final study population included 1,331 EOC cases and 3,017 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess risk associations in pooled individual data. Testosterone was positively associated with EOC risk (all subtypes combined, Odds Ratio (OR)log2=1.12 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02-1.24]); other endogenous androgens and SHBG were not associated with overall risk. Higher concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione associated with an increased risk in endometrioid and mucinous tumors (e.g., testosterone, endometrioid tumors, ORlog2=1.40 [1.03-1.91]), but not serous or clear cell. An inverse association was observed between androstenedione and high grade serous tumors (ORlog2=0.76 [0.60-0.96]). Our analyses provide further evidence for a role of hormone-related pathways in EOC risk, with differences in associations between androgens and histologic subtypes of EOC.

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Methods The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Results Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR− was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = −0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease. PMID:25764442

  9. Protein-Specific Differential Glycosylation of Immunoglobulins in Serum of Ovarian Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Ruhaak, L Renee; Kim, Kyoungmi; Stroble, Carol; Taylor, Sandra L; Hong, Qiuting; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Leiserowitz, Gary

    2016-03-04

    Previous studies indicated that glycans in serum may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian cancer; however, it was unclear to which proteins these glycans belong. We hypothesize that protein-specific glycosylation profiles of the glycans may be more informative of ovarian cancer and can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying glycan aberration in serum of diseased individuals. Serum samples from women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, n = 84) and matched healthy controls (n = 84) were obtained from the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) concentrations and glycosylation profiles were quantified using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Differential and classification analyses were performed to identify aberrant protein-specific glycopeptides using a training set. All findings were validated in an independent test set. Multiple glycopeptides from immunoglubins IgA, IgG, and IgM were found to be differentially expressed in serum of EOC patients compared with controls. The protein-specific glycosylation profiles showed their potential in the diagnosis of EOC. In particular, IgG-specific glycosylation profiles are the most powerful in discriminating between EOC case and controls. Additional studies of protein- and site-specific glycosylation profiles of immunoglobulins and other proteins will allow further elaboration on the characteristics of biological functionality and causality of the differential glycosylation in ovarian cancer and thus ultimately lead to increased sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis.

  10. Differential flatness properties and multivariable adaptive control of ovarian system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos

    2016-12-01

    The ovarian system exhibits nonlinear dynamics which is modeled by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The paper proposes adaptive fuzzy control based on differential flatness theory for the complex dynamics of the ovarian system. It is proven that the dynamic model of the ovarian system, having as state variables the LH and the FSH hormones and their derivatives, is a differentially flat one. This means that all its state variables and its control inputs can be described as differential functions of the flat output. By exploiting differential flatness properties the system's dynamic model is written in the multivariable linear canonical (Brunovsky) form, for which the design of a state feedback controller becomes possible. After this transformation, the new control inputs of the system contain unknown nonlinear parts, which are identified with the use of neurofuzzy approximators. The learning procedure for these estimators is determined by the requirement the first derivative of the closed-loop's Lyapunov function to be a negative one. Moreover, Lyapunov stability analysis shows that H-infinity tracking performance is succeeded for the feedback control loop and this assures improved robustness to the aforementioned model uncertainty as well as to external perturbations. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control scheme is confirmed through simulation experiments.

  11. Ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumor with neuroectodermal differentiation: a multifaceted evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mott, Ryan T; Murphy, Bettina A; Geisinger, Kim R

    2010-05-01

    Malignant mixed mesodermal tumors (MMMTs) of the ovary are rare, highly aggressive neoplasms that arise most commonly in postmenopausal women. Histologically, they consist of a mixed population of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Neuroectodermal differentiation in ovarian MMMTs is exceedingly uncommon, with only a few case reports in the literature. We present a case of an ovarian MMMT with neuroectodermal differentiation in a 78-year-old female patient. Histologically, the tumor was composed of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal elements. The neuroectodermal component was predominantly that of a medulloepithelioma, with scattered areas displaying features of an anaplastic astrocytoma, including rare ganglion cell differentiation. The neuroectodermal component showed immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, and S100 protein. Ultrastructurally, the neuroectodermal component was populated by cells with irregular nuclei, finely dispersed chromatin, rudimentary cell junctions, and a delicate basement membrane, all of which have been described in medulloepitheliomas. DNA ploidy analysis was also performed on the various components of the tumor and compared with 3 additional cases of MMMT without neuroectodermal differentiation and 2 ovarian immature teratomas. Our findings suggest that the neuroectodermal component may arise from a separate clone or at least evolves at an earlier stage of tumor development.

  12. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of benign vs. malignant ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Fu; Zhu, Shi-Cai; Sun, Shao-Juan; Guo, Ji-Cai; Wang, Xue

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, a systemic meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant studies were retrieved from scientific literature databases, including the PubMed, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases. Following a multi-step screening and study selection process, the relevant data was extracted for use in the present study. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-disc software version 1.4 and STATA statistical software version 12.0. A total of 285 articles were retrieved from the database searches. Following a careful screening process, 10 case-control studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The 10 studies investigated the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing ovarian neoplasms, and included a combined total of 1,159 subjects, of which 559 patients had malignant lesions and 600 had benign lesions. The results showed that the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristics curve of DWI for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were 0.93, 0.89, 7.58, 0.10, 85.33 and 0.95, respectively. A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed no significant difference between Asians and Caucasians. Another subgroup analysis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) type showed that the DORs for GE Healthcare Life Sciences and Siemens AG machines were 100.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.28-155.53] and 30.85 (95% CI, 10.40-91.53), respectively; this indicates that the diagnostic efficiency of the GE Healthcare Life Sciences MRI is superior compared with the Siemens AG MRI. The DWI demonstrated an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, and

  13. Loss of DCC gene expression during ovarian tumorigenesis: relation to tumour differentiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Saegusa, M; Machida, D; Okayasu, I

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the possible role of DCC gene alteration in ovarian neoplasias, we immunohistochemically investigated 124 carcinomas, as well as 55 cystadenomas and 41 low malignant potential (LMP) tumours and compared the results with those for p53 protein expression, clinicopathological factors and survival. A combination of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization (SBH) for DCC mRNA levels was also carried out on 26 malignant, five LMP, eight benign and seven normal ovarian samples. Significantly decreased levels of overall DCC values in carcinomas compared with benign and LMP lesions were revealed by both immunohistochemical and RT-PCR/SBH assays. Similar findings were also noted when subdivision was into serous and mucinous categories. In carcinomas, reduction or loss of DCC expression was significantly related to the serous phenotype (serous vs non-serous, P< 0.0001), a high histological grade (grade 1 vs 2 or 3, P< 0.02) and a more advanced stage (FIGO stage I vs II/III/IV, P = 0.0083), while no association was noted with survival. Although p53 immunopositivity demonstrated significant stepwise increase from benign through to malignant lesions, there was no clear association with DCC score values. The results indicated that impaired DCC expression may play an important role in ovarian tumorigenesis. In ovarian carcinomas, the altered expression is closely linked with tumour differentiation and progression. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682668

  14. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Ren, Anran; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne; Skov, Vibe; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben; Tan, Qihua

    2016-05-12

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS patients and healthy controls (52 sites, false discovery rate < 0.05 and corresponding p value < 5.68e-06), highly consistently replicating biological pathways extensively implicated in immunity and immunity-related inflammatory disorders (false discovery rate < 0.05) that were reportedly regulated in the DNA methylome from ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and menstrual cycle) that could serve as novel molecular basis of the clinical heterogeneity observed in PCOS women.

  15. Dynamics associated with spontaneous differentiation of ovarian stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that ovarian germ line stem cells replenish oocyte-pool in adult stage, and challenge the central doctrine of ‘fixed germ cell pool’ in mammalian reproductive biology. Two distinct populations of spherical stem cells with high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio have been recently identified in the adult mammalian ovary surface epithelium (OSE) including nuclear OCT-4A positive very small embryonic-like (VSELs) and cytoplasmic OCT-4 expressing ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). Three weeks culture of scraped OSE cells results in spontaneous differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like, parthenote-like, embryoid body-like structures and also embryonic stem cell-like colonies whereas epithelial cells attach and transform into a bed of mesenchymal cells. Present study was undertaken, to further characterize ovarian stem cells and to comprehend better the process of spontaneous differentiation of ovarian stem cells into oocyte-like structures in vitro. Methods Ovarian stem cells were enriched by immunomagnetic sorting using SSEA-4 as a cell surface marker and were further characterized. Stem cells and clusters of OGSCs (reminiscent of germ cell nests in fetal ovaries), were characterized by immuno-localization for stem and germ cell specific markers and spontaneous differentiation in OSE cultures was studied by live cell imaging. Results Differential expression of markers specific for pluripotent VSELs (nuclear OCT-4A, SSEA-4, CD133), OGSCs (cytoplasmic OCT-4) primordial germ cells (FRAGILIS, STELLA, VASA) and germ cells (DAZL, GDF-9, SCP-3) were studied. Within one week of culture, stem cells became bigger in size, developed abundant cytoplasm, differentiated into germ cells, revealed presence of Balbiani body-like structure (mitochondrial cloud) and exhibited characteristic cytoplasmic streaming. Conclusions Presence of germ cell nests, Balbiani body-like structures and cytoplasmic streaming extensively described during fetal ovary

  16. Differential immunoreactivity of goat derived scrapie following in vitro misfolding versus mouse bioassay.

    PubMed

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A

    2012-07-13

    The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of prion protein misfolding activity in tissues and fluids from sheep with scrapie where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet to take advantage of PMCA, which could aid in discerning the risk of transmission between goats and goats to sheep. The aim of the current study was to adapt PMCA for evaluation of scrapie derived from goats. Diluted brain homogenate from scrapie-infected goats (i.e., the scrapie seed, PrP(Sc)) was subjected to PMCA using normal brain homogenate from ovinized transgenic mice (tg338) as the source of normal cellular prion protein (the substrate, PrP(C)). The assay end-point was detection of the proteinase K-resistant misfolded prion protein core (PrP(res)) by western blot. Protein misfolding activity was consistently observed in caprine brain homogenate diluted 10,000-fold after 5 PMCA rounds. Epitope mapping by western blot analyses demonstrated that PrP(res) post-PMCA was readily detected with an N-terminus anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (P4), similar to scrapie inoculum from goats. This was in contrast to limited detection of PrP(res) with P4 following mouse bioassay. The inverse was observed with a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminus (F99/97.6.1). Thus, brain homogenate prepared from uninoculated tg338 served as an appropriate substrate for serial PMCA of PrP(Sc) derived from goats. These observations suggest that concurrent PMCA and bioassay with tg338 could improve characterization of goat derived scrapie.

  17. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongbin; Meng, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the diagnostic values of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors and a meta-analysis to further confirm our results on DW-MRI. Methods: Totally 64 patients pathologically confirmed as ovarian cancer were included in this study. CT scan and DWI-MRI were performed and analyzed to get compared with pathological results, thereby assessing their accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was conducted by database searching and strict eligibility criteria, using STATA 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in CT were 81.82%, 84.48%, 76.67%, 87.50% and 71.88%, respectively; those in DW-MRI were 89.77%, 93.10%, 83.33%, 91.53% and 86.21%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient of DW-MRI (K = 0.771) compared with pathological results was higher than CT (K = 0.602). The average apparent diffusion coefficient values of DW-MRI in diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors suggested statistically significant difference (1.325 ± 0.269×10-3 mm2/s vs. 0.878 ± 0.246×10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis results showed that the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of DW-MRI in discriminating benign versus malignant ovarian tumors were 0.93, 0.88, 7.70, 0.08 and 101.24, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. Conclusions: Both CT and DW-MRI were of great diagnostic value in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors, while DW-MRI was superior to CT with higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26884905

  18. Exploring differentially expressed genes in the ovaries of uniparous and multiparous goats using the RNA-Seq (Quantification) method.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ying-Hui; Xiang, Hao; Li, Yun-Sheng; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Zhang, Zi-Juan; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-10-15

    Fecundity improvement is one of the most important objectives for goat breeders as it greatly increases production efficiency. To investigate the genes associated with litter sizes in the Anhui White goat (AWG), gene expression differences in the ovaries of uniparous and multiparous AWG were assessed using the RNA-Seq (Quantification) method. This analysis generated 6,027,714 and 5,884,062 clean reads in uniparous and multiparous libraries, respectively. A total of 2201 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were thereby identified (FDR≤0.001, |log₂Ratio|≥1). There were 1583 up-regulated and 618 down-regulated genes in the multiparous samples compared with the uniparous samples. A large number of these DEGs were related to the terms cellular process, cell & cell part and binding. Twelve genes which may be associated with the high prolificacy of AWG were identified using a bioinformatic screen. In addition, pathway analysis revealed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in 11 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including ECM-receptor interactions, focal adhesion, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton among others. This suggested a role for these pathways in the prolificacy of AWG. These results provide a list of new candidate genes for goat prolificacy.

  19. Prolonging the interval from ovarian hyperstimulation to laparoscopic ovum pick-up improves oocyte yield, quality, and developmental competence in goats.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, R B; Liow, S L; Rahman, A N M A; Chan, W K; Wan-Khadijah, W E; Ng, S C

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interval between ovarian hyperstimulation and laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) on quality and developmental competence of goat oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Estrus was synchronized with an intravaginal insert containing 0.3g progesterone (CIDR) for 10d, combined with a luteolytic treatment of 125 microg cloprostenol 36 h prior to CIDR removal. Ovaries were hyperstimulated with 70 mg FSH and 500 IU hCG given im 36, 60, or 72 h prior to LOPU (n=15, 16, and 7 does, respectively). For these groups, oocyte retrieval rates (mean+/-S.E.M.) were 24.7+/-2.9, 54.5+/-4.7, and 82.8+/-4.6% (P<0.001), and the proportions of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) with more than five layers of cumulus cells were 29.7+/-8.3, 37.6+/-6.9, and 37.3+/-7.0% (P<0.001). The proportion of IVM oocytes was highest at 72 h (82.1+/-2.8%; P<0.05), with no significant difference between 36 and 60 h (57.3+/-8.9% and 69.0+/-8.4%). Cleavage rates of ICSI embryos were 4.2+/-4.2, 70.9+/-8.4, and 78.9+/-8.2% with LOPU 36, 60, and 72 h post FSH/hCG (P<0.01), with a lower proportion of Grade-A embryos (P<0.05) following LOPU at 36 h compared to 60 and 72 h (29.7+/-8.3%, 37.6+/-6.9%, and 37.3+/-7.0%). In summary, a prolonged interval from FSH/hCG to LOPU improved oocyte retrieval rate and oocyte quality. Therefore, under the present conditions, LOPU 60 or 72 h after FSH/hCG optimized yields of good-quality oocytes for IVM and embryo production in goats.

  20. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.01) by at least twofold between two groups of the cell lines. Of the 181 genes, 109 and 72 genes were overexpressed in highly and moderately aggressive cell lines, respectively. Analysis of the 109 and 72 genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tool revealed two cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian

  1. Differentially expressed genes and gene networks involved in pig ovarian follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Terenina, Elena; Fabre, Stephane; Bonnet, Agnès; Monniaux, Danielle; Robert-Granié, Christèle; SanCristobal, Magali; Sarry, Julien; Vignoles, Florence; Gondret, Florence; Monget, Philippe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian folliculogenesis corresponds to the development of follicles leading to either ovulation or degeneration, this latter process being called atresia. Even if atresia involves apoptosis, its mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to analyze global gene expression in pig granulosa cells of ovarian follicles during atresia. The transcriptome analysis was performed on a 9,216 cDNA microarray to identify gene networks and candidate genes involved in pig ovarian follicular atresia. We found 1,684 significantly regulated genes to be differentially regulated between small healthy follicles and small atretic follicles. Among them, 287 genes had a fold-change higher than two between the two follicle groups. Eleven genes (DKK3, GADD45A, CAMTA2, CCDC80, DAPK2, ECSIT, MSMB, NUPR1, RUNX2, SAMD4A, and ZNF628) having a fold-change higher than five between groups could likely serve as markers of follicular atresia. Moreover, automatic confrontation of deregulated genes with literature data highlighted 93 genes as regulatory candidates of pig granulosa cell atresia. Among these genes known to be inhibitors of apoptosis, stimulators of apoptosis, or tumor suppressors INHBB, HNF4, CLU, different interleukins (IL5, IL24), TNF-associated receptor (TNFR1), and cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) were suggested as playing an important role in porcine atresia. The present study also enlists key upstream regulators in follicle atresia based on our results and on a literature review. The novel gene candidates and gene networks identified in the current study lead to a better understanding of the molecular regulation of ovarian follicular atresia.

  2. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of benign vs. malignant ovarian neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XIANG-FU; ZHU, SHI-CAI; SUN, SHAO-JUAN; GUO, JI-CAI; WANG, XUE

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, a systemic meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant studies were retrieved from scientific literature databases, including the PubMed, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases. Following a multi-step screening and study selection process, the relevant data was extracted for use in the present study. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-disc software version 1.4 and STATA statistical software version 12.0. A total of 285 articles were retrieved from the database searches. Following a careful screening process, 10 case-control studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The 10 studies investigated the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing ovarian neoplasms, and included a combined total of 1,159 subjects, of which 559 patients had malignant lesions and 600 had benign lesions. The results showed that the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristics curve of DWI for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were 0.93, 0.89, 7.58, 0.10, 85.33 and 0.95, respectively. A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed no significant difference between Asians and Caucasians. Another subgroup analysis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) type showed that the DORs for GE Healthcare Life Sciences and Siemens AG machines were 100.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.28–155.53] and 30.85 (95% CI, 10.40–91.53), respectively; this indicates that the diagnostic efficiency of the GE Healthcare Life Sciences MRI is superior compared with the Siemens AG MRI. The DWI demonstrated an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms

  3. Differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors based primarily on their patterns and cell types.

    PubMed

    Young, R H; Scully, R E

    2001-08-01

    The differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors is reviewed based on their patterns and cell types. This approach, which differs from the standard textbook discussion of each neoplasm as an entity, has practical value as differential diagnosis depends largely on the pattern or patterns and cell type or types of tumors. Awareness of the broad range of lesions that may exhibit particular patterns or contain one or more cell types is crucial in formulating a differential diagnosis. The following patterns are considered: moderate-to-large-glandular and hollow-tubular; solid tubular and pseudotubular; cords and ribbons; insular; trabecular; slit-like and reticular spaces; microglandular and microfollicular; macrofollicular and pseudomacrofollicular; papillary; diffuse; fibromatous-thecomatous; and biphasic and pseudobiphasic. The following cell types are considered: small round cells; spindle cells; mucinous cells, comprising columnar, goblet cell and signet ring cell subtypes; clear cells; hobnail cells; oxyphil cells; and transitional cells. The morphologic diversity of ovarian tumors poses many challenges; knowledge of the occurrence and frequency of these patterns and cell types in various tumors and tumor-like lesions is of paramount diagnostic importance. A specific diagnosis can usually be made by evaluating routinely stained slides, but much less often, special staining, immunohistochemical staining or, very rarely, ultrastructural examination is also required. Finally, clinical data, operative findings, and gross features of the lesions may provide important, and at times decisive diagnostic clues.

  4. Differential vimentin expression in ovarian and uterine corpus endometrioid adenocarcinomas: diagnostic utility in distinguishing double primaries from metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Kallas, Sarah J; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Hameed, Omar; Fadare, Oluwole

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of vimentin expression in differentiating endometrioid adenocarcinoma of primary uterine corpus and ovarian origin. Immunohistochemical analyses for the expression of vimentin in tumoral epithelial cells were performed on 149 endometrioid adenocarcinomas wherein the primary sites were not in question, including whole tissue sections of 27 carcinomas of uterine corpus origin (and no synchronous ovarian tumor), 7 carcinomas of ovarian origin (and no synchronous uterine corpus tumor) and a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 91 primary uterine corpus and 24 primary ovarian carcinomas. We also assessed 15 cases that synchronously involved the uterine corpus and ovary, 15 cases of metastasis to organs/tissues other than uterine corpus or ovary as well as 7 lymph node metastases. Vimentin was negative in 97% (30/31) of primary ovarian carcinomas. In contrast, 82% (97/118) of primary uterine corpus carcinomas were vimentin-positive. Vimentin expression was discordant in 53% of synchronous tumors. The sensitivity and specificity of negative vimentin staining in predicting an ovarian primary were 97% and 82%, respectively, whereas parallel values for positive vimentin staining in predicting a primary uterine tumor were 82% and 97%, respectively. The pattern of vimentin expression in all cases was maintained in their respective regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. In conclusion, ovarian and uterine corpus endometrioid adenocarcinomas have different patterns of vimentin expression. If validated in larger and/or different data sets, these findings may have diagnostic value in distinguishing metastatic lesions from double primary tumors involving both sites.

  5. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in goat ovarian follicles and the impact of sequential culture medium on in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M V A; Celestino, J J H; Araújo, V R; Chaves, R N; Almeida, A P; Lima-Verde, I B; Duarte, A B G; Silva, G M; Martins, F S; Bruno, J B; Matos, M H T; Campello, C C; Silva, J R V; Figueiredo, J R

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the expression of FSH receptors (FSHR) in the different stages of goat follicle development and investigated whether the addition of increasing concentrations of FSH throughout the culture period influences the survival, growth and antral formation of in vitro-cultured caprine preantral follicles. The expression of FSHR was analysed before and after culturing follicles using real-time RT-PCR. For the culture, preantral follicles (≥150 μm) were isolated from ovarian fragments and cultured for 18 days in α-MEM+ alone or associated with recombinant FSH (rFSH: 100 or 1000 ng/ml), or in α-MEM+ supplemented with increasing concentrations of FSH throughout culture periods as follows: (a) sequential medium 1: FSH 100 ng/ml (from day 0 to 6), FSH 500 ng/ml (from day 6 to 12) and FSH 1000 ng/ml (from day 12 to 18); and (b) sequential medium 2: FSH 500 ng/ml (from day 0 to 9) and 1000 ng/ml (from day 9 to 18). Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation, follicular and oocyte growth, and cumulus-oocyte complex health. The expression of FSHR in isolated caprine follicles increased from the preantral to antral phase. Regarding the culture, after 18 days, sequential medium 1 promoted follicular survival, antrum formation and a reduction in oocyte extrusion. Both sequential media promoted a higher rate of meiotic resumption compared with the other treatments. In conclusion, the addition of increased concentrations of FSH (sequential medium) has a significant impact on the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.

  6. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys.

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16) infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Prasad, Minakshi; Mishra, Bina; Manjunath, Siddappa; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Bhuvana Priya, G; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Kumar, Amit; Balodi, Shweta; Deora, Anupama; Saxena, Shikha; Gandham, Ravi Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV). Sheep are considered the most susceptible hosts, while cattle, buffalo and goats serve as reservoirs. The viral pathogenesis of BTV resulting in presence or absence of clinical disease among different hosts is not clearly understood. In the present study, transcriptome of sheep and goats peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with BTV-16 was explored. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified were found to be significantly enriched for immune system processes - NFκB signaling, MAPK signaling, Ras signaling, NOD signaling, RIG signaling, TNF signaling, TLR signaling, JAK-STAT signaling and VEGF signaling pathways. Greater numbers of DEGs were found to be involved in immune system processes in goats than in sheep. Interestingly, the DEHC (differentially expressed highly connected) gene network was found to be dense in goats than in sheep. Majority of the DEHC genes in the network were upregulated in goats but down-regulated in sheep. The network of differentially expressed immune genes with the other genes further confirmed these findings. Interferon stimulated genes - IFIT1 (ISG56), IFIT2 (ISG54) and IFIT3 (ISG60) responsible for antiviral state in the host were found to be upregulated in both the species. STAT2 was the TF commonly identified to co-regulate the DEGs, with its network showing genes that are downregulated in sheep but upregulated in goats. The genes dysregulated and the networks perturbed in the present study indicate host variability with a positive shift in immune response to BTV in goats than in sheep.

  8. Steroidogenic enzyme activity and ovarian differentiation in the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Smith, C A; Joss, J M

    1994-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that steroid hormone production is involved in sexual differentiation of the gonads in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination. We have therefore examined steroidogenic enzymes and ovarian differentiation in Crocodylus porosus embryos incubated at 30 degrees, a temperature producing 100% female hatchlings. delta 5-3 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) activity was detected only in the adrenal gland before, during, and after the period of ovary differentiation. The same pattern was observed during testis differentiation in embryos incubated at 32 degrees (predominantly male-producing). At no stage was 3 beta-HSD activity detected in the gonads. The tritiated water assay was used to measure aromatase enzyme activity in the gonad-adrenal-mesonephric complex (GAM) during development at 30 degrees C. Aromatase activity in the GAM increased during the period of ovary differentiation. In female C. porosus hatchlings, 85% of the aromatase activity within the GAM was derived from the ovary, 10% from the adrenal, and 5% from the regressing mesonephros. The aromatase inhibitors aminoglutethimide and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione significantly reduced aromatase activity in female hatchling GAMs. In some stage 25 embryos incubated at 32.5 degrees, aromatase activity was low in testes and high in ovaries. These observations show that urogenital tissues of C. porosus are steroidogenically active during gonadal differentiation and that increased aromatase enzyme activity accompanies ovary development at 30 degrees. Steroid synthesis in the GAM of C. porosus embryos may involve interaction between the adrenal glands and the gonads.

  9. Ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor with primitive neuroectodermal differentiation: case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Haitham; Morris, Robert T; Fathallah, Lamia

    2011-03-15

    Ovarian malignant mixed mullarian tumor (OMMMT) is a rare and aggressive tumor of the female genital tract, occurring mainly in elderly women. Stage of disease is the most important predictor for survival with no prognostic effect, yet, of heterologous elements. Rare case reports described the peculiar presence of primitive neuroectodermal tissue among other heterologous elements in these tumors. Attractive designations, such as teratoid carcinosarcoma, were set by some authors to describe this subset of lesions, where it was considered a primary neuroectodermal tumor capable of multilineage differentiation. We here report a case of OMMMT in an elderly woman with focal primitive neuroectodermal differentiation as the sole heterologous element, and review the controversy on this topic in the literature.

  10. Ovarian cancer stem-like cells differentiate into endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis through autocrine CCL5 signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu; Xiang, Tong; Huang, Shuo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zhongyu; Xie, Rongkai; Long, Haixia; Zhu, Bo

    2016-06-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are well known for their self-regeneration and tumorigenesis potential. In addition, the multi-differentiation potential of CSCs has become a popular issue and continues to attract increased research attention. Recent studies demonstrated that CSCs are able to differentiate into functional endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we found that ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) activate the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways through autocrine CCL5 signaling and mediate their own differentiation into endothelial cells (ECs). Our data demonstrate that CSLCs differentiate into ECs morphologically and functionally. Anti-CCL5 antibodies and CCL5-shRNA lead to markedly inhibit EC differentiation and the tube formation of CSLCs, both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant human-CCL5 significantly promotes ovarian CSLCs that differentiate into ECs and form microtube network. The CCL5-mediated EC differentiation of CSLCs depends on binding to receptors, such as CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. The results demonstrated that CCL5-CCR1/CCR3/CCR5 activates the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways, subsequently mediating the differentiation of CSLCs into ECs. Therefore, this study was conducted based on the theory that CSCs improve tumor angiogenesis and provides a novel strategy for anti-angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.

  11. Differential regulation of two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid by gonadotropins in human immortalized ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Auersperg, Nelly; Leung, Peter C K

    2006-06-01

    Although gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been shown to play a role as an autocrine/ paracrine regulator of cell growth in ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer, the factors which regulate the expression of GnRH and its receptor in these cells are not well characterized. In the present study, we employed real-time PCR to determine the potential regulatory effect of gonadotropins on the expression levels of GnRH I (the mammalian GnRH), GnRH II (a second form of GnRH) and their common receptor (GnRHR) in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE-80 and IOSE-80PC) cells and ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, BG-1, CaOV-3, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3). The cells were treated with increasing concentrations (100 and 1000 ng/ml) of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) for 24 h. Treatment with FSH or LH reduced GnRH II mRNA levels in both IOSE cell lines and in three out of five ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, BG-1 and OVCAR-3). A significant decrease in GnRHR mRNA levels was observed in IOSE and ovarian cancer cells, except CaOV-3 cells, following treatment with FSH or LH. In contrast, treatment with either FSH or LH had no effect on GnRH I mRNA levels in these cells, suggesting that gonadotropins regulate the two forms of GnRH and its receptor differentially. In separate experiments, the effect of gonadotropins on the anti-proliferative action of GnRH I and GnRH II agonists in IOSE-80, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells was investigated. The cells were pretreated with FSH or LH (100 ng/ml) for 24 h after which they were treated with either GnRH I or GnRH II (100 ng/ml) for 2 days, and cell growth was assessed by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Pretreatment of the cells with FSH or LH significantly reversed the growth inhibitory effect of GnRH I and GnRH II agonists in these cell types. These results provide the first demonstration of a potential interaction between gonadotropins and the

  12. Value of A103 (melan-A) immunostaining in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C; Nandini, C; Richmond, J

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess A103 (melan-A) immunoreactivity in a range of ovarian sex cord stromal tumours and to evaluate it for the differential diagnosis of other neoplasms. Methods—Paraffin embedded tissue sections from 45 sex cord stromal tumours and 44 potential histological mimics were examined immunohistochemically using the antibody A103. The sex cord stromal group included 21 adult granulosa cell tumours (AGCT), two juvenile granulosa cell tumours (JGCT), eight tumours showing Sertoli cell or Sertoli-Leydig cell differentiation, two unclassified tumours, two gonadoblastomas, one sex cord tumour with annular tubules, two steroid cell tumours, five thecomas/fibrothecomas, and two sclerosing stromal tumours. The histological mimics include 14 primary ovarian carcinomas, 13 metastatic carcinomas, four carcinoid tumours, four lymphomas, three endometrioid stromal sarcomas, two ovarian tumours of probable Wolffian origin, and one case each of small cell carcinoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumour, melanoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Results—A103 immunoreactivity was identified in 25 sex cord stromal tumours including 10 AGCT, two JGCT, six Sertoli/Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours, two steroid cell tumours, three thecomas/fibrothecomas, and two sclerosing stromal tumours. Of the potential histological mimics, staining was present only in the two ovarian tumours of probable Wolffian origin and the melanoma. Immunoreactive stromal cells were noted in a minority of cases. Normal hilus cells and rete ovarii epithelium also expressed A103. Conclusions—A103 is a moderately sensitive and specific marker of sex cord stromal differentiation within the range of tumours examined in this study and as such is a valuable adjunct to other immunocytochemical markers in the assessment of diagnostically problematic ovarian tumours. The staining of normal and neoplastic Wolffian elements merits further investigation. Key Words: ovarian tumours • A103

  13. Unexplained weight loss in sheep and goats. A guide to differential diagnosis, therapy, and management.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D M

    1983-11-01

    A review of the likely causes of unexplained weight loss in sheep and goats has been presented, with particular emphasis on diagnosis. Through the use of careful clinical examination and knowledge of the likely causes of progressive weight loss, a definitive diagnosis can often be made, although this is not always possible, even with rigorous investigation (Fig. 1). In most cases, establishing a definitive diagnosis will allow the practitioner to institute appropriate therapeutic measures, correct deficient management procedures, or institute suitable prevention and control programs to reduce ongoing or future losses to the client.

  14. Mouse Ovarian Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Resist Chemotherapy and Retain Ability to Initiate Oocyte-Specific Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Kalpana; Anand, Sandhya; Bhutda, Smita

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate stem cells in adult mouse ovary, the effect of chemotherapy on them and their potential to differentiate into germ cells. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that were SCA-1+/Lin−/CD45−, positive for nuclear octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (OCT-4), Nanog, and cell surface stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, were identified in adult mouse ovary. Chemotherapy resulted in complete loss of follicular reserve and cytoplasmic OCT-4 positive progenitors (ovarian germ stem cells) but VSELs survived. In ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell cultures from chemoablated ovary, proliferating germ cell clusters and mouse vasa homolog/growth differentiation factor 9-positive oocyte-like structure were observed by day 6, probably arising as a result of differentiation of the surviving VSELs. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exerted a direct stimulatory action on the OSE and induced stem cells proliferation and differentiation into premeiotic germ cell clusters during intact chemoablated ovaries culture. The FSH analog pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment to chemoablated mice increased the percentage of surviving VSELs in ovary. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of potential VSELs in mouse ovaries and show that they survive chemotherapy, are modulated by FSH, and retain the ability to undergo oocyte-specific differentiation. These results show relevance to women who undergo premature ovarian failure because of oncotherapy. PMID:25779995

  15. Large moderately-differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 13-year-old female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUI; HAO, JING; LI, CHUN-YAN; LI, TAO; MU, YU-LAN

    2016-01-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, also known as androblastoma, is a rare neoplasm from the group of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary. The tumor accounts for <0.5% of all primary ovarian neoplasms. The clinical signs and symptoms of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors can be associated with either hormonal production or the presence of a mass-occupying lesion. In the current study, a 13-year-old female was diagnosed with a stage Ic ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor following abdominal pain and distension. One month after a right oophorectomy, the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan was negative for residual or recurrent tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate for moderately-differentiated (grade 2) and poorly-differentiated (grade 3) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors is 80%, and long-term follow-up is therefore highly advised in this patient. PMID:26893701

  16. Follistatin is an early player in rainbow trout ovarian differentiation and is both colocalized with aromatase and regulated by the wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Nicol, B; Yano, A; Jouanno, E; Guérin, A; Fostier, A; Guiguen, Y

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, follistatin (FST) plays an important role in early ovarian differentiation, acting downstream of the Wnt pathway. In teleost fish, fst is implicated in folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, and an early and specific expression during ovarian differentiation has been described in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. By in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that during rainbow trout gonadal differentiation, fst shares a similar expression pattern with cyp19a1a, the gene encoding ovarian aromatase, a key steroidogenic enzyme needed for ovarian differentiation in fish. Expression of fst and cyp19a1a was first detected in a few scattered cells in the embryonic ovary several days before hatching. Then, after histological differentiation, fst and cyp19a1a expression was localized in clusters of cells lining the future ovarian lamellae. As FST expression is known to be induced by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in mammals, the Wnt pathway was inhibited in vivo with the IWR-1 molecule, and we analyzed by qPCR the effects of this treatment on fst expression. We found that IWR-1 decreased fst expression in female gonads, consistent with a regulation of fst expression by the Wnt pathway in rainbow trout. Furthermore, expression of cyp19a1a was also downregulated, suggesting an implication of the Wnt pathway in ovarian differentiation.

  17. Intermittent nutritional stimulus by short-term treatment of high-energy diet promotes ovarian performance together with increases in blood levels of glucose and insulin in cycling goats.

    PubMed

    Zabuli, Jahid; Tanaka, Tomomi; Lu, Wengeng; Kamomae, Hideo

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if short-term intermittent treatments of high-energy diet have any stimulatory effects on ovarian function and metabolic status in goat. Cycling Shiba goats were divided into treatment (TG; n=6) and control (CG; n=6) groups. After the detection of ovulation (1st ovulation, Day 0) by ultrasonography, a high-energy diet (250% of maintenance) was fed to the TG from Day 12 to Day 15 (4 days) and from Day 18 to Day 21 (4 days). The high-energy diet comprised 1000 g hay-cubes and 300 g of concentrated feed/head/day (approximately 15 MJ of digestible energy/day). The CG was offered maintenance diet throughout the experiment. Transrectal ultrasound examinations were conducted every other day during the luteal phase and were conducted daily during the follicular phase. Blood samples were collected daily from Day -2 to 7 days after ovulation (2nd ovulation) following the nutritional treatment for analysis of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, oestradiol, glucose and insulin in plasma. Two wave-like rises in the concentrations of glucose and insulin appeared in response to the intermittent nutritional stimulus. Mean plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the TG than in the CG on almost all days during each treatment period. For ovarian performance, the total number of follicles that developed on the day prior to the 2nd ovulation in the TG (7.5 ± 2.7) was significantly higher than that of the CG (4.5 ± 2.6). Ovulation rate of the 2nd ovulation (4.5 ± 1.0) in the TG was significantly higher than that of the 1st ovulation (3.0 ± 0.6) of the TG and than both 1st (2.5 ± 0.5) and 2nd (2.7 ± 0.5) ovulations of the CG. No significant difference was detected in the concentrations of FSH, progesterone and oestradiol throughout the experiment between TG and CG. The present experiment demonstrated that short-term intermittent nutritional stimulus from the luteal phase increased the

  18. Pseudoactinomycotic Radiate Granules (PAMRAGs)- An Unusual Differential Diagnosis for Ovarian Neoplasm; A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    P J, Cicy; P J, Tessy; P, Lekshmidevi; V, Letha; Poothiode, Usha

    2015-03-01

    Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) are rarely detected lesions in ovary. Endometrium is the usual site and a detailed search of literature yielded only two cases in the ovary. PAMRAGs must be differentiated from actinomycotic granules which are also strongly associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). In cases of suppurative oophoritis due to actinomycosis, a proper diagnosis and culture confirmation is mandatory to avoid further complications. This case is reported due to its rarity, unusual clinical presentation and to highlight the importance of special stains in cases of tuboovarian abscess, where PAMRAGs may cause diagnostic dilemma. Our patient was a 50 yr old female admitted with clinical diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumour. After preoperative work up, panhysterectomy, infracolic omentectomy and excision biopsy of the right inguinal lymph node were done. Peroperatively the right ovary was enlarged and adherent to the fallopian tube and pelvic wall. Gross examination revealed a right tuboovarian mass with yellowish areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Histology showed a suppurative granulomatous lesion with spherical granules having club like peripheral projections. A panel of special stains (GMS, GRAMs and AFB) done were negative. Thus, we ruled out actinomycosis and gave a diagnosis of PAMRAG.

  19. Uterine natural killer cells: a specialized differentiation regulated by ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Croy, B Anne; van den Heuvel, Marianne J; Borzychowski, Angela M; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2006-12-01

    In adult females of many species, a transient population of natural killer (NK) cells appears in cycles within the uterine endometrium (lining). Appearance of these lymphocytes coincides with specific phases of the ovarian hormone cycle and/or early pregnancy. Studies in rodents, women, and pigs dominate the literature and suggest the uterine (u)NK cells are an activated subset sharing many but not all features with circulating or lymphoid organ-residing NK cells. During successful murine pregnancy, uNK cells appear to regulate initiation of structural changes in the feed arterial systems that support maternal endometrial tissue at sites of implantation and subsequent placental development. These changes, which reverse after pregnancy, create a higher volume arterial bed with flaccid vessels unresponsive to vasoactive compounds. These unique pregnancy-associated arterial changes elevate the volume of low-pressure, nutrient-rich, maternal arterial blood available to conceptuses. Regulation of the differentiation, activation, and functions of uNK cells is only partially known, and there is lively debate regarding whether and how uNK cells participate in infertility or spontaneous abortion. This review highlights the biology of uNK cells during successful pregnancy.

  20. Cloning and differential expression of FOXL2 during ovarian development and recrudescence of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, P; Senthilkumaran, B

    2011-12-01

    FOXL2 is a member of the forkhead/HNF-3-related family of transcription factors which provides tissue-specific gene regulation. It is known to regulate ovarian aromatase, (cyp19a1a) which plays a crucial role in ovarian differentiation. To understand the role of FOXL2 in gonads and brain during ovarian development and recrudescence, we cloned the full-length cDNA of FOXL2 and analyzed its spatio-temporal expression both at transcript and protein levels in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Based on its deduced amino acid sequence, an antigenic peptide conjugated with a carrier protein was synthesized which was then used for raising antibody that reacted specifically with FOXL2. Tissue distribution pattern of FOXL2 revealed its presence prominently in ovary and female brain with sexual dimorphism. Highest expression of FOXL2 was observed in ovary and brain during prespawning phase indicating an important role for this correlate in ovarian recrudescence. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment, in vitro and in vivo, induced FOXL2 expression in the ovary during preparatory and prespawning phases. Similar type of enhanced expression was evident in brain after hCG-induction during the prespawning phase. The ontogeny of FOXL2 showed sexual dimorphic expression pattern both in gonads and brain. Based on our previous studies, the expression pattern of FOXL2 was found to be synchronous not only with that of ovarian cyp19a1a but also with brain cyp19a1b. Present study substantiates the role of FOXL2 in the regulation of aromatase in teleosts and also designates FOXL2 as a potential ovary and brain marker during female sex development in catfish.

  1. Differential effects of rapalogues, dual kinase inhibitors on human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Broadway, Karly-Rai; Chudasama, Dimple; Pados, George; Tsolakidis, Dimitris; Goumenou, Anastasia; Hall, Marcia; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy and was diagnosed in over 7,000 women in 2011 in the UK. There are currently no reliable biomarkers available for use in a regular screening assay for ovarian cancer and due to characteristic late presentation (78% in stages III and IV) ovarian cancer has a low survival rate (35% after 10 years). The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis; providing balance between available resources such as amino acids and growth factors, and stresses such as hypoxia, to control cellular behaviour accordingly. Emerging data links mTOR with the aetiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We hypothesised that mTOR inhibitors could play a therapeutic role in ovarian cancer treatment. In this study we began by validating the expression of four main mTOR pathway components, mTOR, DEPTOR, rictor and raptor, at gene and protein level in in vitro models of endometrioid (MDAH‑2774) and clear cell (SKOV3) ovarian cancer using qPCR and ImageStream technology. Using a wound healing assay we show that inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin, rapalogues, resveratrol and NVP BEZ-235 induces a cytostatic and not cytotoxic response up to 18 h in these cell lines. We extended these findings up to 72 h with a proliferation assay and show that the effects of inhibition of the mTOR pathway are primarily mediated by the dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. We show that mTOR inhibition does not involve alteration of mTOR pathway components or induce caspase 9 cleavage. Preclinical studies including ovarian tissue of ovarian cancer patients, unaffected controls and patients with unrelated gynaecological conditions show that DEPTOR is reliably upregulated in ovarian cancer.

  2. Knockout of Zebrafish Ovarian Aromatase Gene (cyp19a1a) by TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 Leads to All-male Offspring Due to Failed Ovarian Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Esther Shuk-Wa; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qin, Mingming; Ge, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sexual or gonadal differentiation is a complex event and its mechanism remains elusive in teleosts. Despite its complexity and plasticity, the process of ovarian differentiation is believed to involve gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) in nearly all species studied. However, most data concerning the role of aromatase have come from gene expression analysis or studies involving pharmacological approaches. There has been a lack of genetic evidence for the importance of aromatase in gonadal differentiation, especially the timing when the enzyme starts to exert its effect. This is due to the lack of appropriate loss-of-function approaches in fish models for studying gene functions. This situation has changed recently with the development of genome editing technologies, namely TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9. Using both TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, we successfully established three mutant zebrafish lines lacking the ovarian aromatase. As expected, all mutant fish were males, supporting the view that aromatase plays a critical role in directing ovarian differentiation and development. Further analysis showed that the ovarian aromatase did not seem to affect the formation of so-called juvenile ovary and oocyte-like germ cells; however, it was essential for further differentiation of the juvenile ovary into the true ovary. PMID:27876832

  3. Identification and profiling of microRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats during estrus.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Li, Guang; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal development, and regression. The study identified known and novel miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats by combining Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total, 862 known and 53 novel miRNAs were identified in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats. A total of 771 miRNAs were co-expressed in both libraries. One hundred twenty miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous goats and 24 miRNAs in the ovaries of monotocous goats were specifically expressed. In addition, 445 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats, of which 348 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in the ovaries of polytocous goats compared with the ovaries of monotocous goats (P values < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|> 1). The expression levels of 12 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with Solexa sequencing results. KEGG analysis showed that GnRH, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis and ovarian steroidogenesis participated in follicular development and ovulation. On the basis of miRNA-mRNA network analysis and luciferase reporter assays, the ggo-miR-4488-p3_1ss10CG, bta-miR-2892-p5_1ss8CG and hsa-miR-4532_L+1R-3 were closely related with prolific traits. The results will help to further understand the role of miRNAs in kidding rate regulation.

  4. In-depth LC-MS/MS analysis of the chicken ovarian cancer proteome reveals conserved and novel differentially regulated proteins in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Angelito I.; Shao, Huanjie; Jing, Kai; Ma, Yibao; Petitte, James N.; Idowu, Michael O.; Muddiman, David C.; Fang, Xianjun

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world due to the combined lack of early-stage diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies. The development and application of advanced proteomics technology and new experimental models has created unique opportunities for translational studies. In this study, we investigated the ovarian cancer proteome of the chicken, an emerging experimental model of OVC that develops ovarian tumors spontaneously. Matched plasma, ovary, and oviduct tissue biospecimens derived from healthy, early-stage OVC, and late-stage OVC birds were quantitatively characterized by label-free proteomics. Over 2600 proteins were identified in this study, 348 of which were differentially expressed by more than twofold (p≤0.05) in early- and late-stage ovarian tumor tissue specimens relative to healthy ovarian tissues. Several of the 348 proteins are known to be differentially regulated in human cancers including B2M, CLDN3, EPCAM, PIGR, S100A6, S100A9, S100A11, and TPD52. Of particular interest was ovostatin 2 (OVOS2), a novel 165-kDa protease inhibitor found to be strongly upregulated in chicken ovarian tumors (p=0.0005) and matched plasma (p=0.003). Indeed, RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that OVOS2 mRNA and protein were also upregulated in multiple human OVC cell lines compared to normal ovarian epithelia (NOE) cells and immunohistochemical staining confirmed overexpression of OVOS2 in primary human ovarian cancers relative to non-cancerous tissues. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence for involvement of OVOS2 in the pathogenesis of both chicken and human ovarian cancer. PMID:26159569

  5. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  6. Sphingosine kinase 1 is required for TGF-β mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dong-Joo; Lawrenson, Kate; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Walsh, Christine S.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the enzyme that produces sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), is known to be highly expressed in many cancers. However, the role of SPHK1 in cells of the tumor stroma remains unclear. Here, we show that SPHK1 is highly expressed in the tumor stroma of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), and is required for the differentiation and tumor promoting function of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Knockout or pharmacological inhibition of SPHK1 in ovarian fibroblasts attenuated TGF-β-induced expression of CAF markers, and reduced their ability to promote ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion in a coculture system. Mechanistically, we determined that SPHK1 mediates TGF-β signaling via the transactivation of S1P receptors (S1PR2 and S1PR3), leading to p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The importance of stromal SPHK1 in tumorigenesis was confirmed in vivo, by demonstrating a significant reduction of tumor growth and metastasis in SPHK1 knockout mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of SPHK1 inhibition as a novel stroma-targeted therapy in HGSC. PMID:26716409

  7. Levels of BMP-6 mRNA in goat ovarian follicles and in vitro effects of BMP-6 on secondary follicle development.

    PubMed

    Frota, Isana M A; Leitão, Cintia C F; Costa, José J N; van den Hurk, Robert; Saraiva, Márcia V A; Figueiredo, José R; Silva, José R V

    2013-08-01

    Expression of BMP-6 mRNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the BMP-6 protein was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the primordial, primary, secondary, small and large antral follicles of goat. Furthermore, the influence of BMP-6 on increase in diameter, antrum formation and expression of BMP-6 and FSH-R in in vitro cultured secondary follicles was studied. Therefore, goat primordial, primary and secondary follicles, as well as small and large antral follicles were obtained and the mRNA levels of BMP-6 were quantified by PCR in real time. Expression of BMP-6 protein in goat follicles was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The influence of BMP-6 in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on both the development of secondary follicles and the expression of mRNA for BMP-6 and FSH-R was evaluated after 6 days of culture. Furthermore, the follicular diameter and the formation of the antrum were evaluated before and after 6 days of culture and compared by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-squared tests (P < 0.05), respectively. The results show that the level of mRNA for BMP-6 in primary and secondary follicles was significantly higher than in the primordial follicles (P < 0.05). Similar levels of BMP-6 mRNA were observed in cumulus-oocyte complexes and mural granulosa/theca cells from small and large antral follicles, respectively. BMP-6 protein was expressed in oocytes of all categories of follicles and in granulosa cells from secondary follicles onwards. Addition of BMP-6 to the culture medium increased the diameter of secondary follicles mainly by antrum formation after 6 days' culture, in the presence or absence of FSH (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of FSH resulted in increased levels of BMP-6 mRNA in these follicles (P < 0.05). Simultaneous administration of FSH and BMP-6 enhanced the levels of FSH receptor (FSH-R) mRNA (P < 0.05). It is concluded that BMP-6 mRNA is increased during transition from primordial to

  8. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF THE BUMETANIDE-SENSITIVE COTRANSPORTER (NKCC2) BY OVARIAN HORMONES

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Teddy M; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama ME

    2010-01-01

    The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) regulates sodium transport along the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and is important in control of sodium balance, renal concentrating ability and renin release. To determine if there are sex differences in NKCC2 abundance and/or distribution, and to evaluate the contribution of ovarian hormones to any such differences, we performed semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunoperoxidase immunohistochemistry for NKCC2 in the kidney of Sprague Dawley male, female and ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without 17-β estradiol or progesterone supplementation. Intact females demonstrated greater NKCC2 protein in homogenates of whole kidney (334%±29), cortex (219%±20) and outer medulla (133%±9) compared to males. Ovarian hormone supplementation to OVX rats regulated NKCC2 in the outer medulla only, with NKCC2 protein abundance decreasing slightly in response to progesterone but increasing in response to 17-β estradiol. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent NKCC2 labeling in the apical membrane of thick ascending limb cells. Kidney section NKCC2 labeling confirmed regionalized regulation of NKCC2 by ovarian hormones. Localized regulation of NKCC2 by ovarian hormones may have importance in controlling sodium and water balance over the lifetime of women as the milieu of sex hormones varies. PMID:20580730

  9. Differential expression of a human kallikrein 5 (KLK5) splice variant in ovarian and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurlender, Lisa; Yousef, George M; Memari, Nader; Robb, John-Desmond; Michael, Iacovos P; Borgoño, Carla; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2004-01-01

    The presence of more than one mRNA form is common among kallikrein genes. We identified an mRNA transcript of the human kallikrein gene 5 (KLK5), denoted KLK5 splice variant 1 (KLK5-SV1). This variant has a different 5'-splice site, but encodes the same protein as the classical KLK5 transcript. RT-PCR analysis of this variant transcript expression in 29 human tissues indicated highest expression in the cervix, salivary gland, kidney, mammary gland, and skin. Comparative analysis of the expression levels of KLK5-SV1, another splice variant named KLK5 splice variant 2 (KLK5-SV2), and the classical KLK5 form showed that out of all three mRNA transcripts, the classical form is predominantly expressed (found in more tissues and at higher expression levels) followed by KLK5-SV1. KLK5-SV1 is expressed at high levels in ovarian, pancreatic, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. KLK5-SV1 was also found to be expressed in 9/10 ovarian cancer tissues, but it was not found in one normal ovarian tissue tested. Hormonal regulation experiments suggest that KLK5-SV1 is regulated by steroid hormones in the BT-474 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, this variant had significantly higher expression in normal prostate tissues compared to their matched cancer tissue counterparts. KLK5-SV1 may have clinical utility in various malignancies and should be further explored as a potential new biomarker for prostate and ovarian cancer.

  10. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  11. Differential physiological responses of the German cockroach to social interactions during the ovarian cycle.

    PubMed

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2012-09-01

    In many animal species, social interactions can influence the morphology, physiology and behavior of individuals, including their rate of development and reproduction. Reproduction in cockroaches is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), and social interactions have been shown to accelerate female reproduction in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), by stimulating JH production. However, it is not clear in this or any other insect species whether social facilitation of the reproductive rate occurs throughout the ovarian cycle or only at certain stages. We compared the effects of social interactions during the pre-oviposition period (when JH production is high) and during gestation (when little JH is produced), as well as during the first ovarian cycle (when females are virgin) and the second ovarian cycle (after females had mated). Social interaction with one conspecific female was sufficient to accelerate JH production and oocyte maturation, but this effect was reversed by crowding. Social interactions also accelerated the onset of sexual receptivity in virgin females. However, social interactions failed to shorten gestation, suggesting that social cues stimulate JH production only when the corpora allata (CA) are active and not when CA activity is suppressed by the central nervous system. Females were most responsive to transient social isolation and transient social interactions when 2-3 days old, suggesting that they are particularly sensitive to social interactions when their CA become active. Overall, these results show that all JH-dependent events in the reproductive cycle of B. germanica females are under the strong influence of social interactions.

  12. CT differentiation between tubo-ovarian and appendiceal origin of right lower quadrant abscess: CT, clinical, and laboratory correlation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Nurith; Fux, Tal; Finkelstein, Anna; Mezeh, Haggi; Simanovsky, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    To investigate which clinical, laboratory, and CT findings potentially facilitate the differential diagnosis between tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) and periappendicular abscess (PAA), we retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT examinations and medical records for all women who presented to our medical center with unilateral right pelvic abscess formation who underwent CT evaluation from 2004-2014. A wide spectrum of clinical data and imaging findings were recorded. CT diagnoses were made in consensus by two experienced body radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. Findings associated with the infections were compared using the chi-square (χ(2)) or the Fisher exact test. Ninety-one patients were included; 58 with PAA (mean age 46 years) and 33 with TOA (mean age 37 years). Pain on cervical motion (67 %) and vaginal discharge (21 %) were significantly more common in TOA; other clinical signs were similar. The presence of right ovarian vein entering the mass on CT had 100 % specificity and 94 % sensitivity to TOA. Distended right fallopian tube (79 %), mass posterior to mesovarium (76 %), contralateral pelvic fat stranding (55 %), and thickening of sacrouterine ligaments (55 %) were significantly more common in TOA. Positive "arrowhead sign" (91 %), mesenteric lymphadenopathy (85 %), small bowel wall thickening (55 %), fluid in the right paracolic gutter (50 %), and cecal wall thickening (48 %) were significantly more common in PAA;internal gas was revealed only in PAA (33 %). Distinct CT features can increase diagnostic certainty regarding the origin of right lower quadrant abscess in women.

  13. Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Barnes, Michael; Chen, Lee-May; Powell, Catherine B; Crawford, Beth; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2009-08-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is an effective prophylactic procedure for women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, both of which confer an increased lifetime risk for ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and breast cancer. In addition to lowering this risk, RRSO also offers the opportunity to detect occult early-stage fallopian tube or ovarian carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of occult tubal/ovarian cancer includes a spectrum of benign tubal and ovarian alterations and also occult metastatic breast cancer, although only rare cases of the latter have been reported in RRSO. Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy may contribute to diagnostic difficulty due to treatment-induced cytologic alterations. With the aim of elucidating features which may help with differential diagnosis, this study reports the incidence and pathologic features of benign ovarian alterations, benign ovarian tumors, and occult primary and metastatic malignancies in prophylactic oophorectomies from 108 women with a BRCA mutation and from 35 women with other strong risk factors for hereditary breast/ovarian carcinoma. We direct particular emphasis on morphologic features of primary ovarian lesions that may mimic occult metastatic breast cancer. We also evaluate histologic alterations due to neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy in the ovary and fallopian tube of patients who received such treatment immediately preceding RRSO. Comparison is made to ovarian metastases of breast cancer in our hospital-based population of breast cancer patients, none of whom underwent RRSO. Overall, 69% of RRSO patients had a personal history of breast cancer. Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy was administered in 15%. Occult primary carcinoma occurred in 7 (6.5%) BRCA patients (5 in fallopian tube, 1 in fallopian tube and ovary, 1 in ovary). Ovarian metastasis of breast cancer occurred in 1 (1%) BRCA patient undergoing RRSO and in up to a similar proportion (0.8%) of the hospital-based population of

  14. Figla Favors Ovarian Differentiation by Antagonizing Spermatogenesis in a Teleosts, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lina; Wei, Jing; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2015-01-01

    Figla (factor in the germ line, alpha), a female germ cell-specific transcription factor, had been shown to activate genetic hierarchies in oocytes. The ectopic expression of Figla was known to repress spermatogenesis-associated genes in male mice. However, the potential role of Figla in other vertebrates remains elusive. The present work was aimed to identify and characterize the functional relevance of Figla in the ovarian development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Tissue distribution and ontogeny analysis revealed that tilapia Figla gene was dominantly expressed in the ovary from 30 days after hatching. Immunohistochemistry analysis also demonstrated that Figla was expressed in the cytoplasm of early primary oocytes. Intriguingly, over-expression of Figla in XY fish resulted in the disruption of spermatogenesis along with the depletion of meiotic spermatocytes and spermatids in testis. Dramatic decline of sycp3 (synaptonemal complex protein 3) and prm (protamine) expression indicates that meiotic spermatocytes and mature sperm production are impaired. Even though Sertoli cell (dmrt1) and Leydig cell (star and cyp17a1) marker genes remained unaffected, hsd3b1 expression and 11-KT production were enhanced in Figla-transgene testis. Taken together, our data suggest that fish Figla might play an essential role in the ovarian development by antagonizing spermatogenesis. PMID:25894586

  15. SRY upregulation of SOX9 is inefficient and delayed, allowing ovarian differentiation, in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephanie; Zeidan, Krista; Shin, Jonghyun S; Taketo, Teruko

    2011-07-01

    SRY on the Y-chromosome acts as a transcription factor to initiate testicular differentiation in mammals. Sox9 is a SRY target gene, upregulated immediately after Sry expression, and plays a key role in testicular differentiation. In the present study, we examined the expression of SRY and SOX9 proteins in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad, which undergoes partial or complete sex reversal. The results show that the ontogeny of SRY expression in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad was comparable with that in the B6.XY gonad. On the other hand, while SOX9 expression immediately followed SRY expression in the B6.XY gonad, it was considerably delayed compared to SRY expression in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad or SOX9 expression in the B6.XY gonad. Although SOX9 expression reached the entire gonad at a time point, it was downregulated and became restricted to the central area in which testis cords were organized. MIS, a marker of Sertoli cells, appeared only in well-organized testis cords. We speculate that the SRY protein from the Y(TIR)-chromosome is inefficient in upregulating the Sox9 gene on the B6 background, allowing the initiation of ovarian differentiation.

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  17. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  18. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets.

  19. Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-06-18

    The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.

  20. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  1. Differential muscle function between muscle synergists: long and lateral heads of the triceps in jumping and landing goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Carroll, Andrew M; Lee, David V; Biewener, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    We investigate how the biarticular long head and monoarticular lateral head of the triceps brachii function in goats (Capra hircus) during jumping and landing. Elbow moment and work were measured from high-speed video and ground reaction force (GRF) recordings. Muscle activation and strain were measured via electromyography and sonomicrometry, and muscle stress was estimated from elbow moment and by partitioning stress based on its relative strain rate. Elbow joint and muscle function were compared among three types of limb usage: jump take-off (lead limb), the step prior to jump take-off (lag limb), and landing. We predicted that the strain and work patterns in the monoarticular lateral head would follow the kinematics and work of the elbow more closely than would those of the biarticular long head. In general this prediction was supported. For instance, the lateral head stretched (5 +/- 2%; mean +/- SE) in the lead and lag limbs to absorb work during elbow flexion and joint work absorption, while the long head shortened (-7 +/- 1%) to produce work. During elbow extension, both muscles shortened by similar amounts (-10 +/- 2% long; -13 +/- 4% lateral) in the lead limb to produce work. Both triceps heads functioned similarly in landing, stretching (13 +/- 3% in the long head and 19 +/- 5% in the lateral) to absorb energy. In general, the long head functioned to produce power at the shoulder and elbow, while the lateral head functioned to resist elbow flexion and absorb work, demonstrating that functional diversification can arise between mono- and biarticular muscle agonists operating at the same joint.

  2. The differentiation of mammalian ovarian granulosa cells – living in the shadow of cellular developmental capacity.

    PubMed

    Chachuła, A; Kranc, W; Budna, J; Bryja, A; Ciesiólka, S; Wojtanowicz-Markiewicz, K; Piotrowska, H; Bukowska, D; Krajecki, M; Antosik, P; Brüssow, K P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs) promotes oocyte growth and development during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Before ovulation, the follicle is formed by a variety of fully differentiated cell populations; cumulus cells (CCs) that tightly surround the female gamete, granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) which build the internal and external mass of the follicular wall. It is well documented that CCs surrounding the oocyte are necessary for resumption of meiosis and full maturation of the gamete. However, the role of the granulosa cells in acquisition of MII stage and/or full fertilization ability is not yet entirely known. In this article, we present an overview of mammalian oocytes and their relationship to the surrounding cumulus and granulosa cells. We also describe the processes of GCs differentiation and developmental capacity. Finally, we describe several markers of mammalian GCs, which could be used for positive identification of isolated cells. The developmental capacity of oocytes and surrounding somatic cells – a “fingerprint” of folliculogenesis and oogenesis.

  3. Differential effect of chronic stress on mouse hippocampal memory and affective behavior: Role of major ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Karisetty, Bhanu Chandra; Maitra, Swati; Wahul, Abhipradnya Bipin; Musalamadugu, Anusha; Khandelwal, Nitin; Guntupalli, Sumasri; Garikapati, Ramya; Jhansyrani, Thatiparthi; Kumar, Arvind; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of depression-like pathophysiology in female rodent models are less reported compared to males, despite its higher prevalence in human females. Moreover, the stress-response in brain circuitries including reward and cognition circuitries varies with age or hormonal status of the females. So, to understand the stress-induced mood and cognitive disorders in intact females (with ovaries) and ovariectomized (OVX) females, we studied changes in mouse hippocampus, a functionally heterogeneous neural structure involved in both affective and cognitive behaviors. Here, we used a 6-day Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) paradigm in mice to induce depression and related mood disorders. Interestingly, intact females and OVX females showed difference in mood disorder sub-phenotypes to CUS. Similar to an earlier report of CUS affecting the critical reward circuitry structure the nucleus accumbens differently in females with and without ovaries, cognitive behavior in intact females and OVX females also responded differentially to CUS, as evident from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test results. We report that the presence or absence of ovarian hormones, particularly the estrogen, has a significant impact in altering the hippocampus related spatial memory and affective behavior, in females. Our results also illustrate that estrogen administration improves both reward and cognitive behavior, and plays a significant role in alleviating stress-induced despair behavior and enhancing spatial reference memory following a brief 6-day stressful paradigm. Further, it also indicates that the NMDA receptor subunits, GRIN2A and GRIN2B, might mediate the effects of estrogen in the hippocampal functions, thus suggestive of a translational significance of the finding.

  4. Molecular approaches to differentiate three species of Nematodirus in sheep and goats from China based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G H; Jia, Y Q; Bian, Q Q; Nisbet, A J; Cheng, W Y; Liu, Y; Fang, Y Q; Ma, X T; Yu, S K

    2015-05-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences of three Nematodirus species from naturally infected goats or sheep in two endemic provinces of China were analysed to establish an effective molecular approach to differentiate Nematodirus species in small ruminants. The respective intra-specific genetic variations in ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA regions were 0.3-1.8% and 0-0.4% in N. spathiger, 0-6.5% and 0-5.4% in N. helvetianus, and 0-4.4% and 0-6.1% in N. oiratianus from China. The respective intra-specific variations of ITS1 and ITS2 were 1.8-4.4% and 1.6-6.1% between N. oiratianus isolates from China and Iran, 5.7-7.1% and 6.3-8.3% between N. helvetianus samples from China and America. For N. spathiger, compared with samples from China, sequence differences in ITS1 rDNA were 0.3-2.4% in isolates from America, 0.3-2.9% in New Zealand and 2.1-2.4% in Australia. Genetic variations in ITS2 rDNA of N. spathiger were 0-0.4% between samples from China and America, and 0-0.8% between samples from China and New Zealand. Using mutation sites, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and specific PCR techniques were developed to differentiate these three Nematodirus species. The specific PCR assay allowed the accurate identification of N. oiratianus from other common nematodes with a sensitivity of 0.69 pg and further examination of Nematodirus samples demonstrated the reliability of these two molecular methods.

  5. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Fernanda Cavallari; Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review. PMID:26954112

  6. Differential distribution of tumor-associated macrophages and Treg/Th17 cells in the progression of malignant and benign epithelial ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinyi; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the predominant causes of cancer-associated mortality in women with gynecological oncology. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and T helper cell 17 (Th17) cells have been hypothesized to be involved in the progression of EOC. However, the association between TAMs and T cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential distribution of TAMs, Treg cells and Th17 cells in benign ovarian tumor tissues and in tissues from patients with EOC, and to examine their association with the clinical pathology of EOC. A total of 126 tissue samples from patients with EOC and 26 tissue samples from patients with benign ovarian tumors were analyzed, and it was identified that the distribution of TAMs, Treg cells, Th17 cells and the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells were higher in the patients with EOC using triple color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The high frequency of TAMs and ratio of Treg/Th17 cells in late tumor grades suggested that they may be significant in tumor progression. The frequency of TAMs was different between the histological types of EOC. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the microvessel density (MVD) in the EOC and benign ovarian tumor tissues. A higher MVD was observed in the EOC patient tissues, particularly, in the late tumor grade tissues. The present study provided clinical data demonstrating the high distribution of TAMs and T-cells in EOC, which may contribute to tumor progression through angiogenesis. The mechanisms by which TAMs are associated with Treg cells and Th17 cells requires further investigation as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets for EOC. PMID:28123537

  7. Epigenome-wide ovarian cancer analysis identifies a methylation profile differentiating clear-cell histology with epigenetic silencing of the HERG K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Mine S; Koestler, Devin C; Fridley, Brooke L; Kalli, Kimberly R; Armasu, Sebastian M; Larson, Melissa C; Wang, Chen; Winham, Stacey J; Vierkant, Robert A; Rider, David N; Block, Matthew S; Klotzle, Brandy; Konecny, Gottfried; Winterhoff, Boris J; Hamidi, Habib; Shridhar, Viji; Fan, Jian-Bing; Visscher, Daniel W; Olson, Janet E; Hartmann, Lynn C; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L

    2013-08-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death in women with gynecologic malignancies, despite surgical advances and the development of more effective chemotherapeutics. As increasing evidence indicates that clear-cell ovarian cancer may have unique pathogenesis, further understanding of molecular features may enable us to begin to understand the underlying biology and histology-specific information for improved outcomes. To study epigenetics in clear-cell ovarian cancer, fresh frozen tumor DNA (n = 485) was assayed on Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified a clear-cell ovarian cancer tumor methylation profile (n = 163) which we validated in two independent replication sets (set 1, n = 163; set 2, n = 159), highlighting 22 CpG loci associated with nine genes (VWA1, FOXP1, FGFRL1, LINC00340, KCNH2, ANK1, ATXN2, NDRG21 and SLC16A11). Nearly all of the differentially methylated CpGs showed a propensity toward hypermethylation among clear-cell cases. Several loci methylation inversely correlated with tumor gene expression, most notably KCNH2 (HERG, a potassium channel) (P = 9.5 × 10(-7)), indicating epigenetic silencing. In addition, a predicted methylation class mainly represented by the clear-cell cases (20 clear cell out of 23 cases) had improved survival time. Although these analyses included only 30 clear-cell carcinomas, results suggest that loss of expression of KCNH2 (HERG) by methylation could be a good prognostic marker, given that overexpression of the potassium (K(+)) channel Eag family members promotes increased proliferation and results in poor prognosis. Validation in a bigger cohort of clear-cell tumors of the ovary is warranted.

  8. Ovarian Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... accurate way to tell if a woman has ovarian cancer. For example, some women who do have ovarian cancer have a normal CA-125 level. Also, this ... for women who show signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer or who have genetic mutations that increase the ...

  9. Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924

  10. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...

  11. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.

  12. The effect of the immune system on ovarian function and features of ovarian germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Tuochen; Liang, Xia; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Pan, Zezheng; Zheng, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in maintaining organism homeostasis, the immune system also plays a crucial role in the modulation of ovarian function, as it regulates ovarian development, follicular maturation, ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum. Ovarian germline stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the ovarian cortex that can differentiate into ovarian germ cells and primary granulosa cells. Recent work has demonstrated that the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells is regulated in part by immune cells and their secreted factors. This paper reviews the role of the immune system in the regulation of ovarian function, the relationship between immune components and ovarian germline stem cells and current research efforts in this field.

  13. The effects of insulin and follicle-simulating hormone (FSH) during in vitro development of ovarian goat preantral follicles and the relative mRNA expression for insulin and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 aromatase in cultured follicles.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Roberta N; Duarte, Ana Beatriz G; Rodrigues, Giovanna Q; Celestino, Juliana J H; Silva, Gerlane M; Lopes, Claudio Afonso P; Almeida, Anderson P; Donato, Mariana A M; Peixoto, C A; Moura, Arlindo A A; Lobo, Carlos H; Locatelli, Yann; Mermillod, Pascalle; Campello, Claudio C; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    The actions of different concentrations of insulin alone or in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were evaluated by in vitro follicular development and mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) and as receptors for insulin (INSR) and FSH (FSHR) from isolated, cultured goat preantral follicles. Goat preantral follicles were microdissected and cultured for 18 days in the absence or presence of insulin (5 and 10 ng/ml or 10 μg/ml) alone or in combination with FSH. After 18 days, the addition of the maximum concentration of insulin to the culture medium reduced follicular survival and antrum formation rates significantly compared to the other treatments. However, when FSH was added to the culture medium, no differences between these two parameters were observed. Preantral and antral follicles from the fresh control as well as from all cultured follicles still presented a normal ultrastructural pattern. In medium supplemented with FSH, only insulin at 10 ng/ml presented oocytes with higher rates of meiosis resumption compared to control, as well as oocytes in metaphase II. Treatment with insulin (10 ng/ml) plus FSH resulted in significantly increased levels of INSR and CYP19A1 mRNA compared to that with other treatments. In conclusion, 10 ng/ml insulin associated with FSH was more efficient in promoting resumption of oocyte meiosis, maintaining survival, stimulating follicular development, and increasing expression of the INSR and CYP19A1 genes in goat preantral follicles.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Differentially Expressed miRNAs and their Downstream mRNAs in Ovarian Cancer and its Associated Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Richard Licheng; Ali, Shadan; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Alosh, Baraa; Hayek, Kinda; Daaboul, MHD Fayez; Winer, Ira; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer (OC) in patients with endometriosis. Hence, development of new biomarkers may provide a positive clinical outcome for early detection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in biological and pathological process and are currently used as diagnostic and prognostic markers in various cancers. In the current study, we assessed the differential expression of miRNAs from 19 paired ovarian cancer and its associated endometriosis tissue samples. In addition we also analyzed the downstream targets of those miRNAs. Methods Nineteen paired cases of ovarian cancer and endometriosis foci were identified by a gynecologic pathologist and macro-dissected. The total RNAs were extracted and subjected to comprehensive miRNA profiling from the pooled samples of these two different entities using microarray analysis. Later, the abnormal expressions of few selected miRNAs were validated in individual cases by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed target mRNAs which were validated by qRT-PCR. Results The miRNA profiling identified deregulation of greater than 1156 miRNAs in OC, of which the top seven were further validated by qRT-PCR. The expression of miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-451 were reduced significantly (p<0.0001) in the OC patients compared to its associated endometriosis. In contrast, the expression of miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200c, and miR-3613 were elevated significantly (p<0.05) in most of the OC patients. Furthermore, among the downstream mRNAs of these miRNAs, the level of PTEN expression was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in OC compared to endometriosis while no significant difference was observed in NF-κB expression. Conclusion The expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in OC were significantly different compared to its concurrent endometriosis. These differential expressed miRNAs may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for OC

  15. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors may increase a woman’s risk for ovarian cancer: • Being middle-aged or older. • Having close family members (such as ... than 40, with the greatest number of ovarian cancers occurring in women aged 60 years or older. Each year, approximately 21, ...

  16. [Ovarian fibrothecal tumor: case report].

    PubMed

    González Gleason, Alejandro; De la Cruz, Sebastián Iris; Torres Salas, María Esther; Guzmán Patraca, Carlos; Chavarría Olarte, María Eugenia; Reyes Fuentes, Alejandro

    2002-05-01

    Tumors with stromal or sex-cords origin are scarce, and comprise only 5% or less of all ovarian tumors. Nevertheless functional tumor types are the most striking ones, only few of them produce hormonal symptoms. Fibrothecal tumors belong to the stromal cells tumor class, with differentiation towards both fibroblastic-type cells of thecal cell. We present a case report of a 68 years old woman with an ovarian tumor sized 14 x 9 x 7 cm. The treatment was the extirpation of the tumor. Microscopic evaluation of the surgical piece reported an ovarian fibrothecal tumor.

  17. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome . Symptoms Ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms. An ... You may need other treatments if you have polycystic ovary syndrome or another disorder that can cause cysts. Outlook ( ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer. There's no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But certain factors are associated with lower risk: Use of oral contraceptives, especially for more than 10 years Previous ...

  19. Ovarian hypofunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities. It may also occur with certain autoimmune disorders that disrupt the normal function of the ovaries. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also cause ovarian hypofunction.

  20. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  1. Molecular cloning of porcine growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) cDNA and its role in early folliculogenesis: direct ovarian injection of GDF-9 gene fragments promotes early folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Miyahayashi, Yasunori; Yokoo, Masaki; Hoshino, Yumi; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2004-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a growth factor secreted by oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. To investigate the ovarian function of GDF-9 in pigs, we first cloned porcine GDF-9 complementary DNA (cDNA), and then injected its gene fragments into the ovary in gilts. Porcine GDF-9 has open reading frame (ORF) homologies of 81.4%, 84.6%, 84.2%, 72.7% and 72.6% with its human, bovine, ovine, rat and mouse counterparts respectively. Regarding the deduced amino-acid sequence of the mature protein, the corresponding homologies reach 92.1%, 97.8%, 97.0%, 89.6% and 88.1% respectively. To investigate the role of GDF-9 in early folliculogenesis, the ovaries of 2-month-old prepubertal gilts were injected with GDF-9 gene fragments. The injection of porcine GDF-9 gene fragments resulted in an increase in the number of primary, secondary and tertiary follicles, concomitant with a decrease in the number of primordial follicles. These results indicated that exogenous GDF-9 can promote early folliculogenesis in the porcine ovary, and that a technique for direct ovarian injection of GFD-9 gene fragments may contribute to a novel therapy for prevention and treatment of infertility associated with ovarian dysfunction.

  2. Growth differentiation factor-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone expression in cultured human follicles from frozen-thawed ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Smitz, J

    2008-10-01

    In-vitro growth of frozen-thawed human follicles is perceived as a potential option for restoring women's fertility. The aims of this study were: (i) to test the usefulness of a defined serum-free medium for growth of frozen-thawed human follicles; and (ii) to evaluate the expression of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in cultured follicles. Frozen-thawed ovarian cortical pieces from 7-, 12-, 25- and 27-year-old women were cultured for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Follicle developmental quality was evaluated and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (day 21), GDF-9 (days 14 and 28) and AMH (day 21) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Primary follicles and enclosed oocytes underwent significant growth at the end of culture (P < 0.05). Cultured follicles from all patients studied reached the early secondary stage and a few follicles from two patients developed up to the secondary stage. The rate of atresia was variable throughout the culture periods. PCNA was expressed in the granulosa cells at all the different follicular stages. AMH and GDF-9 immunostaining were found respectively in the granulosa cells and oocytes after several weeks of culture. The transition from resting to growing follicles leading to the development of secondary follicles showed the normal expression patterns of GDF-9 and AMH.

  3. Interview with Alison Goate.

    PubMed

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.

  4. Prognostic significance of differential expression of angiogenic genes in women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Turner, Taylor; Deng, Yiwen; Bean, Sarah M.; Horton, Janet K.; Berchuck, Andrew; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify angiogenic biomarkers associated with tumor angiogenesis and clinical outcome in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Methods 51 HGSC samples were analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray. Microvessel density (MVD) counts were determined using CD31and CD105. Association between mRNA expression levels and overall survival were assessed using rank score statistic. Effect size was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) under a proportional hazards model. The Storey q-value method was used to account for multiple testing within the false-discovery rate (FDR) framework. Publicly available databases including TCGA and GSE were used for external confirmation. Results Thirty-one angiogenic-related genes were significantly associated with survival (q ≤ 0.05). Of these 31 genes, 4 were also associated with outcome in the TCGA data: AKT1 (q=0.02; TCGA p= 0.01, HR=0.8), CD44 (q= 0.003; TCGA p=0.05, HR=0.9), EPHB2 (q= 0.01; TCGA p=0.05, HR=1.2), and ERBB2 (q= 0.02; TCGA p= 0.05, HR=1.2). While 5 were associated with outcome in the GSE database: FLT1 (q= 0.03; GSE26712 p=0.01, HR=3.1); PF4 (q= 0.02; GSE26712 p=0.01, HR=3.0), NRP1 (q= 0.02; GSE26712 p < 0.04, HR>1.4), COL4A3 (q= 0.04; GSE26712 p= 0.03, HR=1.3), ANGPTL3 (q= 0.02; GSE14764 p=0.02, HR=1.5). High AKT1 and CD44 were associated with longer survival. In contrast, high expression of EPHB2, ERBB2, FLT1; PF4, NRP1, COL4A3, and ANGPTL3 were associated with shorter survival. CD105-MVD and CD31-MVD were not significantly associated with angiogenic gene expression. Conclusions Thirty-one angiogenic-related genes were associated with survival in advanced HGSC and nine of these genes were confirmed in independent publicly available databases. PMID:26260910

  5. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  6. Sexing frogs by real-time PCR: using aromatase (cyp19) as an early ovarian differentiation marker.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Martín, L; Velasco-Santamaría, Y M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Robertson, C; Lanctôt, C; Pauli, B; Trudeau, V L

    2012-01-01

    Most anurans have no identified sex-markers; therefore, alternative methods for identification of early changes in sex ratios are required. In this study, Lithobates sylvaticus and Silurana tropicalis tadpoles were sampled at different developmental stages covering the entire process of sex differentiation. Three candidate genes known to be involved in sex differentiation in other vertebrate species were selected to develop a method to identify phenotypic sex in frogs: cytochrome p450 aromatase (cyp19), forkhead box L2 (foxl2) and the cytochrome 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17). Cloning of these genes revealed nucleotide identity values ranging between 75-97% when compared to other amphibian species. Gene expression of cyp17,cyp19 and foxl2 in L. sylvaticus adult gonads and gonad-mesonephros complex (GMC) of tadpoles was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Results showed clear sexually dimorphic patterns in the expression of the 3 genes. Our analysis reveals that GMC gene expression levels of cyp19 alone can be used as a robust predictor of phenotypic sex in L. sylvaticus tadpoles. In addition, we validated this method measuring cyp19 mRNA levels in S. tropicalis GMCs. We propose measuring cyp19 as a tool to study the effects of chemical contaminants (including endocrine disrupting compounds) on amphibian gonadal development and sex ratios in the future.

  7. Reproductive cycle of goats.

    PubMed

    Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.

  8. Relative abundance of tissue mRNA and association of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the goat NGF gene with prolificacy.

    PubMed

    Naicy, Thomas; Venkatachalapathy, R Thirupathy; Aravindakshan, T V; Raghavan, K C; Mini, M; Shyama, K

    2016-10-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) promotes the development of pre-antral ovarian follicles through ovarian innervations and regulation of ovarian response to gonadotropins. The present study was conducted to study the tissue gene expression profile, to characterize the genetic variants, find associations of the NGF gene with prolificacy in the prolific Malabari and less prolific Attappady Black goats because NGF has an important role in reproduction by augmenting ovarian folliculogenesis. Relative abundance of NGF mRNA was greatest in reproductive tissues signifying its role in reproduction. The PCR-SSCP analysis of a 251bp fragment of Exon 3 of the NGF gene from the 277 goats revealed four diplotypes (EE, EF, FF and EG) with respective frequencies of 0.76, 0.22, 0.01 and 0.01. Sequencing of the representative samples revealed one synonymous and one novel non synonymous mutations (g.705G>A and g.715C>T). Statistical analysis indicated that the SNP g.705G>A was associated with litter size in Attappady Black goats (P<0.05) and a PCR-RFLP was designed using the restriction enzyme, BpiI, for rapid screening of the SNP. The results of the present study suggest that the NGF gene is a primary candidate gene affecting prolificacy in goats and may be used for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) in goats, especially in lowly prolific Attappady Black goats.

  9. Mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking a cystic ovarian mass on imaging.

    PubMed

    Hitzerd, Emilie; van Hamont, Dennis; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic cystic masses are frequently observed in women. Most lesions are benign and of ovarian origin. However, non-ovarian lesions can be easily confused with cystic ovarian masses on imaging, which hampers diagnostic and therapeutic management. In this report, a rare case of mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking an ovarian cystic mass, discovered as an incidental finding on orthopaedic MRI in an adult female, is presented. The report highlights the sometimes difficult diagnostic process of pelvic cystic masses, due to an extensive differential diagnosis and the fact that imaging is often inconclusive. Even though most cystic masses are of ovarian origin, non-ovarian causes can mimic ovarian masses and should be considered as differential diagnoses. Surgical exploration may be necessary to exclude malignant causes.

  10. Evaluation of Ovarian Reserve with AMH Level in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Receiving Radioactive Iodine Ablation Treatment.

    PubMed

    Acıbucu, F; Acıbucu, D O; Akkar, Ö B; Dokmetas, H S

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation treatment is used for patients diagnosed with well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. RAI ablation treatment can adversely affect gonads in males and females. In this study, we aimed to determine ovary damage and infertility risk due to RAI, using serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, in females who received RAI ablation treatment. Materials and Methods: 45 female patients who have not gone through the menopause and had received RAI ablation treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer in premenopausal period, and 40 healthy females as control groups were included in this study. The serum AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and creatinine levels of the patients included in the study were analyzed and compared to those of the control group with similar demographical characteristics. Results: No differences were found between the patient group and control group in terms of age, height, weight, body mass index, LH, E2 and creatinine. The difference in AMH, FSH and TSH between both groups were found to be significant. There was no statistically significant relation between the age and AMH levels. Similarly, no statistically significant relation between RAI exposure duration and AMH levels was determined. When the patients below and above the age of 35 were compared with regard to AMH (2.95±1.79 and 2.75±1.94, respectively) and FSH (5.45±1.63 and 5.99±3.06, respectively), the difference between them was found to be statistically insignificant. Oligo/anovulation was detected in 7 patients (15.6% of the patient group) after RAI treatment, 8 (17.8%) patients became pregnant after RAI treatment, and none of the patients, who were actively trying to get pregnant, were unable to achieve it. Conclusion: According to these results, it may be concluded that low AMH levels due to RAI treatment can cause

  11. The DNA damage mark pH2AX differentiates the cytotoxic effects of small molecule HDAC inhibitors in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Holson, Edward; Wagner, Florence; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Bhaskara, Srividya; Hiebert, Scott W; Schreiber, Stuart L; Khabele, Dineo

    2011-09-15

    High grade epithelial ovarian cancers are relatively sensitive to DNA damaging platinum-based chemotherapy, suggesting that the dependencies of ovarian tumors on DNA damage response pathways can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. Our goal was to determine if the DNA damage mark gamma-H2AX phosphorylation (pH2AX) could be used to identify suitable cytotoxic histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for ovarian cancer treatment. Nineteen chemically diverse HDACi compounds were tested in 7 ovarian cancer cell lines. Fluorescent, biochemical and cell-based assays were performed to assess DNA damage by induction of pH2AX and to measure cell viability and apoptosis. The relationships between pH2AX and the cellular effects of cell viability and apoptosis were calculated. Selected HDACi were tested in combination with cisplatin and other DNA damaging agents to determine if the HDACi improved upon the effects of the DNA damaging agents. The HDACi compounds induced differing levels of pH2AX expression. High levels of pH2AX in HDACi-treated ovarian cancer cells were tightly associated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. Consequently, a ketone-based HDACi was chosen and found to enhance the effects of cisplatin, even in ovarian cancer cells with extreme resistance to DNA damaging drugs. In conclusion, a fluorescent-based assay for pH2AX can be used to determine cellular responses to HDACi in vitro and may be a useful tool to identify potentially more effective HDACi for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In addition, these results lend support to the inclusion of ketone-derived HDACi compounds for future development.

  12. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-01-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach. PMID:25797108

  13. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Il

    2015-07-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, unilocular solid cyst, multilocular cyst, multilocular solid cyst, and solid tumor, and then to detect typical US features that demonstrate malignancy based on pattern recognition approach.

  14. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  15. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  16. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  17. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  18. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  19. Enterotoxaemia in goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1996-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. The disease in goats is mostly caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. The disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. The main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while at necropsy the disease is often characterized by haemorrhagic colitis. The typical histological changes observed in the brain of sheep with enterotoxaemia are not considered to be a common feature of enterotoxaemia in goats. Although the pathogenesis of caprine enterotoxaemia has not yet been properly defined, it is usually accepted that the presence of C. perfringens type D in the small bowel, together with a sudden change to a diet rich in carbohydrates, is the main predisposing factor for the disease. Vaccination seems to be poorly effective in preventing caprine enterotoxaemia, which might be due to the fact that the enteric form of the disease is partially independent of circulating C. perfringens toxin. More studies are needed on caprine enterotoxaemia, especially of its pathogenesis and immunity, in order to develop more efficient control measures for this disease.

  20. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  1. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    ovarian adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol, 2007; 104: 192-198. 506 25. Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A...Ultrasound Med 2010, 29:173-182. 479 (19) Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A et al: 480 Cyclooxygenases expression and...adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol 2007, 507 104:192-198. 508 (30) Ansenberger K, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Richards C, Barua A, Bahr JM

  2. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  3. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Eric; Larsen, Ginger; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina I; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    The actions of environmental toxicants and relevant mixtures in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease was investigated with the use of a fungicide, a pesticide mixture, a plastic mixture, dioxin and a hydrocarbon mixture. After transient exposure of an F0 gestating female rat during embryonic gonadal sex determination, the F1 and F3 generation progeny adult onset ovarian disease was assessed. Transgenerational disease phenotypes observed included an increase in cysts resembling human polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) and a decrease in the ovarian primordial follicle pool size resembling primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The F3 generation granulosa cells were isolated and found to have a transgenerational effect on the transcriptome and epigenome (differential DNA methylation). Epigenetic biomarkers for environmental exposure and associated gene networks were identified. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease states was induced by all the different classes of environmental compounds, suggesting a role of environmental epigenetics in ovarian disease etiology.

  4. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Ovarian Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Eric; Larsen, Ginger; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina I.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The actions of environmental toxicants and relevant mixtures in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease was investigated with the use of a fungicide, a pesticide mixture, a plastic mixture, dioxin and a hydrocarbon mixture. After transient exposure of an F0 gestating female rat during embryonic gonadal sex determination, the F1 and F3 generation progeny adult onset ovarian disease was assessed. Transgenerational disease phenotypes observed included an increase in cysts resembling human polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) and a decrease in the ovarian primordial follicle pool size resembling primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The F3 generation granulosa cells were isolated and found to have a transgenerational effect on the transcriptome and epigenome (differential DNA methylation). Epigenetic biomarkers for environmental exposure and associated gene networks were identified. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease states was induced by all the different classes of environmental compounds, suggesting a role of environmental epigenetics in ovarian disease etiology. PMID:22570695

  5. [Isolation and cultivation of goat embryo stem cells].

    PubMed

    Yan, Long; Lei, Lei; Yang, Chunrong; Gao, Zhimin; Lei, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoling; Dou, Zhongying

    2008-09-01

    Morulaes and blastocysts obtained from Guanzhong dairy goats 6-7 days after mating were treated with whole embryo cultivaton, enzymatic digestion and immunosurgery separately. The goat embryonic stem cells (ESC) were isolated and cultured on a feeder layer of mitomycin-inactivated mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). The characteristics of goat ESCs were analyzed by immunohistochemisty, RT-PCR and inducing differentiation in vitro. The results indicated that the embryos were easier to attach the culture dish and form primary colonies with whole embryo method. There were colonies that maintained undifferentiated for 18 passages. The ESCs expressed the protein of Nanog, Oct4 and SSEA-3, whereas the protein of SSEA-4 was absent and the protein of SSEA-1 was weakly expressed. In addition, the genes of Nanog, Oct4, TERT and CD117 were expressed in goat ESCs. The cells also could differentiate to myocardial cells when induced in vitro by DMSO. These results suggest that the goat ESCs have characteristics of ESCs.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the mammary gland from GH transgenic goats during involution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Bao, Ze Kun; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Wei Wei; Yu, Qing Hua; Yang, Qian

    2015-07-10

    Mammary glands are organs for milk production in female mammals. Growth hormone (GH) is known to affect the growth and development of the mammary gland, as well as to increase milk production in dairy goats. This study performed a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in the mammary gland of early involution GH transgenic (n=4) and non-transgenic goats (n=4) by RNA sequencing. RNA was extracted from mammary gland tissues collected at day 3 of involution. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing and sequence reads were assembled and analyzed using TopHat. FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million) values were analyzed for differentially expressed genes using the Cufflinks package. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes was categorized using agriGO, while KEGG pathway analysis was performed with the online KEGG automatic annotation server. Our results revealed that 75% of NCBI goat annotated genes were expressed during early involution. A total of 18,323 genes were expressed during early involution in GH transgenic goats, compared with 18,196 expressed genes during early involution of non-transgenic goats. In these expressed genes, the majority (17,589) were ubiquitously expressed in GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats. However, there were 745 differentially expressed genes, 421 of which were upregulated and 324 were downregulated in GH transgenic goats. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in mammary gland physiology, including cell adhesion molecules, ECM-receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and fat metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the GH receptor was strongly affected in GH transgenic goats, which may activate the IGF-1/Stat3 signaling pathway. Overall, our study provided a global view of the transcriptome during involution of GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats, which increases our understanding of the biology of involution in the goat.

  7. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  8. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  9. Ovarian aging and premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Kıvançlı, İçten Balık; Özmen, Batuhan

    2014-01-01

    Physiological reproductive aging occurs as a result of a decrease in the number and quality of oocytes in ovarian cortex follicles. Although the reason for the decrease in the quality of the pool and follicular oocytes is not fully understood, endocrine, paracrine, genetic, and metabolic factors are thought to be effective. Nowadays, in order to understand the mechanisms of ovarian aging, genomic research has gained importance. The effect of co-factors, such as telomerase and ceramide, in the ovarian aging process is only getting ascertained with new research studies. The most important tests in the assessment of ovarian aging are antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. PMID:25317048

  10. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  11. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  12. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  13. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  14. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  15. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be similar to widespread ovarian cancer. Fallopian tube cancer This is another rare cancer that is ... to epithelial ovarian cancer. It begins in the tube that carries an egg from the ovary to ...

  16. Genetic diversity analyses reveal first insights into breed-specific selection signatures within Swiss goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Burren, A; Neuditschko, M; Signer-Hasler, H; Frischknecht, M; Reber, I; Menzi, F; Drögemüller, C; Flury, C

    2016-12-01

    We used genotype data from the caprine 50k Illumina BeadChip for the assessment of genetic diversity within and between 10 local Swiss goat breeds. Three different cluster methods allowed the goat samples to be assigned to the respective breed groups, whilst the samples of Nera Verzasca and Tessin Grey goats could not be differentiated from each other. The results of the different genetic diversity measures show that Appenzell, Toggenburg, Valais and Booted goats should be prioritized in future conservation activities. Furthermore, we examined runs of homozygosity (ROH) and compared genomic inbreeding coefficients based on ROH (FROH ) with pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED ). The linear relationship between FROH and FPED was confirmed for goats by including samples from the three main breeds (Saanen, Chamois and Toggenburg goats). FROH appears to be a suitable measure for describing levels of inbreeding in goat breeds with missing pedigree information. Finally, we derived selection signatures between the breeds. We report a total of 384 putative selection signals. The 25 most significant windows contained genes known for traits such as: coat color variation (MITF, KIT, ASIP), growth (IGF2, IGF2R, HRAS, FGFR3) and milk composition (PITX2). Several other putative genes involved in the formation of populations, which might have been selected for adaptation to the alpine environment, are highlighted. The results provide a contemporary background for the management of genetic diversity in local Swiss goat breeds.

  17. Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2008-04-01

    Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild.

  18. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  19. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  20. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  1. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  2. [Actinomycotic tubo-ovarian abscess. Contribution of pelvic angioscanner].

    PubMed

    Bazot, M; Davenne, C; Benzakine, Y; Boudghène, F; Bigot, J M

    1997-07-01

    Pelvic actinomycosis is uncommon and usually responsible for tubo-ovarian abscesses which are similar in aspect with nonactinomycotic abscesses. They are usually a complication of an intra-uterine device (IUD) that can be absent as in this case. The differential diagnosis is ovarian cancer. The role of the dynamic CT scan for differential diagnosis in this case is presented. Preoperative diagnosis in this affection is important because of the excellent response to Penicillin.

  3. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  4. Effects of the fish spawning inducer ovaprim on vasotocin receptor gene expression in brain and ovary of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis with a note on differential transcript expression in ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A; Chaube, R; Joy, K P

    2017-01-15

    all the genes. In conclusion, the VT receptor genes are differentially expressed in the ovarian follicles and OVP induced periovulatory stimulation of the VT receptor genes, coinciding with FOM and ovulation.

  5. Epigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  6. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  8. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  9. Wavelength-Dependent Second Harmonic Generation Circular Dichroism for Differentiation of Col I and Col III Isoforms in Stromal Models of Ovarian Cancer Based on Intrinsic Chirality Differences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kirby R; Campagnola, Paul J

    2017-03-02

    Extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in many epithelial cancers. For example, in ovarian cancer, upregulation of collagen isoform type III has been linked to invasive forms of the disease, and this change may be a potential biomarker. To examine this possibility, we implemented wavelength-dependent second harmonic generation circular dichroism (SHG-CD) imaging microscopy to quantitatively determine changes in chirality in ECM models comprised of different Col I/Col III composition. In these models, Col III was varied between 0 and 40%, and we found increasing Col III results in reduced net chirality, consistent with structural biology studies of Col I and III in tissues where the isoforms comingle in the same fibrils. We further examined the wavelength dependence of the SHG-CD to both optimize the response and gain insight into the underlying mechanism. We found using shorter SHG excitation wavelengths resulted in increased SHG-CD sensitivity, where this is consistent with the electric-dipole-coupled oscillator model suggested previously for the nonlinear chirality response from thin films. Moreover, the sensitivity is further consistent with the wavelength dependency of SHG intensity fit to a two-state model of the two-photon absorption in collagen. We also provide experimental calibration protocols to implement the SHG-CD modality on a laser scanning microscope. We last suggest that the technique has broad applicability in probing a wide range of diseased states with changes in collagen molecular structure.

  10. Differential cellular responses induced by dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jennifer L; Lagasse, Brittany J; Minuk, Ainsley J; Love, Allison J; Moraya, Amani I; Lam, Linda; Arthur, Gilbert; Gibson, Spencer B; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra E; Fu, Yangxin; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    Inherent or acquired drug resistance is a major contributor to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality. Novel drugs or drug combinations that produce EOC cell death or resensitize drug resistant cells to standard chemotherapy may improve patient treatment. After conducting drug tolerability studies for the multikinase inhibitors dorsomorphin (DM) and it is structural analogue LDN-193189 (LDN), these drugs were tested in a mouse intraperitoneal xenograft model of EOC. DM significantly increased survival, whereas LDN showed a trend toward increased survival. In vitro experiments using cisplatin (CP)-resistant EOC cell lines, A2780-cp or SKOV3, we determined that pretreatment or cotreatment with DM or LDN resensitized cells to the killing effect of CP or carboplatin (CB). DM was capable of blocking EOC cell cycle and migration, whereas LDN produced a less pronounced effect on cell cycle and no effect on migration. Subsequent analyses using primary human EOC cell samples or additional established EOC cells lines showed that DM or LDN induced a dose-dependent autophagic or cell death response, respectively. DM induced a characteristic morphological change with the appearance of numerous LC3B-containing acidic vacuoles and an increase in LC3BII levels. This was coincident with a decrease in cell growth and the altered cell cycle consistent with DM-induced cytostasis. By contrast, LDN produced a caspase 3-independent, reactive oxygen species-dependent cell death. Overall, DM and LDN possess drug characteristics suitable for adjuvant agents used to treat chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant EOC.

  11. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  12. Monophasic teratoma of the ovarian remnant in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Rota, A; Tursi, M; Zabarino, S; Appino, S

    2013-04-01

    An exploratory laparotomy on a mixed-breed bitch of an estimated age of 5 years revealed that she had undergone ovariectomy in the past, but a cystic structure was present in the area of the right ovary and a whitish mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter, in the area of the left ovary. These structures were removed together with an apparently normal uterus. Histological examination of the cyst showed a thin layer of connective tissue, while the left ovarian mass revealed ovarian tissue and highly differentiated nervous tissue, confirmed through immunohistochemistry. A presumptive diagnosis of mature ovarian teratoma was made. Although teratomas generally contain recognizable elements from more than one of the three germ cell layers, they can also be monophasic, when there is only one germ layer component. Ovarian teratomas are rare in the dog and never before have been reported in an ovarian fragment.

  13. Ovarian reserve evaluation: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho; Rosa e Silva, Júlio César; dos Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Silva de Sá, Marcos Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Revise role of hormonal basal and dynamic tests, as well as ultrasonographic measures as ovarian reserve markers, in order to provide better counseling to subfertile couples. Methods Review of publications on the topic, with an emphasis on recent well designed articles. Results Currently available ovarian reserve tests do not provide sufficient evidence to be solely considered ideal, even for premature ovarian senescence patients who do not present subfertility complaints. However, these markers occupy important place in initial approach to treatment of subfertile couples, predicting unsatisfactory results that could be improved by differentiated induction schemes and reducing excessive psychological and financial burdens, and adverse effects. Conclusions In order to remedy the limitations due to the scarcity of strong evidence about this topic, future studies should try to clarify predictive value of markers in groups of specific diseases-related subfertility and pay special attention to propaedeutic multivariate models including anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicle count. PMID:18679790

  14. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24) could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32) were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show the importance

  15. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24) could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32) were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show the importance

  16. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen’s Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen’s ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:26460738

  17. GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols in ovarian stimulation: differential regulation pathway of aromatase expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mohamad; Mittre, Hervé; Levallet, Jérôme; Hanoux, Vincent; Denoual, Christine; Herlicoviez, Michel; Bonnamy, Pierre-Jacques; Benhaim, Annie

    2010-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists have been widely used to prevent premature LH surge during ovarian stimulation. However, studies have shown a significantly lower serum oestradiol concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration for cycles using GnRH antagonist. This study compared aromatase gene expression in granulosa lutein cells from 50 women randomly assigned to receive either GnRH agonist (group 1, n=28) or GnRH antagonist (group 2, n=22). The cellular mechanism involved in the observed effects was also investigated. GnRH antagonist treatment significantly affected serum oestradiol concentration (1894+/-138 versus 1074+/-63 pg/ml; P < or = 0.001), follicular-fluid oestradiol concentration in large follicles (18,565+/-2467 versus 10,184+/-1993 pg/ml; P < or = 0.05), aromatase activity (9600+/-1179 versus 5376+/-997 fmol/10(6) cells/h; P < or = 0.05) and mRNA aromatase/mRNA glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (15+/-3 versus 6+/-1; P < 0.05). Protein kinase C (PKC) activity in granulosa lutein cells from the GnRH antagonist group was 2.5-fold higher than in the GnRH agonist group. In-vitro experiments showed that selective down-regulation of PKC was only observed in GnRH-desensitized granulosa lutein cells. This report suggests that, in granulosa lutein cells, the modulation of the FSH-induced protein kinase A pathway by PKC was different in agonist versus antagonist cycles.

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  19. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  20. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  1. Premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Kalantaridou, S N; Davis, S R; Nelson, L M

    1998-12-01

    In 1% of women, premature ovarian failure develops by 40 years of age, a condition causing amenorrhea, infertility, sex steroid deficiency, and elevated gonadotropins. Early loss of ovarian function has significant psychosocial sequelae and major health implications. These young women have a nearly two-fold age-specific increase in mortality rate. Among women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure who have a normal karyotype, half have ovarian follicles remaining in the ovary that function intermittently. Indeed, pregnancies have occurred after the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure. Thus, premature ovarian failure should not be considered as a premature menopause. Young women with this disorder have a 5% to 10% chance for spontaneous pregnancy. Attempts at ovulation induction using various regimens fail to induce ovulation rates greater than those seen in untreated patients; however, oocyte donation for women desiring fertility is an option. Young women with premature ovarian failure need a thorough assessment, sex steroid replacement, and long-term surveillance to monitor therapy. Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Androgen replacement should also be considered for women with low libido, persistent fatigue, and poor well-being despite taking adequate estrogen replacement. Women with premature ovarian failure should be followed up for the presence of associated autoimmune endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Investigations on training, recall and reversal learning of a Y-maze by dwarf goats (Capra hircus): the impact of lateralisation.

    PubMed

    Langbein, J

    2012-03-01

    We investigated maze learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus) and the impact of lateralisation on learning. Lateralisation refers to the collection of phenomena in which external stimuli are perceived and processed differentially on the two sides of the brain and/or certain behaviours are preferentially performed by one side of the body. We trained 29 dwarf goats in a Y-maze, directing them to the opposite alley from that chosen in a free pre-run. In total, 13 goats were trained to the left alley (L-goats) and 16 goats to the right alley (R-goats). Recall of the trained alley was tested three months later. We then analysed reversal learning across 10 reversals. During training, the direction of the alley had an impact on learning. The number of runs required to reach the learning criterion was significantly lower in the L- than the R-goats. The goats recalled the trained alley three months later, with no difference between the L- and the R-goats. During the reversal learning, the reversal only tended to impact learning performance, whereas the directions of the new and the initially trained alley did not. Goats did not adopt a general rule with which to master the maze (e.g., win-stay/lose-shift) across the 10 reversals. Our results indicate a right hemisphere bias in the processing of visuospatial cues in the maze during initial training; however, no such impact was detected during reversal learning.

  3. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS) in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system. PMID:28250725

  4. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  5. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Nandal, Anjali; Powell, Anne; Garrett, Wesley; Blomberg, Leann; Donovan, David M; Talbot, Neil; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2015-09-01

    The creation of genetically modified goats provides a powerful approach for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and for ensuring food safety all of which are high-priority goals for animal agriculture. The availability of goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are characteristically immortal in culture would be of enormous benefit for developing genetically modified animals. As an alternative to long-sought goat ESCs, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by forced expression of bovine POU5F1, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, LIN-28, and NANOG reprogramming factors in combination with a MIR302/367 cluster, delivered by lentiviral vectors. In order to minimize integrations, the reprogramming factor coding sequences were assembled with porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) self-cleaving peptides that allowed for tri-cistronic expression from each vector. The lentiviral-transduced cells were cultured on irradiated mouse feeder cells in a semi-defined, serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulting goat iPSC exhibit cell and colony morphology typical of human and mouse ESCs-that is, well-defined borders, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, a short cell-cycle interval, alkaline phosphatase expression, and the ability to generate teratomas in vivo. Additionally, these goat iPSC demonstrated the ability to differentiate into directed lineages in vitro. These results constitute the first steps in establishing integration and footprint-free iPSC from ruminants. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 709-721, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  7. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-14

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Epigenetic Targeting of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cell (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC towards a differentiated phenotype, by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH+ OC cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH+ cells, including their tumor initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced re-expression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by re-programming residual cancer stem-like cells. Further, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25035395

  10. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovarian Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  11. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; González, L; Dagleish, M; Pérez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described.

  12. Chromosomal localisation and genetic variation of the SLC11A1 gene in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Vacca, G M; Pazzola, M; Pisano, C; Carcangiu, V; Diaz, M L; Nieddu, M; Robledo, R; Mezzanotte, R; Dettori, M L

    2011-10-01

    The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Chromosomal localisation, genomic regions corresponding to functional domains and the genetic variability of microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of this gene were investigated in 427 goats (Capra hircus) of six breeds. Using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation, SLC11A1 was localised to goat chromosome 2. Single strand conformation polymorphism was used to screen for polymorphisms in SLC11A1 exons 2, 10 and 15. There was no variation among goat breeds in the sarcoma homology 3 (SH3) binding motif, the protein kinase C phosphorylation site or the two N-linked glycosylation sites. Exon 15 exhibited variability due to the presence of two polymorphic microsatellites. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn) at 3'-UTR revealed eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14-GT19) in goats, whereas GT13 (present in cattle) was absent. Most goats carried the GT16 allele and no allele was found to be exclusive to only one breed. The coefficient of genetic differentiation value (G(ST)) was 0.084. This microsatellite appears to be an informative DNA marker for genetic linkage analysis in goats.

  13. Genetic relationships among twelve Chinese indigenous goat populations based on microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Hua; Zhao, Shu-Hong; Bian, Ci; Wang, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Hong; Liu, Bang; Yu, Mei; Fan, Bin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Zhu, Meng-Jin; Li, Shi-Jun; Xiong, Tong-An; Li, Kui

    2002-01-01

    Twelve Chinese indigenous goat populations were genotyped for twenty-six microsatellite markers recommended by the EU Sheep and Goat Biodiversity Project. A total of 452 goats were tested. Seventeen of the 26 microsatellite markers used in this analysis had four or more alleles. The mean expected heterozygosity and the mean observed heterozygosity for the population varied from 0.611 to 0.784 and 0.602 to 0.783 respectively. The mean FST (0.105) demonstrated that about 89.5% of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation within each population. A phylogenetic tree based on the Nei (1978) standard genetic distance displayed a remarkable degree of consistency with their different geographical origins and their presumed migration throughout China. The correspondence analysis did not only distinguish population groups, but also confirmed the above results, classifying the important populations contributing to diversity. Additionally, some specific alleles were shown to be important in the construction of the population structure. The study analyzed the recent origins of these populations and contributed to the knowledge and genetic characterization of Chinese indigenous goat populations. In addition, the seventeen microsatellites recommended by the EU Sheep and Goat Biodiversity Project proved to be useful for the biodiversity studies in goat breeds. PMID:12473236

  14. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide

  15. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer—Stromal cell cancer occurs in the connective tissue, which provides the internal structure of the ovary. It also has a high cure rate. What are the risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer? Certain risk factors are associated with ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  17. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is POI? ...

  18. Ovarian undifferentiated carcinoma with voluminous mesenteric presentation

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa Angélica; Lino-Silva, Leonardo Saúl; Cantú de León, David; Pérez-Montiel, María Delia; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION About 5% of ovarian cancers are so poorly differentiated and difficult to classify that they are called undifferentiated carcinomas and usually have disseminated disease at presentation. Extra pelvic debulking it is difficult to complete. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a rare ovarian tumor presented as a large mesenteric tumor of 14 cm diameter in a 73 years old woman. DISCUSSION Undifferentiated carcinomas are usually large, solid with hemorrhage and necrosis, bilateral and most are difficult to classify histologically. Rarely are pure, generally identified through the extensive sampling of lesions, some other components of surface epithelial carcinoma and usually the predominant element is the latter. Cases with predominantly undifferentiated component are rare. CONCLUSION The treatment and diagnostic approach is the same as for other high-grade epithelial tumors of the ovary, but in this particular case the differential diagnosis and diagnostic approach is that of a mesenteric tumor. PMID:22922357

  19. Molecular characterisation of growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) and their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Halm, S; Ibañez, A J; Tyler, C R; Prat, F

    2008-09-10

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), have crucial roles in primary follicle growth in mammals. To initiate investigations into their significance in teleost oogenesis, we set out to clone and characterise the cDNAs of gdf9 and bmp15 and analysed their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 cDNAs were 2200 and 2049 bp long, coding for 438 and 459 amino acids (aas), respectively, and were most similar to zebrafish gdf9 and bmp15 (64.4 and 56.1%, respectively). By Northern analysis, sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts were detected in the ovary only of the tissues analysed and their sizes were 2.2 and 2.1 kb, respectively. Dot-blot analysis revealed high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 expression in the ovary during primary oocyte growth and previtellogenesis (July to October), with a significant decline at the onset of vitellogenesis (November) and remaining low until the beginning of new oocyte growth (April/May). There was a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.939) between gdf9 and bmp15 gene expression in individual samples. The high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts in the ovary, especially during the previtellogenic growth period suggest an important role for these factors in early primary oocyte growth in the European sea bass.

  20. Ovarian mucinous epithelial neoplasm showing immunohistochemical pattern of lower gastrointestinal origin with stromal minor sex-cord elements: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Taeko; Nakagawa, Hitomi; Hachisuga, Toru

    2014-12-01

    •We report a case of an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that exhibited extensive sex-cord differentiation.•The ovarian tumor coincided with a uterine endometrial carcinoma.•The immunohistochemical pattern of mucinous epithelium of the ovarian tumor was suggestive of lower gastrointestinal origin.

  1. Genetic Structure of Chinese Indigenous Goats and the Special Geographical Structure in the Southwest China as a Geographic Barrier Driving the Fragmentation of a Large Population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhao, Fuping; Zhang, Li; Han, Xu; Du, Lixin; Liu, Chousheng

    2014-01-01

    Background China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, however, extensive studies are focused on the genetic diversity within the fewer breeds and limited regions, the population demograogic history and origin of Chinese goats are still unclear. The roles of geographical structure have not been analyzed in Chinese goat domestic process. In this study, the genetic relationships of Chinese indigenous goat populations were evaluated using 30 microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty Chinese indigenous populations containing 2078 goats were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Moderate genetic diversity at the population level (HS of 0.644) and high population diversity at the species level (HT value of 0.737) were estimated. Significant moderate population differentiation was detected (FST value of 0.129). Significant excess homozygosity (FIS of 0.105) and recent population bottlenecks were detected in thirty-six populations. Neighbour-joining tree, principal components analysis and Bayesian clusters all revealed that Chinese goat populations could be subdivided into at least four genetic clusters: Southwest China, South China, Northwest China and East China. It was observed that the genetic diversity of Northern China goats was highest among these clusters. The results here suggested that the goat populations in Southwest China might be the earliest domestic goats in China. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggested that the current genetic structure of Chinese goats were resulted from the special geographical structure, especially in the Western China, and the Western goat populations had been separated by the geographic structure (Hengduan Mountains and Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River Line) into two clusters: the Southwest and Northwest. It also indicated that the current genetic structure was caused by the geographical origin mainly, in close accordance with the human’s migration history throughout China. This study

  2. Goat umbilical cord cells are permissive to small ruminant lentivirus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabrielle R; Marinho, Rebeca C; Junior, Rosivaldo Q Bezerra; Alves, Antoniel de O; Câmara, Lilia M C; Albuquerque-Pinto, Luiz C; Teixeira, Maria F da S

    Small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes and target organs can be propagated in vitro in fibroblasts derived from goat synovial membrane cells. These cells are obtained from tissues collected from embryos or fetuses and are necessary for the establishment of the fibroblast primary culture. A new alternative type of host cells, derived from goat umbilical cord, was isolated and characterized phenotypically with its main purpose being to obtain cell monolayers that could be used for the diagnosis and isolation of small ruminant lentiviruses in cell culture. To accomplish this goal, cells were isolated from umbilical cords; characterized phenotypically by flow cytometry analysis; differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineage; and submitted to viral challenge. The proliferation of goat umbilical cord cells was fast and cell monolayers formed after 15 days. These cells exhibited morphology, immunophenotype, growth characteristics, and lineage differentiation potential similar to mesenchymal stem cells of other origins. The goat umbilical cord derived cells stained positive for vimentin and CD90, but negative for cytokeratin, CD34 and CD105 markers. Syncytia and cell lysis were observed in cell monolayers infected by CAEV-Cork and MVV-K1514, showing that the cells are permissive to small ruminant lentivirus infection in vitro. These data demonstrate the proliferative competence of cells derived from goat umbilical cords and provide a sound basis for future research to standardize this cell lineage.

  3. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  4. [The so-called "chocolate cyst"--frequently misinterpreted as ovarian endometriosis?].

    PubMed

    Christensen, B; Schindler, A E

    1996-09-01

    Limitation of morphological diagnostic and possible misinterpretations are shown in a patient with anamnestic ovarian endometriosis. In cases of "chocolate cysts" it is necessary to differentiate between ovarian endometriosis and functional cysts. Hints for the existence of a functional cyst are an atypical past history or perioperative findings. Biochemical analysis of the cyst fluid may lead to a correct diagnosis.

  5. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  6. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Stiver, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E

    2016-08-16

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible.

  7. Female genital tract tuberculosis presenting as ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Hoshyar, Azamossadat Hoseine; Shabane, Shima; Shahidsales, Soodabeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major worldwide concern. There is no pathognomonic clinical feature or imaging findings for definite diagnosis of extra pulmonary TB. Therefore, TB involvement of Gastrointestinal or Genitourinary tract can be easily confused with peritoneal carcinomatosis and advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of considering the disease based upon the epidemiologic clues of the patients, while interpreting the positive results for a suspicious ovarian malignancy. Cases: This paper illustrates 8 cases of ovarian or peritoneal tuberculosis, whose initial diagnoses were malignant processes of the GU tract. Conclusion: Tuberculosis (TB) should be always being considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer, especially in the regions that are endemic for the disease. PMID:24778675

  8. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Stiver, Kelly A.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible. PMID:27529581

  9. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests that you (or ... are likely to have one of the gene mutations associated with an increased ovarian cancer risk. The ...

  10. A rare ovarian tumor, leydig stromal cell tumor, presenting with virilization: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Hashemi, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Leydig stromal cell tumor is a rare ovarian tumor that belongs to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors. They produce testosterone leading to hyperandrogenism. We present a 41yr old woman with symptoms of virilization and a mass of right adenex via ultra Sonography, and a rise of total and free serum testosterone. An ovarian source of androgen was suspected and a surgery performed. A diagnosis of leydig-stromal cell tumor was confirmed. Our report is a reminder that although idiopathic hirsutism and other benign androgen excess disorder like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs) are common, ovarian mass should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:23482693

  11. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  12. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  13. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ana Gonçalves; Rocha, Sara; Marques, Catarina O; Simões, Mafalda; Martins, Isabel; Biscaia, Isabel; F Barros, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Ovarian pregnancy is one of the rarest types of extrauterine pregnancy. Its preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge since it presents quite similarly to tubal pregnancy and complicated ovarian cysts. Although in most cases, histology is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, we present an ovarian pregnancy in a teenager, correctly diagnosed during ultrasound examination. PMID:26576271

  14. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  15. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...), (a)(3), and (a)(5) of this section. (ii) Tuberculosis testing is not required for goats over 1 month... tuberculosis as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (iii) Brucellosis testing is not required...

  16. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  19. Ultrasonographic examination of the small intestine, large intestine and greater omentum in 30 Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Steininger, K; Tschuor, A; Hässig, M

    2011-09-01

    The small and large intestine of 30 healthy Saanen goats were examined ultrasonographically using a 5.0 MHz-linear transducer. The goats were examined on the right side, from the eighth rib to the caudal aspect of the flank. The small and large intestine could be easily differentiated. The descending duodenum could be imaged in 19 goats, and the jejunum and ileum seen in all goats. The jejunum and ileum were most often seen in cross-section and rarely in longitudinal section in the ventral region of the right flank. The intestinal contents were usually homogenously echoic, and active motility was observed in all the goats. The diameter of the small intestine was 0.8-2.7 cm (1.6 [0.33] cm). The spiral ansa of the colon was imaged in all the goats, and in 21 the caecum was also seen. Both these sections of large intestine were most commonly seen in the dorsal region of the right flank. The spiral ansa of the colon was easily identified by its spiral arrangement of centripetal and centrifugal gyri, which had a garland-like appearance. Because of intraluminal gas, only the wall of the colon closest to the transducer could be imaged. The diameter of the spiral colon ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 cm (1.1 [0.24] cm). Usually only the wall of the caecum closest to the transducer could be imaged and it appeared as a thick, echoic, slightly undulating line. The greater omentum could be seen in all the goats.

  20. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  1. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  2. Nutrition level and season of birth do not modify puberty of Payoya goat kids.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Guzmán, J L; Domínguez, C; Pérez, M C; Prieto, R; Sánchez, J

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of level of nutrition and date of birth (age) on the onset of puberty in Payoya she-kids born in autumn (November) or in winter (February). Two experiments were conducted to examine pubertal events at the onset of puberty. For each date of birth (age), two experimental groups were used, differing on the level of nutrition. Groups were balanced for live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). For the first experiment (goat kids born in autumn), 27 Payoya she-kids were used: high-nutrition group (H1, n = 13) and control group (C1, n = 14). For the second experiment (goat kids born in winter), 25 Payoya she-kids were used: high-nutrition group (H2, n = 13) and control group (C2, n = 12). In both experiments, the level of feeding was adjusted weekly according to LW so that the animals would gain about 50 and 100 g per day for C and H groups, respectively. Oestrus was tested daily using young aproned bucks. Ovulation rate was assessed by laparoscopy 7 days after identification of oestrus. Plasma samples were obtained weekly for progesterone assay. LW and BCS were recorded weekly. No effect of nutrition level or birth date (Experiment 1 v. 2) on the date of the first ovarian activity or the first detected oestrus was observed. No effect of nutrition on LW or BCS at the first detected oestrus was observed. Birth date influenced significantly the LW of the animals at the onset of ovarian activity or first oestrus (P < 0.001). Irregular sexual activity was frequently observed before the first oestrus (74.7% and 48.0% of the first reproductive activity was irregular for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). No effect of nutrition level or birth date on ovulation rate was observed. Ovulation rate at first oestrus was influenced by LW in November-born goat kids (1.06 ± 0.06 v. 1.67 ± 0.21 corpora lutea for LW < 30 and 30 kg, respectively, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the age at puberty was very dependent upon the season of birth

  3. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  4. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Y.; Abdullah, F.F.J.; Daud, N.H. Bin Abu; Shaari, R. Bin; Tijjani, A.; Sadiq, M.A.; Mohammed, K.; Adamu, L.; Mohd, A.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit. PMID:26623360

  5. Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure in Creole goats from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ginja, C; Gama, L T; Martínez, A; Sevane, N; Martin-Burriel, I; Lanari, M R; Revidatti, M A; Aranguren-Méndez, J A; Bedotti, D O; Ribeiro, M N; Sponenberg, P; Aguirre, E L; Alvarez-Franco, L A; Menezes, M P C; Chacón, E; Galarza, A; Gómez-Urviola, N; Martínez-López, O R; Pimenta-Filho, E C; da Rocha, L L; Stemmer, A; Landi, V; Delgado-Bermejo, J V

    2017-01-17

    Biodiversity studies are more efficient when large numbers of breeds belonging to several countries are involved, as they allow for an in-depth analysis of the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. A set of 21 microsatellites was used to investigate the genetic composition of 24 Creole goat breeds (910 animals) from 10 countries to estimate levels of genetic variability, infer population structure and understand genetic relationships among populations across the American continent. Three commercial transboundary breeds were included in the analyses to investigate admixture with Creole goats. Overall, the genetic diversity of Creole populations (mean number of alleles = 5.82 ± 1.14, observed heterozygosity = 0.585 ± 0.074) was moderate and slightly lower than what was detected in other studies with breeds from other regions. The Bayesian clustering analysis without prior information on source populations identified 22 breed clusters. Three groups comprised more than one population, namely from Brazil (Azul and Graúna; Moxotó and Repartida) and Argentina (Long and shorthair Chilluda, Pampeana Colorada and Angora-type goat). Substructure was found in Criolla Paraguaya. When prior information on sample origin was considered, 92% of the individuals were assigned to the source population (threshold q ≥ 0.700). Creole breeds are well-differentiated entities (mean coefficient of genetic differentiation = 0.111 ± 0.048, with the exception of isolated island populations). Dilution from admixture with commercial transboundary breeds appears to be negligible. Significant levels of inbreeding were detected (inbreeding coefficient > 0 in most Creole goat populations, P < 0.05). Our results provide a broad perspective on the extant genetic diversity of Creole goats, however further studies are needed to understand whether the observed geographical patterns of population structure may reflect the mode of goat colonization in the

  6. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 to 6% of women who go through in vitro fertilization . Other risk factors for OHSS include: Being younger ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Ovarian Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  7. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil.

  8. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  9. Hepatic necrosis following halothane anesthesia in goats.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T D; Raffe, M R; Cox, V S; Stevens, D L; O'Leary, T P

    1986-12-15

    One goat anesthetized with thiamylal sodium, xylazine, and halothane for repair of an abominal hernia, and 7 of 29 goats similarly anesthetized for an experiment unrelated to considerations of anesthesia, developed signs of hepatic failure within 24 hours of anesthesia. Affected goats had high values for serum aspartate transaminase and serum total bilirubin by 12 to 24 hours after induction of anesthesia. Necropsy of the 8 affected goats revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis (8 of 8), brain lesions consistent with hepatic encephalopathy (3 of 4), and acute renal tubular necrosis (6 of 6). Two unaffected goats had no hepatic necrosis. Causes of hepatic necrosis other than those related to anesthesia (eg, infectious agents, toxins) were ruled out by lack of supporting necropsy findings or were considered unlikely because of lack of opportunity for exposure. Hepatic lesions in these goats closely resembled those described in human beings with halothane-associated hepatic injury, although in both species these lesions are nonspecific at the gross and light microscopic levels. The pathogenesis of halothane-associated hepatic injury in goats, as in human beings, remains to be determined.

  10. Establishment of an ovarian metastasis model and possible involvement of E-cadherin down-regulation in the metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Yoshiko; Yamada, Taketo; Yamazaki, Ken; Du, Wen-Lin; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2008-10-01

    Clinical observations of cases of ovarian metastasis suggest that there may be a unique mechanism underlying ovarian-specific metastasis. This study was undertaken to establish an in vivo model of metastasis to the ovary, and to investigate the mechanism of ovarian-specific metastasis. We examined the capacity for ovarian metastasis in eight different human carcinoma cell lines by implantation in female NOD/SCID mice transvenously and intraperitoneally. By transvenous inoculation, only RERF-LC-AI, a poorly differentiated carcinoma cell line, frequently demonstrated ovarian metastasis. By intraperitoneal inoculation, four of the eight cell lines (HGC27, MKN-45, KATO-III, and RERF-LC-AI) metastasized to the ovary. We compared E-cadherin expression among ovarian metastatic cell lines and others. All of these four ovarian metastatic cell lines and HSKTC, a Krukenberg tumor cell line, showed E-cadherin down-regulation and others did not. E-cadherin was then forcibly expressed in RERF-LC-AI, and inhibited ovarian metastasis completely. The capacity for metastasizing to the other organs was not affected by E-cadherin expression. We also performed histological investigation of clinical ovarian-metastatic tumor cases. About half of all ovarian-metastatic tumor cases showed loss or reduction of E-cadherin expression. These data suggest that E-cadherin down-regulation may be involved in ovarian-specific metastasis.

  11. What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer? For some people with ovarian cancer, treatment may ... If Ovarian Cancer Treatment Stops Working More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. Premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea). It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women <40 years, 1:10,000 women by age 20 and 1:1,000 women by age 30. The most severe forms present with absent pubertal development and primary amenorrhea (50% of these cases due to ovarian dysgenesis), whereas forms with post-pubertal onset are characterized by disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with premature follicular depletion. As in the case of physiological menopause, POF presents by typical manifestations of climacterium: infertility associated with palpitations, heat intolerance, flushes, anxiety, depression, fatigue. POF is biochemically characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Beyond infertility, hormone defects may cause severe neurological, metabolic or cardiovascular consequences and lead to the early onset of osteoporosis. Heterogeneity of POF is also reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. POF has a strong genetic component. X chromosome abnormalities (e.g. Turner syndrome) represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation. PMID:16722528

  13. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  14. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  15. Expanded metabolomics approach to profiling endogenous carbohydrates in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Li, Li; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We applied hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of serum from 58 women, including ovarian cancer patients, ovarian benign tumor patients, and healthy controls. All of these ovarian cancer and ovarian benign tumor patients have elevated cancer antigen 125, which makes them clinically difficult to differentiate the malignant from the benign. All of the 16 endogenous carbohydrates were quantitatively detected in the human sera, of which, eight endogenous carbohydrates were significantly different (P-value < 0.05) between the ovarian cancer and healthy control. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, arabitol was the most potentially specific biomarker for discriminating ovarian cancer from healthy control, having an area under the curve of 0.911. A panel of metabolite markers composed of maltose, maltotriose, raffinose, and mannitol was selected, which was able to discriminate the ovarian cancer from the benign ovarian tumor counterparts, with an area under concentration-time curve value of 0.832. Endogenous carbohydrates in the expanded metabolomics approach after the global metabolic profiling are characterized and are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  16. Hedgehog signaling pathway in small bovine ovarian follicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. Binding of hedgehog to the patch receptor derepresses smoothened resulting in t...

  17. Association between individual ovarian dimensions with ovarian reserve indices

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Elham Hashemian; Neyestanak, Mohammad Zare; Berjis, Katayon; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In some young female candidates of assisted reproductive technology (ART), ovarian response to simulative treatments is less than what is expected. More precise assessment of oocyte quality and quantity through studying ovarian dimensions can be useful for determining the dose of ovarian stimulant drugs and for preventing ART cycles cancellation. The aim of the present study is to determine the association between ovarian dimensions and ovarian reserve (OR) indices and whether ovarian dimensions can predict ovarian reserve. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 85 infertile women were studied. In early follicular phase, ovarian diameters (including length and width of the ovaries) were measured using transvaginal ultrasonography. Mean ovarian diameters (MOD) were calculated according to average length and width of the ovaries. A serum sample was taken from all patients to measure the level of Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and oestradiol as OR indices. Results: The results of univariate analysis showed that FSH and oestradiol had a negative significant association with width, length and MOD (P < 0.01). The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that FSH and oestradiol had a negative significant association with width (βFSH = -0.59, P = 0.001 and βOestradiol = -0.019, P = 0.029) and MOD (βFSH = -0.52, P = 0.003 and βOestradiol = -0.021, P = 0.017) and had a borderline negative significant correlation with ovarian length (βFSH = -0.49, P=0.077 and βOestradiol = 0.022, P = 0.08) Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that despite a moderate correlation, ovarian diameters could be an applicable index for predicting OR. Using this method along with other methods may be useful in treatment with ovarian stimulants. PMID:26966426

  18. Glucocorticoid regulation of SLIT/ROBO tumour suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Fegan, K Scott; Ren, Xia; Hillier, Stephen G; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    The three SLIT ligands and their four ROBO receptors have fundamental roles in mammalian development by promoting apoptosis and repulsing aberrant cell migration. SLITs and ROBOs have emerged as candidate tumour suppressor genes whose expression is inhibited in a variety of epithelial tumours. We demonstrated that their expression could be negatively regulated by cortisol in normal ovarian luteal cells. We hypothesised that after ovulation the locally produced cortisol would inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to facilitate its repair and that this regulatory pathway was still present, and could be manipulated, in ovarian epithelial cancer cells. Here we examined the expression and regulation of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in OSE, ovarian cancer epithelial cells and ovarian tumour cell lines. Basal SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 expression was lower in primary cultures of ovarian cancer epithelial cells when compared to normal OSE (P<0.05) and in poorly differentiated SKOV-3 cells compared to the more differentiated PEO-14 cells (P<0.05). Cortisol reduced the expression of certain SLITs and ROBOs in normal OSE and PEO-14 cells (P<0.05). Furthermore blocking SLIT/ROBO activity reduced apoptosis in both PEO-14 and SKOV-3 tumour cells (P<0.05). Interestingly SLIT/ROBO expression could be increased by reducing the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor using siRNA (P<0.05). Overall our findings indicate that in the post-ovulatory phase one role of cortisol may be to temporarily inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression to facilitate regeneration of the OSE. Therefore this pathway may be a target to develop strategies to manipulate the SLIT/ROBO system in ovarian cancer.

  19. DNA Methylation Patterns in the Hypothalamus of Female Pubertal Goats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5′-UTRs and increased from 5′-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5′-UTRs and 3′-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset. PMID:27788248

  20. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  2. [Anesthesia and zootechnical interference in goats].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    1992-04-01

    Some particularities in anesthesia and surgical procedures are discussed. The combination of xylazine with ketamine is recommended for general anesthesia. Particular aspects of the castration of billy goats, deodorization and dehorning are also discussed.

  3. Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis) with Histological Validation in a Goat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luning; Nissi, Mikko J.; Tóth, Ferenc; Shaver, Jonah; Johnson, Casey P.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garwood, Michael; Carlson, Cathy S.; Ellermann, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate multiple MRI parameters in a surgical model of osteochondrosis (OC) in goats. Methods Focal ischemic lesions of two different sizes were induced in the epiphyseal cartilage of the medial femoral condyles of goats at 4 days of age by surgical transection of cartilage canal blood vessels. Goats were euthanized and specimens harvested 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 weeks post-op. Ex vivo MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla for mapping the T1, T2, T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and TRAFF relaxation times of articular cartilage, unaffected epiphyseal cartilage, and epiphyseal cartilage within the area of the induced lesion. After MRI scans, safranin O staining was conducted to validate areas of ischemic necrosis induced in the medial femoral condyles of six goats, and to allow comparison of MRI findings with the semi-quantitative proteoglycan assessment in corresponding safranin O-stained histological sections. Results All relaxation time constants differentiated normal epiphyseal cartilage from lesions of ischemic cartilage necrosis, and the histological staining results confirmed the proteoglycan (PG) loss in the areas of ischemia. In the scanned specimens, all of the measured relaxation time constants were higher in the articular than in the normal epiphyseal cartilage, consistently allowing differentiation between these two tissues. Conclusions Multiparametric MRI provided a sensitive approach to discriminate between necrotic and viable epiphyseal cartilage and between articular and epiphyseal cartilage, which may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring OC lesions and, potentially, for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions. PMID:26473611

  4. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A.; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  5. Immunological assay after vaccination of goats with Brucella melitensis Rev. I and Brucella abortus 45/20 vaccines at Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Taher, S A; Ewais, M A

    1997-01-01

    The living smooth Brucella melitensis Rev. I vaccine given in the normal dose (7x10(8) organism) to goats 3 to 5 months of age stimulated a marked increase in agglutinin titer. Fractionation of pools of serum by gel filtration by anion exchange chromatography, using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE -) cellulose showed that both IgM and IgG agglutinins were present from 12 to 47 days after goats were vaccinated. Only mercaptoethanol (ME)-sensitive agglutinins were detected in most goats 4 months after vaccination, but 2 of 30 goats retained ME-resistant agglutinins for the 13 1/2 - month observation period. Fractionation of serums from goats representative of these 2 types of serologic response indicated that most goats had only IgM agglutinins, whereas the 2 given goats had activity in the IgG fraction. Adult goats given Brucella abortus 42/20 adjuvant vaccine and revaccinated 5 months later developed low agglutination titers to smooth antigen, and all became test positive to the antiglobulin test. Fractionation of serum of pools taken 1 week and 8 months after revaccination indicated that antibody activity was restricted to the IgG fraction. Sera from 5 vaccinated and nonvaccinated goats which were positive by bacteriological culture examination at necropsy 31 to 47 days after goats were given conjunctival inoculation of virulent B. melitensis had antibody activity in both IgG and IgM fractions. Test positive reaction to the ME, complement-fixation (CF), and antiglobulin (AG) test were restricted to the IgG-containing fractions of serum, whereas reactions to the agglutination (STT) and the card tests appeared with either or both fractions. The effect of these findings on the choice of tests for the differentiation of vaccination response is discussed.

  6. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  7. Experimental studies with Stronglyloides papillosus in goats.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, J G; Basson, P A; du Plessis, J L; Collins, H M; Naude, T W; Boyazoglu, P A; Boomker, J; Reyers, F; Pienaar, W L

    1999-09-01

    Unusual clinical and pathological observations in the field in goats and sheep suffering from Strongyloides papillosus infection prompted experimental work on this parasite. Goats were infected percutaneously with either single or multiple, low or high levels of S. papillosus. Young goats up to 12 months of age were found to be the most susceptible. Some animals, however, showed substantial resistance to infective doses. Clinical signs included transient diarrhoea, misshapen, elongated faecal pellets terminally, dehydration, anorexia, cachexia, gnashing of teeth, foaming at the mouth, anaemia and nervous signs such as ataxia, a wide-based stance, stupor and nystagmus. A 'pushing syndrome' was seen in 22% of the animals. The pathological changes are described and included enteritis, status spongiosus in the brain, hepatosis leading to rupture of the liver, nephrosis, pulmonary oedema, interstitial pneumonia and pneumonia. About 6% of the goats died acutely from fatal hepatic rupture. The development of an acquired immunity was determined. The immunity elicited an allergic skin reaction at the application site of larvae or injection sites of larval metabolites. This immunity, however, could be breached by large doses of larvae. The most profound clinicopathological changes induced by the parasites were an anaemia (most pronounced in the young goats) and hypophosphataemia. Trace element analyses provided evidence of Cu, Mn and possibly Se deficiencies in some goats.

  8. [Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue].

    PubMed

    Aubard, Y; Poirot, C; Piver, P

    2002-05-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTCP) is a new procedure of medically assisted procreation, still at the experimental stage, whose primary aim is to store female gametes as sperm cryopreservation permits to do for male gametes. Ovarian tissue is removed very simply by laparoscopy. It survives well to freezing if the medium contains a cryoprotective agent and the rate of freezing is slow. In contrast, thawing must be rapid. There are three processes for the utilization of ovarian tissue after thawing. In vitro maturation and xenografting remain impossible for technical and ethical reasons. Autologous transplantation (orthotopic or heterotopic) of the tissue is therefore the only foreseeable method over the short term. Indications for OTCP must remain rare as long as no pregnancy has been obtained in human. At the present time, only female patients who would inevitably suffer the loss of their fertility should be able to take advantage of OTCP. Basically, this would mean women subjected to castrating anticancer therapy. It would seem reasonable to set the age limit at 35-years for carrying out OTCP. Lastly, female patients should be clearly informed that the method is still at the research stage, and in France samples must be taken in accordance with the laws governing clinical research.

  9. NOEY2 (ARHI), an imprinted putative tumor suppressor gene in ovarian and breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinhua; Xu, Fengji; Peng, Hongqi; Fang, Xianjun; Zhao, Shulei; Li, Yang; Cuevas, Bruce; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Siciliano, Michael; Mills, Gordon B.; Bast, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Using differential display PCR, we have identified a gene [NOEY2, ARHI (designation by the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee)] with high homology to ras and rap that is expressed consistently in normal ovarian and breast epithelial cells but not in ovarian and breast cancers. Reexpression of NOEY2 through transfection suppresses clonogenic growth of breast and ovarian cancer cells. Growth suppression was associated with down-regulation of the cyclin D1 promoter activity and induction of p21WAF1/CIP1. In an effort to identify mechanisms leading to NOEY2 silencing in cancer, we found that the gene is expressed monoallelically and is imprinted maternally. Loss of heterozygosity of the gene was detected in 41% of ovarian and breast cancers. In most of cancer samples with loss of heterozygosity, the nonimprinted functional allele was deleted. Thus, NOEY2 appears to be a putative imprinted tumor suppressor gene whose function is abrogated in ovarian and breast cancers. PMID:9874798

  10. Reproductive outcomes of Alpine goats primed with progesterone and treated with human chorionic gonadotropin during the anestrus-to-estrus transition season.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Espino, A S; Meza-Herrera, C A; Carrillo, E; González-Álvarez, V H; Guillen-Muñoz, J M; Ángel-García, O; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible effects of a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a means for estrus induction in acyclic French-Alpine goats during the reproductive transition period at 25°N, 103°W. The potential effects of hCG upon ovarian function and reproductive performance of goats were also assessed. Multiparous acyclic French-Alpine goats (n = 39; 37.4 ± 8 .5 kg) were primed with 20mg progesterone (P4) 1 day prior to hCG administration. Thereafter, does were treated either with saline (hCG-0; n = 10), 50 (hCG-50; n = 9), 100 (hCG-100; n = 10), or 300 IU of hCG (hCG-300; n = 10). Ovarian structures and pregnancy were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, after hCG application, goats were monitored twice daily (0800 and 1800 h) to detect estrus signs, with the use of aproned, sexually active bucks treated with testosterone. Goats were bred 12h after the onset of estrus. Two days after hCG administration, the number of large follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in the hCG-50 and hCG-300 groups (1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively) compared with the hCG-100 and hCG-0 groups (1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.1 ± 0.1, respectively). Although none of the hCG-0-goats depicted estrus, the estrus response from the hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300 groups over the 7-d breeding period was 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively (P > 0.05), being always accompanied by ovulation. Pregnancy rate (67, 100, and 70%), kidding rate (55%, 80%, and 70%), and litter size (1.6 ± 0.5, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 1.5 ± 0.5) for hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300, respectively, did not differ among the hCG-treated does. Therefore, the combined use of P4-priming plus a 100-IU hCG injection is an effective protocol for inducing estrus in non-cycling Alpine goats during the anestrus-to-estrus transition period, which is of key importance for both goat producers and industrializers.

  11. Ovarian Fibrosis: A Phenomenon of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Shi, Li-Bing; Zhang, Song-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of ovarian fibroblasts and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and it is one of the principal reasons for ovarian dysfunction. This review aimed to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of ovarian fibrosis and to clarify the relationship between ovarian diseases and fibrosis. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for English language articles published up to November 2016. The search terms included ovarian fibrosis OR fibrosis, ovarian chocolate cyst OR ovarian endometrioma, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, ECM, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and combinations of these terms. Study Selection: Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the pathogenic mechanism of ovarian fibrosis and related ovarian diseases. Results: Many cytokines, such as MMPs, TIMPs, TGF-β1, CTGF, PPAR-γ, VEGF, and ET-1, are involved in ovarian fibrogenesis. Ovarian fibrogenesis is associated with various ovarian diseases, including ovarian chocolate cyst, PCOS, and premature ovarian failure. One finding of particular interest is that fibrogenesis in peripheral tissues around an ovarian chocolate cyst commonly causes ovarian function diminution, and therefore, this medical problem should arouse widespread concern in clinicians worldwide. Conclusions: Patients with ovarian fibrosis are susceptible to infertility and tend to have decreased responses to assisted fertility treatment. Thus, protection of ovarian function should be a priority for women who wish to reproduce when making therapeutic decisions about ovarian fibrosis-related diseases. PMID:28139522

  12. Effect of investigational kisspeptin/metastin analog, TAK-683, on luteinizing hormone secretion at different stages of the luteal phase in goats.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Larasati Puji; El Behiry, Mohammed; Endo, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-03-25

    This study aimed to examine the response of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovarian steroid profile to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, through treatment during different stages of the luteal phase in goats. Nine cycling Shiba goats (4.4 ± 2.3 years old) were assigned to early luteal phase (ELP, n = 4), mid-luteal phase (MLP, n = 4), and control (n = 5) groups. The ELP and MLP groups were administered 50 µg of TAK-683 intravenously on either day 5 or between days 7-14 after ovulation, respectively. The control group received vehicle between days 7-14 after ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 10-min (2-6 h), 2-h (6-24 h), and 24-h (24-96 h) intervals after treatment. Significant increases in plasma LH concentration were detected during the periods of 3 to 5 h and 2 to 5 h in the ELP and MLP groups, respectively. Estradiol concentrations continuously increased with the rise of basal LH secretion after TAK-683 treatment in two goats of the ELP group with a surge-like release of LH, but not in the goats without LH surge, i.e. the MLP and control group ones. Plasma progesterone concentration and the lengths of estrous cycle in all groups did not change significantly from the time before and after treatment. Present findings indicate that the responses of LH and ovarian steroids to treatment with TAK-683 depend on the stage of the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. We suggest that the stimulatory effects of TAK-683 on LH secretion are reduced in the process leading to the mid-luteal phase in cycling goats.

  13. Hedgehog signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Li, Jinghua; Feng, Limin

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal cause of death among gynecological malignancies. Despite advancements in surgery and chemotherapy treatment strategies, the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients remains poor; a majority of patients relapse and eventually succumb to this disease. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcome are urgently needed. The hedgehog signaling pathway is vital for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and its deregulation is implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, differentiation, and metastasis. The critical role of hedgehog signaling in multiple biologic processes raises concerns about its potential therapeutic use in cancer. Consequently, many studies are focusing on hedgehog signaling as an attractive target in cancer treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the hedgehog pathway and its pathological aberrations in ovarian cancer. We also discuss inhibitors of the hedgehog signaling pathway that are currently being investigated in the laboratory and in early clinical trials; as well as the clinical challenges these inhibitors face.

  14. Ovarian and vesical actinomycosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong Ha; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2009-04-01

    We present a patient with a tubo-ovarian abscess pathologically confirmed to be actinomycosis in a 44-year-old woman with an intrauterine device (IUD). An ultrasound showed that the IUD was imposed on an apparently degenerated myoma. A pelvic MRI was performed to differentiate the uterine findings from a sarcoma. The MRI showed a heterogeneous pelvic mass and a bladder mass suggesting chronic inflammation caused by an organism such as actinomycosis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, which revealed a right tubo-ovarian mass with abscess formation as well as a bladder mass. A subtotal hysterectomy, right salpingoophorectomy, partial cystectomy, and appendectomy were performed in addition to drainage of the abscess. Histopathological examination revealed a tubo-ovarian abscess and a bladder mass with colonies of actinomycoses.

  15. A goat poxvirus-vectored peste-des-petits-ruminants vaccine induces long-lasting neutralization antibody to high levels in goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiye; Hu, Sen; Qu, Linmao; Hu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qian; Zhi, Haibing; Huang, Kehe; Bu, Zhigao

    2010-07-05

    Recombinant capripoxvirus (CPV) is a promising candidate differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) vaccine against peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR). In order for recombinant CPV to be successfully used in the field, there should exist dependable indicators for quality control of vaccine products, surveillance and vaccination evaluation. Viral neutralization antibody (VNA) is correlated to protection against PPR and is a technically feasible indicator for this purpose. The immunogenicity of this vectored vaccine in goats and sheep, however, has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we generated two recombinant CPV viruses, rCPV-PPRVH and rCPV-PPRVF, that express PPR virus (PPRV) glycoproteins H and F, respectively. Vaccination studies with different dosages of recombinant viruses showed that rCPV-PPRVH was a more potent inducer of PPRV VNA than rCPV-PPRVF. One dose of rCPV-PPRVH was enough to seroconvert 80% of immunized sheep. A second dose induced significantly higher PPRV VNA titers. There was no significant difference in PPRV VNA responses between goats and sheep. Subcutaneous inoculation also induced a significant PPRV VNA response. PPRV VNA could be detected for over 6 months in more than 80% of vaccinated goats and sheep. Boost vaccination at 6-month intervals induced significant re-boost efficacy of PPRV VNA in goats and sheep. More over, two doses of rCPV-PPRVH could completely overcome the interference caused by pre-existing immunity to the CPV vaccine backbone in animals. Vaccination with rCPV-PPRVH also protected goats from virulent CPV challenge. Our results demonstrate that VNA can serve as a dependent indicator for effective vaccination and immune protection of animals in the field. The recombinant CPV vaccine used in our studies could be a practical and useful candidate DIVA vaccine in countries where PPR newly emerges or where stamp-out plans are yet to be implemented.

  16. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not used often to look for ovarian cancer. MRI scans are particularly helpful to examine the brain and spinal cord. MRI scans take longer than CT scans, -- often up to 30 minutes or more. Also, you have to be placed inside ... whether ovarian cancer has spread (metastasized) to the lungs. This spread ...

  18. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  19. 6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  20. Cestrum laevigatum poisoning in goats in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, P V; Brust, L C; Duarte, M D; Franca, T N; Duarte, V C; Barros, C S

    2000-02-01

    Natural and experimental poisonings by Cestrum laevigatum are described in goats. Histologically, livers had marked centrolobular and midzonal coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage. Spontaneous toxicosis by this plant in goats has not been previously reported.

  1. TXNDC17 promotes paclitaxel resistance via inducing autophagy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Fa; Wang, Xin-Yu; Fu, Zhi-Qin; Peng, Qiao-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Ye, Feng; Fu, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Lu, Wei-Guo; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel is recommended as a first-line chemotherapeutic agent against ovarian cancer, but drug resistance becomes a major limitation of its success clinically. The key molecule or mechanism associated with paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer still remains unclear. Here, we showed that TXNDC17 screened from 356 differentially expressed proteins by LC-MS/MS label-free quantitative proteomics was more highly expressed in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells and tissues, and the high expression of TXNDC17 was associated with poorer prognostic factors and exhibited shortened survival in 157 ovarian cancer patients. Moreover, paclitaxel exposure induced upregulation of TXNDC17 and BECN1 expression, increase of autophagosome formation, and autophagic flux that conferred cytoprotection for ovarian cancer cells from paclitaxel. TXNDC17 inhibition by siRNA or enforced overexpression by a pcDNA3.1(+)-TXNDC17 plasmid correspondingly decreased or increased the autophagy response and paclitaxel resistance. Additionally, the downregulation of BECN1 by siRNA attenuated the activation of autophagy and cytoprotection from paclitaxel induced by TXNDC17 overexpression in ovarian cancer cells. Thus, our findings suggest that TXNDC17, through participation of BECN1, induces autophagy and consequently results in paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer. TXNDC17 may be a potential predictor or target in ovarian cancer therapeutics.

  2. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K.; Colvin, Emily K.; Jones, Marc D.; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M.; Brown, Laura M.; Wong, Carol W.; Spong, Suzanne M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Hacker, Neville F.; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C.; Birrer, Michael J.; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26575166

  3. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  4. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  5. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-08-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology.

  6. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  7. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing ovarian cancer mortality . To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian...Progestins have a potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells and we have shown that levonorgestrel dramatically decreases ovarian cancer incidence...effective chemoprevention strategies that might decrease mortality from this disease.

  8. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human-goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats' inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development.

  9. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  10. Vaccination with rMAP Proteins Induces Protection in a Goat Model Against Infection by Oral Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four recombinant antigens (85A, 85B, Superoxide dismutase [SOD] and a fusion polypeptide [74F] of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) were used along with adjuvant dimethydioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) to assess the differential immune responses and protective efficacy in goat again...

  11. Multiple congenital genitourinary anomalies in a polled goat.

    PubMed

    King, William W; Young, Melvin E; Fox, M Eugene

    2002-09-01

    A 1-day-old, Toggenburg/Nubian crossbred goat of polled parentage was referred for necropsy because of a large (diameter, 5 cm) bladder-like mass protruding from the perineal midline and difficult urination. Differential diagnoses included cutaneous cyst, ectopic urinary bladder, and urethral diverticulum/dilatation. Several genitourinary aberrations were noted. A second, smaller (diameter, 1 cm), more distal cystic structure was adjacent to an ambiguous prepuce. Testicles were discovered within a constricted, subcutaneous space near the inguinal canals. A rudimentary penis was located dorsal to the penile urethra with no appreciable urethral process. A tiny external urethral orifice was discerned only after liquid was injected into the lumen of the cystic structures, confirming their identity as urethral dilatations. The dilatations were separated by a constricting band of fibrous tissue. No other significant findings were detected. This case illustrates a combination of congenital anomalies including bilateral cryptorchidism with scrotal absence, segmental urethral hypoplasia, and urethral dilatation, most likely associated with the intersex condition seen in polled breeds. The continued production and use of small ruminants as animal models demands the prompt recognition of congenital anomalies. This case also exemplifies the precautions required when breeding goats with polled ancestry.

  12. Definition of prepartum hyperketonemia in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Doré, V; Dubuc, J; Bélanger, A M; Buczinski, S

    2015-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,081 dairy goats from 10 commercial herds in Québec (Canada) to define prepartum hyperketonemia based on optimal blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid threshold values for the early prediction of pregnancy toxemia (PT) and mortality in late-gestation dairy goats. All pregnant goats had blood sampled weekly during the last 5wk of pregnancy. The blood was analyzed directly on the farm for β-hydroxybutyrate acid quantification using a Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Diabetes Care, Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada). Body condition scores on the lumbar region and sternum were noted. Each goat was classified as being at low (n=973) or high risk (n=108) of having PT by producers based on a standardized definition. The optimal threshold for predicting a PT diagnosis or mortality for each week before kidding was determined based on the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The association between hyperketonemia and subsequent PT was tested using a multivariable logistic regression model considering hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum, litter size, and body condition score at wk 4 prepartum as covariates, and herd and parturition cohort as random effects. The association between mortality and hyperketonemia was also tested using a logistic regression model accounting for the presence or absence of treatment during the last month of pregnancy. The hyperketonemia definition based on PT varied between ≥0.4 and ≥0.9mmol/L during the last 5wk prepartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum and with a large litter size (≥3 fetuses) had 2.1 and 40.5 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent PT than other goats. Hyperketonemia definitions based on mortality varied between ≥0.6 and ≥1.4mmol/L during the last 4wk prepartum, and was ≥1.7mmol/L during the first week postpartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia and treated by producers had 3.4 and 11.8 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent mortality than did other goats

  13. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  14. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  15. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  16. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  17. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  18. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  19. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  20. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  1. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  2. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  3. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  4. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  5. Admixture and linkage disequilibrium analysis of meat goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...

  6. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  7. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  8. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  9. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  10. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  11. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed. PMID:28257098

  12. Differential roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Seto-Young, D; Avtanski, D; Varadinova, M; Park, A; Suwandhi, P; Leiser, A; Parikh, G; Poretsky, L

    2011-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) participate in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. In insulin resistant states ovaries remain sensitive to insulin because insulin can activate alternative signaling pathways, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as insulin receptors and type 1 IGF receptors. We investigated the roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells. Human ovarian cells were cultured in tissue culture medium in the presence of varying concentrations of insulin or IGF-I, with or without PD98059, a specific MAPK-Erk1/2 inhibitor, with or without SB203580, a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor or with or without a specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. PD98059 alone stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner by up to 65% (p<0.001). Similarly, LY294002 alone stimulated progesterone production by 13-18% (p<0.005). However, when used together, PD98059 and LY294002 inhibited progesterone production by 17-20% (p<0.001). SB203580 alone inhibited progesterone production by 20-30% (p<0.001). Insulin or IGF-I alone stimulated progesterone production by 40-60% (p<0.001). In insulin studies, PD98059 had no significant effect on progesterone synthesis while SB203580 abolished insulin-induced progesterone production. Either PD98059 or SB203580 abolished IGF-I-induced progesterone production. Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2. These studies provide further evidence for divergence of insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for human ovarian cell steroidogenesis.

  13. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-03-27

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS.

  14. An Uncommon Case of Adolescent Ovarian Teratoma Incarcerated in Inguinal Hernia.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, Marco; Girgenti, Vincenza; Cimador, Marcello; Li Voti, Giuseppe; Rodolico, Vito; Siracusa, Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is the most frequent benign ovarian neoplastic lesion in adolescents and is generally composed of fully differentiated tissue arising from multipotential three germinal layers. It accounts for approximately 50% of benign ovarian tumors in childhood. Rarely, a bilateral, synchronous, or metachronous presentation can be observed, supporting a conservative approach as the first surgical approach. We report a case of an ovarian mature cystic incarcerated in indirect inguinal hernia in a 15-year-old girl undergoing ovary-sparing surgery. To our knowledge this is the first case of such lesion incarcerated in an inguinal hernia reported in literature.

  15. An Uncommon Case of Adolescent Ovarian Teratoma Incarcerated in Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Girgenti, Vincenza; Cimador, Marcello; Li Voti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is the most frequent benign ovarian neoplastic lesion in adolescents and is generally composed of fully differentiated tissue arising from multipotential three germinal layers. It accounts for approximately 50% of benign ovarian tumors in childhood. Rarely, a bilateral, synchronous, or metachronous presentation can be observed, supporting a conservative approach as the first surgical approach. We report a case of an ovarian mature cystic incarcerated in indirect inguinal hernia in a 15-year-old girl undergoing ovary-sparing surgery. To our knowledge this is the first case of such lesion incarcerated in an inguinal hernia reported in literature. PMID:27525145

  16. Detecting the existence of gene flow between Spanish and North African goats through a coalescent approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Amparo; Manunza, Arianna; Delgado, Juan Vicente; Landi, Vincenzo; Adebambo, Ayotunde; Ismaila, Muritala; Capote, Juan; El Ouni, Mabrouk; Elbeltagy, Ahmed; Abushady, Asmaa M; Galal, Salah; Ferrando, Ainhoa; Gómez, Mariano; Pons, Agueda; Badaoui, Bouabid; Jordana, Jordi; Vidal, Oriol; Amills, Marcel

    2016-12-14

    Human-driven migrations are one of the main processes shaping the genetic diversity and population structure of domestic species. However, their magnitude and direction have been rarely analysed in a statistical framework. We aimed to estimate the impact of migration on the population structure of Spanish and African goats. To achieve this goal, we analysed a dataset of 1,472 individuals typed with 23 microsatellites. Population structure of African and Spanish goats was moderate (mean FST = 0.07), with the exception of the Canarian and South African breeds that displayed a significant differentiation when compared to goats from North Africa and Nigeria. Measurement of gene flow with Migrate-n and IMa coalescent genealogy samplers supported the existence of a bidirectional gene flow between African and Spanish goats. Moreover, IMa estimates of the effective number of migrants were remarkably lower than those calculated with Migrate-n and classical approaches. Such discrepancies suggest that recent divergence, rather than extensive gene flow, is the main cause of the weak population structure observed in caprine breeds.

  17. Detecting the existence of gene flow between Spanish and North African goats through a coalescent approach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Amparo; Manunza, Arianna; Delgado, Juan Vicente; Landi, Vincenzo; Adebambo, Ayotunde; Ismaila, Muritala; Capote, Juan; El Ouni, Mabrouk; Elbeltagy, Ahmed; Abushady, Asmaa M.; Galal, Salah; Ferrando, Ainhoa; Gómez, Mariano; Pons, Agueda; Badaoui, Bouabid; Jordana, Jordi; Vidal, Oriol; Amills, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Human-driven migrations are one of the main processes shaping the genetic diversity and population structure of domestic species. However, their magnitude and direction have been rarely analysed in a statistical framework. We aimed to estimate the impact of migration on the population structure of Spanish and African goats. To achieve this goal, we analysed a dataset of 1,472 individuals typed with 23 microsatellites. Population structure of African and Spanish goats was moderate (mean FST = 0.07), with the exception of the Canarian and South African breeds that displayed a significant differentiation when compared to goats from North Africa and Nigeria. Measurement of gene flow with Migrate-n and IMa coalescent genealogy samplers supported the existence of a bidirectional gene flow between African and Spanish goats. Moreover, IMa estimates of the effective number of migrants were remarkably lower than those calculated with Migrate-n and classical approaches. Such discrepancies suggest that recent divergence, rather than extensive gene flow, is the main cause of the weak population structure observed in caprine breeds. PMID:27966592

  18. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Assadullah; Ababneh, M Mk; Giadinis, N D; Lafi, S Q

    2010-10-28

    Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats) during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9%) biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188 = 45.7%). Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711) primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188) among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR = 2.92, CI: 1.1-7.7) and grazing at common pasture (OR = 2.78, CI: 1.05-7.36) were statistically significant (P ≤ .05) risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks.

  19. Exploring the Genetic Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infection in Goat Using RNA-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Ali Akbar; Li, Jingjin; Wu, Zhenyang; Ni, Pan; Adetula, Adeyinka Abiola; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Cheng; Tang, Xiaohui; Bhuyan, Anjuman Ara; Zhao, Shuhong; Du, Xiaoyong

    2017-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants and a major animal health concern in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host response to GIN infections in goat are still little known. In this study, two genetically distinct goat populations, one relatively resistant and the other susceptible to GIN infections, were identified in Yichang goat and then four individuals in each group were chosen to compare mRNA expression profiles using RNA-seq. Field experiment showed lower worm burden, delayed and reduced egg production in the relatively resistant group than the susceptible group. The analysis of RNA-seq showed that 2369 genes, 1407 of which were up-regulated and 962 down-regulated, were significantly (p < 0.001) differentially expressed between these two groups. Functional annotation of the 298 genes more highly expressed in the resistant group yielded a total of 46 significant (p < 0.05) functional annotation clusters including 31 genes (9 in innate immunity, 13 in immunity, and 9 in innate immune response) related to immune biosynthetic process as well as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathways. Our findings provide insights that are immediately relevant for the improvement of host resistance to GIN infections and which will make it possible to know the mechanisms underlying the resistance of goats to GIN infections.

  20. Expression, purification, and improved antigenic specificity of a truncated recombinant bp26 protein of Brucella melitensis M5-90: a potential antigen for differential serodiagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-xing; Hu, Sen; Qiao, Zu-jian; Chen, Wei-ye; Liu, Lin-tao; Wang, Fang-kun; Hua, Rong-hong; Bu, Zhi-gao; Li, Xiang-rui

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies produced in animals vaccinated using live attenuated vaccines against Brucella spp. are indistinguishable using current conventional serological tests from those produced in infected animals. One potential approach is to develop marker vaccines in which specific genes have been deleted from parental vaccine strains that show good immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. Corresponding methods of detection for antibodies raised by the marker vaccine should also be developed. A specific fragment of the bp26 gene of Brucella melitensis M5-90 was cloned into vector pQE32 to construct the recombinant plasmid (pQE32-rΔbp26). It was used to transform Escherichia coli M15 (pREP4) host cells, which expressed the rΔbp26 protein. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the purified rΔbp26 protein was represented by only one band, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and it showed good antigenic specificity on western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purified rΔbp26 protein was intended to be used as an antigen to develop a novel ELISA to differentiate animals vaccinated with bp26 mutants of Brucella spp. from those infected naturally and those vaccinated with the parental vaccine strains.

  1. Thermosensitivity of the goat's brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, M E; Jessen, C

    1988-01-01

    1. Experiments were done in conscious goats to estimate the gain of brain temperature sensors and to evaluate that fraction of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain which can be determined by a thermode located in the hypothalamus. 2. The animals were implanted with local thermodes, carotid loops and intravascular heat exchangers permitting independent control of hypothalamic temperature, extrahypothalamic brain temperature and trunk core temperature. 3. Small and slow ramp-like displacements of hypothalamic temperature generated continuously increasing thermoregulatory responses without any dead band, if a negative feed-back from extrahypothalamic sources was suppressed. 4. The hypothalamic sensitivity determined by the metabolic response to slow ramp-like cooling of the thermode amounted to -1.4 W/(kg degrees C) and equalled approximately 30% of what had been found for total body core sensitivity in another series of experiments. 5. Total brain thermosensitivity was -1.6 W/(kg degrees C), which implies that a large thermode centred in the hypothalamus can detect approximately 85% of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain. PMID:3418538

  2. Third place winner. Three-year-old female with intermittent ovarian torsion.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Andrew J; Ward, Mark A

    2002-11-01

    We report an atypical case of ovarian torsion, an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in a very young girl. She presented with intermittent episodes of groin and thigh pain over a 10-week period. The child had minimal objective findings at the time of each evaluation. Despite the delay in diagnosis, the ovary was preserved. Despite its rarity, ovarian torsion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in young girls.

  3. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  4. A Screen for Key Genes and Pathways Involved in High-Quality Brush Hair in the Yangtze River Delta White Goat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haiyan; Cheng, Guohu; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Hao; Qin, Kangle

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta White Goat is the only goat breed that produces high-quality brush hair, or type III hair, which is specialized for use in top-grade writing brushes. There has been little research, especially molecular research, on the traits that result in high-quality brush hair in the Yangtze River Delta White Goat. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the formation of high-quality brush hair, High-throughput RNA-Seq technology was used to compare skin samples from Yangtze River Delta White Goats that produce high-quality hair and non high-quality hair for identification of the important genes and related pathways that might influence the hair quality traits. The results showed that 295 genes were expressed differentially between the goats with higher and lower hair quality, respectively. Of those genes, 132 were up-regulated, 62 were down-regulated, and 101 were expressed exclusively in the goats with high-quality brush hair. Gene Ontology and Metabolic Pathway Significant Enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the MAP3K1, DUSP1, DUSP6 and the MAPK signaling pathway might play important roles in the traits important for high-quality brush hair. PMID:28125615

  5. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  6. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P < 0.05), and also the plasma cholesterol levels and the proportion of grade IV oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the proportion of viable oocytes compared with the control and in the percentage of grade II oocytes compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Oocyte maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates after parthenogenetic activation of viable oocytes were not affected by the type of diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation.

  7. Ovarian reserve screening before contraception?

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    Women are increasingly delaying conception to later years. Hormonal contraception induces artificial cyclicity, which does not, like natural cyclicity, reflect normal, physiological ovarian behaviour. Therefore, long-term users of hormonal contraceptives, in particular, fail to derive potential diagnostic benefits from changes in menstrual cyclicity, which usually alerts patients and physicians to developing ovarian pathology. Timely diagnosis of ovarian problems is further hampered, as anti-Müllerian hormone is suppressed by hormonal contraceptives, making the accurate assessment of functional ovarian reserve more difficult. Women on long-term hormonal contraceptives who develop premature ovarian senescence at young ages, therefore, often go undiagnosed until termination of hormonal contraception, when they present with either post-contraception amenorrhea, other menstrual abnormalities or infertility. As evolving screening options now permit the detection of young women at risk for premature ovarian senescence, it is proposed that young women are offered 'risk screening' for premature ovarian senescence before starting long-term hormonal contraception. A potential protocol is outlined.

  8. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus) kids.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Rachel M; Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively). One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001) and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001). This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001) and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  9. Performance of dairy goats fed whole sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Batista, A M V; Mustafa, A; de Carvalho, F F R; Guim, A; Monteiro, P S; Lucena, R B

    2009-03-01

    Five lactating goats were used in a 5x5 Latin square experiment to determine the effects of feeding whole sugarcane (WSC) on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were fed diets containing 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g kg(-1) WSC and 400, 300, 200, 100, and 0 g kg(-1) tifton hay (TH). Intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Total tract nutrient digestibilities were not influenced by WSC inclusion except for the digestibility of NDF which decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Inclusion of WSC linearly (p<0.05) decreased milk yield without affecting milk composition. It was concluded that WSC had a lower feeding values than TH for lactating goats.

  10. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in an adult goat.

    PubMed

    Seva, Juan I; Gómez, Serafin; Pallarés, Francisco J; Sánchez, Pedro; Bernabé, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    An occipitoatlantoaxial malformation was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Murciano-Granadina goat. At clinical examination, the head and cranial part of the neck were deviated to the right. Clinical signs of spinal cord or brain disease were not observed. At necropsy, morphological abnormalities were seen in the craniovertebral junction and cervical vertebrae, characterized by a firm attachment and incomplete articulation between the occipital bone and the atlas, and scoliosis in the cervical regions. The definitive diagnosis was bilateral asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial fusion with rotation of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the second occipitoatlantoaxial malformation described in a goat and the first description in an adult goat.

  11. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  12. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Leticia; Liu, James H

    2014-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition. PMID:24591848

  13. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  14. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not

  15. What Are the Key Statistics about Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Ovarian Cancer? The American Cancer Society estimates ... ovarian cancer is about 1 in 100. (These statistics don’t count low malignant potential ovarian tumors.) ...

  16. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? It is important for you to have honest, ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  18. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.

  19. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  20. Ovarian tumours of Wolffian or allied nature: their place in ovarian oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Hughesdon, P E

    1982-01-01

    Two unusual ovarian tumours thought to be of Wolffian identity, one of them malignant, are described. They showed packed combinations of adenopapillary, tubular, trabecular and diffuse patterns, a sharp and generalised periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive basement membrane and areas of elastic network. A review of published Wolffian tumours at various sites suggests that the prototypes of the two tumours occur chiefly in the cervix and broad ligament. The significance of Wolffian tumours and their differentiation from arrhenoblastoma and serous tumours is discussed. Images PMID:6282940

  1. The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

    2012-10-15

    This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could

  2. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  3. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Peters, Sunday O.; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats’ populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima’s D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat

  4. Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.

  5. A genetic polymorphism (rs17251221) in the calcium-sensing receptor is associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Yuan, Cunzhong; Yang, Qifeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Ruihua; Zhang, Xi; Yuan, Zeng; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Beihua

    2015-10-01

    Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein‑ coupled receptor that senses blood calcium. In vivo, CaSR is required for normal epidermal differentiation by mediating calcium signaling. CaSR was confirmed to be a tumor suppressor in colon and breast cancer. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17251221, located on the intron, is a genetic variation of the CaSR gene. We analyzed rs17251221 in ovarian cancer using an allelic discrimination assay. Cycling probes were used for genotyping 290 ovarian cancer patients and 312 age-matched cancer-free females. rs17251221 and clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian cancer were analyzed statistically. The AG and GG genotypes were confirmed to appear in fewer cancer cases than in controls and the genotype distribution between cases and controls was statistically significant. The AG+GG genotype was correlated with low ovarian cancer risk, while rs17251221 was not associated with clinicopathological variables including age at diagnosis, tumor size, histologic type, pathological subtype, lymph node metastasis, CA-125 expression, clinical stage, or degree of differentiation. The rs17251221 polymorphism genotype was not correlated with survival in ovarian cancer. These results suggest that the G allele of the CaSR rs17251221 polymorphism is protective against ovarian cancer and the homozygous GG genotype may be a protective genotype as well. The rs17251221 may play an important role in the development of ovarian cancer and could be used as a biomarker for predicting ovarian cancer.

  6. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender.

  7. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. The heterogeneity of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meinhold-Heerlein, I; Hauptmann, S

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer carries the worst prognosis of all gynecological malignancies. This is mainly due to its resistance against commonly used cytostatic drugs as well as the lack of a screening method for its detection at an early stage. Both basic and translational research have shown over the past decades that ovarian cancer as a medical term includes several types of tumors with different phenotypes, molecular biology, etiology, tumor progression, and even different prognosis. In this issue of Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, J. Dietel presents a review article about novel findings of the etiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer and the role that fallopian tubes may play. He also outlines the implied clinical consequences. Here, we give a brief overview of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer to introduce the topic.

  9. [Premature ovarian failure: present aspects].

    PubMed

    Vilodre, Luiz Cesar; Moretto, Marcelo; Kohek, Maria Beatriz da Fonte; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2007-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure occurs in approximately 1:1000 women before 30 years, 1:250 by 35 years and 1:100 by the age of 40. It is characterized by primary or secondary amenorrhea and cannot be considered as definitive because spontaneous conception may occur in 5 to 10% of cases. In 95% of cases, premature ovarian failure is sporadic. The known causes of premature ovarian failure include chromosomal defects, autoimmune diseases, exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, surgical procedures, and certain drugs. Frequently, however, the etiology is not clear and these cases are considered to be idiopathic. Premature ovarian failure is defined by gonadal failure and high serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Clinical approach includes emotional support, hormonal therapy with estrogens and progesterone or progestogens, infertility treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis and potential cardiovascular risk.

  10. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Nemieboka, Brandon; Sala, Evis; Lewis, Jason S.; Zeglis, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Over the past decade, medical imaging has played an increasingly valuable role in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning of the disease. In this “Focus on Molecular Imaging” review, we seek to provide a brief yet informative survey of the current state of the molecular imaging of ovarian cancer. The article is divided into sections according to modality, covering recent advances in the MR, PET, SPECT, ultrasound, and optical imaging of ovarian cancer. Although primary emphasis is given to clinical studies, preclinical investigations that are particularly innovative and promising are discussed as well. Ultimately, we are hopeful that the combination of technologic innovations, novel imaging probes, and further integration of imaging into clinical protocols will lead to significant improvements in the survival rate for ovarian cancer. PMID:27127223

  11. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recent FIGO staging. Stages of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer Once a patient's T, N, and M ... only within the ovary (or ovaries) or fallopian tube(s). It has not spread to organs and tissues ...

  12. In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

    2014-02-01

    The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos.

  13. Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy despite several decades of progress in diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of the robust development of discovery and utility of prognostic biomarkers, clinicians and researchers are developing personalized and targeted treatment strategies. This review encompasses recently discovered biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the utility of published prognostic biomarkers for EOC (especially biomarkers related to angiogenesis and key signaling pathways), and their integration into clinical practice. PMID:22045356

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  15. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  16. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  17. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK...

  18. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK...

  19. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK...

  20. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment.

  1. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or... and 79; or if it is the progeny, parent, or sibling of any scrapie-positive animal. (4) Goats...

  2. Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

    2004-06-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line.

  3. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  4. Intravenous anaesthesia in goats: a review.

    PubMed

    Dzikiti, T Brighton

    2013-02-13

    Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of gene expression reveals genes differentially expressed in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 60, 6281-6287.  Wang, T.L., Maierhofer, C ., Speicher, M.R...tumor demonstrates an intense Rsf-1 immunoreactivity (4) and displays Rsf-1 gene amplification. ( c ) Rsf-1 protein expression correlates with the Rsf-1...Garnis C , Coe BP, Zhang L, et al.: Overexpression of LRP12, a gene con- tained within an 8q22 amplicon identified by high-resolution array CGH analy- sis

  6. Scanning of selection signature provides a glimpse into important economic traits in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Guan, Dailu; Luo, Nanjian; Tan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Zhongquan; Huang, Yongfu; Na, Risu; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhao, Yongju

    2016-10-31

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest livestock domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair and skins over much of the world. Detection of selection footprints in genomic regions can provide potential insights for understanding the genetic mechanism of specific phenotypic traits and better guide in animal breeding. The study presented here has generated 192.747G raw data and identified more than 5.03 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 334,151 Indels (insertions and deletions). In addition, we identified 155 and 294 candidate regions harboring 86 and 97 genes based on allele frequency differences in Dazu black goats (DBG) and Inner Mongolia cashmere goats (IMCG), respectively. Populations differentiation reflected by Fst values detected 368 putative selective sweep regions including 164 genes. The top 1% regions of both low heterozygosity and high genetic differentiation contained 239 (135 genes) and 176 (106 genes) candidate regions in DBG and IMCG, respectively. These genes were related to reproductive and productive traits, such as "neurohypophyseal hormone activity" and "adipocytokine signaling pathway". These findings may be conducive to molecular breeding and the long-term preservation of the valuable genetic resources for this species.

  7. Goat activin receptor type IIB knockdown by muscle specific promoter driven artificial microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Ravi K; Patel, Utsav A; Tripathi, Ajai K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-10

    Activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) is a transmembrane receptor which mediates signaling of TGF beta superfamily ligands known to function in regulation of muscle mass, embryonic development and reproduction. ACVR2B antagonism has shown to enhance the muscle growth in several disease and transgenic models. Here, we show ACVR2B knockdown by RNA interference using muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter driven artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs). Among the various promoter elements tested, the ∼1.26 kb MCK promoter region showed maximum transcriptional activity in goat myoblasts cells. We observed up to 20% silencing in non-myogenic 293T cells and up to 32% silencing in myogenic goat myoblasts by MCK directed amiRNAs by transient transfection. Goat myoblasts stably integrated with MCK directed amiRNAs showed merely 8% silencing in proliferating myoblasts which was increased to 34% upon induction of differentiation at transcript level whereas up to 57% silencing at protein level. Knockdown of ACVR2B by 5'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in decreased SMAD2/3 signaling, increased expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and enhanced proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Unexpectedly, knockdown of ACVR2B by 3'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in increased SMAD2/3 signaling, reduced expression of MRFs and suppression of myogenesis. Our study offers muscle specific knockdown of ACVR2B as a potential strategy to enhance muscle mass in the farm animal species.

  8. Scanning of selection signature provides a glimpse into important economic traits in goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dailu; Luo, Nanjian; Tan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Zhongquan; Huang, Yongfu; Na, Risu; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhao, Yongju

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest livestock domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair and skins over much of the world. Detection of selection footprints in genomic regions can provide potential insights for understanding the genetic mechanism of specific phenotypic traits and better guide in animal breeding. The study presented here has generated 192.747G raw data and identified more than 5.03 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 334,151 Indels (insertions and deletions). In addition, we identified 155 and 294 candidate regions harboring 86 and 97 genes based on allele frequency differences in Dazu black goats (DBG) and Inner Mongolia cashmere goats (IMCG), respectively. Populations differentiation reflected by Fst values detected 368 putative selective sweep regions including 164 genes. The top 1% regions of both low heterozygosity and high genetic differentiation contained 239 (135 genes) and 176 (106 genes) candidate regions in DBG and IMCG, respectively. These genes were related to reproductive and productive traits, such as “neurohypophyseal hormone activity” and “adipocytokine signaling pathway”. These findings may be conducive to molecular breeding and the long-term preservation of the valuable genetic resources for this species. PMID:27796358

  9. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-09-01

    Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak.

  10. Engineered gold nanoparticles for identification of novel ovarian biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Karuna

    multiple proteins not detected by mass spectrometry alone. Differential expression analysis of proteins in cancer vs. non-cancer cells identified many proteins exclusively expressed in ovarian cancer. Hepatoma derived growth factor (HDGF) was one of the identified proteins that became the focus of the second part of the study. Understanding the role of HDGF in ovarian cancer would uncover its potential as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic marker. HDGF was found to be overexpressed in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines and xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Intracellular HDGF promoted cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and survival of ovarian cancer cell lines. While HDGF was exclusively localized in the nucleus, the protein was passively released from ovarian non-cancer and cancer cells during late apoptosis and necrosis. Extracellular HDGF activated MAP kinase pathways through a yet unknown receptor and promoted cell migration. Overall, the results presented in this study provide considerable support for the use of AuNPs for protein enrichment and detection of low abundance proteins. The functional study of HDGF, which revealed the importance of its expression in cancer cell, provides additional validation for AuNPs based cancer biomarker discovery. Further studies regarding the release of HDGF by cancer cells will help evaluate its utility in detecting and monitoring ovarian cancer. Additionally, initial results with knock down experiments indicate that HDGF has the potential to be a therapeutic target for inhibition of cancer progression.

  11. Identification of novel candidate plasma metabolite biomarkers for distinguishing serous ovarian carcinoma and benign serous ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Buas, Matthew F.; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Drescher, Charles W.; Urban, Nicole; Raftery, Daniel; Li, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Serous ovarian carcinoma (OC) represents a leading cause of cancer-related death among U.S. women. Non-invasive tools have recently emerged for discriminating benign from malignant ovarian masses, but evaluation remains ongoing, without widespread implementation. In the last decade, metabolomics has matured into a new avenue for cancer biomarker development. Here, we sought to identify novel plasma metabolite biomarkers to distinguish serous ovarian carcinoma and benign ovarian tumor. METHODS Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we conducted global and targeted metabolite profiling of plasma isolated at the time of surgery from 50 serous OC cases and 50 serous benign controls. RESULTS Global lipidomics analysis identified 34 metabolites (of 372 assessed) differing significantly (P<0.05) between cases and controls in both training and testing sets, with 17 candidates satisfying FDR q<0.05, and two reaching Bonferroni significance. Targeted profiling of ~150 aqueous metabolites identified a single amino acid, alanine, as differentially abundant (P<0.05). A multivariate classification model built using the top four lipid metabolites achieved an estimated AUC of 0.85 (SD=0.07) based on Monte Carlo cross validation. Evaluation of a hybrid model incorporating both CA125 and lipid metabolites was suggestive of increased classification accuracy (AUC=0.91, SD=0.05) relative to CA125 alone (AUC=0.87, SD=0.07), particularly at high fixed levels of sensitivity, without reaching significance. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide insight into metabolic changes potentially correlated with the presence of serous OC versus benign ovarian tumor and suggest that plasma metabolites may help differentiate these two conditions. PMID:26521694

  12. Cloning and functional analysis of goat SWEET1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Bao, Z K; Hu, W W; Lin, J; Yang, Q; Yu, Q H

    2015-12-16

    SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the biological function of goat SWEET1, we also generated goat SWEET1-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells using the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-gSWEET1. Goat SWEET1 overexpression can reduce glucose absorption in mammary gland epithelial cells with increasing expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and GLUT12, which may be attributed to glucose efflux arising from the leading role played by goat SWEET1. This study will improve our understanding of the glucose balance in mammary glands and the level of glucose in milk.

  13. Use of microsatellite markers to assign goats to their breeds.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, R S; Alobre, M M; Al-Atiyat, R M

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the potential of 17 microsatellite markers for assigning Saudi goat individuals to their breeds. Three local breeds, Bishi, Jabali, and Tohami were genotyped using these markers, and Somali goats were used as a reference breed. The majority of alleles were shared between the breeds, except for some that were specific to each breed. The Garza-Williamson index was lowest in the Bishi breed, indicating that a recent bottleneck event occurred. The overall results assigned the goat individuals (based on their genotypes) to the same breeds from which they were sampled, except in a few cases. The individuals' genotypes were sufficient to provide a clear distinction between the Somali goat breed and the others. In three factorial dimensions, the results of a correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation for the first and second factors was 48.85 and 31.43%, respectively. Consequently, Jabali, Bishi, and Tohami goats were in separate groups. The Jabali goat was closely related to the Bishi goat. Somali goats were distinguished from each other and from individuals of the other three goat breeds. The markers were successful in assigning individual goats to their breeds, based on the likelihood of a given individual's genotype.

  14. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  15. Identification of a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from advanced stage papillary serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Saxena, Deepa; Mok, Samuel C; Hauschka, Peter V; Ozbun, Laurent; Birrer, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Identification of gene expression profiles of cancer stem cells may have significant implications in the understanding of tumor biology and for the design of novel treatments targeted toward these cells. Here we report a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from isolated side population of fresh ascites obtained from women with high-grade advanced stage papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to interrogate the differentially expressed genes between side population (SP) and main population (MP), and the results were analyzed by paired T-test using BRB-ArrayTools. We identified 138 up-regulated and 302 down-regulated genes that were differentially expressed between all 10 SP/MP pairs. Microarray data was validated using qRT-PCR and17/19 (89.5%) genes showed robust correlations between microarray and qRT-PCR expression data. The Pathway Studio analysis identified several genes involved in cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis which are unique to SP cells and a mechanism for the activation of Notch signaling is identified. To validate these findings, we have identified and isolated SP cells enriched for cancer stem cells from human ovarian cancer cell lines. The SP populations were having a higher colony forming efficiency in comparison to its MP counterpart and also capable of sustained expansion and differentiation in to SP and MP phenotypes. 50,000 SP cells produced tumor in nude mice whereas the same number of MP cells failed to give any tumor at 8 weeks after injection. The SP cells demonstrated a dose dependent sensitivity to specific γ-secretase inhibitors implicating the role of Notch signaling pathway in SP cell survival. Further the generated SP gene list was found to be enriched in recurrent ovarian cancer tumors.

  16. Identification of inhibitors of ovarian cancer stem-like cells by high-throughput screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer stem cells are characterized by self-renewal capacity, ability to differentiate into distinct lineages, as well as higher invasiveness and resistance to many anticancer agents. Since they may be responsible for the recurrence of ovarian cancer after initial response to chemotherapy, development of new therapies targeting this special cellular subpopulation embedded within bulk ovarian cancers is warranted. Methods A high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign was performed with 825 compounds from the Mechanistic Set chemical library [Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)/National Cancer Institute (NCI)] against ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSC) using a resazurin-based cell cytotoxicity assay. Identified sets of active compounds were projected onto self-organizing maps to identify their putative cellular response groups. Results From 793 screening compounds with evaluable data, 158 were found to have significant inhibitory effects on ovarian CSC. Computational analysis indicates that the majority of these compounds are associated with mitotic cellular responses. Conclusions Our HTS has uncovered a number of candidate compounds that may, after further testing, prove effective in targeting both ovarian CSC and their more differentiated progeny. PMID:23078816

  17. Metformin limits the adipocyte tumor-promoting effect on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Sarigiannis, Kalli; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-07-15

    Omental adipocytes promote ovarian cancer by secretion of adipokines, cytokines and growth factors, and acting as fuel depots. We investigated if metformin modulates the ovarian cancer promoting effects of adipocytes. Effect of conditioned media obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3L1 preadipoctes on the proliferation and migration of a mouse ovarian surface epithelium cancer cell line (ID8) was estimated. Conditioned media from differentiated adipocytes increased the proliferation and migration of ID8 cells, which was attenuated by metformin. Metformin inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of key adipogenesis regulating transcription factors (CEBPα, CEBPß, and SREBP1), and induced AMPK. A targeted Cancer Pathway Finder RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) based gene array revealed 20 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in ID8 cells exposed to adipocyte conditioned media, which were altered by metformin. Adipocyte conditioned media also induced bio-energetic changes in the ID8 cells by pushing them into a highly metabolically active state; these effects were reversed by metformin. Collectively, metformin treatment inhibited the adipocyte mediated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, expression of cancer associated genes and bio-energetic changes. Suggesting, that metformin could be a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer at an early stage, as it not only targets ovarian cancer, but also modulates the environmental milieu.

  18. [Peripubertal ovarian cyst torsion as an early complication of undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ságodi, László; Schmidt, Ildikó; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the authors is to present two cases which raise the possibility of an association between polycystic ovarian syndrome/hyperandrogenism and ovarian cyst torsion in peripubertal girls. Androgen excess may cause more frequently ovarian cyst formation in premenarcheal or young adolescents with undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome than in adults. The authors recommend that polycystic ovarian syndrome as well as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be considered in peripubertal adolescents with ovarian cyst torsion. In case polycystic ovarian syndrome is confirmed, adequate management according to age and pubertal development of the patients should be commenced.

  19. Overexpression of HE4 (human epididymis protein 4) enhances proliferation, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Schwab, Carlton L.; Deng, Lu; Gao, Jian; Hao, Yingying; Li, Xiao; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) related with a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis while little is known about the molecular mechanism alteration by HE4 up regulation. Here we reported that overexpressed HE4 promoted ovarian cancer cells proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, human whole genome gene expression profile microarrays revealed that 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were altered in response to HE4, in which MAPK signaling, ECM receptor, cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis pathways were involved. The findings suggested that overexpressed HE4 played an important role in ovarian cancer progression and metastasis and that HE4 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:26575020

  20. Adnexal Incarceration in a Posterior Pelvic Peritoneal Defect Mimics Ovarian Torsion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Amanda M; Hope, Erica R; Phippen, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for suspected ovarian torsion sometimes reveals unexpected sources of pelvic pain, such as internal hernias, adhesions, or anatomic defects. A 23-year-old nulligravida with Alagille syndrome was taken to the operating room with suspected ovarian torsion. Intraoperatively, the right adnexa bulged out of a right-sided, posterior peritoneal cleft that incarcerated most of the enlarged ovary. No ovarian torsion was identified. The left adnexa appeared to be normal; however, it dwelled within a left-sided posterior peritoneal cleft. The bilateral posterior peritoneal defects that housed the adnexa were likely of congenital etiology. Although adnexal incarceration is a rare finding at surgery for suspected ovarian torsion, it should be part of the differential diagnosis when evaluating acute pelvic pain.

  1. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella tubo-ovarian abscess in an adolescent virginal female.

    PubMed

    Gensheimer, William G; Reddy, Sireesha Y; Mulconry, Marcy; Greves, Christine

    2010-02-01

    Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a common acute complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It can also develop as a complication of pelvic or abdominal surgery, malignancy, and intra-abdominal processes such as appendicitis. In premenopausal women, PID is the most common cause of tubo-ovarian abscess. We report a case of tubo-ovarian abscess in a virginal adolescent female with no past surgical history and no known history of appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Cultures of the tubo-ovarian abscess drainage grew Abiotrophia/Granulicatella species. This case supports including TOA in the broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain with fever in adolescent females regardless of sexual history.

  2. Correlation between tumor histology, steroid receptor status, and adenosine deaminase complexing protein immunoreactivity in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, B R; Slotman, B J; Geldof, A A; Dinjens, W N

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) immunoreactivity was investigated in 40 ovarian tumors and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, including tumor steroid receptor content. Ten (29%) of 34 common epithelial ovarian carcinomas showed ADCP reactivity. Reactivity for ADCP was seen more frequently in mucinous (100%; p less than 0.001), well-differentiated (73%; p less than 0.001) and Stage I (56%; p less than 0.05) ovarian carcinomas. Furthermore, tumors that contained high levels of androgen receptors and tumors that did not contain estrogen receptors were more frequently ADCP positive (p less than 0.05). However, after stratifying for histologic grade, no correlation between ADCP reactivity and receptor status was found. Determination of ADCP reactivity appears to be of limited value in ovarian cancer.

  3. [Anti mullerian hormone (AMH)--is it a new reliable marker of the ovarian reserve? Its role in predicting the ovarian response in assisted reproductive technology (ART)].

    PubMed

    Alshiek, Jonia Amer; Lessing, Joseph B; Amit, Ami; Azem, Foad

    2012-07-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is predominantly known for its important role in the differentiation of the male and female sexual system during the early embryonic period. Recently, many animal and human researches have been studying the role of the AMH in the postnatal ovarian function. In the female, AMH is produced by the granulosa cells of early developing follicles. It plays a major role in the folliculogenesis and seems to be able to inhibit the initiation of the growth of primordial follicles and FSH-induced follicles. As AMH is expressed throughout the folliculogenesis, from the primary follicular stage to the antral stage, the serum levels of AMH may represent both the quantity and the quality of ovarian follicles. Thus, the AMH levels may be useful as a new potential marker of the ovarian reserve. As compared to other ovarian reserve tests, the AMH has unique characteristics which make it a favorable marker. The measurement of AMH levels may be useful in the prediction of poor response and cycle cancellation as well as hyper-response and the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We assume that the measurement of AMH Levels may play a role in the individualization of treatment strategies among patients who are treated by ART. However, the AMH cannot predict the qualitative ovarian response in ART. In men, the AMH was not found to have satisfactory clinical utility as a single marker of spermatogenesis.

  4. Do We Know What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stromal tumors of the ovaries. There are many theories about the causes of ovarian cancer. Some of ... hysterectomy lower the risk of ovarian cancer. One theory to explain this is that some cancer-causing ...

  5. MiR130b-Regulation of PPARγ Coactivator- 1α Suppresses Fat Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3’-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3’ untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. PMID:26579707

  6. Separating the Sheep from the Goats: Differentiating Global Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual categories that children have developed in their second year were studied in five experiments using object manipulation tasks. Subjects included 152 children from 18 to 31 months of age. These very young children had formed global conceptions of many domains of objects. (SLD)

  7. Proteomic analysis of temporally stimulated ovarian cancer cells for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Marzinke, Mark A; Choi, Caitlin H; Chen, Li; Shih, Ie-Ming; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    While ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the United States, there are no biomarkers available that are able to predict therapeutic responses to ovarian malignancies. One major hurdle in the identification of useful biomarkers has been the ability to obtain enough ovarian cancer cells from primary tissues diagnosed in the early stages of serous carcinomas, the most deadly subtype of ovarian tumor. In order to detect ovarian cancer in a state of hyperproliferation, we analyzed the implications of molecular signaling cascades in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 in a temporal manner, using a mass-spectrometry-based proteomics approach. OVCAR3 cells were treated with EGF(1), and the time course of cell progression was monitored based on Akt phosphorylation and growth dynamics. EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was detected at 12 h post-treatment, but an effect on proliferation was not observed until 48 h post-exposure. Growth-stimulated cellular lysates were analyzed for protein profiles between treatment groups and across time points using iTRAQ labeling and mass spectrometry. The protein response to EGF treatment was identified via iTRAQ analysis in EGF-stimulated lysates relative to vehicle-treated specimens across the treatment time course. Validation studies were performed on one of the differentially regulated proteins, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), in human tissue lysates and ovarian tumor tissue sections. Further, tissue microarray analysis was performed to demarcate LAMP-1 expression across different stages of epithelial ovarian cancers. These data support the use of this approach for the efficient identification of tissue-based markers in tumor development related to specific signaling pathways. LAMP-1 is a promising biomarker for studies of the progression of EGF-stimulated ovarian cancers and might be useful in predicting treatment responses involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors or EGF receptor

  8. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Since reduction of ovulation is protective against ovarian cancer, prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing mortality . To achieve a...potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women...A chemoprevention trial is ongoing in chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  9. Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

  10. Video tracking analysis of behavioral patterns during estrus in goats.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Rahayu, Larasati Puji; Arakawa, Toshiya; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a new method for measuring behavioral patterns during estrus in goats based on video tracking analysis. Data were collected from cycling goats, which were in estrus (n = 8) or not in estrus (n = 8). An observation pen (2.5 m × 2.5 m) was set up in the corner of the female paddock with one side adjacent to a male paddock. The positions and movements of goats were tracked every 0.5 sec for 10 min by using a video tracking software, and the trajectory data were used for the analysis. There were no significant differences in the durations of standing and walking or the total length of movement. However, the number of approaches to a male and the duration of staying near the male were higher in goats in estrus than in goats not in estrus. The proposed evaluation method may be suitable for detailed monitoring of behavioral changes during estrus in goats.

  11. Ovarian teratoma and endometritis in a mare

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for a large ovarian anovulatory follicle. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian tumor and endometritis was established. Histological examinations revealed an ovarian teratoma and a grade II endometritis. Three months after unilateral ovariectomy, the mare was confirmed pregnant and eventually gave birth uneventfully. PMID:16363331

  12. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  13. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein.

    PubMed

    Reiten, Malin R; Bakkebø, Maren K; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrP(C) in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrP(C) knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrP(C). Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrP(C) (PRNP(Ter/Ter) ) compared to heterozygous (PRNP (+/Ter)) and normal (PRNP (+/+)) kids. Levels of cell surface PrP(C) and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNP (Ter/Ter), intermediate in PRNP (+/Ter) and high in PRNP (+/+) kids. The PRNP (Ter/Ter) animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrP(C) has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrP(C) in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrP(C)-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrP(C).

  14. Production and immunohistochemical characterization of monoclonal antibodies against ovarian antigen of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Kimura, J; Mukawa, H; Endo, H; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Kurohmaru, M; Yamada, J; Tsukise, A; Nishida, T

    1998-02-01

    To study the ovarian function of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis), monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against its ovarian antigen were produced. Several positive hybridomas were cloned and MAb-T2C9 (IgG) was examined for reactivity. Strong immunoreactivity of MAb-T2C9 was localized within the cytoplasm of luteal cells and in the theca interna cells of Graafian follicles. MAb-T2C9 reacted also with testicular interstitial cells and adrenocortical cells, except those of the zona glomerulosa. Similar reactions were seen in the goat and sheep. Western blotting analysis of the ovine corpus luteum after reaction with MAb-T2C9 revealed a single positive band of approximately 60 kDa. These findings suggest that MAb-T2C9 recognized protein molecules related to steroid synthesis.

  15. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  16. HOX genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoë L; Michael, Agnieszka; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Pandha, Hardev S; Morgan, Richard Gl

    2011-09-09

    The HOX genes are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cellular identity during development. Here we review a number of recent studies showing that HOX genes are strongly expressed in ovarian cancer, and that in some cases the expression of specific HOX genes is sufficient to confer a particular identity and phenotype upon cancer cells. We also review the recent advances in elucidating the different functions of HOX genes in ovarian cancer. A literature search was performed using the search terms HOX genes (including specific HOX genes), ovarian cancer and oncogenesis. Articles were accessed through searches performed in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Taken together, these studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in the oncogenesis of ovarian cancer and function in the inhibition of apoptosis, DNA repair and enhanced cell motility. The function of HOX genes in ovarian cancer oncogenesis supports their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic markers, and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  17. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Topotecan With or Without Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III or Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  19. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  1. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Crowley, Darragh; Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducrée, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

    2014-12-01

    Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds.

  3. Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ≈10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ≥50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

  4. Comparing long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy and open laprotomy for ovarian endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy with bipolar electrocoagulation and laparotomic cystectomy with suturing for ovarian endometrotic cyst. Patient and method(s) 121 patients with benign ovarian endometroitic cysts were randomised to either laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy using bipolar electrocoagulation (61 patients) or laparotomic ovarian cystectomy using sutures (60 patients). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, Antimullerian hormon, Basal antral follicle Count, mean ovarian diameter, and ovarian stromal blood flow velocity were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery and compared in both groups. Result(s) A statistically significant increase of serum FSH was found in the laproscopic bipolar group at 6-, 12 and 18-month postoperativly compared to open laparotomy suture group. Also, a statistically significant decrease of the mean AMH value occurred in laproscopic bipolar group at 6-, 12 and 18-month follow- up compared to open laparotomy suture group. Basal antral follicle number, mean ovarian diameter and peak systolic velocity were significantly decreased during the 6-, 12,18 -month follow-up in laproscopic bipolar group compared to open laparotomy suture group. Conclusion(s) After laproscopic ovarian cystecomy for endometrioma all pareameter of ovarian reseve are significantly decreased on long term follow up as compared to open laprotomy. PMID:24180348

  5. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Ovarian overproduction of androgens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overproductive ovaries Follicle development References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 552. Lobo RA. Hyperandrogenism: physiology, etiology, differential diagnosis, management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  7. Perineal powder exposure and the risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cook, L S; Kamb, M L; Weiss, N S

    1997-03-01

    This case-control study evaluated the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with genital exposure to various forms of powder application. Cases included all women aged 20-79 years in three counties of western Washington who were diagnosed with borderline or invasive ovarian cancer from 1986 through 1988; 64.3% of eligible cases were interviewed. A sample of similarly aged women who lived in these counties, identified by random digit dialing, served as controls. The overall response among control women was 68.0%. Information on powder application and other potential risk factors was ascertained during the in-person interview. Overall, ovarian cancer cases (n = 313) were more likely than controls (n = 422) to ever have used powder (age-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.0). After adjustment for age and other methods of genital powder application (none vs. any), an elevated relative risk of ovarian cancer was noted only for women with a history of perineal dusting (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) or use of genital deodorant spray (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). These results offer support for the hypothesis, raised by prior epidemiologic studies, that powder exposure from perineal dusting contributes to the development of ovarian cancer, and they suggest that use of genital deodorant sprays may do so as well. Limitations of the present study include the fairly low proportion of eligible women who participated and the potential differential recall of powder usage.

  8. Study of ovarian cancer management.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, E; Javaid, T; Cooley, S; Byrne, P; Gaughan, G

    2006-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Many patients present at an advanced stage as the symptoms of early stage disease can be vague. AIM We evaluated the demographics, treatment regimens and survival rates of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital Dublin over a nine year period. A retrospective chart review of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital between 11/10/94 and 30/6/3 was performed. Patients were selected from pathology records. Patients with borderline histology and those who died of unrelated causes were excluded. 31% of individuals presented with distension as their only clinical sign. 20% presented with a mass as their only clinical sign. The most common cell type was papillary serous adenocarcinoma in two thirds of cases. 54% presented with advanced disease [stage IIl-IV]. Treatment involved surgical clearance or debulking +/- chemotherapy. 5 year survival for Stage I was 95% versus 19% for Stage IlI. This highlights the importance of early diagnosis.

  9. GOATS 2008: Autonomous, Adaptive Multistatic Acoustic Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    develop the OASES -3d modeling framework for target scattering and reverberation in shallow ocean waveguides. As has been the case for the autonomous...using Green’s functions using legacy environmental acoustic models such as OASES , CSNAP, and RAM. This new unique simulation environment allows for...MIT are being maintained and dissiminated under the GOATS grant. The OASES and CSNAP environmental acoustic modeling codes are used extensively in

  10. Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.

    PubMed

    Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.

  11. GOATS 2008 Autonomous, Adaptive Multistatic Acoustic Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    adaptive, bi- and multi-static, passive and active sonar configurations for concurrent detection, classification and localization of subsea and bottom...classification and localization of subsea and bottom objects.. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...very shallow water (VSW). The fundamental approach of GOATS is the development of the concept of a network of AUVs as an array of Virtual Sensors

  12. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats.

  13. Photoacoustic characterization of ovarian tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Guo, Puyun; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a five-year survival rate of only 30%. Because current imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET) are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early, most diagnoses occur in later stages (III/IV). Thus many women are not correctly diagnosed until the cancer becomes widely metastatic. On the other hand, while the majority of women with a detectable ultrasound abnormality do not harbor a cancer, they all undergo unnecessary oophorectomy. Hence, new imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. One such technique is photoacoustic imaging, which has great potential to reveal early tumor angiogenesis through intrinsic optical absorption contrast from hemoglobin or extrinsic contrast from conjugated agents binding to appropriate molecular receptors. To better understand the cancer disease process of ovarian tissue using photoacoustic imaging, it is necessary to first characterize the properties of normal ovarian tissue. We have imaged ex-vivo ovarian tissue using a 3D co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system. The system is capable of volumetric imaging by means of electronic focusing. Detecting and visualizing small features from multiple viewing angles is possible without the need for any mechanical movement. The results show strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea, and low absorption from follicles. We will present correlation of photoacoustic images from animals with histology. Potential application of this technology would be the noninvasive imaging of the ovaries for screening or diagnostic purposes.

  14. Polymorphism of BMP4 gene in Indian goat breeds differing in prolificacy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rekha; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, A; Roy, Manoranjan; Mandakmale, S; Tantia, M S

    2013-12-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily, of which BMP4 is the most important due to its crucial role in follicular growth and differentiation, cumulus expansion and ovulation. Reproduction is a crucial trait in goat breeding and based on the important role of BMP4 gene in reproduction it was considered as a possible candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphism in intronic, exonic and 3' un-translated regions of BMP4 gene in Indian goats. Nine different goat breeds (Barbari, Beetal, Black Bengal, Malabari, Jakhrana (Twinning>40%), Osmanabadi, Sangamneri (Twinning 20-30%), Sirohi and Ganjam (Twinning<10%)) differing in prolificacy and geographic distribution were employed for polymorphism scanning. Cattle sequence (AC_000167.1) was used to design primers for the amplification of a targeted region followed by direct DNA sequencing to identify the genetic variations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not detected in exon 3, the intronic region and the 3' flanking region. A SNP (G1534A) was identified in exon 2. It was a non-synonymous mutation resulting in an arginine to lysine change in a corresponding protein sequence. G to A transition at the 1534 locus revealed two genotypes GG and GA in the nine investigated goat breeds. The GG genotype was predominant with a genotype frequency of 0.98. The GA genotype was present in the Black Bengal as well as Jakhrana breed with a genotype frequency of 0.02. A microsatellite was identified in the 3' flanking region, only 20 nucleotides downstream from the termination site of the coding region, as a short sequence with more than nineteen continuous and repeated CA dinucleotides. Since the gene is highly evolutionarily conserved, identification of a non-synonymous SNP (G1534A) in the coding region gains further importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mutation in the coding

  15. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.

  16. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    SciTech Connect

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma.

  17. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  18. Polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Raj, S G; Talbert, L M

    1984-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) was first described as a single disease by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, but now has been separated into several distinct entities, comprising a symptom complex. The most frequent presenting symptoms associated with PCOD are obesity, hirsutism, amenorrhea or anovulation, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, irregular menses, and infertility. The common finding of hirsutism in PCOD patients is a reflection of the hyperandrogenism resulting from elevation of all the androgens, including testosterone, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione. Some patients with all the clinical features of PCOD can be shown, through appropriate testing, to have an attenuated form of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are usually low or in the normal range, and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are usually elevated in patients with PCOD, resulting in an altered LH/FSH ratio. Treatment for PCOD must be based on the needs and desires of the individual patient, and on the pathophysiology of the patient's particular abnormalities. When pregnancy is desired, ovulation induction with clomiphene is indicated. Clomiphene is a weak estrogen that induces a transient rise in serum LH and FSH, followed by a gonadotropic pattern similar to normal cycles. A 72% ovulation rate and a 41.8% conception rate have been reported after treatment with clomiphene. In patients who do not respond to clomiphene, or clomiphene with added human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) can be used to induce ovulation, but the patient should be closely monitored for multiple ovulation, multiple pregnancy, or hyperstimulation syndrome. For patients not interested in conception, regular menstrual cyclicity can be restored and hyperandrogenism reduced with oral contraceptives (OCs).

  19. Regenerative Potential of Tissue-Engineered Nasal Chondrocytes in Goat Articular Cartilage Defects.

    PubMed

    Mumme, Marcus; Steinitz, Amir; Nuss, Katja M; Klein, Karina; Feliciano, Sandra; Kronen, Peter; Jakob, Marcel; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Martin, Ivan; Barbero, Andrea; Pelttari, Karoliina

    2016-11-01

    Nasal chondrocytes (NC) were previously demonstrated to remain viable and to participate in the repair of articular cartilage defects in goats. Here, we investigated critical features of tissue-engineered grafts generated by NC in this large animal model, namely cell retention at the implantation site, architecture and integration with adjacent tissues, and effects on subchondral bone changes. In this study, isolated autologous goat NC (gNC) and goat articular chondrocytes (gAC, as control) were expanded, green fluorescent protein-labelled and seeded on a type I/III collagen membrane. After chondrogenic differentiation, tissue-engineered grafts were implanted into chondral defects (6 mm in diameter) in the stifle joint for 3 or 6 months. At the time of explantation, surrounding tissues showed no or very low (only in the infrapatellar fat pad <0.32%) migration of the grafted cells. In repair tissue, gNC formed typical structures of articular cartilage, such as flattened cells at the surface and column-like clusters in the middle layers. Semi-quantitative histological evaluation revealed efficient integration of the grafted tissues with the adjacent native cartilage and underlying subchondral bone. A significantly increased subchondral bone area, as a sign for the onset of osteoarthritis, was observed following treatment of cartilage defects with gAC-, but not with gNC-grafts. Our results reinforce the use of NC-based engineered tissue for articular cartilage repair and preliminarily indicate their potential for the treatment of early osteoarthritic defects.

  20. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A. )

    1989-10-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms.

  1. Seasonal variation of urinary microRNA expression in male goats (Capra hircus) as assessed by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Longpre, Kristy M; Kinstlinger, Noah S; Mead, Edward A; Wang, Yongping; Thekkumthala, Austin P; Carreno, Katherine A; Hot, Azra; Keefer, Jennifer M; Tully, Luke; Katz, Larry S; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z

    2014-04-01

    Testosterone plays a key role in preparation of a male domesticated goat (Capra hircus) to breeding season including changes in the urogenital tract of a male goat (buck). microRNAs are important regulators of cellular metabolism, differentiation and function. They are powerful intermediaries of hormonal activity in the body, including the urogenital tract. We investigated seasonal changes in expression of microRNAs in goat buck urine and their potential consequences using next generation sequencing (microRNA-Seq). We determined the location of each microRNA gene in the goat genome. Testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay and the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBS) in the promoters of the microRNA genes were determined by MatInspector. The overall impact of regulated microRNAs on cellular physiology was assessed by mirPath. We observed high testosterone levels during the breeding season and changes in the expression of forty microRNAs. Nineteen microRNAs were upregulated, while twenty-one were downregulated. We identified several ARBS in the promoters of regulated microRNAs. Notably, the mostly inhibited microRNA, miR-1246, has a unique set of several gene copy variants associated with a cluster of androgen receptor binding sites. Concomitant changes in regulated microRNA expression could promote transcription, proliferation and differentiation of urogenital tract cells. Together, these findings indicate that in a domesticated goat (Capra hircus), there are specific changes in the microRNA expression profile in buck urine during breeding season, which could be attributable to high testosterone levels during breeding, and could help in preparation of the urogenital tract for high metabolic demands of that season.

  2. Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Virant-Klun, Irma; Gupta, Satish K; Dominguez, Roberto; Svetlikova, Marta; Xu, Fei

    2009-03-01

    It is still widely believed that while oocytes in invertebrates and lower vertebrates are periodically renewed throughout life, oocytes in humans and higher vertebrates are formed only during the fetal/perinatal period. However, this dogma is questioned, and clashes with Darwinian evolutionary theory. Studies of oogenesis and follicular renewal from ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in adult human ovaries, and of the role of third-party bone marrow-derived cells (monocyte-derived tissue macrophages and T lymphocytes) could help provide a better understanding of the causes of ovarian infertility, its prevention, and potential treatment. We have reported differentiation of distinct cell types from OSC and the production of new eggs in cultures derived from premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. OSCs are also capable of producing neural/neuronal cells in vitro after sequential stimulation with sex steroid combinations. Hence, OSC represent a unique type of totipotent adult stem cells, which could be utilized for autologous treatment of premature ovarian failure and also for autologous stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases without use of allogeneic embryonic stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The in vivo application of sex steroid combinations may augment the proliferation of existing neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neuronal cells (systemic regenerative therapy). Such treatment may also stimulate the transdifferentiation of autologous neural stem cell precursors into neural stem cells useful for topical or systemic regenerative treatment.

  3. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  4. Lipidomics profiling of goat milk, soymilk and bovine milk by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Dan; Pang, Xiumei; Liu, Yue; Frew, Russell; Chen, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Lipids are very important for human health and milk is a rich dietary source of lipids. In this study, the lipid content in three types of milk (goat, soy and bovine) were determined by using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. A total of 13 classes of lipids (including Cer, SM, LPC, PC, PE, DG, TG, PA, PG, PI, PS, LPE, FA) were measured. Moreover, lipid profiles differed significantly between the different milk types. Soymilk is rich in phospholipids including PC, PE, PS, PG, while goat milk is rich in medium chain triglycerides (MCT), USFA, ω-6 FA and ω-3 FA, especially EPA and DHA. Furthermore, a PLS model was established for differentiation of milk types based on the lipid profiles. A total of 14 lipids were identified as biomarkers for differentiation of milk types, thus providing a basis for milk authentication and detection of adulteration.

  5. Ets-1 regulates its target genes mainly by DNA methylation in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wan, S M; Peng, P; Guan, T

    2013-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, and its molecular mechanism has not been completely understood. Ets-1 is a member of the Ets transcription family and can play important roles in the regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling, invasion, angiogenesis and drug resistance in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer. In the current study, we downloaded two datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus database and sought to explore the regulation mechanism of Ets-1 in ovarian cancer by computational analysis of gene expression profiles. Microarray analysis identified a total of 548 genes that were regulated by Ets-1 in ovarian cancer. Functional annotation of these genes revealed that Ets-1 may be involved in several biological processes, both physiological and pathological, such as system development, response to stimulus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, morphogenesis, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and signal transduction. Further, DNA methylation analysis of the DEGs found that 26.5% (145) of them were differentially methylated genes in ovarian cancer. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of Ets-1 regulating the transcription of its target genes in the complex and multistep process of ovarian cancer progression.

  6. Long Noncoding RNA MIR4697HG Promotes Cell Growth and Metastasis in Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-qian; Yang, Su-qing; Wang, Ying; Fang, Qiao; Chen, Xian-jun; Lu, Hong-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological malignant tumors worldwide. The prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor because of limited therapeutic strategies. Herein, we investigated the role of a long noncoding RNA named MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in the cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Results showed that the transcriptional level of MIR4697HG in cancerous tissues increased twofold compared with that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. MIR4697HG was differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, with the highest levels in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. MIR4697HG knockdown by specific shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in both OVCAR3 and SKOC3 cells. Consistently, in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer, MIR4697HG depletion also significantly restricted tumor volumes and weights. Furthermore, MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities. Invasion ability was inhibited by 58% in SKOV3 cells and 40% in OVCAR3 cells, and migration ability was inhibited by 73% in SKOV3 cells and 62% in OVCAR3 cells after MIR4697HG knockdown. MIR4697HG knockdown also caused a decrease in matrix metalloprotease-9, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated AKT. These data suggested that MIR4697HG promoted ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. The aggressive role of MIR4697HG in ovarian cancer may be related to the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. PMID:28168162

  7. Classification of serous ovarian tumors based on microarray data using multicategory support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Chung, Jai Won; Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Deok Won

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, the most fatal of reproductive cancers, is the fifth leading cause of death in women in the United States. Serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) are considered to be earlier or less malignant forms of serous ovarian carcinomas (SOCs). SBOTs are asymptomatic and progression to advanced stages is common. Using DNA microarray technology, we designed multicategory classification models to discriminate ovarian cancer subclasses. To develop multicategory classification models with optimal parameters and features, we systematically evaluated three machine learning algorithms and three feature selection methods using five-fold cross validation and a grid search. The study included 22 subjects with normal ovarian surface epithelial cells, 12 with SBOTs, and 79 with SOCs according to microarray data with 54,675 probe sets obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene expression omnibus repository. Application of the optimal model of support vector machines one-versus-rest with signal-to-noise as a feature selection method gave an accuracy of 97.3%, relative classifier information of 0.916, and a kappa index of 0.941. In addition, 5 features, including the expression of putative biomarkers SNTN and AOX1, were selected to differentiate between normal, SBOT, and SOC groups. An accurate diagnosis of ovarian tumor subclasses by application of multicategory machine learning would be cost-effective and simple to perform, and would ensure more effective subclass-targeted therapy.

  8. PKC iota promotes ovarian tumor progression through deregulation of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Nanos-Webb, Angela; Bui, Tuyen; Karakas, Cansu; Zhang, Dong; Carey, Jason P.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-01-01

    The high frequency of relapse of epithelial ovarian tumors treated with standard chemotherapy has highlighted the necessity to identify targeted therapies that can improve patient outcomes. The dynamic relationship between Cyclin E and PKCiota frequent overexpression in high-grade ovarian tumors poses a novel pathway for therapeutic investigation. We hypothesized that a PI3K dependent signaling pathway activating PKCiota perpetuates cyclin E deregulation during ovarian tumorigenesis. We observed a positive correlation between PKCiota and cyclin E in a panel of 19 ovarian cancer cell lines. Modulation of cyclin E had no effect on PKCiota knockdown/overexpression however PKCiota differentially regulated cyclin E expression. In the serous ovarian cancer cells (IGROV, OVCAR-3), shPKCiota decreased proliferation, caused a G1 arrest, and significantly prolonged overall survival in xenograft mouse models. In vitro shPKCiota decreased the ability of IGROV cells to grow under anchorage independent conditions and form aberrant acini, which was dependent upon Ad-cyclin E or Ad-LMW-E expression. RPPA analysis of PKCiota wild-type, catalytic active, dominant negative protein isoforms strengthened the association between phospho-PKCiota levels and PI3K pathway activation. Inhibitors of PI3K coordinately decreased phospho-PKCiota and Cyclin E protein levels. In conclusion, we have identified a PI3K/PKCiota/Cyclin E signaling pathway as a therapeutic target during ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:26279297

  9. Changes of Ovarian microRNA Profile in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Augusto; Matkovich, Scot J.; Victoria, Berta; Spinel, Lina; Bartke, Andrzej; Golusinski, Pawel; Masternak, Michal M.

    2017-01-01

    The Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have extended longevity and can preserve the ovarian reserve longer than Normal (N) mice. Based on this, the aim of our study was to evaluate the ovarian microRNA (miRNA) profile in young and aged df/df and N mice. Ovarian tissue was collected at 5–6 months and at 21–22 months of age for miRNA sequencing. We detected a total of 404 miRNAs in the ovarian samples, from which the abundance of 22 and 33 miRNAs changed with age in N and df/df mice, respectively. Of these, only three miRNAs were commonly regulated with age between N and df/df mice, indicating a very divergent miRNA profile between genotypes. We also detected that 46 miRNAs were regulated between N and df/df mice, of which 23 were regulated exclusively in young mice, 12 exclusively in old mice and 12 commonly regulated at young and old ages. Many genes likely to be targeted by these miRNAs are involved in the FoxO, mTOR, PI3k/Akt and insulin signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aging process has a differential impact on the ovarian miRNA profile in df/df mice, and suggest that these miRNAs can be central players in the maintenance of a younger ovarian phenotype. PMID:28046124

  10. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  11. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a small or moderate contribution to overall ovarian cancer risk. Some of these genes provide instructions for making proteins that interact with the proteins produced from the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Others act through different pathways. Researchers suspect that the combined influence of variations ...

  13. Genomic Markers of Ovarian Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michelle A.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian reserve and its utilization, over a reproductive life span, are determined by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The establishment of the primordial follicle pool and the rate of primordial follicle activation have been under intense study to determine genetic factors that affect reproductive lifespan. Much has been learned from transgenic animal models about the developmental origins of the primordial follicle pool and mechanisms that lead to primordial follicle activation, folliculogenesis, and the maturation of a single oocyte with each menstrual cycle. Recent genome-wide association studies on the age of human menopause have identified approximately 20 loci, and shown the importance of factors involved in double-strand break repair and immunology. Studies to date from animal models and humans show that many genes determine ovarian aging, and that there is no single dominant allele yet responsible for depletion of the ovarian reserve. Personalized genomic approaches will need to take into account the high degree of genetic heterogeneity, family pedigree, and functional data of the genes critical at various stages of ovarian development to predict women's reproductive life span. PMID:24101221

  14. Big Animal Cloning Using Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Case Study of Goat Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.

  15. PPARγ inhibits ovarian cancer cells proliferation through upregulation of miR-125b

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shuang; Wang, Jidong; Ma, Ying; Yao, Zhenwei; Pan, Hongjuan

    2015-06-26

    miR-125b has essential roles in coordinating tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and chemotherapy recurrence. In ovarian cancer miR-125b has been shown to be downregulated and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting proto-oncogene BCL3. PPARγ, a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects through inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation and apoptosis by targeting the tumor related genes. However, it is unclear whether miR-125b is regulated by PPARγ in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that the miR-125b downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Ligands-activated PPARγ suppressed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and this PPARγ-induced growth inhibition is mediated by the upregulation of miR-125b. PPARγ promoted the expression of miR-125b by directly binding to the responsive element in miR-125b gene promoter region. Thus, our results suggest that PPARγ can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer by upregulating miR-125b which inhibition of proto-oncogene BCL3. These findings will extend our understanding of the function of PPARγ in tumorigenesis and miR-125b may be a therapeutic intervention of ovarian cancer. - Highlights: • miR-125b is down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cells. • PPARγ upregulates miR-125b and downregulates its target gene BCL3 expression. • Silence of miR-125b attenuates PPARγ-mediated growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells. • PPARγ promotes the transcription of miR-125b via binding to PPARE in miR-125b gene promoter region.

  16. S100B Mediates Stemness of Ovarian Cancer Stem-Like Cells Through Inhibiting p53.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Cheng, Jianan; Yang, Yang; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Yuetao; Long, Haixia; Xie, Rongkai; Zhu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    S100B is one of the members of the S100 protein family and is involved in the progression of a variety of cancers. Ovarian cancer is driven by cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that are involved in tumorigenesis, metastasis, chemo-resistance and relapse. We then hypothesized that S100B might exert pro-tumor effects by regulating ovarian CSLCs stemness, a key characteristic of CSLCs. First, we observed the high expression of S100B in ovarian cancer specimens when compared to that in normal ovary. The S100B upregulation associated with more advanced tumor stages, poorer differentiation and poorer survival. In addition, elevated S100B expression correlated with increased expression of stem cell markers including CD133, Nanog and Oct4. Then, we found that S100B was preferentially expressed in CD133(+) ovarian CSLCs derived from both ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors of patients. More importantly, we revealed that S100B knockdown suppressed the in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumorigenicity of ovarian CSLCs and decreased their expression of stem cell markers. S100B ectopic expression endowed non-CSLCs with stemness, which has been demonstrated with both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Mechanically, we demonstrated that the underlying mechanism of S100B-mediated effects on CSLCs stemness was not dependent on its binding with a receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but might be through intracellular regulation, through the inhibition of p53 expression and phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results elucidate the importance of S100B in maintenance of ovarian CSLCs stemness, which might provide a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. Stem Cells 2017;35:325-336.

  17. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  18. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  19. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  20. Effect of selenium supplementation on spermatogenic cells of goats.

    PubMed

    Ganabadi, S; Halimatun, Y; Amelia Choong, K L; Nor Jawahir, A; Mohammed Hilmi, A

    2010-04-01

    Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is required for many physiological functions in animals and the potential relevance of selenium to the reproductive system of livestock has been considered by many researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of selenium supplementation on the spermatogenic cells of goat. Eight young male crossbred (Katjang x Boer) goats, aged between 9 to 11 months, were used in this study. The control group (CON; n = 4) was fed with a diet consisting of 60% Guinea grass and 40% concentrates while the treatment group (Se-SUP; n = 4) was fed with the same diet as the goats in the control group but with supplementation of 0.6mg selenium (sodium selenite powder) per goat daily for 100 days and were slaughtered on the 101st day. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatozoa and the total number of spermatogenic cells between the CON and Se-SUP goat respectively. However, there was a significant increase (p< 0.05) of spermatid in Se-SUP goats. The mean percentage of spermatids was significantly increased (p< 0.05) while spermatozoa was significantly decreased (p< 0.05) in Se-SUP goats. In conclusion, selenium supplementation increased the percentages of spermatids and decreased the percentages of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules in goats.

  1. ADAPTmap: International coordinated data resource for improving goat production effiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...

  2. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

  3. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  4. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…

  5. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  6. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  7. Detection of antibodies to ovarian antigens in women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed Central

    Wheatcroft, N J; Toogood, A A; Li, T C; Cooke, I D; Weetman, A P

    1994-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is a common condition of uncertain aetiology in most cases, although autoimmunity is thought to play a role in a proportion of cases. The frequency of ovarian antibodies, which may be markers for an autoimmune aetiology in this condition, remains unclear. To define this further, we have examined the sera of 45 women with premature ovarian failure (five with iatrogenic ovarian failure, nine with an associated autoimmune disease, and 27 with idiopathic ovarian failure), as well as four women with infertility due to Turner's syndrome and 41 pre- and post-menopausal controls. Using two human ovarian antigen preparations, 24% and 60% of the ovarian failure patients reacted in an ELISA (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 compared with controls), but frequent cross-reactivity was found with fallopian tube antigens. The apparent aetiology of ovarian failure did not correlate with the presence of ovarian antibodies. Using bovine ovary as an antigen, there was a significant overall increase in binding by the ovarian failure patients, but this was almost identical to binding in an ELISA with bovine fallopian tube. In contrast to a previous report, there was no significant increase of binding to soluble or Triton-extracted membrane fractions of bovine corpora lutea containing the LH/hCG receptor by the patients with ovarian failure. These results suggest that ovarian antibodies are common in premature ovarian failure, but their specificity and pathogenic role are questionable. PMID:8149656

  8. LncRNAs expression profiling in normal ovary, benign ovarian cyst and malignant epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Fu, Ziyi; Dai, Chencheng; Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Juan; Lv, Mingming; Gu, Yun; Zhang, Jingmin; Hua, Xiangdong; Jia, Genmei; Xu, Sujuan; Jia, Xuemei; Xu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC. PMID:27941916

  9. Isolation, characterization, and gene modification of dairy goat mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Fan, Yixuan; Wang, Ziyu; Wan, Yongjie; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhong, Bushuai; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult pluripotent cells that are considered to be an attractive cell type for therapy models and for nuclear transfer transgenesis. To date, MSCs from various species have been studied, but only a limited amount of information regarding dairy goat MSCs (gMSCs) is available. The objectives of this study were to isolate, induce the multilineage mesenchymal differentiation, and investigate the gene modification efficiency of gMSCs, thereby initiating further research on these cells. The gMSCs isolated from bone marrow grew, attached to plastic with a typical fibroblast-like morphology, and expressed the mesenchymal surface marker CD44, CD29, CD90, and CD166, but not the hematopoietic marker CD45. Furthermore, the gMSCs expressed the transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog, which have been shown to be critical for stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. The multilineage differentiation potential of gMSCs was revealed by their ability to undergo adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation when exposed to specific inducing conditions. Transient transduction of gMSCs with a plasmid containing the GFP gene resulted in higher transfection rate compared with fetal fibroblasts (FFs). Furthermore, cell colonies with stable genetic modifications were obtained when gMSCs were transfected with a mammary-specific expression vector containing human lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase gene (hGCase). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that typical mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from dairy goat bone marrow, possessed the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, and had the potential of specific genetic modifications for gene therapy and producing transgenic goats.

  10. Establishment of goat embryonic stem cells from in vivo produced blastocyst-stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, E; Bondareva, A; Begin, I; Rao, K; Neveu, N; Pierson, J T; Wylie, C; Piero, F D; Huang, Y J; Zeng, W; Tanco, V; Baldassarre, H; Karatzas, C N; Dobrinski, I

    2011-03-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the capacity for germ line transmission have only been verified in mouse and rat. Methods for derivation, propagation, and differentiation of ES cells from domestic animals have not been fully established. Here, we describe derivation of ES cells from goat embryos. In vivo-derived embryos were cultured on goat fetal fibroblast feeders. Embryos either attached to the feeder layer or remained floating and expanded in culture. Embryos that attached showed a prominent inner cell mass (ICM) and those that remained floating formed structures resembling ICM disks surrounded by trophectodermal cells. ICM cells and embryonic disks were isolated mechanically, cultured on feeder cells in the presence of hLIF, and outgrown into ES-like colonies. Two cell lines were cultured for 25 passages and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, POU5F1, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, and SSEA-4. Embryoid bodies formed in suspension culture without hLIF. One cell line was cultured for 2 years (over 120 passages). This cell line differentiated in vitro into epithelia and neuronal cells, and could be stably transfected and selected for expression of a fluorescent marker. When cells were injected into SCID mice, teratomas were identified 5-6 weeks after transplantation. Expression of known ES cell markers, maintenance in vitro for 2 years in an undifferentiated state, differentiation in vitro, and formation of teratomas in immunodeficient mice provide evidence that the established cell line represents goat ES cells. This also is the first report of teratoma formation from large animal ES cells.

  11. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  12. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  13. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats.

  14. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  15. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  16. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  19. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  1. Hierarchical structure of the Sicilian goats revealed by Bayesian analyses of microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Siwek, M; Finocchiaro, R; Curik, I; Portolano, B

    2011-02-01

    Genetic structure and relationship amongst the main goat populations in Sicily (Girgentana, Derivata di Siria, Maltese and Messinese) were analysed using information from 19 microsatellite markers genotyped on 173 individuals. A posterior Bayesian approach implemented in the program STRUCTURE revealed a hierarchical structure with two clusters at the first level (Girgentana vs. Messinese, Derivata di Siria and Maltese), explaining 4.8% of variation (amovaФ(ST) estimate). Seven clusters nested within these first two clusters (further differentiations of Girgentana, Derivata di Siria and Maltese), explaining 8.5% of variation (amovaФ(SC) estimate). The analyses and methods applied in this study indicate their power to detect subtle population structure.

  2. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-05

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin after i.m. administration in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Saleh, M; Shahin, M; Wuttke, W; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation addresses the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), intramuscularly (i.m.) administered to goats. Nine pluriparous does of the Boer goat breed, 2-6 years of age and weighing 45-60 kg, were administered 500 IU hCG (2 ml Chorulon) deep into the thigh musculature 18 h after superovulatory FSH treatment. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at 2  h intervals for the first 24h, at 6 h intervals until 42 h, and at 12 h intervals until 114 h after administration. After centrifugation, plasma hCG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Pharmacokinetical parameters were as follows: lag time, 0.4 (s.e.m. 0.1) h; absorption rate constant, 0.34 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; absorption half-life, 2.7 (s.e.m. 0.5) h; elimination rate constant, 0.02 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; biological half-life, 39.4 (s.e.m. 5.1) h; and apparent volume of distribution, 16.9 (s.e.m. 4.3) l. The plasma hCG profile was characterized by an absorption phase of 11.6 (s.e.m. 1.8) h and an elimination phase of 70.0 (s.e.m. 9.8) h, with considerable individual variation in bioavailability and pharmacokinetical parameters. Biological half-life was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with peak concentration (r=-0.76), absorption rate constant (r=-0.78), and elimination rate constant (r=-0.87). The results indicate that after rapid absorption, hCG remains in the circulation for an extended period. This has to be taken into account when assessing the stimulatory response to hCG treatment on an ovarian level.

  4. Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.

  5. Inflammation and Human Ovarian Follicular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a biologic process that mediates tissue effects including vasodilation, hyperemia, edema, collagenolysis and cell proliferation through complex immunologic pathways. In regards to the ovary, inflammation has key physiologic roles in ovarian folliculogenesis and ovulation. On the other hand inflammatory processes are subject to underlying pathology and if pushed, pro-inflammatory conditions may have a negative impact on ovarian follicular dynamics. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) serve as examples of conditions associated with chronic endogenous production of low-grade pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both conditions negatively impact ovarian folliculogenesis and ovulation. The pages that follow summarize the role of inflammation in normal ovarian follicular dynamics and evidence for its role in mediating the negative effects of obesity and PCOS on ovarian follicular dynamics. The review concludes with a summary supporting a role for lifestyle factors that favorably impact inflammatory process involved in obesity and PCOS to improve ovarian function. PMID:26132931

  6. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi Tehrani, Hatav; Hamoush, Zaynab; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of the non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. It ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. One of the important risk factors for ovarian pregnancy is in the use of Intra uterine devices (IUD). Case: We report here one such uncommon case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Our patient is a 30 years old multiparous woman with two previous cesarean sections with severe hypogastric abdominal pain. During laparotomy, ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed, and wedge resection of the ovary was only done. Histopathological examination confirmed it to be an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: IUD is one of contraceptive methods which prevents intra-uterine implantation in 99.5%, if implant occurs with IUD, it is tubal implantation in 95% of cases, and it is very rare in other places such as ovary. The most important risk factor of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is IUD as in this study it was showed. PMID:24976824

  7. Cardiac troponin I in healthy newborn goat kids and in goat kids with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; El-Sayed, Mehana

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to establish serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in healthy newborn goat kids and in those with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD). Thirty-five single full-term newborn goat kids (20 males and 15 females; age: 6.1 ± 3.5 h; weight 3.4 ± 0.68 kg), together with their respective mothers (Group 1; G1) were enrolled consecutively. Thirty-one goat kids (age: 9.5 ± 4.3 days) with NMD, together with 20 control goat kids (age: 7.8 ± 4.3 days) were also included in this study (Group 2; G2). Blood samples were collected from G1 within 12 h of birth and from G2 on admission. Serum samples were collected and analysed for cTnI. In G1, the mean serum concentration of cTnI in goat kids was 0.290 ± 0.37 ng/mL, with no statistically significant difference between male and female kids (P = 0.61). The mean cTnI concentration in the does was 0.017 ± 0.04, ng/mL. Serum values of cTnI in the goat kids and in their respective mothers differed significantly (P = 0.0001). In G2, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.02 ± 0.05 ng/mL in the control and 11.18 ± 20.07 ng/mL in the diseased goat kids, with a statistically significant difference between diseased and control goat kids (P = 0.017). Serum concentrations of cTnI are higher in goat kids than in their respective mothers. In conclusion, the cTnI assay appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in goat kids.

  8. Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Fridley, Brooke L.; Song, Honglin; Lawrenson, Kate; Cunningham, Julie M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Cicek, Mine S.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Stram, Douglas; Larson, Melissa C.; Köbel, Martin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Hannah P.; Wu, Anna H.; Wozniak, Eva L.; Woo, Yin Ling; Winterhoff, Boris; Wik, Elisabeth; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Daniel; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Van Den Berg, David; Van Altena, Anne M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Templeman, Claire; Stram, Daniel O.; Southey, Melissa C.; Sieh, Weiva; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shridhar, Viji; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Severi, Gianluca; Schwaab, Ira; Salvesen, Helga B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Risch, Harvey A.; Renner, Stefan P.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pejovic, Tanja; Paul, James; Orlow, Irene; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Olson, Sara H.; Odunsi, Kunle; Nickels, Stefan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ness, Roberta B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nakanishi, Toru; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Modugno, Francesmary; Menon, Usha; McLaughlin, John R.; McGuire, Valerie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Adenan, Noor Azmi Mat; Massuger, Leon F.A. G.; Lurie, Galina; Lundvall, Lene; Lubiński, Jan; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levine, Douglas A.; Leminen, Arto; Lee, Alice W.; Le, Nhu D.; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Krakstad, Camilla; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Keeney, Gary L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Karevan, Rod; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jensen, Allan; Jakubowska, Anna; Iversen, Edwin; Hosono, Satoyo; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Hoatlin, Maureen; Hillemanns, Peter; Heitz, Florian; Hein, Rebecca; Harter, Philipp; Halle, Mari K.; Hall, Per; Gronwald, Jacek; Gore, Martin; Goodman, Marc T.; Giles, Graham G.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Flanagan, James M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Ekici, Arif B.; Edwards, Robert; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F.; Dürst, Matthias; du Bois, Andreas; Dörk, Thilo; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Despierre, Evelyn; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Cezary; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cook, Linda S.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Charbonneau, Bridget; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Campbell, Ian; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H.; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Brown, Robert; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brinton, Louise A.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Block, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Beesley, Jonathan; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Baglietto, Laura; Bacot, François; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Antonenkova, Natalia; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Aben, Katja K.; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Huntsman, David; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Laird, Peter W.; Goode, Ellen L.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2013-01-01

    HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, P = 3.1 × 10−10) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR = 0.77, P = 1.6 × 10−8) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes. PMID:23535649

  9. Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja, Simon; Hilgenberg, Jill D.; Collins, Julie L.; Shah, Anna A.; Wawro, Debra; Zimmerman, Shelby; Magnusson, Robert; Koulen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Ovarian carcinoma has the highest lethality rate of gynecologic tumors, largely attributed to the late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Reliable tools for both accurate diagnosis and early detection of disease onset are lacking, and presently less than 20% of ovarian cancers are detected at an early stage. Protein biomarkers that allow the discrimination of early and late stages of ovarian serous carcinomas are urgently needed as they would enable monitoring pre-symptomatic aspects of the disease, disease progression, and the efficacy of intervention therapies. We compare the absolute and relative protein levels of six protein biomarkers for ovarian cancer in five different established ovarian cancer cell lines, utilizing both quantitative immunoblot analysis and a guided-mode resonance (GMR) bioassay detection system that utilizes a label-free optical biosensor readout. The GMR sensor approach provided highly accurate, consistent, and reproducible quantification of protein biomarkers as validated by quantitative immunoblotting, as well as enhanced sensitivity, and is therefore suitable for quantification and detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer. We identified fibronectin, apolipoprotein A1, and TIMP3 as potential protein biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of primary versus metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Future studies are needed to confirm the suitability of protein biomarkers tested herein in patient samples.

  10. Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Fridley, Brooke L; Song, Honglin; Lawrenson, Kate; Cunningham, Julie M; Ramus, Susan J; Cicek, Mine S; Tyrer, Jonathan; Stram, Douglas; Larson, Melissa C; Köbel, Martin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Hannah P; Wu, Anna H; Wozniak, Eva L; Woo, Yin Ling; Winterhoff, Boris; Wik, Elisabeth; Whittemore, Alice S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Vitonis, Allison F; Vincent, Daniel; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Van Den Berg, David; Van Altena, Anne M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Thompson, Pamela J; Tessier, Daniel C; Terry, Kathryn L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Templeman, Claire; Stram, Daniel O; Southey, Melissa C; Sieh, Weiva; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shridhar, Viji; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Severi, Gianluca; Schwaab, Ira; Salvesen, Helga B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Risch, Harvey A; Renner, Stefan P; Poole, Elizabeth M; Pike, Malcolm C; Phelan, Catherine M; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pejovic, Tanja; Paul, James; Orlow, Irene; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Olson, Sara H; Odunsi, Kunle; Nickels, Stefan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ness, Roberta B; Narod, Steven A; Nakanishi, Toru; Moysich, Kirsten B; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Modugno, Francesmary; Menon, Usha; McLaughlin, John R; McGuire, Valerie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Adenan, Noor Azmi Mat; Massuger, Leon F A G; Lurie, Galina; Lundvall, Lene; Lubiński, Jan; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levine, Douglas A; Leminen, Arto; Lee, Alice W; Le, Nhu D; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Krakstad, Camilla; Konecny, Gottfried E; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kelemen, Linda E; Keeney, Gary L; Karlan, Beth Y; Karevan, Rod; Kalli, Kimberly R; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jensen, Allan; Jakubowska, Anna; Iversen, Edwin; Hosono, Satoyo; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Hoatlin, Maureen; Hillemanns, Peter; Heitz, Florian; Hein, Rebecca; Harter, Philipp; Halle, Mari K; Hall, Per; Gronwald, Jacek; Gore, Martin; Goodman, Marc T; Giles, Graham G; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Flanagan, James M; Fasching, Peter A; Ekici, Arif B; Edwards, Robert; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F; Dürst, Matthias; du Bois, Andreas; Dörk, Thilo; Doherty, Jennifer A; Despierre, Evelyn; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Cezary; Cramer, Daniel W; Cook, Linda S; Chen, Xiaoqing; Charbonneau, Bridget; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Campbell, Ian; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Brown, Robert; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brinton, Louise A; Bogdanova, Natalia; Block, Matthew S; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Beesley, Jonathan; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bandera, Elisa V; Baglietto, Laura; Bacot, François; Armasu, Sebastian M; Antonenkova, Natalia; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Aben, Katja K; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Sellers, Thomas A; Huntsman, David; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Laird, Peter W; Goode, Ellen L; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2013-01-01

    HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR)=1.13, P=3.1 × 10(-10)) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR=0.77, P=1.6 × 10(-8)) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

  11. CDX2 may be a useful marker to distinguish primary ovarian carcinoid from gastrointestinal metastatic carcinoids to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Lioyd, Joshua; Xu, Haodong; Cao, Dengfeng; Barner, Ross; Zhao, Chengquan

    2013-11-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoids and metastatic tumors share similar morphologic features. Metastatic carcinoids must be excluded from primary ones for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors are much more common with the majority arising from small intestine and appendix. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry for CDX2 in differentiating primary ovarian from metastatic carcinoids of primary gastrointestinal origin. Thirty primary pure ovarian carcinoids, 16 primary ovarian carcinoids arising in association with benign teratomas, 10 ovarian carcinoids metastatic from primary gastrointestinal tract and 70 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors were studied for the expression of CDX2 by immunohistochemistry. CDX2 expression revealed that 40 (57.1%) of 70 cases of gastrointestinal carcinoids and 9 (90%) of 10 ovarian metastatic carcinoids showed positive nuclear staining (diffuse or focal). On the other hand, 3 (18.8%) of 16 primary carcinoids with teratomatous elements showed weak positivity. Among the 70 gastrointestinal carcinoids, CDX2 was positive in 38 (90.5%) of 42 cases in the duodenum, small intestine, appendix, and only in 2 (11.8%) of 17 cases of colorectal carcinoids and none of the 11 cases in the stomach. It is concluded that CDX2 may be a useful marker to distinguish primary ovarian carcinoid from metastasis from small intestinal and appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.

  12. [Reconsidering the roles of female germ cells in ovarian development and folliculogenesis].

    PubMed

    Guigon, Céline J; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The production of fertilizable ova is the consequence of multiple events that start as soon as ovarian development and culminate at the time of ovulation. Throughout their development, germ cells are associated with companion somatic cells, which ensure germ cell survival, growth and maturation. Data obtained in vitro and in vivo on several animal models of germ cell depletion have led to uncover the many roles of germ cells on both ovarian development and folliculogenesis. During ovarian development, germ cells become progressively enclosed within epithelial structures called "ovigerous cords" constituted by pregranulosa cells, lined by a basement membrane. At the end of ovarian development, ovigerous cords fragment into primordial follicles, which are epithelial units constituted by an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells. Germ cells are necessary for the fragmentation of ovigerous cords into follicles, since in their absence, no follicle will form. Germ cells also ensure the differentiation of the ovarian somatic lineage, and they may inhibit the testis-differentiating pathway by preventing the conversion of pregranulosa cells into Sertoli cells, their counterpart in the testis. Regularly, primordial follicles are recruited into the growing follicle pool and initiate their growth. They develop through primary, preantral, antral and preovulatory stages before being ovulated. Interestingly, the action of the oocyte on companion somatic cells tightly depends on the follicular stage. In primordial follicles, the oocyte prevents the transdifferentiation of granulosa cells into cells resembling Sertoli cells. By contrast, as soon as the follicle enters growth, the oocyte regulates the functional differentiation of granulosa cells and at the latest stages, it prevents their premature maturation into luteal cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that the female germ cell act on companion somatic cells to regulate ovarian development and

  13. The role of LH in ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Elkin; Bosch, Ernesto; Fernandez, Iria; Portela, Susana; Ortiz, Ginna; Remohi, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    LH is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in folliculogenesis during the natural ovarian cycles. It has the same activity and shares receptors with hCG. However the use of LH in combination with FSH in controlled ovarian stimulation remains controversial. A practical approach concerning the usefulness of LH according to the endogenous level of LH is described herein. Specific groups of patients can benefit from ovarian stimulation with LH. New applications of LH/hCG activity are also discussed.

  14. Ovarian reserve testing: A user's guide.

    PubMed

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B

    2017-02-21

    Ovarian reserve is a complex clinical phenomenon that is influenced by age, genetics and environmental variables. Although it is challenging to predict the rate of an individual's ovarian reserve decline, clinicians are often asked for advice about fertility potential and/or recommendations regarding the pursuit of fertility treatment options. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian reserve testing (ORT), providing a guide for the Ob/Gyn generalist and reproductive endocrinologist. The ideal ovarian reserve test should be convenient, reproducible, display little if any intra- and inter-cycle variability and demonstrate high specificity to minimize the risk of wrongly diagnosing women as having diminished ovarian reserve and accurately identify those at greatest risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation prior to fertility treatment. Evaluation of ovarian reserve can help to identify patients who will have poor response or hyper-response to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART). Ovarian reserve testing should allow individualization of treatment protocols to achieve optimal response while minimizing safety risks. Ovarian reserve testing may inform patients regarding their reproductive lifespan and menopausal timing as well as aid in the counselling and selection of treatment for female cancer patients of reproductive age who receive gonadotoxic therapy. In addition, it may aid in establishing the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and provide insight into its severity. While there is currently no perfect ovarian reserve test, both antral follicular count (AFC) and antimullerian hormone (AMH) have good predictive value and are superior to day 3 FSH. The convenience of untimed sampling, age-specific values, availability of an automated platform and potential standardization of AMH assay, make this test the preferred biomarker for the evaluation of ovarian reserve in women.

  15. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Since reduction of ovulation is protective against ovarian cancer, prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing mortality . To achieve a...cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women. A chernoprevention trial is ongoing in...chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  16. GCIG Consensus Review: Uterine and Ovarian Leiomyosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Martee L.; Barrette, Brigitte A.; Baumann, Klaus; Gaffney, David; Hamilton, Anne L.; Kim, Jae-Weon; Maenpaa, Johanna U.; Pautier, Patricia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The GCIG aimed to provide an overview of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management. Methods Published articles and author experience were used to draft management overview. The draft manuscript was circulated to international members of the GCIG for review and comment, and appropriate revisions were made. Results The approach to management of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management is reviewed. Conclusions Uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive cancers that require specialized expertise for optimal management. PMID:25341583

  17. Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Tan, Qihua

    2013-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is universally the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction (androgen excess, oligo-/anovulation, polycystic ovary) and metabolic abnormalities (insulin resistance, obesity) with widely varying symptoms among the affected. Studies have shown a clear pattern of disparity in clinical manifestations of its component phenotypes across ethnic populations. Recent genetic association studies suggested differential genetic background that could contribute to the observed ethnic disparity. We summarize the current status in genetic studies of the disorder in different populations with a focus on ethnicity. Especially, we highlight and discuss the applications of recent developments in DNA sequencing, global transcriptional and epigenetic profiling that could help to unravel the molecular basis of the interethnic difference in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. It is hoped that identification and characterization of population-specific structural genetic and functional genomic patterns could help to not only deepen our understanding of the aetiology but also develop more efficient strategies for treatment and prevention of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

  18. Differential regulation of kit ligand A (kitlga) expression in the zebrafish ovarian follicle cells--evidence for the existence of a cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate-mediated binary regulatory system during folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai; Ge, Wei

    2015-02-15

    Kit ligand (Kitl) is an important paracrine factor involved in the activation of primordial follicles from the quiescent pool and in the maintenance of meiotic arrest before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). It has been reported that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates but luteinizing hormone (LH) suppresses the expression of Kitl in the granulosa cells in mammals. Considering that both gonadotropins signal in the follicle cells mainly by activating cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) pathway, we are intrigued by how cAMP differentially regulates Kitl expression. In the present study, we demonstrated that both human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibited insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced Akt phosphorylation and kitlga expression in the zebrafish follicle cells. Further experiments showed that cAMP was involved in regulating the expression of kitlga. However, two cAMP-activated effectors, protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), had converse effects. PKA promoted whereas Epac inhibited the expression of kitlga, as demonstrated by the respective activators. Interestingly, cAMP also appeared to exert differential effects on kitlga expression at different stages of follicle development during folliculogenesis, significantly stimulating kitlga expression at the early growth stage but suppressing it at the full-grown stage before final oocyte maturation, implying a potential mechanism for differential effects of the same pathway at different stages. The inhibitory effect of forskolin (activator of adenylate cyclase) and H89 (inhibitor of PKA) on IGF-I-induced expression of kitlga suggested cross-talk between the cAMP and IGF-I-activated PI3K-Akt pathways. This study, together with our previous findings on IGF-I regulation of kitlga expression, provides important clues to the underlying mechanism that regulates Kit ligand expression during

  19. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen of the goat. I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Steininger, K

    2013-03-01

    This review article summarizes the ultrasonographic findings of the reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum and intestines of goats. Ultrasonographic examination is done on both sides with the goat in a standing position using a linear array or convex transducer with a frequency of 5.0 to 7.5 MHz. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum are assessed; this organ appears as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. There are 0.8 to 2.1 reticular contractions per minute, which may be mono-, bi- and triphasic. The rumen is examined from the 8th to 12th intercostal spaces (ICSs) and flank on the left, and from the 12th ICS and flank on the right. The ruminal wall appears as a thick echoic line. The dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen are differentiated based on the longitudinal groove, which forms an echoic notch. Differentiation of the dorsal gas cap, fibre mat and fluid layer is not always straightforward and varies among goats. The omasum is examined from the 6th to 11th ICSs on the right. Only the wall closest to the transducer can be imaged and it appears as a crescent-shaped echoic line medial to the liver. The omasal folds and the wall furthest from the transducer cannot be seen. In about two thirds of goats, active omasal motility is apparent as a transient reduction in size of several centimetres, followed by relaxation and return to its original size. There is an average of 1.1 contractions per minute. The abomasum is examined from the ventral midline and the left and right paramedian regions and can always be seen from the ventral midline. In all but a few goats the abomasum is also visible from the left and right paramedian areas. It appears as a heterogeneous, moderately echoic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasal folds appear as prominent echoic bands in about two thirds of all goats. The small and large intestines are examined on the right from the 8th to the 12th ICSs. Loops of jejunum and

  20. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  1. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  2. Epigenomics of Ovarian Cancer and Its Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaping; Hardy, Tabitha M.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major cause of death among gynecological cancers and its etiology is still unclear. Currently, the two principle obstacles in treating this life threatening disease are lack of effective biomarkers for early detection and drug resistance after initial chemotherapy. Similar to other cancers, the initiation and development of ovarian cancer is characterized by disruption of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. While it is well known that it is challenging to treat ovarian cancer through a genetic strategy due in part to its heterogeneity, the reversibility of epigenetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer opens exciting new avenues for treatment. The epigenomics of ovarian cancer has therefore become a rapidly expanding field leading to intense investigation. A review on the current status of the field is thus warranted. In this analysis, we will evaluate the current status of epigenomics of ovarian cancer and will include epigenetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer development such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding microRNA. Development of biomarkers, the epigenetic basis for drug resistance and improved chemotherapy for ovarian cancer will also be assessed. In addition, the potential use of natural compounds as epigenetic modulators in chemotherapy shows promise in moving to the forefront of ovarian cancer treatment strategies. PMID:22303362

  3. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  4. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  5. Germline cells in ovarian surface epithelium of mammalians: a promising notion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It is a long held doctrine in reproductive biology that women are born with a finite number of oocytes and there is no oogenesis during the postnatal period. However, recent evidence challenges this by showing the presence of germ line stem cells in the human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), which can serve as a source of germ cells, and differentiate into oocyte like structures. Postnatal renewal of oocytes may have enormous therapeutic potential especially in women facing the risk of premature ovarian failure idiopathically or iatrogenically after exposure to gonadotoxic chemotherapy and radiation for cancer therapy. This article reviews current knowledge on germ line stem cells in human OSE. PMID:23245287

  6. The Effects of Prenatal Stocking Densities on the Fear Responses and Sociality of Goat (Capra hircus) Kids

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacki, Rachel M.; Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of ‘stress’ as “physical or perceived threats to homeostasis.” The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively). One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The ‘social test’ was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the ‘separation test’ assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001) and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001). This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001) and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats. PMID:24710177

  7. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  8. A case of ovarian enterobiasis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Choi, Min-Ho; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kim, Young Tak; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyu Rae

    2002-09-01

    A 36-year old Korean woman consulted a clinic for a regular gynecological examination, and a mass was noticed in her pelvis. She was referred to the Asan Medical Center, Seoul where transvaginal ultrasonography confirmed a pelvic mass exceeding 10 cm in diameter. She received total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and a borderline serous neoplasm with micropapillary features involving the left ovary and right ovarian serosa was histopathologically confirmed. In addition, a section of a nematode with numerous eggs was found in the parenchyma of the left ovary. The worm had degenerated but the eggs were well-preserved and were identified as those of Enterobius vermicularis. She is an incidentally recognized case of ovarian enterobiasis.

  9. [Premature ovarian failure: which protocols?].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Boulard, V; Cabry, R; Claeys, C; Oliéric, M-F; Sanguinet, P; Brasseur, F; Henri, I; Copin, H

    2008-09-01

    This review shows the results of the various studies concerning the protocols applied to the women presenting a premature ovarian failure. Will be thus analyzed the natural cycles (or semi-natural), the increase in the dose of gonadotrophins, the clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatases, the protocols with GnRH agonists long, short, stop or microdoses, the protocols with GnRH antagonists and the adjuvant treatments: aspirin, nitric oxyde, recombinant LH recombining, growth hormone and androgens. The interest of several protocols is to collect a sufficient number of oocytes (and thus of embryos to be transferred), making it possible to obtain reasonable rates of pregnancy. However, it arises that the rates of pregnancy observed among these women depend not only on their ovarian reserve and their age, but are also function of the type of infertility, of the cycle number and the uterus.

  10. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.

  11. Metocurine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in goats.

    PubMed

    Antognini, J F; Wood, R; Gronert, G A

    1995-12-01

    Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants can facilitate surgery and anaesthesia in numerous species. and volatile inhalational anaesthetics such as isoflurane potentiate their action. We studied the effect of isoflurane on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of metocurine in six goats. Each was studied twice: once during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia and once during isoflurane anaesthesia. The evoked response to sciatic nerve stimulation was measured using a force transducer attached to the hoof. Metocurine was infused until approximately 80-90% blockade. Plasma metocurine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Isoflurane increased the potency of metocurine significantly; IC50 (the concentration in the effect compartment at 50% paralysis) was 70 +/- 15 ng/mL during isoflurane anaesthesia and 129 +/- 42 ng/mL during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia (P < 0.03). Volume of distribution (63 +/- 18 mL/kg), clearance (1.6 +/- 0.4 mL/min.kg) and elimination half-life (99 +/- 9 min) during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia were not significantly different during isoflurane anaesthesia: 64 +/- 25 mL/kg, 1.5 +/- 0.7 mL/kg.min, 116 +/- 16 min respectively. We conclude that, relative to barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia, isoflurane potentiates metocurine in goats.

  12. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Magdalena; Calvo, Jorge H; Martínez, Marta; Marcos-Carcavilla, Ane; Cuevas, Javier; González, Carmen; Jurado, Juan J; de Tejada, Paloma Díez

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008) consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08) mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will facilitate the

  13. Interleukin-6 from Ovarian Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Proliferation, Sphere and Colony Formation and Tumorigenesis of an Ovarian Cancer Cell Line SKOV3

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Liu, Hwan-Wun; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the majority of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) is regarded as extraovarian, with the ovary being the secondary site. The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of ovarian mesenchymal stem cells (OvMSCs) and secreted IL-6 in the development of EOC. OvMSCs were derived from normal ovarian stroma. Cell surface markers and differentiation capability were determined. The effects of IL-6 and conditioned medium of OvMSCs on the malignant phenotype of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells were tested, and the status of STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation was investigated. OvMSCs had similar surface marker profiles as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, i.e., CD44 (+), CD90 (+) and CD45 (-), and was readily inducible to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. OvMSCs secreted an extremely high level (>2500 pg/ml) of IL-6. Treatment of SKOV3 cells with conditioned media from OvMSCs increased cell proliferation, tumor sphere formation and anchorage independent growth, and resulted in activation of STAT3 but not ERK. Coinjection of OvMSCs with SKOV3 cell enhanced tumorigenesis in NOD-SCID mice. All of these behaviors were blocked by IL-6 receptor blocking antibody administered in vitro or in vivo. The OvMSCs alone injected into mice had no tumor growth after 3 months. By secreting high levels of IL-6, OvMSCs enhance the proliferation, sphere and colony formation and tumorigenesis of SKOV3 cells. PMID:27698921

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    health-related factors ( endometriosis , obesity etc): (b) Analysis by histologic subtype (c) Analysis by tumor behavior (low malignant potential vs invasive... endometriosis and body-size and risk of ovarian cancer, by histologic subtype, and aim to have manuscripts for publication by the end of 2006. Task 5...2002 Progesterone Receptor (PR) C44T Not Commenced Progesterone Receptor (PR) G331A Berchuck et al., 2004 Aromatase (CYP19) C>T 3’UTR Completed 5alpha

  15. Ovarian cancer: targeting the untargetable.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The premise that all tumors are targetable has been met with some controversy in the approach to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Genomic analysis shows that these tumors (specifically, high-grade serous carcinomas) are genomically unstable and lack actionable driver mutations, much like HER2 in breast and gastric cancers. In this paper, Michael Birrer, MD, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital, argues that the interpretation of genomic data in ovarian cancer requires a more thoughtful approach that necessitates a closer inspection of the data beyond the mere presence or absence of mutations. We must look at the extensive genomic alterations in DNA and, to understand more about the role of those genes affected by these changes, look beyond the tumor to the role of the stroma. As such, Dr. Birrer is arguing for the importance of translational research. This will be the key to precision medicine in ovarian cancer, as we approach drug discovery and improvements in treatment. Dr. Birrer is a world-renowned scientist who has devoted his career to the study of gynecologic cancers. He has published over 200 papers and written over 27 book chapters and reviews, served on numerous leadership positions in gynecologic oncology (including as co-chair of the National Cancer Institute's Gynecologic Cancer Steering Committee), and remains a clinician-scientist with an active lab and an active clinic. His career trajectory has shown me it is possible to be engaged as a researcher and a clinician and the work he has done has already impacted the care of patients with ovarian cancer. Don S. Dizon, MD, ASCO Educational Book Editor.

  16. Epigenetic Characterization of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    using SMAD3 -reporter plasmids in luciferase assays (Figure 5B). In order to further confirm the activation of TGF-beta pathway activity by 5Aza...p- SMAD2/3 in ovarian cancer cell lines. B) Luciferase assay using the SMAD3 -reporter was conducted. 5Aza-dC treatment significantly increased the...region of the genome by restriction enzyme digestion and linker mediated PCR. (B) Microarray hybridization of labeled, enriched regions. Gene name

  17. Genetics of the ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Emanuele; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David

    2015-01-01

    Primordial follicles or non-growing follicles (NGFs) are the functional unit of reproduction, each comprising a single germ cell surrounded by supporting somatic cells. NGFs constitute the ovarian reserve (OR), prerequisite for germ cell ovulation and the continuation of the species. The dynamics of the reserve is determined by the number of NGFs formed and their complex subsequent fates. During the reproductive lifespan, the OR progressively diminishes due to follicle atresia as well as recruitment, maturation, and ovulation. The depletion of the OR is the major determining driver of menopause, which ensues when the number of primordial follicles falls below a threshold of ∼1,000. Therefore, genes and processes involved in follicle dynamics are particularly important to understand the process of menopause, both in the typical reproductive lifespan and in conditions like primary ovarian insufficiency, defined as menopause before age 40. Genes and their variants that affect the timing of menopause thereby provide candidates for diagnosis of and intervention in problems of reproductive lifespan. We review the current knowledge of processes and genes involved in the development of the OR and in the dynamics of ovarian follicles. PMID:26528328

  18. Genetics of primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, R; Ferrari, I; Bonomi, M; Persani, L

    2017-02-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by a loss of ovarian function before the age of 40 and account for one major cause of female infertility. POI relevance is continuously growing because of the increasing number of women desiring conception beyond 30 years of age, when POI prevalence is >1%. POI is highly heterogeneous and can present with ovarian dysgenesis and primary amenorrhea, or with secondary amenorrhea, and it can be associated with other congenital or acquired abnormalities. In most cases POI remains classified as idiopathic. However, the age of menopause is an inheritable trait and POI has a strong genetic component. This is confirmed by the existence of several candidate genes, experimental and natural models. The variable expressivity of POI defect may indicate that, this disease may frequently be considered as a multifactorial or oligogenic defect. The most common genetic contributors to POI are the X chromosome-linked defects. Here, we review the principal X-linked and autosomal genes involved in syndromic and non-syndromic forms of POI with the expectation that this list will soon be upgraded, thus allowing the possibility to predict the risk of an early age at menopause in families with POI.

  19. Premature ovarian insufficiency - fertility challenge.

    PubMed

    Check, J H

    2014-04-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency, defined as amenorrhea with estrogen deficiency in a woman younger than 40 associated with a serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >35 mIU/mL, can be temporarily reversed with ovulation achieved resulting in live delivered pregnancies. Though this may occur spontaneously the frequency of ovulation can be considerably increased by various techniques of lowering the elevated serum FSH level and thus up-regulate down-regulated FSH receptors in the granulosa-theca cells. This can be accomplished by either suppressing FSH release from the pituitary by negative feedback through high dose estrogen or by suppressing FSH production by inhibiting the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by either using GnRH agonists or antagonists. The estrogen method is the technique of choice because it is much less expensive than GnRH analogues, and helps stimulate cervical mucus and endometrial development. Ethinyl estradiol is the preferred estrogen because it does not contribute to the measurement of serum estradiol and thus allows proper monitoring of follicular maturation. Sometimes exogenous gonadotropins are needed as a boost but the dosage should be low so as not to down-regulate FSH receptors again. The technique is referred to as the FSH receptor restoration technique. Progesterone should be supplemented in the luteal phase. Physicians should be cognizant of trying to help prevent premature ovarian insufficiency by judiciously choosing less gonadotoxic cancer treatment alternatives that are equally efficacious. Also surgery for ovarian endometriomas should be performed only when absolutely necessary.

  20. Epidemiological survey of helminths of goats in southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Muhammad Mazhar; Raza, Muhammad Asif; Murtaza, Saeed; Akhtar, Saleem

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of helminths of goats such as Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Paramphistomum cervi, Oesophagostomum columbian, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Monezia expansa, Oestertagia oestertagi and Oestertagia circumcincta. The overall prevalence of all species of helminthes was 52% in goat. The study was designed to investigate the factors of helminths prevalence on the basis of sex and age of goat with the help of Chi-square. All the results obtained were non-significant due to some factors which directly affects the prevalence of helminths.

  1. A severe case of contagious ecthyma in Tswana goats.

    PubMed

    Baipoledi, E K; Nyange, J F C; Hyera, J M K

    2002-06-01

    The first severe case of caprine contagious ecthyma (parapox) in Tswana goats is described from Botswana. Affected animals were indigenous adult Tswana goats. The case involved a flock of 12 goats of which 4 (33.3%) were very severely affected but none died. The lesions were confined to the head and included swollen lips, swollen submandibular lymph nodes, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration on lip and gum mucosae and scab formation on ulcerated areas. No lesions were found on other parts of the body. This case was clinically indistinguishable from bluetongue.

  2. Identification of ovarian cancer associated genes using an integrated approach in a Boolean framework

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a complex disease where molecular mechanism remains elusive. A systems approach is needed to integrate diverse biological information for the prognosis and therapy risk assessment using mechanistic approach to understand gene interactions in pathways and networks and functional attributes to unravel the biological behaviour of tumors. Results We weighted the functional attributes based on various functional properties observed between cancerous and non-cancerous genes reported from literature. This weighing schema was then encoded in a Boolean logic framework to rank differentially expressed genes. We have identified 17 genes to be differentially expressed from a total of 11,173 genes, where ten genes are reported to be down-regulated via epigenetic inactivation and seven genes are up-regulated. Here, we report that the overexpressed genes IRAK1, CHEK1 and BUB1 may play an important role in ovarian cancer. We also show that these 17 genes can be used to form an ovarian cancer signature, to distinguish normal from ovarian cancer subjects and that the set of three genes, CHEK1, AR, and LYN, can be used to classify good and poor prognostic tumors. Conclusion We provided a workflow using a Boolean logic schema for the identification of differentially expressed genes by integrating diverse biological information. This integrated approach resulted in the identification of genes as potential biomarkers in ovarian cancer. PMID:23383610

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of the Cephalothorax and Eyestalk in Penaeus Monodon during Ovarian Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Philip; Elizur, Abigail; Williams, Richard; Cummins, Scott F.; Knibb, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In crustaceans, a range of physiological processes involved in ovarian maturation occurs in organs of the cephalothorax including the hepatopancrease, mandibular and Y-organ. Additionally, reproduction is regulated by neuropeptide hormones and other proteins released from secretory sites within the eyestalk. Reproductive dysfunction in captive-reared prawns, Penaeus monodon, is believed to be due to deficiencies in these factors. In this study, we investigated the expression of gene transcripts in the cephalothorax and eyestalk from wild-caught and captive-reared animals throughout ovarian maturation using custom oligonucleotide microarray screening. We have isolated numerous transcripts that appear to be differentially expressed throughout ovarian maturation and between wild-caught and captive-reared animals. In the cephalothorax, differentially expressed genes included the 1,3-β-D-glucan-binding high-density lipoprotein, 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase and vitellogenin. In the eyestalk, these include gene transcripts that encode a protein that modulates G-protein coupled receptor activity and another that encodes an architectural transcription factor. Each may regulate the expression of reproductive neuropeptides, such as the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone and molt-inhibiting hormone. We could not identify differentially expressed transcripts encoding known reproductive neuropeptides in the eyestalk of either wild-caught or captive-reared prawns at any ovarian maturation stage, however, this result may be attributed to low relative expression levels of these transcripts. In summary, this study provides a foundation for the study of target genes involved in regulating penaeid reproduction. PMID:22355268

  4. Evaluation of serum procathepsin B, cystatin B and cystatin C as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gashenko, Elena A.; Lebedeva, Valentina A.; Brak, Ivan V.; Tsykalenko, Elena A.; Vinokurova, Galina V.; Korolenko, Tatyana A.

    2013-01-01

    group. Cystatin B in ascites fluid increased equally in both ovarian cancer (p<0.001) and benign ovarian tumours group (p<0.05). Cystatin C concentration in ascites fluid increased only in patients with ovarian cancer (p<0.05) and did not change in the benign tumours group. Large increases of procathepsin B level (about 13-fold, p<0.001) and to a lesser degree of cystatin C (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and cystatin B levels (1.4 fold, p<0.001) were revealed in ascites fluids of patients with ovarian cancer compared to the control serum. The significant difference in serum procathepsin B levels was noted between the ovarian cancer and benign tumour groups (p<0.05), which could be used in differential diagnostics between malignant and benign gynaecological tumours. Conclusion Serum procathepsin B demonstrated significant promise as a new biomarker of ovarian cancer. PMID:23986888

  5. The diagnosis and pathological value of combined detection of HE4 and CA125 for patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jun-ying; He, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the value of individual and combined measurement of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Methods A clinical case-control study was performed in which the levels of serum HE4 and CA-125 of subjects with malignant, borderline, benign ovarian tumors and healthy women were measured before surgery. An immunohistochemistry method was used to measure the expression of HE4 in different tissues. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the level of HE4 and the pathologic type as well as the stage of the ovarian tumors. Results The level of HE4 in the serum was significantly elevated in the malignant ovarian cancer group compared with other groups. Women with benign ovarian tumors and non-neoplastic lesions, and healthy women were designated as references. When the level of HE4 in the serum was 58.66 pmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity of HE4 in diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors was 82.35% and 96.03%, respectively. The level of HE4 was negatively correlated with the differentiation extent of the tumors whereas positively correlated to the clinical staging. In the groups of malignant and borderline tumors, the levels of HE4 were higher than the other groups. The expression of HE4 was significant higher in the serous types of ovarian tumors than that of the mucous types (P<0.05). The level of HE4 in the serum and tissues were positively correlated with each other. Conclusion HE4 can be used as a novel clinical biomarker for predicting malignant ovarian tumors and its expression was closely related with the clinical pathological features of malignant ovarian tumors. PMID:28352780

  6. Discovery of Specific Metastasis-Related N-Glycan Alterations in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Based on Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yifan; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Zejian; Liu, Xijun; Zhao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Haiou; Ren, Shifang; Xu, Congjian; Gu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Generally, most of ovarian cancer cannot be detected until large scale and remote metastasis occurs, which is the major cause of high mortality in ovarian cancer. Therefore, it is urgent to discover metastasis-related biomarkers for the detection of ovarian cancer in its occult metastasis stage. Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of malignancy and certain types of glycan structures are well-known markers for tumor progressions. Thus, this study aimed to reveal specific changes of N-glycans in the secretome of the metastatic ovarian cancer. We employed a quantitative glycomics approach based on metabolic stable isotope labeling to compare the differential N-glycosylation of secretome between an ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and its high metastatic derivative SKOV3-ip. Intriguingly, among total 17 N-glycans identified, the N-glycans with bisecting GlcNAc were all significantly decreased in SKOV3-ip in comparison to SKOV3. This alteration in bisecting GlcNAc glycoforms as well as its corresponding association with ovarian cancer metastatic behavior was further validated at the glycotransferase level with multiple techniques including real-time PCR, western blotting, transwell assay, lectin blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. This study illustrated metastasis-related N-glycan alterations in ovarian cancer secretome in vitro for the first time, which is a valuable source for biomarker discovery as well. Moreover, N-glycans with bisecting GlcNAc shed light on the detection of ovarian cancer in early peritoneal metastasis stage which may accordingly improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24516574

  7. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality.

  8. Investigation of the hub genes and related mechanism in ovarian cancer via bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from the ovary. Objective This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of the development and progression of the ovarian cancer. Methods We first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the ovarian cancer samples and the healthy controls by analyzing the GSE14407 affymetrix microarray data, and then the functional enrichments of the DEGs were investigated. Furthermore, we constructed the protein-protein interaction network of the DEGs using the STRING online tools to find the genes which might play important roles in the progression of ovarian cancer. In addition, we performed the enrichment analysis to the PPI network. Results Our study screened 659 DEGs, including 77 up- and 582 down-regulated genes. These DEGs were enriched in pathways such as Cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, Pathways in cancer and Drug metabolism. CCNE1, CCNB2 and CYP3A5 were the significant genes identified from these pathways. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and network Module A was found closely associated with ovarian cancer. Hub nodes such as VEGFA, CALM1, BIRC5 and POLD1 were found in the PPI network. Module A was related to biological processes such as mitotic cell cycle, cell cycle, nuclear division, and pathways namely Cell cycle, Oocyte meiosis and p53 signaling pathway. Conclusions It indicated that ovarian cancer was closely associated to the dysregulation of p53 signaling pathway, drug metabolism, tyrosine metabolism and cell cycle. Besides, we also predicted genes such as CCNE1, CCNB2, CYP3A5 and VEGFA might be target genes for diagnosing the ovarian cancer. PMID:24341673

  9. Association of Hormone Receptor Expression with Survival in Ovarian Endometrioid Carcinoma: Biological Validation and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rambau, Peter; Kelemen, Linda E.; Steed, Helen; Quan, May Lynn; Ghatage, Prafull; Köbel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to validate whether hormone receptor expression is associated with longer survival among women diagnosed with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC), and whether it identifies patients with stage IC/II tumors with excellent outcome that could be spared from toxic chemotherapy. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) was assessed on 182 EC samples represented on tissue microarrays using the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type (AOVT) cohort. Statistical analyses were performed to test for associations with ovarian cancer specific survival. ER or PR expression was present in 87.3% and 86.7% of cases, respectively, with co-expression present in 83.0%. Expression of each of the hormonal receptors was significantly higher in low-grade tumors and tumors with squamous differentiation. Expression of ER (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.42, p = 0.0002) and of PR (HR = 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.53, p = 0.0011) were significantly associated with longer ovarian cancer specific survival adjusted for age, grade, treatment center, stage, and residual disease. However, the five-year ovarian cancer specific survival among women with ER positive stage IC/II EC was 89.0% (standard error 3.3%) and for PR positive tumors 89.9% (standard error 3.2%), robustly below the 95% threshold where adjuvant therapy could be avoided. We validated the association of hormone receptor expression with ovarian cancer specific survival independent of standard predictors in an independent sample set of EC. The high ER/PR co-expression frequency and the survival difference support further testing of the efficacy of hormonal therapy in hormone receptor-positive ovarian EC. The clinical utility to identify a group of women diagnosed with EC at stage IC/II that could be spared from adjuvant therapy is limited. PMID:28264438

  10. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy: A 10 years’ experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Lajya Devi; Tondon, Rimpy; Goel, Poonam; Sehgal, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary ovarian pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy having incidence of 1/7000-1/40,000 in live births and 0.5-3% of all ectopic gestations. Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), salpingitis, infertility, and assisted reproductive techniques are the important risk factors. Approximately, 75% terminate in first trimester and are often misdiagnosed as corpus luteum haemorrhage. Preoperative diagnosis by ultrasonography (USG) in early pregnancy can help in conservative medical/ surgical management. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find the incidence, risk factors, role of USG in pre-operative diagnosis, feasibility of conservative management with medical method or minimal invasive surgery in developing countries like India. Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective cross-sectional study of ovarian pregnancies managed at Government Medical College and Hospital Chandigarh between July 2000 to July 2010. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, management of ovarian pregnancy, and reviewed the literature. Results: Incidence of ovarian pregnancy was 4.9% of all ectopic pregnancies (14/523). Thirteen (93%) patients presented in first trimester with acute pain abdomen and of these ten patients had bleeding per vaginum. One (7%) patient referred from peripheral hospital at term gestation with ultrasonographic diagnosis of breech presention with plecenta previa. Pre-operative diagnosis was made only in two cases (11%). All cases were managed by laparotomy. Excision of the sac with conservation of the ovary was done in eleven cases (78%) and oophorectomy was done in two cases (14%). Conclusion: Incidence of ovarian pregnancy is on the rise. Although ultrasonography can detect ovarian gestations in unruptured cases but cannot easily differentiate ovarian from other tubal gestation in ruptured state. Medical management is usually not feasible it most of the patients present in ruptured state

  11. Lysine-specific demethylase KDM3A regulates ovarian cancer stemness and chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Ramadoss, S; Sen, S; Ramachandran, I; Roy, S; Chaudhuri, G; Farias-Eisner, R

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies due to the development of acquired chemoresistance and disease relapse. Although the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subset of tumor cells with the self-renewal and differentiation capabilities, in therapeutic resistance is beginning to be better understood, the significance of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms responsible for integrating the stemness with drug resistance remain poorly understood. Here we identified that lysine demethylase KDM3A as a critical regulator of ovarian cancer stemness and cisplatin resistance by inducing the expressions of pluripotent molecules Sox2 and Nanog and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), respectively. In addition, KDM3A induces ovarian cancer growth while antagonizing cellular senescence by repressing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1. The underlying mechanism of the noted biological processes include KDM3A-mediated stimulation of Sox2 expression, and demethylating p53 protein and consequently, modulating its target genes such as Bcl-2 and p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. Consistently, KDM3A depletion inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells in athymic nude mice. Moreover, KDM3A is abundantly expressed and positively correlated with Sox2 expression in human ovarian cancer tissues. In brief, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which KDM3A promotes ovarian CSCs, proliferation and chemoresistance and thus, highlights the significance of KDM3A as a novel therapeutic target for resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27694900

  12. Roles of Cx43 and AKAP95 in ovarian cancer tissues in G1/S phase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenzhi; Hua, Suhang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yangyang; Yang, Jinghui; Deng, Jiali; Huo, Yunjie; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Teng, Bogang; Yu, Xiuyi; Zhang, Yongxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of A-kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95), cell cycle protein E1 (cyclinE1) and D1 (cyclinD1), and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in ovarian cancer tissues, the relationship between four proteins and clinicopathologic parameters, and the correlation between these proteins. Methods: The expression of proteins in 54 cases of ovarian cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: The positive expression rates of AKAP95, cyclinD1 and cyclinE1 in ovarian cancer tissues were 72.22%, 66.67% and 79.63%, respectively, which were higher than that of ovarian pericarcinoma tissues expressing as 33.33%, 25% and 8.30% (P<0.05). The positive expression rate of Cx43 in ovarian cancer tissues was 40.74%, which was lower than that of ovarian pericarcinoma tissues expressing as 75%; respectively, and the difference was statistically significant between groups (P<0.05). The expression of cyclinD1 in ovarian cancer tissues was related to the histologic type (P<0.05) while it showed no correlation with the degree of differentiation (P>0.05). Additionally, the expression of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 in ovarian cancer tissues showed no correlation with the degree of differentiation or the histologic type (P>0.05). Protein expressions of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 were correlated with each other (P<0.05), and the expressions of cyclinD1, cyclinE1 and Cx43 were also correlated with each other (P<0.05). However, AKAP95 and cyclinD1 showed no correlation (P>0.05). Conclusion: AKAP95, cyclinD1 and cyclinE1 play an important role in promoting the process of ovarian cancer formation. The tumor inhibitory effects of Cx43 protein on the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were weakened. The expression of cyclinD1 in ovarian cancer tissues is related to the histologic type while it shows no correlation with the degree of differentiation. Additionally, the expression of AKAP95, Cx43 and cyclinE1 in ovarian

  13. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Valerie A.; Manahan, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient's diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population. PMID:27051544

  14. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Valerie A; Manahan, Kelly J; Geisler, John P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient's diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  15. [Histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma and their importance for clinical prognosis].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common and most lethal cancers. For Bulgaria (2012) it occupies third place in the structure of gynecological malignancies with a share of 22.6 percent, while regarding mortality is at first place with 35.7 percent. New cases are 838 with crude incidence 22.3 x 10(5), and the deaths are 463 with crude mortality 12.3 x 10(5). Ovarian tumors, even when they are of the same histological type clearly differ in their cellular differentiation, molecular characteristiques and subsequently in their biological behavior. In this review, we discuss the frequency origin, morphology and molecular characteristiques of the five major subtypes of ovarian cancer--serous low and high grade, mucinous, endometroid and and clear cell. The role of different risk and prognostic factors for the efficiency of the treatment and control of disease been discussed.

  16. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Transcriptomic analysis provides insight into high-altitude acclimation in domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qianzi; Huang, Wenyao; Guan, Jiuqiang; Jin, Long; Che, Tiandong; Fu, Yuhua; Hu, Yaodong; Tian, Shilin; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2015-08-10

    Domestic goats are distributed in a wide range of habitats and have acclimated to their local environmental conditions. To investigate the gene expression changes of goats that are induced by high altitude stress, we performed RNA-seq on 27 samples from the three hypoxia-sensitive tissues (heart, lung, and skeletal muscle) in three indigenous populations from distinct altitudes (600 m, 2000 m, and 3000 m). We generated 129Gb of high-quality sequencing data (~4Gb per sample) and catalogued the expression profiles of 12,421 annotated hircine genes in each sample. The analysis showed global similarities and differences of high-altitude transcriptomes among populations and tissues as well as revealed that the heart underwent the most high-altitude induced expression changes. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns, and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variant-containing genes that were highly differentiated between the high- and low-altitude populations. These genes have known or potential roles in hypoxia response and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for high-altitude stress. Therefore, they are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to high-altitude acclimation.

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel tick-borne flavivirus subtype in goats (Capra hircus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Karen L; Morales, Ana Balseiro; Johnson, Nicholas; Ayllón, Nieves; Höfle, Ursula; Alberdi, Pilar; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Marín, Juan Francisco García; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Fooks, Anthony R

    2015-07-01

    In 2011, a neurological disease was reported in a herd of goats (Capra hircus) in Asturias, Spain. Initial sequencing identified the causative agent as louping ill virus (LIV). Subsequently, with the application of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, empirical data demonstrates that the LIV-like virus detected is significantly divergent from LIV and Spanish sheep encephalitis virus (SSEV). This virus encoded an amino acid sequence motif at the site of a previously identified marker for differentiating tick-borne flaviviruses that was shared with a virus previously isolated in Ireland in 1968. The significance of these observations reflects the diversity of tick-borne flaviviruses in Europe. These data also contribute to our knowledge of the evolution of tick-borne flaviviruses and could reflect the movement of viruses throughout Europe. Based on these observations, the proposed name for this virus is Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV), to distinguish it from SSEV.

  19. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  20. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  1. Effect of three pFSH doses on superovulation and embryo quality in goats during two breeding seasons in north-eastern mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Dávila, F; Ledezma-Torres, R A; Padilla-Rivas, G; Del Bosque-González, A S; González Gómez, A; Bernal-Barragán, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of three pFSH doses (80 mg; 145 mg and 215 mg) on ovarian response and on quantity and quality of transferable embryos of goats during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. Ovary structures were exposed (laparatomy under general anaesthesia) and numbers of follicles and corpora lutea were registered. Surgical embryo flushing was conducted to count and classify embryos. There were more follicles (3.4 ± 1.1) in does administered 80 mg of pFSH (p < 0.05) than in goats administered 145 mg of pFSH (2.2 ± 1.1) and 215 mg of pFSH (0.9 ± 0.6). Numbers of corpora lutea, blastocysts, and recovered and transferable embryos of goats administered 145 mg pFSH (13.4 ± 3.7, 2.42 ± 1.0, 3.4 ± 1.2 and 3.2 ± 1.1, respectively) and those of goats administered 215 mg pFSH (11.6 ± 2.6, 3.2 ± 0.9, 5.7 ± 1.5, and 5.6 ± 1.5) were greater (p < 0.05) than values obtained from goats administered 80 mg pFSH (4.0 ± 1.5, 0.5 ± 0.3, 1.0 ± 0.5, and 0.8 ± 0.5). Numbers of morula of does administered 80 and 145 mg pFSH (0.4 ± 0.4 and 0.8 ± 0.3) were lower (p < 0.05) than those obtained from animals treated with 215 mg pFSH (2.4 ± 0.9). There was no effect of season upon the analyzed variables. In conclusion, under the prevalent conditions in north-eastern Mexico, administration of 145 or 215 mg pFSH in a decreasing dose schedule over 3.5 days to bred goats provided a satisfactory superovulatory result.

  2. Goats as an osteopenic animal model.

    PubMed

    Leung, K S; Siu, W S; Cheung, N M; Lui, P Y; Chow, D H; James, A; Qin, L

    2001-12-01

    A large osteopenic animal model that resembles human osteoporotic changes is essential for osteoporosis research. This study aimed at establishing a large osteopenic animal model in goats. Twenty-five Chinese mountain goats were used in which they were either ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with a low-calcium diet (n = 16) or sham-operated (SHAM; n = 9). Monthly photodensitometric analysis on proximal tibial metaphysis and calcaneus was performed. Two iliac crest biopsy specimens obtained before and 6 months after OVX were used for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Lumbar vertebrae (L2 and L7), humeral heads, and calcanei were collected for BMD measurement after euthanasia. The humeral heads and calcanei were used in biomechanical indentation test. BMD measurement showed a significant 25.0% (p = 0.006) decrease in BMD of the iliac crest biopsy specimens 6 months after OVX. It also was statistically significant when compared with the SHAM (p = 0.028). BMD at L2, L7, calcaneus, and humeral head reduced by 24-33% (p ranged from 0.001 to 0.011) when compared with the SHAM. Photodensitometry showed a continuous decrease in bone density after OVX. There were significant decreases of 18.9% in proximal tibial metaphysis (p = 0.003) and 21.8% in calcaneus (p = 0.023) in the OVX group 6 months postoperatively. Indentation test on the humeral head and calcaneus showed a significant decrease 52% (p = 0.006) and 54% (p = 0.001), respectively, in energy required for displacement of 3 mm in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group. The decreases correlated significantly to the decrease in BMD of the corresponding specimens (r2 = 0.439 and 0.581; p < 0.001 for both). In conclusion, this study showed that OVX plus a low-calcium diet could induce significant osteopenia and deterioration of mechanical properties of the cancellous bone in goats.

  3. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, responsive ovarian cancer cells undergo apoptotic cell death . Several groups have shown that the...apoptotic protease, caspase 2 (C2), is an essential activator of cell death in ovarian cancer cells treated with cisplatin and we have found, by knock

  4. Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Mood, Narges Izadi; Samadi, Nasrin; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Sarmadi, Soheila; Eftekhar, Zahra; Yarandi, Fariba

    2009-01-01

    Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare condition of gestational or nongestational origin. The possibility of gestational origin can be suspected by the presence of a corpus luteum of pregnancy but definite diagnosis would be based on genetic analysis. Here, we present two cases of pure ovarian choriocarcinoma in the forth decade of life with the possibility of gestational origin. PMID:21772904

  5. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with ovarian neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hudson, C N; Curling, M; Potsides, P; Lowe, D G

    1993-04-01

    The prevalence of several paraneoplastic syndromes associated with ovarian cancer was determined from a clinicopathological study of 908 patients with primary ovarian malignancy in the North East Thames Region. The diversity and rarity of these manifestations are great and the explanation for them is difficult. Circumstantial evidence suggests that in some cases an autoimmune phenomenon is the most plausible cause.

  6. Paclitaxel sensitivity in relation to ABCB1 expression, efflux and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Healey, Sue; Henderson, Michelle; Wong, Mark; Emmanuel, Catherine; Galletta, Laura; Johnatty, Sharon E; Bowtell, David; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray; Harnett, Paul; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary L; deFazio, Anna

    2014-05-09

    ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may underlie the association. Using cell-based models, we evaluated the correlations between ABCB1 expression, polymorphisms, transporter activity and paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer (n = 10) and lymphoblastoid (n = 19) cell lines. Close associations between ABCB1 expression, transporter function and paclitaxel sensitivity were found in lymphoblastoid cell lines, although we could not demonstrate an association with common SNPs. In ovarian cancer cell lines, ABCB1 expression was low and the association between expression and function was lost. These results suggest that ABCB1 related survival difference in ovarian cancer patients is more likely to be due to differential whole body paclitaxel clearance mediated by normal cells rather than a direct effect on cancer cells.

  7. Vascular contributions to early ovarian development: potential roles of VEGFA isoforms.

    PubMed

    McFee, Renee M; Cupp, Andrea S

    2013-01-01

    Vascularisation is an essential component of ovarian morphogenesis; however, little is known regarding factors regulating the establishment of vasculature in the ovary. Angiogenesis involving extensive endothelial cell migration is a critical component of vessel formation in the embryonic testis but vasculogenic mechanisms appear to play a prominent role in ovarian vascularisation. Vasculature has a strong influence on the formation of ovarian structures, and the early developmental processes of ovigerous cord formation, primordial follicle assembly and follicle activation are all initiated in regions of the ovary that are in close association with the highly vascular medulla. The principal angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), has an important role in both endothelial cell differentiation and vascular pattern development. Expression of VEGFA has been localised to ovigerous cords and follicles in developing ovaries and an increased expression of pro-angiogenic Vegfa isoform mRNA in relation to anti-angiogenic isoform mRNA occurs at the same time-point as the peak of primordial follicle assembly in perinatal rats. Elucidation of specific genes that affect vascular development within the ovary may be critical for determining not only the normal mechanisms of ovarian morphogenesis, but also for understanding certain ovarian reproductive disorders.

  8. BMP15 and GDF9 Gene Mutations in Premature Ovarian Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravindra; Alwani, Madhuri; Kosta, Susmit; Kaur, Ravjyot; Agarwal, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is an ovarian defect characterized by the premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40, representing one major cause of female infertility. Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) have been shown to be associated with POF. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from 52 idiopathic premature ovarian failure patients and 100 normal control individuals. Exons of BMP15 and GDF9 gene were amplified using PCR method and subjected to directed sequencing. Variants were identified by comparing the sequences obtained with normal sequences from NCBI database. Results: Four BMP15 gene variants were identified in 6 patients in heterozygous condition. Out of these 4 variants, 3 variants namely, c.165A>T (p.Glu55Asp), c.538 G>T (p.Aln180 Ser) and c. 510_512 delT were novel variants. In silico analysis using SIFT, Provean and Polyphen 2 score predicted the non-deleterious effect of c.165A>T and c.538 G>T variant. 788insTCT variant was identified in 3 patients. No variant was identified in GDF9 gene in any patients and controls. Conclusion: Although the variant has been identified in BMP15 gene but it may not be associated with the premature ovarian failure.

  9. Anthropometric measures and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the nurses' health study.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Baer, Heather J; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiologic evaluations of the relationship between anthropometry and ovarian cancer risk have not been conclusive. Using data collected from two large cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII, we prospectively evaluated the association between waist and hip circumference, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and BMI with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Women completed biennial questionnaires assessing ovarian cancer risk factors beginning in 1976 (NHS) and 1989 (NHSII). For the WHR and BMI analyses, 333 and 862 confirmed cases were identified, respectively, through 1 June 2006 (NHS) and 1 June 2005 (NHSII). WHR and waist circumference were not associated with risk (P-trend = 0.63 and 0.65, respectively). There was evidence for a decreased risk with increasing hip circumference among postmenopausal women (P-trend = 0.03), but a suggestive positive association among premenopausal women (P-trend = 0.04) (P-interaction = 0.01). The hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of hip circumference among pre- and postmenopausal women were 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.45-5.23) and 0.66 (95%CI = 0.37-1.16), respectively. BMI was not clearly associated with risk in pre- or postmenopausal women. Results from this large prospective study suggest that hip circumference could be a possible risk factor for premenopausal ovarian cancer, but may reduce risk of postmenopausal ovarian cancer. The differential effect of hip circumference based on menopausal status requires further confirmation.

  10. Decreased expression of CYP27B1 correlates with the increased aggressiveness of ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    BROŻYNA, ANNA A.; JÓŹWICKI, WOJCIECH; JOCHYMSKI, CEZARY; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.

    2015-01-01

    CYP27B1 hydroxylates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in position C1α into biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol. CYP27B1 is expressed in normal tissues and tumors. Since calcitriol indicates anticancer activities and CYP27B1 expression can be deregulated during malignant progression, we analyzed its expression in ovarian cancers in relation to pathomorphological features of tumors and overall survival (OS). Expression of CYP27B1 was evaluated in 61 ovarian tumors, 18 metastases and 10 normal ovaries. Normal ovarian epithelium showed the highest levels CYP27B1 with a significant decrease in its expression in ovarian cancers. Both poorly differentiated primary tumors and metastases showed the lowest level of CYP27B1 expression, while non-metastasizing tumors showed a higher CYP27B1 level than tumors that developed metastases. The expression of CYP27B1 was positively correlated with a lower proliferation rate, lower dynamism of tumor growth and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte response. Furthermore, CYP27B1 expression was negatively correlated with tumor cell modeling of their microenvironment. CYP27B1 expression was also associated with longer OS time. In summary, our results suggest that local expression of CYP27B1 in ovarian tumor cells can modify their behavior and promote a less aggressive phenotype by affecting local concentrations of active of vitamin D levels within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25501638

  11. The prognostic significance of specific HOX gene expression patterns in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoe; Moller-Levet, Carla; McGrath, Sophie; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Kavitha Madhuri, Thumuluru; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Pandha, Hardev; Morgan, Richard; Michael, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    HOX genes are vital for all aspects of mammalian growth and differentiation, and their dysregulated expression is related to ovarian carcinogenesis. The aim of the current study was to establish the prognostic value of HOX dysregulation as well as its role in platinum resistance. The potential to target HOX proteins through the HOX/PBX interaction was also explored in the context of platinum resistance. HOX gene expression was determined in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary EOCs by QPCR, and compared to expression in normal ovarian epithelium and fallopian tube tissue samples. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA and t-tests, using statistical software R and GraphPad. The analysis identified 36 of the 39 HOX genes as being overexpressed in high grade serous EOC compared to normal tissue. We detected a molecular HOX gene-signature that predicted poor outcome. Overexpression of HOXB4 and HOXB9 was identified in high grade serous cell lines after platinum resistance developed. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer with the HXR9 peptide enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. In conclusion, this study has shown the HOX genes are highly dysregulated in ovarian cancer with high expression of HOXA13, B6, C13, D1 and D13 being predictive of poor clinical outcome. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer in platinum-resistant cancer represents a potentially new therapeutic option that should be further developed and tested in clinical trials.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Serum Angiogenesis Markers in Ovarian Cancer Using Multiplex Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Horala, Agnieszka; Swiatly, Agata; Matysiak, Jan; Banach, Paulina; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2017-01-01

    As cancer development involves pathological vessel formation, 16 angiogenesis markers were evaluated as potential ovarian cancer (OC) biomarkers. Blood samples collected from 172 patients were divided based on histopathological result: OC (n = 38), borderline ovarian tumours (n = 6), non-malignant ovarian tumours (n = 62), healthy controls (n = 50) and 16 patients were excluded. Sixteen angiogenesis markers were measured using BioPlex Pro Human Cancer Biomarker Panel 1 immunoassay. Additionally, concentrations of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) were measured in patients with adnexal masses using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In the comparison between OC vs. non-OC, osteopontin achieved the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (sensitivity 69%, specificity 78%). Multimarker models based on four to six markers (basic fibroblast growth factor—FGF-basic, follistatin, hepatocyte growth factor—HGF, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB—PDGF-AB/BB, leptin) demonstrated higher discriminatory ability (AUC 0.80–0.81) than a single marker (AUC 0.79). When comparing OC with benign ovarian tumours, six markers had statistically different expression (osteopontin, leptin, follistatin, PDGF-AB/BB, HGF, FGF-basic). Osteopontin was the best single angiogenesis marker (AUC 0.825, sensitivity 72%, specificity 82%). A three-marker panel consisting of osteopontin, CA125 and HE4 better discriminated the groups (AUC 0.958) than HE4 or CA125 alone (AUC 0.941 and 0.932, respectively). Osteopontin should be further investigated as a potential biomarker in OC screening and differential diagnosis of ovarian tumours. Adding osteopontin to a panel of already used biomarkers (CA125 and HE4) significantly improves differential diagnosis between malignant and benign ovarian tumours. PMID:28075407

  13. Expression profiles of Fsh-regulated ovarian genes during oogenesis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors.

  14. Positive and negative gestational handling influences placental traits and mother-offspring behavior in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Emma M; Mulligan, Johan; Hall, Sarah A; Donbavand, Jo E; Palme, Rupert; Aldujaili, Emad; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Dwyer, Cathy M

    2016-04-01

    Dairy animals are subjected to a number of potential stressors throughout their lives, including daily interactions with humans. The quality of these interactions may have direct consequences for the animal undergoing the experience, but if such events occur during gestation it may also affect the developing fetus. This study examined the effects of differential handling during mid-gestation in 40 twin-bearing Saanen×Toggenburg primiparous goats. Between days 80 and 115 of gestation (gestation=150 days), goats were subjected to aversive (AVS, n=13), gentle (GEN, n=13) or minimal (M, n=14) handling protocols for 10 minute periods twice daily. The control (M) group did not receive handling treatments and all goats received normal husbandry procedures outside treatment periods. Salivary cortisol measured during the treatment period was higher in AVS goats (mean cortisol (sem) in pg/μl: AVS: 176.7 (18.2), GEN: 119.6 (11.1), M: 126.5 (13.7); P=0.007). Data collection was focussed on mother-offspring behaviors 2h post-partum, placental morphology and colostrum quality. AVS goats were the only treatment group to suffer fetal loss (16% loss vs 0% in GEN and M, P=0.05). Treatment also influenced placental morphology with a tendency for fewer cotyledons evident in placentae from the aversive treatment (AVS: 87.9 (7.8), GEN: 107.1 (7.9), M: 112.1 (9.3), P=0.093), and significantly fewer medium sized cotyledons (AVS: 67.6 (7.8), GEN: 89.3 (6.4), M: 84.3 (5.4), P=0.042). GEN goats displayed more grooming and nosing behaviors towards their young during the first 2h post-partum (grooming: GEN: 89.3% (7.1), AVS: 72.6% (7.7), M: 63.4% (9.0), P=0.045; nosing frequency: GEN: 58.8 (12.5), AVS: 28.6 (11.1), M: 34.7 (6.5), P=0.021). There was an overall trend for kids from mothers experiencing the AVS treatment to take longer to stand, reach the udder and suck compared to kids from GEN and M treatment groups. Treatment significantly affected latency to perform play behavior, with kids

  15. Abortion in goats after experimental administration of Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, R F; Evêncio-Neto, J; Freitas, S H; Dória, R G S; Saurini, N O; Colodel, E M; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2011-11-01

    The abortive properties and the clinical and pathological features of poisoning by the pods of Stryphnodendron fissuratum were studied in 8 pregnant goats. Two goats that ingested 3.25 g/kg body weight daily doses for 2 days, and 2 that ingested 2.5 g/kg daily doses for 3 days showed digestive clinical signs and aborted, but the animals that ingested 3 daily doses of 2.5 g/kg died. Lesions of the digestive system and liver were observed at necropsy. Two goats that ingested a single dose of 5.5 g/kg showed mild clinical signs and recovered without abortion. Another 2 goats that ingested single doses of 5 g/kg showed no clinical signs. These results demonstrate that Stryphnodendron fisuratum pods cause digestive disorders, liver disease, abortion and death.

  16. Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Hatchette, T. F.; Hudson, R. C.; Schlech, W. F.; Campbell, N. A.; Hatchette, J. E.; Ratnam, S.; Raoult, D.; Donovan, C.; Marrie, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty-seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism. PMID:11384518

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.

  18. First molecular evidence of kobuviruses in goats in Italy.

    PubMed

    Melegari, Irene; Di Profio, Federica; Sarchese, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Marsilio, Fulvio; Di Martino, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    By screening 139 rectal swabs collected from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic goats in Italy, we identified kobuvirus RNA in eight samples (5.8 %). Higher positivity rates were observed in diarrhoeic goats (6.5 %, 3/46) than in asymptomatic animals (5.4 %, 5/93), although the difference was not statistically significant. Based on the analysis of a portion of the 3D gene, four strains were found to share the highest nucleotide (nt) sequence identity with bovine kobuviruses (95.0-98.0 %), which had been detected previously in calves in the UK and Korea. Interestingly, two strains were genetically related to the newly discovered caprine kobuviruses (83.0-97.0 % nt sequence identity), which had been identified in black goats in Korea and in roe deer in Italy. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that kobuviruses are common enteric viruses of goats, although their clinical relevance remains to be investigated.

  19. Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.

    PubMed

    Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

    1998-04-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer.

  20. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...