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Sample records for goats experimentally infected

  1. Experimental pestivirus infections in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Bjerkås, I

    1991-08-01

    Fifty pregnant goats, inoculated intramuscularly at different gestational stages with a non-cytopathic ovine pestivirus or a cytopathic bovine pestivirus, all developed pestivirus-neutralizing antibodies within 5 weeks of inoculation. The incidence of reproductive failure was similar for the two agents. Parturition at term with only healthy kids occurred in 13 (26 per cent) of the goats. Viable kids were not born to any of the 17 goats inoculated at about day 40 of gestation. Three of the 17 delivered dead or weak kids, seven aborted and three of seven which were necropsied during pregnancy had markedly underdeveloped and autolysed or mummified fetuses in utero, while four were barren. When inoculated at around the 60th day of gestation, two of 18 animals gave birth to only healthy kids, 12 to dead and/or weak kids, two aborted and, at necropsy, a small, decomposed fetus was found in one goat while one other was barren. In this group, one kid was ataxic and seven others had body tremors characteristic of border disease. One of the latter kids was viable. Of 15 goats inoculated at around day 100 of gestation, 11 gave birth to healthy kids only, three to dead and/or weak kids and one aborted. In 23 progeny, histological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) consisted mainly of cerebral white matter necrosis, cerebellar dysplasia, hypercellular areas in white matter and lymphocytic perivascular cuffings. All seven weak-born kids with signs of border disease had CNS lesions, particularly cerebellar dysplasia and/or hypercellular areas. Non-cytopathic pestivirus was isolated from tissues from all eight progeny examined in the 40-day inoculation group, from tissues and/or serum from 10 of 23 progeny in the 60-day group, and from four of 24 in the 100-day group. Persistent infection was demonstrated in a healthy kid, in a viable shaker and in two other kids which appeared normal at birth. Examination of offspring before ingestion of colostrum revealed pestivirus

  2. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  3. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  4. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  5. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the

  6. Experimental Infection of Goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis: a Model for Comparative Tuberculosis Research.

    PubMed

    Schinköthe, J; Möbius, P; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in man and animals. In this study, 18 goat kids were inoculated orally with a high dose of MAH. One group of goats (n = 9) developed severe clinical disease for up to 2-3 months post inoculation (mpi). At necropsy examination, there were ulcerative and granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and granulomas with extensive necrosis in the lymph nodes (LNs) of the cranial mesenteric lymphocentre (CMLNs). Culture revealed growth of MAH in all lesions with systemic spread. A second group of goats were healthy at the end of the trial (13 mpi); however, all had extensive granulomas in the CMLNs, but no extra-intestinal spread of bacteria. Moderate faecal shedding occurred in all goats up to 2 mpi. Microscopical characterization of the granulomas revealed solid non-necrotic, necrotic, calcified and fibrocalcified granulomas with resemblance to those seen in human and bovine tuberculosis. The two different courses of disease, with highly heterogenic lesions, systemic spread in goats with severe clinical disease and the development of granulomas of all stages in the surviving goats, makes the experimental infection of goats with MAH a valuable model for tuberculosis research. This model might allow new insights into host-pathogen interaction and anti-mycobacterial compound testing. PMID:27426001

  7. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  8. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions.

  9. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-04-04

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats.

  10. Experimental infection of goat fetuses in utero with a stable, rough mutant of Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Roop, R M; Jeffers, G; Bagchi, T; Walker, J; Enright, F M; Schurig, G G

    1991-09-01

    Fetuses of goats in their last trimester of pregnancy were experimentally infected with Brucella abortus strain RB51, a stable rough mutant deficient in the perosamine O-chain content of its lipopolysaccharide. RB51 maintained its rough phenotype in vivo and did not induce abortion. Infection with RB51 resulted in the production of significant levels of IgG type antibodies specific for B abortus cellular antigens distinct from the perosamine O-chain. These findings suggest that strain RB51 will be useful in the pregnant goat for studying the role of brucella antigens other than the lipopolysaccharide O-chain in the immune response to brucellosis.

  11. Effect of feeding Sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus (HC) larvae. In the first experiment, ten, 8-10 months old male kids from Spanish and Alpine cross bred, pair matched for...

  12. Effect of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B R; Kommuru, D S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Shakya, K P; Miller, J E

    2011-05-31

    Effect of sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus larvae. In the first experiment, ten 8-10 month old male Spanish and Alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed SL or bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay one week before infection and were infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). The animals were maintained on the same diet for the remaining period and were slaughtered 28 days post-infection (DPI) to determine the establishment of incoming infective larvae. Goats fed SL had lower establishment (P<0.05) of H. contortus larvae than that of the control goats fed BG hay. In the second experiment, twenty-five 8-10 months old male Alpine cross, Saanen, Nubian×Saanen and Spanish kids reared in confinement on BG were experimentally infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). On 35 DPI, the animals were allocated to two groups after blocking by fecal egg count (FEC), and one group was fed SL leaf meal (n=13), and another control group remained on BG (n=12). Four goats/group were slaughtered successively on days 7, 14, and 28 days post SL feeding, except on day 7, when five SL fed goats were slaughtered. Fecal egg counts and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were measured at weekly intervals and worm count, female worm fecundity, worm length and mucosal eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes were measured after slaughter. Goats fed SL had a lower FEC (P<0.05) one week after feeding, as compared to those fed on BG, and the values remained at low level thereafter. Similarly, PCV was also significantly affected by feeding (P<0.01), and feeding and time interaction (P<0.05). However, worm burden, female worm fecundity, parasite length, and mucosal inflammatory cell count were similar between the groups. Feeding SL reduced the establishment of infective larvae and FEC of H. contortus in experimental

  13. Serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected pregnant goats and transplacentally infected kids.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Desmonts, G; Antunes, F; McDonald, C

    1985-05-01

    Eight pregnant goats were inoculated orally with 10 to 1,000 oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii at 83 to 102 days of gestation. Serum samples from the goats and from the kids born to them were analyzed, using the Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT), a commercially available modified agglutination test (MAT), and a latex agglutination test. Six of the does were observed for greater than 1 year; during this time, they delivered twice. All does developed DT and MAT antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:2,048 within 29 days after inoculation, and the high titers persisted through the 2nd pregnancy; therefore, serologic results alone should not be relied on for the diagnosis of T gondii-induced abortion in does. On the other hand, all transplacentally infected kids had DT or MAT antibody titers of 1:2,048 before ingesting colostrum, indicating the usefulness of serologic evaluation of the fetus or stillborn kid in the diagnosis of abortion. Antibody was not found in the sera of noninfected kids born to Toxoplasma-infected does. The passively acquired colostral antibody declined by 5 months. Therefore, specific antibody found in adult goats is probably actively acquired. The commercially available MAT was simple, sensitive, and reliable for the diagnosis of caprine toxoplasmosis. The latex agglutination test needs further improvement, as titers rarely exceeded 1:256.

  14. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca

    PubMed Central

    Keating, M. Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W.; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence–the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  15. Role of PRNP S127 allele in experimental goat infection with classical caprine scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...

  16. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  17. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.

  18. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  19. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly.

  20. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, HO; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Wanjohi, C; Lindberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact). Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact) had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response. PMID:15663077

  1. Cellular composition of granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of goats during the first year after experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M

    2015-01-15

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes lesions in naturally and experimentally infected ruminants which greatly differ in severity, cellular composition and number of mycobacteria. Morphologically distinct lesions are already found during the clinically inapparent phase of infection. The complex local host response and number of MAP were characterized at the initial sites of lesions, organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in experimentally infected goats. Tissues were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month post-inoculation (mpi) from goat kids that had orally received 10 times 10mg of bacterial wet mass of MAP (JII-1961). The cellular composition of lesions in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and next to the ileocecal valve was evaluated in 21 MAP-inoculated goats, where lesions were compared with unaltered tissue of six control goats. CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells, MHC class II+ and CD25+ cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in serial cryostat sections. At 3 mpi, extensive granulomatous infiltrates predominated, consisting of numerous epitheloid cells admixed with many CD4 and γδ T lymphocytes. Only single MAP were detected. This indicates a strong cellular immune reaction able to control MAP infection. γδ T lymphocytes were markedly increased in this type of lesion which may reflect their important role early in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. At 9 and 12 mpi, divergent lesions were observed which may reflect different outcomes of host-pathogen interactions. In five goats, minimal granulomatous lesions were surrounded by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and no MAP were detected by immunohistochemistry. This was interpreted as effective host response that was able to eliminate MAP locally. In three goats, decreased numbers of lymphocytes, but extensive granulomatous infiltrates with numerous epitheloid cells containing increased numbers of mycobacteria were seen. This shift of the

  2. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  3. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus.

  4. Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats

    PubMed Central

    Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Ceï, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

  5. Characterization of tuberculous granulomas in different stages of progression and associated tertiary lymphoid tissue in goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    PubMed

    Schinköthe, Jan; Köhler, Heike; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Oral infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) resulted in a large variety of granulomas in organized gut-associated lymphatic tissues and intestinal lymph nodes. To characterize the cellular composition of granulomas, CD4(+), CD8(+), γδ, B lymphocytes and plasma, CD25(+), CD68(+), MHC-II(+), Ki67(+) and endothelial cells were labeled in consecutive frozen sections by immunohistochemistry and acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Kinyoun stain. Granulomas with extensive necrosis, little mineralization and variable numbers of AFB surrounded by many CD4(+) T cells, but only few epitheloid macrophages were observed in severely sick goats at 2-3mpi. They were interpreted as exuberant immune reaction. Organized granulomas with very few AFB were seen in clinically healthy goats at 13mpi. The necrotic cores were surrounded by a zone of granulomatous infiltrate with many epitheloid macrophages and few lymphocytes. This zone was initially wide and highly vascularized and became progressively smaller. It was enclosed by an increasing layer of connective tissue. All organized granulomas were surrounded by compartimentalized tertiary lymphoid tissue. The granulomas in experimental infection of goats with MAH reflect the heterogeneity of lesions seen in mycobacterial infections of humans and ruminants and are therefore valuable for comparative research. PMID:27477506

  6. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  7. Utilization of protein-A in immuno-histochemical techniques for detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Abu Elzein, E M E; Al-Naeem, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes the first record of utilizing the S. aureus protein-A (PA), conjugated to peroxidase enzyme, for the detection of the Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats. The goats were experimentally infected with a virulent PPR virus, which was previously isolated from a severe natural disease outbreak in gazelles, during 2002 in Saudi Arabia. The technique is rapid, and has the superiority over the peroxidase -anti-peroxidase (PAP) test in that, inactivation of the indigenous peroxidase in the tissues is not required and that it can be used against a wide range of animal species. An advantage over the other immunolabelled conjugates is that PA attaches specifically to the crystalizable fraction (Fc) of the IgG molecule, thus allowing the antigen binding fraction (Fab) of the molecule, free to interact specifically with the antigen. So, it doesn't actually compete with the antigen for the Fab portion of the IgG molecule. In the present study, PA conjugate detected the PPR virus antigens in various tissues of the experimentally infected goats. PMID:19052895

  8. Utilization of protein-A in immuno-histochemical techniques for detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Abu Elzein, E M E; Al-Naeem, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes the first record of utilizing the S. aureus protein-A (PA), conjugated to peroxidase enzyme, for the detection of the Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats. The goats were experimentally infected with a virulent PPR virus, which was previously isolated from a severe natural disease outbreak in gazelles, during 2002 in Saudi Arabia. The technique is rapid, and has the superiority over the peroxidase -anti-peroxidase (PAP) test in that, inactivation of the indigenous peroxidase in the tissues is not required and that it can be used against a wide range of animal species. An advantage over the other immunolabelled conjugates is that PA attaches specifically to the crystalizable fraction (Fc) of the IgG molecule, thus allowing the antigen binding fraction (Fab) of the molecule, free to interact specifically with the antigen. So, it doesn't actually compete with the antigen for the Fab portion of the IgG molecule. In the present study, PA conjugate detected the PPR virus antigens in various tissues of the experimentally infected goats.

  9. Observations on Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Bar-Moshe, B; Rapapport, E

    1981-07-01

    An epizootic in white Saanen goats, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is described. Twenty-five flocks totalling approximately 4,500 animals were involved. The disease was characterized by a high, transient temperature, general malaise and mastitis in the lactating does, and a keratoconjunctivitis, arthritis, mycoplasmaemia and death among the kids. In one goat flock there was a precipitous change in the character of the disease, from a predominantly mastitis syndrome to a fulminating pleuropneumonia. In another goat flock, twin kids were born with an advanced purulent, proliferative arthritis, suggesting early congenital infection. In yet another infected flock there were cases of subcutaneous abscesses from which both M. mycoides and Corynebacterium pyogenes were cultured. M. mycoides was also isolated from synovial fluid and the parenchymal organs of an Ibex mountain goat that died of a purulent polyarthritis. Experimental infection in kids caused a diffuse cellulitis at the site of inoculation, a high fever, polyarthritis and death.

  10. Impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goat kids.

    PubMed

    Ceï, W; Mahieu, M; Philibert, L; Arquet, R; Alexandre, G; Mandonnet, N; Bambou, J C

    2015-01-15

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections have an important negative impact on small ruminant production. The selection of genotypes resistant to these parasitic infections is a promising alternative control strategy. Thus, resistance against GIN is an important component of small ruminant breeding schemes, based on phenotypic measurements of resistance in immune mature infected animals. In this study we evaluated both the impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of resistant and susceptible Creole kids chosen on the basis of their estimated breeding value, and the interaction with the kid's genetic status. During the post-weaning period (from 3 months until 7 months of age) Creole kids were reared at pasture according to four different levels of a mixed rotational stocking system with Creole cattle: 100% (control), 75% (GG75), 50% (GG50), and 25% (GG25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The level of infection of the kids decreased significantly at 50% and 25% of the total stocking rate. After the post-weaning period at pasture, at 11 months of age kids were experimentally infected with H. contortus. The faecal egg counts (FEC) were significantly lower in the groups showing the highest FEC at pasture. This result suggests that a degree of protection against an experimental H. contortus infection occurred during the post-weaning period and was dependant on the level of parasitism. Interestingly, no interaction was observed between this level of protection and the genetic status. In conclusion, the level of post-weaning natural parasitism history at pasture would not influence the genetic status evaluation. More generally our results suggest that it would be better to expose kids to a high level of gastrointestinal parasitism during the post-weaning period in order to increase the basal level of resistance thereafter.

  11. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    PubMed

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  12. Susceptibility of goats and calves after experimental inoculation or contact exposure to a Canadian strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides isolated from a goat.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S

    1983-01-01

    Transmissibility of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection from experimentally inoculated goats to other goats and calves was studied. Eight goats and six calves were housed in an 18 m2 room. Six of the goats were inoculated endobronchially with strain D44 isolated from a natural case of polyarthritis in Ontario. These six goats died within a week of Mycoplasma septicemia. The two contact goats or the six calves never showed signs of disease and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered from these animals. The contact goats and four calves were killed 25 days after exposure. They were all seronegative, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered at necropsy and none had pathomorphological changes attributable to this Mycoplasma. The two remaining calves were inoculated endobronchially with 10(9) CFU of strain D44 and observed for 20 days. They never showed signs of disease and did not have significant lesions at necropsy. Both developed a significant serological response to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, although this organism was not recovered during the experimental period or at necropsy. This study did not provide evidence for transmission of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from endobronchially inoculated goats to contact goats or calves and endobronchially inoculated calves did not develop pneumonia. This would suggest that the infection of the goat population in Canada with this pathogen would not be a significant threat to the cattle population. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6365296

  13. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  14. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  15. Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2014-05-28

    Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 μg/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 μg/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group

  16. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

  17. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India.

  18. Influence of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and plane of nutrition on milk production and some biochemical parameters in West African Dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Faye, Déthié; Fall, Abdou; Leak, Stephen; Losson, Bertrand; Geerts, Stanny

    2005-03-01

    The interactions of trypanosomosis and plane of nutrition on health and productivity of multiparous and primiparous West African Dwarf (WAD) does were studied in a multi-factorial experiment including diet (supplementation or basal diet) and infection (infected or control). Experimental does were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at the beginning of the second week post-kidding and monitored for 16 weeks after infection. Trypanosome infection significantly reduced packed cell volume (PCV) (control: 30.1+/-0.3% versus infected: 22.2+/-0.3%; P<0.0001). Regardless of infection, the drop in PCV from the pre-infection period to the end of the experiment was more severe in animals under restricted diet (interaction dietxperiod, P<0.001). Trypanosome parasitaemia tended to be higher in the supplemented group than in the basal diet group (P>0.05) and multiparous animals had a higher parasitaemia (score: 2.6+/-0.1) than primiparous animals (score: 2.2+/-0.1) (P<0.05). Trypanosome infection as well as dietary supplement had a significant effect on lactation length. Milk off-take from trypanosome-infected does was significantly lower than that from the uninfected control group (17.5+/-3.2l versus 35.5+/-3.2l, P<0.001) and there was a positive effect of plane of nutrition (supplemented: 32.8+/-3.2l and basal diet: 20.2+/-3.5l, P=0.01). The drop in milk off-take due to trypanosome infection was more severe in the supplemented group (control: 46.7+/-4.7l versus infected: 18.9+/-4.2l) than in the group receiving a basal diet (control: 24.2+/-5.0l versus infected: 16.1+/-4.7l) (interaction infectionxdiet, P=0.04) due to the number of does from the supplemented group that were withdrawn from the experiment. The effect of trypanosome infection on doe's live-weight was only noticeable during the first 8 weeks of lactation and there was no significant effect on offspring growth rate unless the mother died. Plasma total protein (TP), albumin and cholesterol concentrations were

  19. Effect of experimental infection with Listeria monocytogenes on the development of pregnancy and on concentrations of progesterone, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha in the goat.

    PubMed

    Engeland, I V; Waldeland, H; Ropstad, E; Kindahl, H; Andresen, O

    1997-01-01

    The effect of Listeria monocytogenes infection on hormone levels in pregnant goats was studied. Four goats (Group I) received an intravenous inoculation of a bacterial culture (Type 1) on Days 69-77 and another four goats (Group II) received a similar inoculation on Days 105-106 of gestation. Five non-inoculated goats were used as controls. Plasma was analysed for progesterone, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha. The status of the foetus was followed using real-time ultrasonography. Three of the four goats in Group I aborted 8-10 days after inoculation. The fourth goat gave birth to a normal live kid at term. The three goats which aborted showed clinical signs of disease in connection with abortion. In Group II, all goats aborted after 9-11 days. All the goats showed clinical symptoms of disease from a few days after inoculation and the symptoms continued until abortion. The clinical symptoms of disease were more pronounced in Group II than in Group I. L. monocytogenes was isolated from all aborted foetuses. None of the control goats aborted. Ultrasound examination revealed foetal death either immediately before or up to 2 days before abortion. Mummification had begun in the foetus that had been dead for 2 days before expulsion. In comparison with pre-inoculation plasma levels in Group I, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in progesterone levels and an increase in 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha levels were observed from Days 4 and 6 after inoculation, respectively. In Group II, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in progesterone levels and an increase in 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha levels in plasma were observed from Days 8 and 6, respectively. The oestrone sulphate levels decreased slightly in the inoculated goats a few days before abortion. The pattern of changes in levels around abortion was similar to the pattern present in the control animals around parturition. However, oestrone sulphate levels did not increase in the inoculated groups before abortion in

  20. A serologic survey of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, T O; Adler, H E; Farver, T B; DaMassa, A J

    1981-10-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goat populations in Mendocino and Sonoma counties of northern California was studied, using the plate and tube agglutination tests. On a county basis, Mendocino had a higher antibody prevalence (13%) than Sonoma (10%). The overall antibody prevalence among the 377 goat serum samples tested was 11%. There was no statistical evidence to show any significant difference in prevalence on the basis of herd size. Of the common goat breeds in California, the American La Mancha had the lowest prevalence (4.7%), the Toggenberg, highest (10.8%). Angora goats shipped from Texas showed a much higher prevalence (67%) than any of the California breeds. The age-specific risk calculations indicate that all age groups were more susceptible to M putrefaciens than 4-year-old goats, with the lowest prevalence of 3.8%. The highest prevalence (21.3%) was observed in the Angora goats. Males had a lower prevalence (10.7%) than females (16.1%). A flock of sheep included in the survey showed a prevalence of 15%. PMID:7325445

  1. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  2. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  3. Polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection immunoassay for diagnosis of Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Jas, R; Ghosh, J D; Das, K

    2010-06-24

    A polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cAg-ELISA) for diagnosis of experimental and natural Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats was developed and evaluated. Adult O. columbianum worms, collected from the caecum and colon of slaughtered goats, were triturated and cultured for obtaining infective third stage larvae (L(3)) and also used for preparation of excretory-secretory antigen (ESAg). Experimental goats were orally infected each with 600 L(3)/kg of the body weight. Filter sterilized faecal supernatant, i.e. the coproantigen (cAg) was harvested from the rectal faeces of all the infected goats, on alternate days from day-5 till day-31 after the infection. Hyperimmune serum (HIS) against ESAg of O. columbianum was raised in rabbits. Molecular and antigenic characterization of ES products of O. columbianum by HIS revealed that 50 and 39kDa polypeptides were immuno-dominant. Coproantigen detection ELISA was standardized by using the cAg as coating antigen and its subsequent binding with the HIS against ESAg of O. columbianum. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the standardized assay were determined by evaluating the assay on the faecal supernatant of 96 slaughtered goats taking into consideration their recorded parasitological status in respect of the abomasal and the intestinal parasites. The cAg-ELISA detected the prepatent oesophagostomosis on 20-24-day-post-infection with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 88, 89.13 and 88.54%, respectively. The assay is relatively easy to perform and would serve as a reliable tool for detection of caprine nodular oesophagostomosis.

  4. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3742358

  6. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.

  7. The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

  8. The effect of C. burnetii infection on the cytokine response of PBMCs from pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

  9. Pre-parturition staphylococcal mastitis in primiparous replacement goats: persistence over lactation and sources of infection.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Iacome S C; Sousa, Francisca G C; De Leon, Candice M G; Spricigo, Denis A; Saraiva, Mauro M S; Givisiez, Patricia E N; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Vieira, Rafael F C; Oliveira, Celso J B

    2014-01-01

    This investigation reported for the first time the occurrence of intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus in primiparous replacement goats before parturition and the persistence of clinical Staphylococcus aureus infection during the lactation period. Subclinical infections, mainly caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), did not persist during lactation. Genotyping analysis indicated that environment seems to play a moderate role as source of intramammary infections to goats before parturition, but causative agents of mastitis in lactating animals are not genotypically related to environmental staphylococci. The occurrence and persistence of intramammary infections in replacement goats demonstrate the need to consider those animals as potential sources of infections in dairy goat herds. PMID:25487513

  10. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  11. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts.

  12. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  13. Human infection by Brucella melitensis: an outbreak attributed to contact with infected goats.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J C; Samartino, L E; Efron, A; Baldi, P C

    1997-12-01

    Although several outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection have been reported among laboratory workers or goat cheese consumers, outbreaks related to rural labour have been rarely studied. An outbreak of human brucellosis among farm workers of Argentina was studied and revealed a close relationship with an epidemic of caprine abortions which occurred shortly before on the same farm. High rates of B. melitensis infection were found among goats. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 33 subjects (14 with positive blood culture for B. melitensis), while other 27 did not show evidence of illness. While 25 of the brucellosis active patients were rural workers, only 5 of the healthy subjects were engaged in rural labour. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 91.3% of the subjects in continuous contact with goats and in 32% of those having an occasional contact with the animals. All the 60 subjects denied consumption of goat cheese or milk. As shown here, epidemic human infections by B. melitensis may develop among people frequently in contact with infected goat herds or goat manure.

  14. Infection of goats with goatpox virus triggers host antiviral defense through activation of innate immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Wang, Song; Chi, Xiaojuan; Chen, Shi-long; Huang, Shile; Lin, Qunqun; Xie, Baogui; Chen, Ji-Long

    2016-02-01

    Goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), is one of the most serious infectious diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality in goats. However, little is known about involvement of host innate immunity during the GTPV infection. For this, goats were experimentally infected with GTPV. The results showed that GTPV infection significantly induced mRNA expression of type I interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β in peripheral blood lymphocytes, spleen and lung. In addition, GTPV infection enhanced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18; and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Strikingly, infection with GTPV activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), a critical cytokine signaling molecule. Interestingly, the virus infection induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1. Importantly, the infection resulted in an increased expression of some critical interferon-stimulated genes, such as interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) 1, IFITM3, interferon stimulated gene (ISG) 15 and ISG20. Furthermore, we found that infection with GTPV up-regulated expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9. These results revealed that GTPV infection activated host innate immune signaling and thereby triggered antiviral innate immunity. The findings provide novel insights into complex mechanisms underlying GTPV-host interaction and pathogenesis of GTPV. PMID:26850535

  15. Role of the Goat K222-PrPC Polymorphic Variant in Prion Infection Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Alamillo, Elia; Miranda, Alberto; Prieto, Irene; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prion protein-encoding gene (prnp) strongly influences the susceptibility of small ruminants to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Hence, selective breeding programs have been implemented to increase sheep resistance to scrapie. For goats, epidemiological and experimental studies have provided some association between certain polymorphisms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and resistance to TSEs. Among them, the Q/K polymorphism at PrPC codon 222 (Q/K222) yielded the most promising results. In this work, we investigated the individual effects of the K222-PrPC variant on the resistance/susceptibility of goats to TSEs. For that purpose, we generated two transgenic mouse lines, expressing either the Q222 (wild type) or K222 variant of goat PrPC. Both mouse lines were challenged intracerebrally with a panel of TSE isolates. Transgenic mice expressing the wild-type (Q222) allele were fully susceptible to infection with all tested isolates, whereas transgenic mice expressing similar levels of the K222 allele were resistant to all goat scrapie and cattle BSE isolates but not to goat BSE isolates. Finally, heterozygous K/Q222 mice displayed a reduced susceptibility to the tested panel of scrapie isolates. These results demonstrate a highly protective effect of the K222 variant against a broad panel of different prion isolates and further reinforce the argument supporting the use of this variant in breeding programs to control TSEs in goat herds. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to determine the role of the K222 variant of the prion protein (PrP) in the susceptibility/resistance of goats to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Results showed that transgenic mice expressing the goat K222-PrP polymorphic variant are resistant to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents. This protective effect was also observed in heterozygous Q/K222 animals. Therefore, the single amino acid exchange from Q to K at codon

  16. Preliminary study on the use of a Teladorsagia circumcincta bulk milk ELISA test in dairy goats under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Molina, J M; Hernández, Y; Ruiz, A; González, J F; Argüello, A; Ferrer, O; Forbes, A B

    2009-12-23

    An ELISA test for the detection of anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta antibodies in goat milk samples (both individual and bulk milk samples) has been developed in dairy goats experimentally infected with a trickle infection. The results observed were compared with those obtained when some other standard methods for the detection of animals infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), such as faecal egg counts (FEC) and serum pepsinogen levels. Some factors that could affect the final results of the test (dilution and nature of samples as well as their preservation at 4 degrees C for 0-10 days) were also monitored. The results show that the proposed test could allow the detection of infected herds using bulk milk samples. The levels of anti-T. circumcincta antibodies in milk and serum samples and the concentrations of serum pepsinogen showed a similar pattern over time. Refrigeration of milk samples for less than 5 days or its preservation with potassium dichromate for 10 days did not significantly affect the ability of the test to detect infected animals. Finally, when a commercial Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA kit was used to assay milk samples from goats infected with T. circumcincta, the results suggest that it may be possible to use a crude O. ostertagi antigen-based ELISA for the detection of goats infected with T. circumcincta.

  17. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ≥3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  18. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

  19. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections.

  20. Some Immunohormonal Changes in Experimentally Pregnant Toxemic Goats

    PubMed Central

    Hefnawy, Abd-Elghany; Youssef, Seham; Shousha, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG), cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and β-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in β-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG). Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with β-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats. PMID:20613964

  1. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  2. Depression of ovarian function and plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 beta in female goats chronically infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Mutayoba, B M; Gombe, S; Waindi, E N; Kaaya, G P

    1988-04-01

    Adult normocyclic female goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed irregular and shorter estrous cycles before complete cessation at the fourth cycle post-infection. This was followed within a month by a decline in the mean plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 beta levels. The peak luteal progesterone as well as pre-ovulatory estradiol-17 beta level declined progressively from the second to the fourth cycle post-infection. The ovaries became atretic with reduced numbers of primordial and primary follicles. The larger follicles became atretic at the tertiary stage with subsequent lack of corpora lutea formation. The rapidity of ovarian dysfunction appeared to be related to the degree of susceptibility of the individual infected goats. PMID:3389040

  3. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  4. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease.

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of experimental interspecies goat-sheep chimera.

    PubMed

    Jaszczak, K; Członkowska, M; Guszkiewicz, A; Parada, R

    1991-01-01

    Chromosomal analysis was carried out on blood lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and germinal cells of an interspecies goat-sheep chimera. This chimera was produced by aggregation of blastomeres of goat and sheep embryos. A cell chimerism 54,XX/60,XY was found in blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. At birth the percentage of lymphocytes with karyotype 54,XX (sheep) amounted to 80% and with karyotype 60,XY (goat) to 20%. With age the percentage of lymphocytes with chromosome complement 54,XX increased, so that at 18 months it was 94% sheep and 6% goat. At the same age, in skin fibroblasts the percentage of cells with goat karyotype reached 25%. Analysis of germinal cells showed in spermatogonia the presence of only karyotype 60,XY and in primary spermatocytes of 29 autosomal bivalents and the sex bivalent XY. PMID:2061596

  6. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  7. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all).

  8. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  9. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in goats.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane; Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Hall, Jeffery O

    2010-07-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons livestock in the southwestern United States. Similarities with white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning and nearly identical chemical analyses led early researchers to conclude that tremetol, a mixture of benzofuran ketones, is the rayless goldenrod toxin. The toxicity of these ketone toxins have not been fully characterized nor are the pathogenesis and sequelae of poisoning completely understood. The objective of the current study was to characterize and describe the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod toxicity in goats. Fifteen goats were gavaged with rayless goldenrod to obtain benzofuran ketone doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day. After 7 treatment days, the goats were euthanized, necropsied, and tissues were processed for microscopic studies. After 5 or 6 days of treatment, the 40-mg/kg and 60-mg/kg goats were reluctant to move, stood with an erect stance, and became exercise intolerant. They had increased resting heart rate, prolonged recovery following exercise, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine kinase activities. All treated animals developed skeletal myopathy with dose-related distribution and severity. The goats dosed with 20 mg/kg and higher also developed myocardial degeneration and necrosis. Although skeletal myonecrosis was patchy and widely distributed, the quadriceps femoris was consistently damaged, even in low-dosed animals. Myocardial lesions were most severe in the papillary muscles of 60-mg/kg-dosed animals. This indicates that goats are highly susceptible to rayless goldenrod poisoning, and that the characteristic lesion of poisoning is skeletal and cardiac myonecrosis. PMID:20622227

  10. Serosurvey of Schmallenberg Virus Infection in the Highest Goat-Specialized Region of France.

    PubMed

    Valas, S; Baudry, C; Ehrhardt, N; LeVen, A; Thirion, M; Aubert, C; Vialard, J

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of both the spread and clinical impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection within its full host range is important for the control of the epidemic and potential new outbreaks. In France, a national surveillance plan based on voluntary notifications of congenital malformations in newborn ruminants revealed that goats were the less affected host species. However, seroprevalence studies only targeted sheep and cattle, preventing accurate estimations of the real impact of SBV infection in goats. Here, a serological survey was conducted in the highest goat-specialized region of France between June 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1490 goat sera from 50 herds were analysed by ELISA. The between-herd and within-herd prevalences were estimated at 62% and 13.1%, respectively. Seroprevalence was not uniformly distributed throughout the territory and markedly differed between intensive and extensive herds. The low within-herd seroprevalence demonstrates that a large fraction of the French goat population remains susceptible to SBV infection.

  11. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03-21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57-11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  12. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  13. Control of intramammary infections in goats: impact on somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Poutrel, B; de Crémoux, R; Ducelliez, M; Verneau, D

    1997-02-01

    Udder-half infections were recorded throughout a lactation for 1,060 goats belonging to eight commercial herds. Bacteriological examination from aseptic milk samples and somatic cell counts (SCC) determined by Fossomatic cell counting were performed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of lactation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent microorganisms isolated. Geometric means of SCC for uninfected halves or halves infected by CNS or major pathogens were 272 x 10(3) cells/mL, 932,000 x 10(3) cells/mL and 2,443,000 x 10(3) cells/mL, respectively. Two field trials were carried out for evaluation of effectiveness of systematic treatment at drying-off (1 syringe by half) by a combination of penicillin, nafcillin, and dihydrostreptomycin labeled for bovines. In the first trial, all goats (n = 217) of two herds were treated immediately after the last milking, and two herds (n = 196) were used as untreated controls. In the second trial, 215 goats were treated at drying-off. There were no untreated controls. Dry period cures were determined by bacteriological examination of udder-half milk samples collected aseptically at drying-off and 2 wk after parturition. Impact of treatment on SCC was determined from composite milk samples collected monthly after kidding. At parturition, in the first trial, 40 of 202 (19.8%) udder halves were spontaneously cured in the control group vs 169 of 217 (77.9%) in the treatment group. In the second trial, 141 out of 215 treated halves were cured. During the first 75 d in lactation, geometric mean SCC was significantly lower for treated goats than for control goats. After 75 d, SCC for treated and control goats were similar. These data suggest that other methods are required to prevent new intramammary infections throughout the lactation in order to keep a low SCC in goat milk. To determine whether this could be accomplished through teat dipping, half of the goats in five commercial herds were dipped (n = 294) after

  14. Acute phase proteins in experimentally induced pregnancy toxemia in goats.

    PubMed

    González, Félix H D; Hernández, Fuensanta; Madrid, Josefa; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the behavior of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin) in fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats and their relationship with classical indicators of this disorder such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in the blood and decreased urine pH and ketonuria. Twelve adult Murciano-Granadina goats at the final stage of gestation were used in this experiment. Pregnancy toxemia was induced in 6 goats by fasting for 72 hr. The other 6 animals were used as control group. Ketonuria was present in 4 out of 5 fasting animals at 24 hr and in all fasting animals at 48 hr of fasting. Serum nonesterified fatty acids were significantly increased at 24, 48, and 72 hr of fasting. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and haptoglobin achieved significantly increased concentrations at 48 hr and 72 hr, respectively, remaining increased during the entire study. Serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin were not affected by fasting. In conclusion, acute phase proteins (including haptoglobin) seemed not to have an advantage over traditional markers in diagnosis of fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats. PMID:21217028

  15. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  16. Infection rate of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens

  17. Infection rate of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens

  18. Investigation of Salmonella infection in goats fed corn silage grown on land fertilized with sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Ayanwale, L F; Kaneene, J M; Sherman, D M; Robinson, R A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 36 goats were fed for 17 months with corn silage grown on land fertilized with human sewage sludge. These animals were investigated for salmonella infections. Salmonellae were not detected in cultures of fecal or silage samples. No significant agglutination titers were detected in goat sera examined. Salmonella newport C2 was isolated from the sludge used as fertilizer on the cornfields. The public health aspects of the findings are discussed as they relate to the increasing use of sewage sludge for agricultural fertilizers, as well as to the resultant effects on human food and livestock feed. PMID:6258474

  19. Serological Evidence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Cattle and Goats in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, Najmul; Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Osmani, Muzaffor G; Gurley, Emily S; Shanta, Ireen Sultana; Paul, Suman Kumer; Macfarlane-Berry, Laura; Islam, Ariful; Islam, Ausraful; Desmond, James; Epstein, Jonathan H; Priestley, Rachael A; Kersh, Gilbert J; Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Daszak, Peter; Luby, Stephen P; Massung, Robert F; Zeidner, Nord

    2015-06-01

    We tested 1149 ruminant sera conveniently collected from three districts of Bangladesh to identify the serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and goats by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 0.7% (8/1149) of ruminants had detectable immunoglobulin G for C. burnetii: 0.65% (4/620) in cattle and 0.76% (4/529) in goats. A sub-set of ruminant samples was retested and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (18/112). Although we cannot rule out false-positive reactions, our study suggests the presence of C. burnetii in cattle and goats in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to estimate disease burden at the population level and identify risk factors for Q fever in ruminants in Bangladesh.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Rupa, Ariel Paul M.; Portugaliza, Harvie P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%), Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%), Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%), Cooperia spp. (6.93%), and Chabertia spp. (0.79%). Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12). Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices. PMID:27536034

  1. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep and goats in Borno state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Mani, Aliyu U; Egwu, Godwin O

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 372 sheep and same number of goats from the three geopolitical zones of Borno state, Nigeria. The samples were tested for the presences of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these, 6.7% (25/372) and 4.6% (17/372) of sheep and goats, respectively, were found to be seropositive to T. gondii antibodies, both far less than the estimated global average of 31%. Results were statistically analyzed by chi-square (chi(2)) test. The results showed that age, environmental conditions, and farm location are the main determinants of prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in the study area. Older animals (>3 years) are significantly more infected than younger animals (between 6 months and 1 year).The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibodies is significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats sampled from the southern zone than the northern zone. Animals from the southern zones are about four times more likely to be exposed to T. gondii infection than those in the northern zone, (sheep; odds ratio (OR) = 4.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.177-15.36, P = 0.018), (goats; OR = 4.38, 95% CI = 0.925-20.73, P = 0.04). Farm location in urban area was identified as a risk factor for sheep (OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 2.53-14.54, P = 0.000), and goats (OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.59-15.62, P = 0.004). Current data on prevalence of ovine and caprine T. gondii in Borno state are provided by the study as well as identifying the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the area.

  3. Comparative kinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep and goats before and during infection with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D R; Sangster, N C; Steel, J W; Collins, G H

    1993-09-01

    The kinetic disposition of [14C]-oxfendazole (OFZ) and its metabolites, fenbendazole (FBZ) and fenbendazole sulphone (FBZ.SO2), in plasma and abomasal fluid were determined in Merino sheep and Angora goats before and during infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus. The systemic availability (area under the plasma curve, AUC) of OFZ was significantly lower in goats (13.5 micrograms.h/ml) than in sheep (22.2 micrograms.h/ml) and was reduced with infection in goats (5.6 micrograms.h/ml) and sheep (15.1 micrograms.h/ml). The elimination of plasma [14C] was faster in goats than in sheep. The responses observed for [14C] were a reflection of the behaviour of OFZ. The concentration of OFZ and metabolites in abomasal fluid were similar in both species in the absence or presence of infection. However, as the mean flow rate of abomasal fluid was slower in goats (240 ml/h) than in sheep (488 ml/h), only 7% of the dose passed the pylorus in abomasal fluid of goats compared with 14% in sheep. The presence of gastrointestinal nematodes generally increased abomasal fluid flow rate but neither species nor infection had any effect on the rate or extent of [14C] excretion in urine or faeces. It is suggested that goats possess a faster hepatic metabolism than sheep resulting in more rapid elimination of OFZ.

  4. Detection of hemoplasma infection of goats by use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and risk factor analysis for infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathy A; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Bauer, Amy E; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hammac, G Kenitra; Messick, Joanne B

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma ovis in goats and investigate the prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasma infection of goats located in Indiana. ANIMALS 362 adult female goats on 61 farms. PROCEDURES Primers were designed for amplification of a fragment of the dnaK gene of M ovis by use of a qPCR assay. Blood samples were collected into EDTA-containing tubes for use in total DNA extraction, blood film evaluation, and determination of PCV. Limit of detection, intra-assay variability, interassay variability, and specificity of the assay were determined. RESULTS Reaction efficiency of the qPCR assay was 94.45% (R(2), 0.99; slope, -3.4623), and the assay consistently detected as few as 10 copies of plasmid/reaction. Prevalence of infection in goats on the basis of results for the qPCR assay was 18.0% (95% confidence interval, 14% to 22%), with infected goats ranging from 1 to 14 years old, whereby 61% (95% confidence interval, 47% to 73%) of the farms had at least 1 infected goat. Bacterial load in goats infected with M ovis ranged from 1.05 × 10(3) target copies/mL of blood to 1.85 × 10(5) target copies/mL of blood; however, no bacteria were observed on blood films. Production use of a goat was the only risk factor significantly associated with hemoplasma infection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detecting hemoplasma infection than was evaluation of a blood film, and production use of a goat was a risk factor for infection. PMID:27463552

  5. Pathogenesis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Cellular localization of viral transcripts in tissues of infected goats.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, M. C.; Yager, J. A.; Myers, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Pathologic specimens of 18 goats with classical lesions of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection were examined morphologically and by in situ hybridization using molecularly cloned CAEV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to determine which tissues and cells of naturally infected goats supported virus replication. Large numbers of cells with viral transcripts were detected in inflamed brain, spinal cord, lung, joints, and mammary gland. These cells were morphologically compatible with macrophages. Fewer cells with viral transcripts were seen in noninflamed tissues. Viral RNA was identified in macrophagelike cells in lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, in cells lining the vessels of brain and synovium, and in epithelial cells of intestinal crypts, renal tubules, and thyroid follicles. These data suggest that the cell tropism of lentiviruses may extend beyond the narrow boundaries of lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2327471

  6. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  7. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05) in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036) higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001) reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137

  8. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  9. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China.

  10. Experimental infection of small ruminants with bluetongue virus expressing Toggenburg Orbivirus proteins.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Piet A; van de Water, Sandra G P; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A; van Gennip, René G P

    2016-08-30

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype orbivirus (Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus) consisting of more than 24 recognized serotypes or neutralization groups. Recently, new BTV serotypes in goats have been found; serotype 25 (Toggenburg Orbivirusor TOV), serotype 26 (KUW2010/02), and serotype 27 from Corsica, France. KUW2010/02 has been isolated in mammalian cells but is not replicating in Culicoides cells. TOVhas been detected in goats but could not been cultured, although TOV has been successfully passed to naïve animals by experimental infection using viremic blood. Genome segments Seg-2[VP2], Seg-6[VP5], Seg-7[VP7], and Seg-10[NS3/NS3a] expressing the respective TOV proteins were incorporated in BTV using reverse genetics, demonstrating that these TOV proteins are functional in BTV replication. Depending on the incorporated TOV proteins, in vitro replication is, however, decreased compared to the ancestor BTV, in particular by TOV-VP5. Sheep and goats were experimentally infected with BTV expressing both outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 of TOV, so-named 'TOV-serotyped BTV'. Viremia was not detected in sheep, and hardly detected in goats after infection with TOV-serotyped BTV. Seroconversion by cELISA, however, was detected, suggesting that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in small ruminants. One goat was coincidentally pregnant, and the fetus was strong PCR-positive in blood samples and several organs, which conclusively demonstrates that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in vivo. PMID:27527776

  11. The effects of short-term feeding of fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in goats in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Sokerya; Waller, Peter J; Ledin, Inger; Höglund, Johan

    2007-06-01

    The antiparasitic effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was tested in goats artificially infected with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Each experimental group consisted of 6 pen-fed goats kept on a slatted floor. The treatments compared were: 1) controls fed grass only, 2) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks from the commencement of larval dosing period, and 3) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks after the worm infection was patent. A total of 2000 mixed-species infective nematode larvae (L3) were administered to each goat in four doses of 500 L3/day, commencing 5 weeks after removal of previously acquired infections with ivermectin. The faecal egg counts (FEC) reduced in both cassava fed groups during the time of feeding, compared to the controls. Although, FEC increased differently with time (P < 0.05), total adult worm burdens at slaughter (week 15) were not different between the treatment groups. No differences in live weight gain, or packed cell volume, between treatments were found. Whilst these results show limited evidence of an anthelmintic effect of cassava in the diet, they do suggest that feeding, or supplementation, of cassava over an extended period may prove beneficial.

  12. Evaluation of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' against bovine Johne's disease in endemically infected native cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Brajesh; Srivastav, Abhishek; Yadav, Sharad; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from 'Indian Bison Type' a native bio-type of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strain 'S5' of goat origin (goat based) was evaluated in indigenous cattle herds located in gaushalas (cow shelters), endemic for Bovine Johne's disease. Cows (893) were randomly divided into vaccinated (702 = 626 adults + 76 calves) and control (191 = 173 adults + 18 calves) groups. Response to vaccination was evaluated on the basis of health (mortality, morbidity), productivity (growth rate, reproductive performance, total milk yield), immunological parameters (LTT, ELISA titer), survivability of animals naturally infected with MAP, bacterimia (by specific blood PCR), seroconversion (by indigenous ELISA) and status of shedding of MAP in feces (by microscopy) in the two groups before and after vaccination. Reduction in MAP shedding [to the extent of 100% in Herd A; and from 82.1% (0 DPV) to 10.7% (270 DPV) in Herd C] was the major finding in vaccinated cows. Whereas, the control group cows have shown no improvement. As the first indicator of vaccine efficacy, MAP bacilli disappeared from the blood circulation as early as 15 days post vaccination, however, peak titers were achieved around 90 DPV. Peak titers initially declined slightly but were maintained later throughout the study period. Control animals did not show any pattern in antibody titers. Mortality was low in vaccinated as compared to the control groups. Vaccination of endemically infected native cattle herds with inactivated whole-cell bacterin of novel 'Indian Bison Type' bio-type of goat origin strain 'S5' effectively restored health and productivity and reduced clinical BJD. Application of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' for therapeutic management of BJD in native cattle herds (gaushalas) is the first of its kind. PMID:25675707

  13. Effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of pregnancy and on endocrine foetal-placental function in the goat.

    PubMed

    Engeland, I V; Waldeland, H; Kindahl, H; Ropstad, E; Andresen, O

    1996-12-01

    -ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha and oestrone sulphate in inoculated animals indicate that the endocrine foetal-placental function was disturbed in most of the inoculated goats, probably due to the injury caused by the establishment and development of T. gondii infection in the placenta and foetus.

  14. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čobádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Turčeková, Ludmila; Hviščová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens.

  16. Spontaneous and experimental glycoprotein storage disease of goats induced by Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Armién, A G; Tokarnia, C H; Peixoto, P Vargas; Frese, K

    2007-03-01

    Spontaneous and experimental poisoning with the swainsonine-containing and calystegine-containing plant Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa is described. Three of 8 goats presenting with emaciation, weakness, symmetrical ataxia, posterior paresis, proprioceptive deficits, abnormal posture, abnormal postural reaction, and muscle hypertonia were necropsied. I fistulosa was suspected to be the cause of the neurologic disease in all cases. An experiment was conducted to confirm the diagnosis using 12 goats and diets containing 3 different concentrations of the plant. All goats fed I fistulosa developed neurological signs that were similar to those observed in the spontaneous intoxication. Muscle atrophy and pallor were the only macroscopic changes observed in spontaneous and in experimental intoxication. Histological lesions of spontaneous and experimental animals were similar. The most prominent lesion was cytoplasmic vacuolation in neurons of the central and the autonomous nervous system, pancreatic acinar cells, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland, and macrophages of the lymphatic tissues. Neuronal necrosis, axonal spheroids formation, and astrogliosis were additionally observed in the brain. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic vacuoles consisted of distended lysosomes surrounded by a single-layered membrane. Nonreduced end-rests or sequence of alpha-Man, alpha-Glc, beta(1-4)-GlcNAc, and NeuNAc on lysosomal membrane were revealed by lectin histochemistry. Samples of plants used in the experimental trial contained swainsonine and calystegine and their intermediary derivate. We conclude that I fistulosa induces a glycoprotein storage disease primarily based on the inhibition of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase by the alkaloid swainsonine. PMID:17317794

  17. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  18. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases.

  19. Prevalence of Theileria infections in goats and sheep in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2012-05-25

    Theileriosis is an important tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease, which can cause severe economic loss in animal husbandry. In this paper, one hundred peripheral blood samples of goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the Theileria infection. A region of Theileria 18S rRNA gene was amplified by nested PCR in 26 samples. All the nested PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Alignment analysis has shown that these sequences are highly homologus to each other with identities from 99.2% to 100%. Blast the sequences against NCBI database indicated 99% homology with Theileria sp. China 1 (Theileria luwenshuni). Phylogenetic tree has also shown that the newly identified Theileria are in the same clade with T. luwenshuni. The results have revealed a relatively high prevalence of Theileria in some areas of southeastern China and little genetic diversity in these infections.

  20. Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction. PMID:23965529

  1. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics world-wide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, inclu...

  2. Experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of infection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Benavides, Julio; Silva, Ana Clécia dos Santos; Horcajo, Pilar; Oliveira, Andrea Alice da Fonseca; Ferre, Ignacio; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-02-11

    Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak kids, and 2 seronegative healthy kids. Parasite DNA detection in placentomes was 100% in G2, 85.7% in G3 and in G1 was detected only in placentomes from the goats with foetal losses from 17 dpi (100%). Parasites were detected in foetal/kid brain (>85.7%) and liver (≥ 50%) of G2 and G3, and in G1 after 17 dpi (100%). The highest parasite loads were detected in the placentomes of G1 from 17 dpi and G2, and in foetal tissues of G1 from 17 dpi and G3. Multifocal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentas of the three groups, but they were larger and more frequent in G1 and G2. Similar lesions were observed in foetal tissues, but they were more frequent in G3. These findings suggest that, as observed in cattle and sheep, the clinical consequences of N. caninum in pregnant goats are dependent in part on the time of gestation when animals were infected.

  3. Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect Brucella abortus biovar 1 in infected goats.

    PubMed

    Leal-Klevezas, D S; Martínez-Vázquez, I O; García-Cantú, J; López-Merino, A; Martínez-Soriano, J P

    2000-07-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to diagnose goat brucellosis and compare its sensitivity against some of the most commonly used serological and bacteriological techniques. Twenty two female and one male out of 300 clinically healthy, mixed-breed goats were randomly chosen from a ranch located at Marín, Nuevo León, Mexico. Milk and blood samples were taken from each animal and used to obtain both microbiological cultures and DNA of the pathogen, and sera was tested against Rose Bengal antigen (RBT). Results showed that 86% of the blood samples were positive on the PCR test, while 60% were positive on the serological test. The pathogen was isolated from only one blood culture. Sixty four percent of the milk samples were positive on PCR tests, but failed to yield bacteria in culture. Biochemical and PCR specific assay demonstrated that Brucella abortus biovar 1 was associated with the infection. This study demonstrates the higher sensitivity of PCR over RBT and blood culture and its potential towards a rapid identification of Brucella strains.

  4. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  5. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  6. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  7. Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on body temperature, feed intake, and metabolic rate of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Zwart, D; Brouwer, B O; van der Hel, W; van den Akker, H N; Verstegen, M W

    1991-09-01

    Thirty-two mature dwarf goats weighing between 16 and 30 kg (22.7 +/- 3.7, SD) were used to study the effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on rectal temperature (RT), feed intake (DMI), and metabolic rate. Sixteen of the goats were infected intravenously with 14 X 10(6) T. vivax each; the 16 others served as controls. Animals were fed at about 1.1 times maintenance. Heat production was measured from 1 wk preinfection to 6 wk postinfection. From data on successive 9-min periods, heat production was calculated per 24-h period and separately for 0700 to 2000 (day period) and for 2000 to 0700 (night period). Rectal temperature was measured twice weekly. Compared with controls, animals infected with T. vivax developed and maintained a 1 degree C higher RT and a higher metabolic rate. After the prepatent period of 5 to 7 d, during which RT remained normal, all infected goats had a period of about 7 d with constant high temperatures. After that initial episode, RT fluctuated. Heat production of infected animals was increased by 15.6 kcal.d-1.kg-.75, or about 16%. This increase in heat production was greater during the night (22 kcal.d-1.kg-.75) than during the day (14 kcal.d-1.kg-.75). After T. vivax infection, large differences in DMI among animals were apparent. In four animals, a clear relation between DMI and RT was noted, but in 12 animals no such relationship was apparent.

  8. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France

    PubMed Central

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  9. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection. PMID:27399757

  10. Coxiella burnetii Infection in a Community Operating a Large-Scale Cow and Goat Dairy, Missouri, 2013.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Holly M; Turabelidze, George; Pratt, Drew; Todd, Suzanne R; Jacobs-Slifka, Kara; Drexler, Naomi A; McCurdy, Gail; Lloyd, Jennifer; Evavold, Charles L; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Priestley, Rachael A; Singleton, Joseph; Sun, David; Tang, Minh; Kato, Cecilia; Kersh, Gilbert J; Anderson, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen that causes Q fever in humans and is transmitted primarily from infected goats, sheep, or cows. Q fever typically presents as an acute febrile illness; however, individuals with certain predisposing conditions, including cardiac valvulopathy, are at risk for chronic Q fever, a serious manifestation that may present as endocarditis. In response to a cluster of Q fever cases detected by public health surveillance, we evaluated C. burnetii infection in a community that operates a large-scale cow and goat dairy. A case was defined as an individual linked to the community with a C. burnetii phase II IgG titer ≥ 128. Of 135 participants, 47 (35%) cases were identified. Contact with or close proximity to cows, goats, and their excreta was associated with being a case (relative risk 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.3). Cases were also identified among individuals without cow or goat contact and could be related to windborne spread or tracking of C. burnetii on fomites within the community. A history of injection drug use was reported by 26/130 (20%) participants; follow-up for the presence of valvulopathy and monitoring for development of chronic Q fever may be especially important among this population.

  11. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  12. Experimental chimaeras--removal of reproductive barrier between sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Meinecke-Tillmann, S; Meinecke, B

    Following reciprocal embryo transfer between sheep and goats, the embryo of the foreign species is able to induce early pregnancy but the embryos do not survive beyond the first weeks of gestation. Similar results have been obtained from hybridization experiments on sheep and goats. While the causes for early embryonic death of hybrid eggs from donor sheep are unknown, the reciprocal event has been associated with immunological implications. As a means of overcoming the reproductive barrier between sheep and goats, we have transferred interspecific chimaeric embryos. We report here the birth of a goat kid from a sheep mother. PMID:6694752

  13. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations.

  14. Prevention of pin tract infection in external stainless steel fixator frames using electric current in a goat model.

    PubMed

    van der Borden, Arnout J; Maathuis, Patrick G M; Engels, Eefje; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant Kumar

    2007-04-01

    Pin tract infections of external fixators used in orthopaedic reconstructive bone surgery are serious complications that can eventually lead to periostitis and osteomyelitis. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that bacteria adhering to stainless steel in a biofilm mode of growth detach under the influence of small electric currents, while remaining bacteria become less viable upon current application. Therefore, we have investigated whether a 100microA electric current can prevent signs of clinical infection around percutaneous pins, implanted in the tibia of goats. Three pins were inserted into the lateral right tibia of nine goats, of which one served for additional frame support. Two pins were infected with a Staphylococcus epidermidis strain of which one pin was subjected to electric current, while the other pin was used as control. Pin sites were examined daily. The wound electrical resistance decreased with worsening of the infection from a dry condition to a purulent stage. After 21 days, animals were sacrificed and the pins taken out. Infection developed in 89% of the control pin sites, whereas only 11% of the pin sites in the current group showed infection. These results show that infection of percutaneous pin sites of external fixators in reconstructive bone surgery can be prevented by the application of a small DC electric current.

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host.

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    d'Ersu, J.; Aubin, G. G.; Mercier, P.; Nicollet, P.; Bémer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  18. Microscopical and immunological features of tuberculoid granulomata and cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Tomás, L; Ortega, N; Buendía, A J; del Rio, L; Salinas, J; Bezos, J; Caro, M R; Navarro, J A

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae). Although typical tuberculoid granulomata are usually observed in the lungs and lymph nodes of infected goats, the presence of cavitary lesions with exuberant mycobacterial growth is also a common feature in this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunological mechanisms that lead to liquefaction and cavity formation by comparing granulomata and cavitary lesions. Samples from animals positive by skin testing were collected for microscopical and immunohistochemical examination. Samples were also collected for analysis of cytokine gene expression in the lesions by real time polymerase chain reaction. There were marked differences between granulomata and cavitary lesions. In cavitary lesions there was a substantial population of neutrophils and a significant decrease in the number of CD4(+) T cells, with concomitant increases in other T-cell populations (CD8(+) and cells expressing the γδ form of the T-cell receptor). The enzyme iNOS was strongly expressed by macrophages in the cavitary lesions. There was no difference in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the lesions. These findings suggest that cavitary lesions are reactivation sites, where conditions are optimal for Mycobacterium proliferation and that immunological mechanisms may underlie the severe destruction of lung tissue that characterizes the cavitary pathology.

  19. Rare Cryptococus gattii infection in an immunocompetent dairy goat following a cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Maggiulli, Tessa R.

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old dairy goat was presented seven weeks post cesarean section for incomplete healing of the incision site. Cytology revealed cryptococcal organisms that were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control as Cryptococcus gattii type VGIIa. Most cryptococcomas were surgically removed, but some penetrated deep in to the muscular layers and likely into peritoneum. The goat was treated daily with oral fluconazole for 6 months, and had a normal life for almost 2 years. PMID:24371749

  20. Prevalence of Muellerius capillaris in free-ranging spotted deer (Cervus axis) in India and its experimental cross-transmission to goats.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, K; Arora, B M

    1991-01-01

    A survey to assess the prevalence of parasitic infections among axis deer (Cervus axis) in three National Parks in India revealed infections with the lungworm Muellerius capillaris. Clinical signs were not evident in infected animals. Therefore, it is suggested that C. axis is probably a carrier of the infection. Under laboratory conditions, terrestrial molluscs (Macrochalamys sp.) were infected with first stage larvae of M. capillaris collected from fecal pellets of C. axis. Feeding of third stage larvae collected from these snails on day 14 post exposure produced patent infections in goats. On day 31 post infection, adult M. capillaris could be collected from the lungs of infected goats. This study establishes the possibility of cross-transmission of M. capillaris between wild and domestic animals in India.

  1. Evaluation of serological tests for diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Marín, C; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Aragón, V; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Pardo, M; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1994-01-01

    Five serological assays were evaluated for the diagnosis of brucellosis in goats: the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), radial immunodiffusion (RID) with Brucella and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) with cytosol, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with polyclonal and protein G conjugates and smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), native hapten polysaccharide (NH), or cytosol antigens. For optimal sensitivity, RBT had to be used with sera-antigen at a 3:1 dilution. In the RID test, Brucella melitensis biotype 1 NH could not be replaced by Brucella abortus biotype 1 or Y. enterocolitica 0:9 polysaccharides. In the ELISA, S-LPS and NH gave similar results and the protein G conjugate increased the specificity. With the sera from 55 B. melitensis culture-positive goats, the sensitivity was 100% for RBT, CFT (titer > or = 4), and ELISA with S-LPS or NH; 94% for RID; and 93% for CIEP. All tests were negative (100% specific) when testing the sera from 127 brucella-free goats. Larger discrepancies among the results of the serological tests were obtained with sera from goats of areas where brucellosis is endemic. When the sera of 20 young goats vaccinated subcutaneously (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) and bled 6 months later were examined, the specificities were as follows: NH ELISA, 60%; CFT and S-LPS ELISA, 75%; RBT, 80%; CIEP, 90%; and RID, 94%. With the sera from 10 young goats vaccinated conjunctivally (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) all tests were 100% specific 4 months after vaccination. The proportion of goats giving a positive reaction after vaccination decreased faster in RID than in other tests. PMID:8051240

  2. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Baciadonna, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

  3. Goats challenged with different members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex display different clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Bezos, J; Casal, C; Díez-Delgado, I; Romero, B; Liandris, E; Álvarez, J; Sevilla, I A; Juan, L de; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C

    2015-10-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) in goats (Capra hircus) is due to infection with members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), mainly Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. We report a comparative experimental infection of goats with M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis strains. We hypothesized that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC would display different clinical pictures. Three groups of goats were challenged with either M. bovis SB0134 (group 1, n=5), M. caprae SB0157 (group 2, n=5) and M. tuberculosis SIT58 (group 3, n=4). The highest mean total lesion score was observed in M. bovis challenged goats (mean 15.2, range 9-19), followed by those challenged with M. caprae (10.8, 2-23). The lowest score was recorded in goats challenged with M. tuberculosis (3, 1-6). Culture results coincided with the lesion scores in yielding more positive pools (7/15) in M. bovis challenged goats. By contrast, only three pools were positive from goats challenged M. tuberculosis (3/12) and with M. caprae (3/15), respectively. Differences in the performance of the intradermal and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) tests depending of the group were observed since all goats from group 1 were diagnosed using intradermal test and these goats reacted earlier to the IFN-γ assay in comparison to the other groups. This study confirmed that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC display different clinical pictures and this fact may have implications for MTC maintenance and bacterial shedding.

  4. Biological control of infective larvae of a gastro-intestinal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta) and a small lungworm (Muellerius capillaris) by Duddingtonia flagrans in goat faeces.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Chartier, C

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in French grazing dairy goat flocks led to a search for nematode-control schemes based on integrated approaches with non-chemical options, like vaccination, grazing management, or biological control using nematophagous fungi. The effect of the daily feeding of goats with spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on third-stage larvae (L3) of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in faecal cultures. In addition, the effect of D. flagrans on the survival of first-stage larvae (L1) of Muellerius capillaris was tested. Twenty-two culled dairy goats previously raised in a zero-grazing system were twice infected at monthly intervals with 5,000 and then 7,500 T. circumcincta L3. Eight animals were infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible (BZs) strain while the remainder received a benzimidazole-resistant one (BZr). Six culled goats naturally infected with M. capillaris were purchased from private farms. All the goats were divided in two groups, one group receiving daily 5 x 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight per goat for seven consecutive days in the food, the other group acting as control. For T. circumcincta-infected goats, individual egg counts and coprocultures (13 days, 25 degrees C) followed by L3 extraction with the Baermann method were performed. For M. capillaris-infected goats, extraction of L1 with the Baermann apparatus was individually performed on day 0 and after coprocultures on days 7, 10 and 14. Reductions in percentage development of T. circumcincta L3 in fungus groups compared with control groups ranged from 84% (BZs strain) to 90% (BZr strain). A decrease in M. capillaris L1 recovery was noted on days 7 and 10 (a reduction of 70% compared with day 0) and on day 14 (85%), but this pattern was similar in both groups, whether receiving the fungus or not. At the dosage of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight, D. flagrans was highly effective in reducing the larval

  5. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  6. Serological survey using ELISA to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep and goats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lambton, S L; Smith, R P; Gillard, K; Horigan, M; Farren, C; Pritchard, G C

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep flocks and goat herds in Great Britain was undertaken. A total of 5791 sheep (384 flocks) and 522 goats (145 herds) were examined for C. burnetii antibodies using an ELISA. Overall, 53 sheep (37 flocks), and four goats (four herds), tested positive. Estimates of individual animal, between-flock/-herd and within-flock/-herd crude prevalences were 0·9%, 10·2% and 9·0%, respectively, for sheep, and 0·8%, 3% and 26·3%, respectively, for goats. With sheep, the likelihood of an animal testing positive increased with total flock size (P = 0·002) and number of breeding ewes in the flock (P = 0·021). It also increased with number of goats within a 10 km radius (P = 0·038). There was no evidence for spatial clustering of positive herds above that expected by chance alone. No analysis of risk factors was attempted for goats because of the paucity of positives.

  7. Gastro-intestinal nematode infections in goats relative to season, host sex and age from the Kashmir valley, India.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats with respect to sex and age of the host in the Kashmir valley from 1 February 2005 to 31 January 2007. A total of 1267 goats were examined [faecal examination: 938 (year 1: 470; year 2: 468); gastro-intestinal (GIT) examination: 329 (year 1: 175; year 2: 154)]. The overall prevalence of GIN infection in these animals was 54.3% (year 1: 54.8%; year 2: 53.8%; P = 0.842). The different parasites reported with their respective prevalences (%) were: Haemonchus contortus (48.3); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (30.1); Chabertia. ovina (29.8); Ostertagia circumcincta (29.8); Nematodirus spathiger (25.2); Trichostrongylus spp. (25.1); Oesophagostomum columbianum (23.5); Trichuris ovis (19.0); and Marshallagia marshalli (16.6). The mean maximum prevalence of GIN infection (faecal examination: 75.6 +/- 0.20; GIT examination: 85.3 +/- 0.95), faecal egg counts (2552 +/- 85.7) and average worm burden (333.25 +/- 2.25) were found in the summer and they were lowest in winter (prevalence: faecal examination, 23.2 +/- 0.95; GIT examination, 12.7 +/- 0.20; faecal egg counts: 134.15 +/- 9.15; and average worm burden: 79.8 +/- 52.2), with significant differences between the seasons (P < 0.05). The sex of the hosts was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of GIN infection. With the increase in host age, prevalence of infection decreased significantly (P > or = 0.05). Thus seasonal dynamics and age of the host animals significantly influenced the prevalence of GIN infection. The above findings will be helpful in devising the appropriate control strategies for GINs of goats reared under the traditional husbandry system in temperate agro-climatic conditions in the Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. PMID:19627625

  8. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  9. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the liver and hepatic lymph nodes in goats infected with one or more doses of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Martín de las Mulas, J; Carrasco, L; Gutierrez, P N; Martínez-Cruz, M S; Martínez-Moreno, A

    1999-02-01

    Lesions produced by Fasciola hepatica in the liver, gall-bladder and hepatic lymph nodes (HLNs) of four groups of five goats are described; in addition, the distribution of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG-lambda light chain-bearing cells was analysed in the hepatic lesions and HLNs. One group of goats received a single oral dose of metacercariae, but the other four groups received four or five doses at different intervals over a period of 11 weeks. Animals that survived were killed 53-55 weeks after the first infective dose. Goats were more susceptible to multiple doses than to a single dose, even when the total number of metacercariae was the same. This greater susceptibility was manifested by the occurrence of deaths and the severity of hepatic lesions. CD3+ lymphocytes were sparse in the infiltrate surrounding the acute migratory tracts, suggesting inhibition of the local cell-mediated immune response. Goats with numerous hepatic calcareous granulomas showed the most severe hepatic damage, including marked cirrhosis, with a striking infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes and lambda IgG- plasma cells, replacing extensive areas of hepatic parenchyma, in which hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes was evident. These findings were observed mainly in the goats given more than one infective dose.

  10. CpG-ODN enhances mammary gland defense during mastitis induced by Escherichia coli infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Min; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu; Li, Zhen; Zou, Si-Xiang; Deng, Yue-E

    2007-12-15

    Seven healthy native goats in early lactation, weighing 30-40 kg, were used in this study. The right mammary gland of the seven does were infused with CpG-ODN at a dosage of 100 microg kg(-1) body weight on the day 5 postpartum (PP). The left glands were used as controls and infused with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). On day 8 PP, the same dosage of CpG-ODN or PBS was again infused. On day 9 PP, the mammary glands (both right and left) of the seven does were infused with 6 x 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli and, at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection (PI), milk samples were collected from all glands. Goats were euthanized at 72 h PI and the mammary tissue harvested. Infusion with 6 x 10(6)CFU ml(-1)E. coli induced acute mastitis. Histopathological evaluations showed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were still present in alveoli at 72 h PI, but PMNs in the CpG-ODN-treated glands has disappeared. Bacteria counts in milk peaked at 16 h PI and CpG-ODN induced a significant decrease in viable bacteria from 16 h PI until the end of the experiment. This study showed that CpG-ODN promoted the expression of its specific receptor (TLR-9 mRNA) in mammary tissue, stimulated IL-6 production, reduced bacteria counts in milk, attenuated the impact of inflammation mediators on cells and significantly shortened the inflammation course. These results suggest that the CpG-ODN improved mammary gland defense and, thereby, had a beneficial effects against mastitis caused by E. coli infection in goats. PMID:17869348

  11. Polymorphisms at the 3' untranslated region of SLC11A1 gene are associated with protection to Brucella infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Iacoboni, Paola A; Hasenauer, Flavia C; Caffaro, M Eugenia; Gaido, Analia; Rossetto, Cristina; Neumann, Roberto D; Salatin, Antonio; Bertoni, Emiliano; Poli, Mario A; Rossetti, Carlos A

    2014-08-15

    Goats are susceptible to brucellosis and the detection of Brucella-infected animals is carried out by serological tests. In other ruminant species, polymorphisms in microsatellites (Ms) of 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene were associated with resistance to Brucella abortus infection. Goats present two polymorphic Ms at the 3'UTR end of SLC11A1 gene, called regions A and B. Here, we evaluated if polymorphisms in regions A and/or B are associated with Brucella infection in goats. Serum (for the detection of Brucella-specific antibodies) and hair samples (for DNA isolation and structure analysis of the SLC11A1 gene) were randomly collected from 229 adult native goats from the northwest of Argentina. Serological status was evaluated by buffer plate antigen test (BPAT) complemented by the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the genotype of the 3'UTR of the SLC11A1 gene was determined by capillary electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Polymorphisms in regions A and B of the 3'UTR SLC11A1 gene were found statistically significant associated with protection to Brucella infection. Specifically, the association study indicates statistical significance of the allele A15 and B7/B7 genotype with absence of Brucella-specific antibodies (p=0.0003 and 0.0088, respectively). These data open a promising opportunity for limiting goat brucellosis through selective breeding of animals based on genetic markers associated with natural resistance to B. melitensis infection.

  12. Growth and carcass attributes of growing Creole kids according to experimental infection level and type of diet.

    PubMed

    Cei, Willy; Hiol, Abel; Gobardhan, Jacky; Nepos, Angebert; Felicite, Yoan; Mahieu, Maurice; Alexandre, Gisele

    2015-06-01

    In the tropics one of the major constraints to goat production is infection by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). One promising alternative to chemotherapy is the improvement of host nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of infection and supplementation on packed cell volume (PCV), average daily gain (ADG) and carcass quality in growing Creole kids. Sixty male goats were reared indoors following a 2 × 3 factorial design: two experimental infection levels, (infected (I) and non-infected (NI)) and three diets D (G, kids were fed exclusively with tropical forages; B, kids were supplemented with dried and crushed banana and C, kids were supplemented with commercial pellets). Faecal egg counts did not vary among I groups (on average 2,200 ω/g). The PCV and ADG were improved (P < 0.001) for NI vs. I animals. There was a D effect (P < 0.001) and no I × D interaction was observed. There was no significant effect of GIN on the main carcass data, except the weights of liver, white offal and abdominal fat, which increased slightly in I compared with NI goats (P < 0.05). All carcass data increased significantly with the addition of supplement in the diet (P < 0.001), except for carcass-cut proportions. Meat physical parameters were degraded when I kids received low N diets (B or G) with higher lightness and water loss than in the C groups. Given that GIN affect the animal's N metabolism it is recommended to avoid the use of unbalanced diet such as those banana-based. Further research is necessary to assess the nutrition × parasitism interactions on physiological features and carcass quality of Creole goats.

  13. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  14. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  15. Natural infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in dairy goats, associated with possible risk factors of the studied properties.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, T C B; Huber, F; Gomes, R S; Alves, L L

    2005-11-25

    Visits were made to six farms raising dairy goats located in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, seeking to identify parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. During the visits, fecal samples were collected from approximately 10% of the stock of each property. A questionnaire was given to the keepers on each property to obtain data for epidemiological analysis. A total of 105 fecal samples was collected, 56 from adult animals (over 12 months of age) and 49 from juvenile animals (less than 12 months). The fecal material was processed and subjected to the centrifuge-flotation technique and to staining with safranine-methylene blue. Protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium were found at two properties, where the hygiene conditions of the installations were considered average and the stalls were made of wood slats raised from the ground. A total of five (4.8%) of the samples was found to be positive for the presence of this protozoan, all from juvenile animals. Cysts of the genus Giardia were found at two properties. Of the 105 samples analyzed, the protozoan was detected in 15 (14.3%), all in juvenile animals, and animals in the age range of 1-3 months had significantly more infections. Age, sanitary condition of the stalls and stalls made of wood slats and raised from the ground, can be pointed out as possible risk factors for infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. The study reports for the first time the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Response of the goat mammary gland to infection with Staphylococcus aureus revealed by gene expression profiling in milk somatic and white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens responsible for the intra-mammary infection in dairy ruminants. Although much work has been carried out to understand the complex physiological and cellular events that occur in the mammary gland in response to S. aureus, the protective mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to investigate gene expression during the early response of the goat mammary gland to an experimental challenge with S. aureus, in order to better understand the local and systemic response and to compare them in two divergent lines of goat selected for high and low milk somatic cell scores. Results No differences in gene expression were found between high and low SCS (Somatic Cells Score) selection lines. Analysing the two groups together, an expression of 300 genes were found to change from T0 before infection, and T4 at 24 hours and T5 at 30 hours following challenge. In blood derived white blood cells 8 genes showed increased expression between T0 and T5 and 1 gene has reduced expression. The genes showing the greatest increase in expression following challenge (5.65 to 3.16 fold change) play an important role in (i) immune and inflammatory response (NFKB1, TNFAIP6, BASP1, IRF1, PLEK, BATF3); (ii) the regulation of innate resistance to pathogens (PTX3); and (iii) the regulation of cell metabolism (CYTH4, SLC2A6, ARG2). The genes with reduced expression (−1.5 to −2.5 fold) included genes involved in (i) lipid metabolism (ABCG2, FASN), (ii) chemokine, cytokine and intracellular signalling (SPPI), and (iii) cell cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (KRT19). Conclusions Analysis of genes with differential expression following infection showed an inverse relationship between immune response and lipid metabolism in the early response of the mammary gland to the S. aureus challenge. PTX3 showed a large change in expression in both milk and blood, and is therefore a candidate for further studies on

  17. CD36 deficiency attenuates experimental mycobacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p < 0.001), as well as the density of granulomas, and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria), we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination. PMID:20950462

  18. Detection of subclinical peste des petits ruminants virus infection in experimental cattle.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Saravanan, P; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Sarkar, J; Rajak, K K; Ahuja, A; Yadav, V; Sudhakar, S B; Parida, S; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of cattle in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) as subclinical carriers. Cattle were exposed experimentally to PPR virus (PPRV) infection or placed in contact with PPR infected goats. Clinical samples including heparinized/EDTA blood, plasma, peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMCs) and clotted blood (for serum) were collected periodically from 21 days post infection (dpi) to 397 dpi (21, 45, 50, 57, 65, 95, 111, 119, 148, 190, 203 and 397 dpi) and tested for PPRV antigen, nucleic acid and antibody. Exposed cattle seroconverted and maintained PPRV specific haemagglutinin antibodies and detectable PPRV antigen/nucleic acid in blood, plasma and PBMCs from 21 to 397 dpi. PPRV was recovered from blood and PBMC collected from experimental animals at 21 dpi, initially in B95a cells and then adapted to Vero cells. The study indicated that PPRV can infect cattle subclinically and PPRV antigen/nucleic acid persist in cattle for at least 397 days. PMID:25674614

  19. Genetic variation for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats.

    PubMed

    van Hulzen, K J E; Koets, A P; Nielen, M; Hoeboer, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-10-01

    Classical control strategies based on management restrictions to reduce transmission, culling of infected goats, and vaccination have not been able to eradicate Johne's disease from infected herds. Selective breeding for less susceptibility to disease may be a useful additional tool to contribute to control of the disease. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic variation and heritability for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats. Milk samples from 950 goats were tested for antibodies specific to Johne's disease by ELISA on 5 consecutive test days, with a time interval of around 3 mo. Test results were coded as infected or not infected according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Heritability of infection status was estimated for 3 data sets to determine the effect of repeated sampling: only test results obtained on the first test day (first-test); the maximum test result of each animal obtained on 1 of the 5 test days (max-test); and all test results per animal, with a maximum of 5 consecutive samplings (all-test). Data sets first-test and max-test were analyzed with a sire model with fixed effects for year of birth and stage of lactation, and random effects for sire and error. For data set all-test, an additional permanent environment effect was included in the model. The estimated heritability on the underlying scale ranged from 0.12 in data set first-test, to 0.09 in data set max-test, to 0.07 in data set all-test.

  20. Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains.

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  2. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  3. Experimental Fascioloides magna infections of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1992-04-01

    Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), approximately 5-mo-old, each were inoculated orally with 500 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna. All mule deer died from liver fluke infection between 69 and 134 days (mean = 114, SE = 9.9) after inoculation. Between 38 and 326 immature F. magna (mean = 102, SE = 45.5) were recovered from each deer at necropsy. Flukes were present in livers, lungs, and free in pleural and peritoneal spaces. Infection was characterized by necrotizing hepatitis, fibrosing peritonitis and pleuritis, and hematin pigment accumulation in liver, lung, and many other internal organs. Eggs of F. magna first were detected in feces of the white-tailed deer 28 wk after inoculation, and weekly thereafter until the healthy deer was euthanized at 31 wk. At necropsy, 205 F. magna, including 12 encapsulated mature and 193 nonencapsulated immature flukes were recovered from liver, lungs, and free in abdominal and thoracic spaces of the white-tailed deer. Based on these results, F. magna may be fatal to mule deer within 5 mo of infection. Like domestic sheep and goats, mule deer may be highly susceptible to infection, and it is unlikely mule deer can survive infection with large numbers of F. magna.

  4. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models. PMID:22235206

  5. Genotypic characterization and species identification of Fasciola spp. with implications regarding the isolates infecting goats in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Giang Thi; Van De, Nguyen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2009-12-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequences (361 or 362bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a portion of mitochondrial cox1 (423bp) for Fasciola spp. obtained from specimens collected in indigenous and hybrid goats and sheep in Vietnam were characterized for genotypic status and hybridization/introgression. Alignment of 48 ITS-2 sequences (also those from goats and sheep in this study) indicates that F. gigantica and F. hepatica differ typically from each other at seven sites whereas one of these is a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. The isolates from the mountainous goats in the North of Vietnam (Yen Bai province) showed the ITS-2 composition relatively identical to that of F. hepatica. The ITS-2 sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in goats had probably experienced introgression/hybridization as reported previously in other ruminants and humans. All Vietnamese goat-of-origin specimens had high pairwise percentage of mitochondrial cox1 sequences to F. gigantica (97-100%), and very low identity to F. hepatica (91-93%), suggesting their maternal linkage to be traced to F. gigantica. The presence of hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the goats/sheep in Vietnam, regardless of indigenous or imported hosts, appears to be the first demonstration from a tropical country. PMID:19733565

  6. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  7. A Multi-Antigenic Adenoviral-Vectored Vaccine Improves BCG-Induced Protection of Goats against Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infection and Prevents Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Martín, Maite; Nofrarías, Miquel; McShane, Helen; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Domingo, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The “One world, one health” initiative emphasizes the need for new strategies to control human and animal tuberculosis (TB) based on their shared interface. A good example would be the development of novel universal vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. This study uses the goat model, a natural TB host, to assess the protective effectiveness of a new vaccine candidate in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Thirty-three goat kids were divided in three groups: Group 1) vaccinated with BCG (week 0), Group 2) vaccinated with BCG and boosted 8 weeks later with a recombinant adenovirus expressing the MTBC antigens Ag85A, TB10.4, TB9.8 and Acr2 (AdTBF), and Group 3) unvaccinated controls. Later on, an endobronchial challenge with a low dose of M. caprae was performed (week 15). After necropsy (week 28), the pulmonary gross pathology was quantified using high resolution Computed Tomography. Small granulomatous pulmonary lesions (< 0.5 cm diameter) were also evaluated through a comprehensive qualitative histopathological analysis. M. caprae CFU were counted from pulmonary lymph nodes. The AdTBF improved the effects of BCG reducing gross lesion volume and bacterial load, as well as increasing weight gain. The number of Ag85A-specific gamma interferon-producing memory T-cells was identified as a predictor of vaccine efficacy. Specific cellular and humoral responses were measured throughout the 13-week post-challenge period, and correlated with the severity of lesions. Unvaccinated goats exhibited the typical pathological features of active TB in humans and domestic ruminants, while vaccinated goats showed only very small lesions. The data presented in this study indicate that multi-antigenic adenoviral vectored vaccines boosts protection conferred by vaccination with BCG. PMID:24278420

  8. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  9. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks. PMID:18328644

  10. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.

  11. Lack of neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus in persistently infected goats can be overcome by immunization with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, O; Sheffer, D; Griffin, D E; Clements, J; Hess, J

    1984-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the persistent progressive diseases of sheep (visna-maedi) and goats (arthritis-encephalitis) is dependent on continuous replication of the causative lentiviruses. One subgroup of these viruses, Icelandic visna virus, accomplishes this form of replication by undergoing antigenic mutation. Mutant viruses arising late in the infection escape neutralization by antibodies directed to the parental virus. In contrast, we show here that viruses obtained from persistently infected sheep and goats with natural disease in this country do not induce virus-neutralizing antibodies, although antibodies to virus core proteins were produced. The lack of neutralizing antibodies was not overcome by hyperimmunization of animals with concentrated preparations of live or inactivated virus. Thus, failure to produce these specific antibodies was not due to lack of sufficient antigen or interference with the immune response because of the ability of these viruses to infect macrophages. The hyporesponsive state, however, was overcome by immunization of animals with virus and large amounts of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Induction of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies by this method was probably due to a unique form of antigen processing by macrophages activated by M. tuberculosis. Neutralizing antibodies were produced for the first time against the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus by this method. These antibodies have similar biological properties to those induced by Icelandic visna virus. They belong to the immunoglobulin G1 subclass, they are effective against a narrow range of caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses, and they identify (for the first time) antigenic variants among these caprine agents. PMID:6319735

  12. Muellerius capillaris in north-east Zaire: prevalence in sheep and goats and determination of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Chartier, C

    1989-12-01

    Muellerius capillaris was the only species of nematode recovered from the lungs of young and adult sheep and goats of north-east Zaire. The prevalences were of 19% (sheep) and 32% (goats). The slug Atoxon pallens contained larvae in natural conditions and represents a potential intermediate host. The land snails Achatinidae (Achatina stuhlmanni and Limicolaria spp.) could not be experimentally infected with M. capillaris larvae. PMID:2600412

  13. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  14. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Guang-Han, Ong; Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  15. Effects of intra-mammary bacterial infection with coagulase negative staphylococci and stage of lactation on shedding of epithelial cells and infiltration of leukocytes into milk: comparison among cows, goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Krifucks, Oleg; Blum, Shlomo; Rivas, Ariel L; Silanikove, Nissim

    2012-06-30

    The effects of mammary gland bacterial infection and stage of lactation on leukocyte infiltration into the mammary gland were compared among cows, goats and sheep. Animals were at two stages of lactation: mid or late. In mid-lactation animals, bacterial-free glands and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS)-infected glands were compared. In late lactation only uninfected glands were studied. Of mid-lactation bacteria-free animals, goats had the highest number of leukocytes and % polymorphonuclears (PMNs), whereas sheep had the lowest and leukocytes number in cows were intermediate between sheep and goats. Based on %PMN, two cell clusters were found in sheep, which overlapped with the parallel cell clusters of cows and goats, but with a slightly higher number of leukocytes in each cell cluster. At late lactation, goats had higher values for %PMN and leukocyte numbers in comparison to cows, which had a similar cellular profile to sheep. The cellular immune response to CNS infection was similar for the three animal species, although the number of cells was different, while the basal cell level at mid-lactation and especially at the end of lactation was species specific.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  17. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range. PMID:19395736

  18. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  19. Experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Moody, K D; Terwilliger, G A; Hansen, G M; Barthold, S W

    1994-04-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of laboratory-reared adult and infant white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to a known pathogenic isolate of Borrelia burgdorferi (N40). Two-month-old and 3-day-old Peromyscus were inoculated intradermally with 10(6) to 10(7) spirochetes. At 21 days for adults or 30 days for infants post inoculation, mice were killed, and tissues were cultured for spirochetes and examined microscopically. Based on serology and culture, adult mice became infected but did not have any gross or microscopic lesions. Mice inoculated as infants became infected, and also developed carditis and multifocal arthritis. Contact transmission between inoculated infants and their naive mothers was not observed. Age at inoculation appeared to be a critical factor in inducing Lyme borreliosis lesions in Peromyscus leucopus, as in other species.

  20. INFECTION-IMMUNITY IN EXPERIMENTAL SALMONELLOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F. M.; Mackaness, G. B.; Blanden, R. V.

    1966-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is highly virulent for the mouse causing an infection resembling mouse typhoid. Survivors of the infection are completely resistant to reinfection and eliminate a large challenge dose of virulent organisms within 72 hr. The antigenically related Salmonella gallinarum was almost avirulent for the mouse but animals vaccinated with this organism were equally capable of eliminating a lethal dose of virulent S. enteritidis. Living Salmonella pullorum, on the other hand, was quickly eliminated from the tissues of normal mice. Vaccination with this organism failed to evoke an effective bactericidal mechanism. Alcohol-killed vaccines of these three Salmonellae all produced an increase in blood clearance rate, but gave only marginal protection against S. enteritidis. Liver and spleen counts on these mice revealed a 1 to 2 day delay before any net increase in the total bacterial population could be observed. Immunization of mice with increasing doses of living Salmonella montevideo resulted in progressively greater killing of a challenge dose of S. enteritidis despite the absence of common somatic antigens between the two strains. The degree of protection varied with the size of the residual population of S. montevideo in the vaccinated mice. The significance of these findings in assessing the importance of various factors involved in the development of acquired resistance to Salmonella infections is discussed. PMID:5922286

  1. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission. PMID:21529391

  2. A novel parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) identified from goat herds with respiratory diseases in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Cheng, Suping; Wang, Qiusheng; Huang, Jiachun; Deng, Jiawu; Wang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Wenwen; Yang, Leilei; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Wei, Jianzhong; Jiang, Ping; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2014-11-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens for humans and for many animals, but goat infection has been rarely reported. Starting in Aug 2013, goats in the Jiangsu and Anhui provinces of eastern China suffered severe respiratory diseases. In order to identify the causative agent, numerous related pathogens were tested with RT-PCR or PCR. A unique PIV3 strain was detected in most of the clinical nasal swabs or serum samples. The virus was isolated on MDBK cells and characterized by RT-PCR, nucleotide sequence analysis and hemagglutination test. The entire M and F gene coding regions, HN, 5'-UTR-N and L gene fragments were amplified using pairs of degenerate primers. Nucleotide, amino acid sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses based on these genes indicated that the goat-derived PIV3 strain was distinct from previously reported BPIV3 genotypes and HPIV3 strains. The novel isolate, named JS2013, might be a potentially new member of the respirovirus genus. Goats were experimentally infected with JS2013 culture. The virus-inoculated goats displayed coughing and nasal discharges that were related to respiratory diseases. Viremia and virus shedding were detected during 4-10 days post-inoculation (dpi). Virus-specific HI antibodies became positive from 14 dpi. This is the first report of the detection of PIV3 from Chinese goat herds and genetic and pathogenetic characterization of the novel goat-derived PIV3.

  3. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  4. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-05-24

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection of Sigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  5. Experimental copper and chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats. I. Feed consumption and weight development.

    PubMed

    Frank, A; Anke, M; Danielsson, R

    2000-04-17

    Secondary Cu deficiency, Cr deficiency and molybdenosis were suggested causes of the 'mysterious' disease afflicting moose (Alces alces L.) in a region in south-west Sweden affected by acid rain. A model experiment with goats was performed to study the clinical chemical parameters, determine the tissue contents of trace and minor elements, to perform pathological and histopathological investigations and to compare the findings with those in moose disease. Twenty 3-month-old male goats were assigned to four dietary treatments (five animals each) in an experiment lasting for 20 months. The four groups in the study were: control group, Cu-deficient group (group 1), Cr-deficient group (group 2), and Cu- and Cr-deficient group (group 3). The animals were fed a basic semi-synthetic diet. At the end of the study the three surviving animals of group 3 were supplemented with additional tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) during the last 2 months. Feed consumption and weight development of the animals were monitored and are presented. The feed consumption of the two Cu-deficient groups of goats (group 1 and group 3) supported the previously described observations in copper deficiency in ruminants, e.g. decreased appetite and feed intake. A previously unreported effect of Cr deficiency in ruminants is now described in goats. Chromium deficiency at adequate Cu supplementation (group 2), caused increased lipid synthesis and a weight gain of 32 kg compared with that of the control group (20 kg). A possible explanation for this unexpected weight increase in only Cr deficiency is discussed. It is concluded that the feeding experiment does not support the hypothesis concerning the relation of Cr deficiency to the moose disease.

  6. Early events following experimental infection with Peste-Des-Petits ruminants virus suggest immune cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Pope, Robert A; Parida, Satya; Bailey, Dalan; Brownlie, Joe; Barrett, Thomas; Banyard, Ashley C

    2013-01-01

    Peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a viral pathogen that causes a devastating plague of small ruminants. PPRV is an economically significant disease that continues to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world. The current understanding of PPRV pathogenesis has been heavily assumed from the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) and other morbillivirus infections alongside data derived from field outbreaks. There have been few studies reported that have focused on the pathogenesis of PPRV and very little is known about the processes underlying the early stages of infection. In the present study, 15 goats were challenged by the intranasal route with a virulent PPRV isolate, Côte d'Ivoire '89 (CI/89) and sacrificed at strategically defined time-points post infection to enable pre- and post-mortem sampling. This approach enabled precise monitoring of the progress and distribution of virus throughout the infection from the time of challenge, through peak viraemia and into a period of convalescence. Observations were then related to findings of previous field studies and experimental models of PPRV to develop a clinical scoring system for PPRV. Importantly, histopathological investigations demonstrated that the initial site for virus replication is not within the epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa, as has been previously reported, but is within the tonsillar tissue and lymph nodes draining the site of inoculation. We propose that virus is taken up by immune cells within the respiratory mucosa which then transport virus to lymphoid tissues where primary virus replication occurs, and from where virus enters circulation. Based on these findings we propose a novel clinical scoring methodology for PPRV pathogenesis and suggest a fundamental shift away from the conventional model of PPRV pathogenesis.

  7. Pathogenesis of experimental rhesus cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lockridge, K M; Sequar, G; Zhou, S S; Yue, Y; Mandell, C P; Barry, P A

    1999-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes and maintains a lifelong persistence following infection in an immunocompetent host. The determinants of a stable virus-host relationship are poorly defined. A nonhuman primate model for HCMV was used to investigate virological and host parameters of infection in a healthy host. Juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were inoculated with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), either orally or intravenously (i.v. ), and longitudinally necropsied. None of the animals displayed clinical signs of disease, although hematologic abnormalities were observed intermittently in i.v. inoculated animals. RhCMV DNA was detected transiently in the plasma of all animals at 1 to 2 weeks postinfection (wpi) and in multiple tissues beginning at 2 to 4 wpi. Splenic tissue was the only organ positive for RhCMV DNA in all animals. The location of splenic cells expressing RhCMV immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) in i.v. inoculated animals changed following inoculation. At 4 to 5 wpi, most IE1-positive cells were perifollicular, and at 25 wpi, the majority were located within the red pulp. All animals developed anti-RhCMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies within 1 to 2 wpi and IgG antibodies within 2 to 4 wpi against a limited number of viral proteins. Host reactivity to RhCMV proteins increased in titer (total and neutralizing) and avidity with time. These results demonstrate that while antiviral immune responses were able to protect from disease, they were insufficient to eliminate reservoirs of persistent viral gene expression. PMID:10516066

  8. Responsiveness of Experimental Surgical-Wound Infections to Topical Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McRipley, R. J.; Whitney, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Topical agents freshly formulated in a cream base vehicle as well as commercial topical preparations were used to evaluate in mice the responsiveness of experimental surgical wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to chemotherapy. The responsiveness of the infections to therapy or the efficacy of a topical agent was assessed primarily by means of wound counts of the infecting organism before and after the employment of an immediate (prophylactic) or delayed (therapeutic) treatment regimen. From tests of several concentrations of an agent formulated in the vehicle, a median effective dose could be determined. In the case of the lethal P. aeruginosa infection, a median protective dose could be determined. Both infections were found to be quite susceptible to treatment with those topical agents that demonstrated good activity in vitro against the test organisms. The results of the investigation indicated that the model infections were suitable for the screening of potential topical agents in vivo. PMID:984757

  9. [Effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in infective larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Maria Angela O; Domingues, Luciana F; Almeida, Gisele N; Simas, Mônica Mattos Dos S; Botura, Mariana B; Da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira G; Da Silva, Ana Valéria Araújo F; Menezes, Taise P; Batatinha, Maria José M

    2007-01-01

    Phitotherapy has been frequently utilized in parasitism control for numerous animal species. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of M. piperita extracts (196; 150.7; 115.9; 89.1; 68.5 e 52.7 mg/mL) and C. ambrosioides extracts (110,6; 85; 65,3; 50,2; 38,6 e 29,6 mg/mL) were used for the treatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Distilled water and doramectin were used in larvae cultures as negative and positive controls, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 95% of the infective larvae when M. piperita extracts were used in the concentrations of 115.9 and 196 mg/mL, and C. ambrosioides extract in the concentration of 110.6 mg/mL, supporting the effect of these extracts in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

  10. Some risk factors for reproductive failures and contribution of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats of Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Agonafir, Abebe; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Tilahun, Getachew; Medhin, Girmay; Vitale, Maria; Di Marco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Reproductive failure has a negative impact on animal production, health and welfare and ultimately rural economies. In Ethiopia, the factors affecting small ruminant reproductive efficiency are inadequately investigated. A cross-sectional survey was done from November, 2010 to May, 2011 to investigate risk factors of reproductive failures including Toxoplasma gondii infection. Analysis of 1372 sera (787 sheep and 585 goats) from 409 flocks using ELISA showed high flock (59.7%) and animal (31.8%) level T. gondii seroprevalence. An overall 24.9% (341/1372) annual abortion rate (19.6% in sheep and 32.0% in goats) was recorded. Animal level T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly associated with abortion in Ambo and Ada'a-Liben districts (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 3.76; P = 0.001). Questionnaire survey on 199 households of Ambo, Ada'a-Liben and Fentale districts revealed high flock level abortion (57.5%), still birth (28.9%) and neonatal losses (47.9%), which are significantly different between study districts (P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that species (goat), large flock size, pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems, drinking water from river and stagnant water bodies, grazing/browsing in plain land and extensive management were significant predictors of flock level reproductive failures. In the final Zero inflated Poisson regression model number of abortions was significantly higher in goat than in sheep flocks (Incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87; P = 0.012). It is also significantly higher in pastoral (IRR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.83; P = 0.008) and agro-pastoral production systems (IRR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.86; P = 0.001) than in sedentary production system. Prevention of toxoplasmosis, improved husbandry practices and further epidemiological studies to identify causes of reproductive failures are recommended.

  11. Experimental infection of domestic pigeons with pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Schlömer, Julian; Lüken, Caroline; Johne, Reimar; Biere, Barbara; Müller, Hermann; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection and young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), associated with high morbidity and mortality, have been recognized in young racing pigeons from large portions of Central Europe. There exist a number of data indicating that YPDS is a consequence of PiCV infection and subsequent immunosuppression. In order to prove PiCV to be one of the crucial factors of YPDS, an experimental infection with PiCV was performed under controlled conditions. Twenty-four domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) were divided into two groups with 12 pigeons each; an infection group and a control group. All birds were between their fourth to eighth week of life. Pigeons in the infection group were infected both intramuscularly and orally with PiCV purified from naturally infected birds, while pigeons in the control group received a placebo. To test a possible influence of the PiCV infection on the immune system, the animals in both groups were vaccinated simultaneously, on the same day, against PMV-1 (Lasovac plus, IDT, Dessau-Tornau, Germany). Weekly virologic testing showed a viraemic period, and excretion of the infection virus, in pigeons in the infection group. Replication of PiCV could be proved on the basis of histologic findings of multiglobular inclusion bodies, mainly observed in macrophages of the bursa of Fabricius. A PiCV, genetically distinct from the experimental virus, was detected in the control group by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but any histologic findings comparable to the infection group were absent. None of the pigeons revealed clinical signs of illness, or hints that immunosuppression had occurred, regardless of their group. The absence of stressful conditions, considered as a trigger for the development of YPDS, may be responsible for the failure of disease reproduction in our infection model.

  12. Experimental infections with the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis: a review.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies about Histomonas meleagridis, and more specifically about experiments in vivo involving H. meleagridis to investigate the pathogenicity and efficacy of drugs or vaccines, have been published. Together with older publications, a considerable amount of information about experimental infections with H. meleagridis exist, which is helpful for planning future animal studies and can reduce the number of birds used in such studies toward better animal welfare. One hundred sixty-seven publications describing experimental infections with H. meleagridis were published in scientific journals between 1920 and 2012. One hundred forty-two of these publications describe infections of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and 52 infections of chickens (Gallus gallus). In 18 studies, experiments involving other species were done. The most popular routes of infection were the intracloacal application of histomonal trophozoites from culture material, from lesions or from feces of infected birds, or using larvae of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum (83 studies) and the oral application of eggs or other stages of the cecal worm containing histomonal stages (83 studies). During the last 10 years, intracloacal application of trophozoites has become the most popular way to experimentally infect birds with H. meleagridis due to its high reproducibility and reliability. In most studies, infection doses of several 10,000 or 100,000 histomonal trophozoites were used for infection, and the resulting mortality in turkeys was more than 70 %. First mortality can occur as early as 6 days p.i.; peak mortality usually is 13-15 days p.i. Lower infection doses may delay mortality about 2 days. In chickens infected by the intracloacal route, mortality and clinical signs are rare, but infection rates are similar. Cecal lesions can be observed from 3 to 4 days p.i., lesions up to 3 weeks p.i.; liver lesions may be lacking completely or be present only in a small

  13. Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Kramer, L D; Peralta, P H

    1983-07-01

    Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml. Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. SLE viremias in four experimentally inoculated cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceus were shorter, and of equal or lower titer, than in sloths. Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. An uninoculated baby Bradypus became infected by contact transmission from its mother. The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both sloth species developed high and long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. The complement-fixation antibody response in Bradypus was lower and slower to develop than in Choloepus. Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither sloths nor cormorants become overly ill from SLE virus infection.

  14. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  15. Experimental infection of mule deer with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G V; Hibler, C P; Prestwood, A K

    1980-10-01

    Six adult and three fawn mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. The sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. All three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. Adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spinal cord of two fawns. Eggs were observed on the cranial dura mater of one of these fawns, indicating that P. tenuis can complete its life cycle provided mule deer can survive the damage resulting from the infection. Neither eggs nor larvae of P. tenuis were recovered from the feces or lungs of infected mule deer. Clinical signs and histologic lesions observed in experimentally infected mule deer resembled those reported in infected moose (Alces alces americana). Two critical periods were apparent in mule deer infected with P. tenuis: nematode migration through the spinal neural parenchyma, and penetration of the adult nematodes into the cranial neural parenchyma. While most adult deer were unable to survive the first critical period, fawns survived the first but succumbed to infection during the second critical period.

  16. Clinical protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following vaccination with extinction payloads of O1 Manisa Foot-and-Mouth Disease monovalent vaccine and challenge in goats and comparison with sheep.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Nagendrakumar, S B; Kumar, R; Anilkumar, J; Manikumar, K; Yuvaraj, S; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-10-01

    Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). Small ruminants are vaccinated with one-half or one-third of cattle dose of oil-based or aqueous vaccines respectively. The extinction antigen payload in vaccine for protection in small ruminants is poorly studied. FMD seronegative Nellore sheep (n=30) and Osmanabadi goats (n=30) were vaccinated with different payloads of O(1) Manisa vaccine (0.45-5 μg). Vaccinated and sero-negative unvaccinated sheep (n=6) and goats (n=6) were challenged intradermally into the coronary band with O(1) Manisa virus. The sheep and goats were monitored for signs of FMD and samples were collected for measuring viraemia and virus associated with nasal swabs and probang samples. Clotted blood was collected for serology. Vaccines containing antigen payload up to 0.94 μg protected sheep and goats against challenge. Sheep and goats vaccinated with 0.45 μg antigen payload were poorly protected against challenge. An antigen payload of 0.94 μg was sufficient to offer complete protection and also absence of carrier status. Sheep and goats with no vaccination or with poor sero conversion to vaccination showed sub-clinical infection and became carriers. The results of the study suggest that vaccination offers protection from clinical disease even at a low payload of 0.94 μg and hence one-half of cattle dose of the oil-based vaccine formulations is sufficient to induce protective immune response in sheep and goats. Since no live virus could be isolated after 5 days post challenge from the nasal swab or probang samples even though viral RNA was detected, the risk of these animals transmitting disease was probably very low.

  17. Toxoplasma-induced abortion in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Fifteen pregnant goats serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated orally with 10, 100, or 1,000 infective oocysts of the GT-1 strain of T gondii. Four goats received 10 oocysts, 6 received 100 oocysts, and 5 received 1,000 oocysts. Six pregnant goats served as noninoculated controls. All inoculated goats became pyretic (40-41 C) and were dyspneic between 4 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Two goats inoculated in early pregnancy (68 and 70 days) with 100 oocysts had enlarged uteri; fetal membranes but no fetuses were found when they were killed 86 and 88 DAI. Three goats aborted or had a stillborn kid 9, 10, and 11 DAI. The remaining 10 goats delivered kids infected with T gondii; 8 goats had at least 1 stillborn kid, and 2 goats had infected but otherwise normal kids at birth. Placenta and tissues of fetuses and kids were inoculated into mice for determination of Toxoplasma infectivity. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the fetal placenta of 6 of 7 goats as early as 10 DAI and as late as 62 DAI. The organism was isolated from every fetus or kid that was born 18 DAI but not from fetuses or kids born 9, 10, and 11 DAI. Two kids were born 15 DAI; T gondii was isolated from 1 kid but not from the other, suggesting that T gondii invaded fetal tissues between 11 and 15 DAI. Of the 20 transplacentally infected kids, T gondii was isolated more frequently from the skeletal muscle, heart, lung, and brain than from other tissues.

  18. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  19. DNA vaccine encoding Haemonchus contortus actin induces partial protection in goats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ruofeng; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2014-10-01

    Actin is a globular multi-functional protein that forms microfilaments, and participates in many important cellular processes. Previous study found that Haemonchus contortus actin could be recognized by the serum of goats infected with the homology parasite. This indicated that H. contortus actin could be a potential candidate for vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccine encoding H. contortus actin was tested for protection against experimental H. contortus infections in goats. Fifteen goats were allocated into three trial groups. The animals of Actin group were vaccinated with the DNA vaccine on day 0 and 14, and challenged with 5000 infective H. contortus third stage larval (L3) on day 28. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 at the same time. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged with L3. The results showed that DNA vaccine were transcribed at local injection sites and expressed in vivo post immunizations respectively. For goats in Actin vaccinated group, higher levels of serum IgG, serum IgA and mucosal IgA were produced, the percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and the concentrations of TGF-β were increased significantly (P<0.05). Following L3 challenge, the mean eggs per gram feces (EPG) and worm burdens of Actin group were reduced by 34.4% and 33.1%, respectively. This study suggest that recombinant H. contortus Actin DNA vaccine induced partial immune response and has protective potential against goat haemonchosis.

  20. Characterization of an unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goat by transmission in knock-in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M

    2013-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.

  1. [Natural and experimental infections of lambs with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Bocklisch, H; Pfützner, H; Zepezauer, V

    1989-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) ovipneumoniae was isolated pure or mixed with bacteria from 47 lungs of lambs of 14 in 22 tested flocks. M. ovipneumoniae was obtained as pure culture in cases of mild bronchopneumonia. Experimental intratracheal or intranasal infection caused several days of rising body temperature above 39.7 degrees C. Nasal discharge, coughing, and dyspnea did not occur. M. ovipneumoniae was successfully re-isolated from nasal swabs, beginning 2 d from infection. Lobular catarrhal bronchopneumonia was established by postmortem examinations, 10-14 d from infection, and M. ovipneumoniae was re-isolated from the lungs. Histological patterns of lungs were characterised by interstitial cell reactions.

  2. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Onunkwo, Charles C.; Hahn, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1–2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage. PMID:20130894

  3. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  4. Molecular characterization by MLVA of Coxiella burnetii strains infecting dairy cows and goats of north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Letizia; Guerrini, Eulalia; Rampazzo, Erika; Barberio, Antonio; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Hagen, Ferry; Lucchese, Laura; Zuliani, Federica; Marangon, Stefano; Natale, Alda

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. In ruminants, shedding into the environment mainly occurs during parturition or abortion, but the bacterium is shed also in milk, vaginal mucus, stools and urine. In Italy few surveys have been conducted and reported seroprevalence values ranged between 10% and 60%, even if few human cases have been described. Genotyping of bacteria is crucial for enhancing diagnostic methods and for epidemiological surveillance. The objective of this study was to investigate genotypic differences of C. burnetii genotypes directly in 34 samples, collected during a 3-years survey among 11 dairy cattle and 11 goat farms in the north-eastern part of Italy using a 6-locus multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. The samples analysed included 13 bulk tank milk (BTM), 6 individual milk, 11 vaginal swabs and 4 foetal spleens. MLVA-type 2 was determined as the most prevalent in cattle in this study. C. burnetii strains circulating in the studied cattle population are very similar to genotypes previously described, while genotypes from goats showed an important variability. Further investigation are needed to understand the reason of this pattern.

  5. Immunization with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae-live attenuated oocysts protect goat kids from clinical coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonio; Muñoz, María Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Hermosilla, Carlos; Andrada, Marisa; Lara, Pedro; Bordón, Elisa; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Matos, Lorena; Guedes, Aránzazu Carmen; Falcón, Soraya; Falcón, Yaiza; Martín, Sergio; Taubert, Anja

    2014-01-17

    Caprine coccidiosis, affecting mainly young goat kids around the weaning period, is worldwide the most important disease in the goat industry. Control of caprine coccidiosis is increasingly hampered by resistances developed against coccidiostatic drugs leading to an enhanced need for anticoccidial vaccines. In the current study we conducted an oral immunization trial with live attenuated sporulated Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae oocysts. Sporulated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts were attenuated by X-irradiation technique. The experimental design included a total of 18 goat kids divided into the following groups: (i) animals immunized with attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-irradiated homologous oocysts (group 1); (ii) animals infected with non-attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-attenuated homologous oocysts (group 2); (iii) animals primary-infected with untreated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 8 weeks of age (control of the challenge infection, group 3); (iv) non-infected control animals (group 4). Goat kids immunized with live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts (group 1) excreted significantly less oocysts in the faeces (95.3% reduction) than kids infected with non-attenuated ones (group 2). Furthermore, immunization with live but attenuated oocysts resulted in ameliorated clinical coccidiosis compared to goat kids infected with untreated oocysts (group 2) and resulted in equally reduced signs of coccidiosis after challenge infection compared to acquired immunity driven by non-attenuated oocysts. Overall, the present study demonstrates for the first time that live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts orally administered showed almost no pathogenicity but enough immunogenicity in terms of immunoprotection. Importantly, vaccinated animals still shed low amounts of oocysts, guaranteeing environmental contamination and consecutive booster

  6. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  7. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii oocyst infections in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Koethe, M; Ludewig, M; Pott, S; Fehlhaber, K; Straubinger, R K; Daugschies, A

    2013-09-23

    Toxoplasma (T.) gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Humans are often infected by ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat or meat products. Turkeys as food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and predilection sites of T. gondii infection in turkeys after oral infection with oocysts. Experimental infections with different doses of T. gondii oocysts were performed in 36 turkeys to mimic natural infection. Systemic distribution of parasitic stages was investigated by screening 14 different tissues including the edible tissues heart, liver, thigh, breast and drumstick muscle. Parasite detection was based on a conventional nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Animals were sacrificed 6-12 weeks after infection. Results demonstrated parasite spreading over the whole organism after oral infection by oocysts. Most frequently affected tissues were brain (47.2% of all brains were positive for T. gondii) and thigh muscle (25.0% positive samples). Other muscles were regularly T. gondii-positive, all other sampled tissues were positive at least once. Thus, edible tissues are one of the predilection sites of T. gondii in turkeys which renders raw or undercooked turkey meat a potential risk for parasite transmission to humans. Data were compared to results from previous parenteral turkey infections with tachyzoites. With the exception of brain, liver and breast muscle affection, no significant differences were observed between both infection routes. Both infection models could be used for research purposes with certain advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  9. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  10. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  11. Experimental infection of Apis mellifera honeybees with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia).

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; García-Palencia, Pilar; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

    2007-03-01

    In this report, an experimental infection of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae, a newly reported microsporidian in this host is described. Nosema free honeybees were inoculated with 125,000 N. ceranae spores, isolated from heavily infected bees. The parasite species was identified by amplification and sequencing the SSUrRNA gene of the administered spores. Three replicate cages of 20 honeybees each were prepared, along with one control cage (n=20) supplied with sugar syrup only. The infection rate was 100% at the dosage administered. The presence of Nosema inside ventricular cells was confirmed in the samples using ultrathin sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. By day 3 p.i. a few cells (4.4%+/-1.2) were observed to be parasitized, whereas by 6 days p.i. more than half of the counted cells (66.4%+/-6) showed different parasite stages, this value increasing on day 7 p.i. (81.5%+/-14.8). Only one control bee died on day 7 p.i. In the infected groups, mortality was not observed until day 6 p.i. (66.7%+/-5.6). Total mortality on day 7 p.i. was 94.1% in the three infected replicates and by day 8 p.i. no infected bee was alive. After the infection, the parasites invaded both the tip of folds and the basal cells of the epithelium and the autoinfective capacity of the spores seemed to spread the infection rapidly between epithelial cells. On day 3 p.i., mature spores could be seen inside host cell tissue implying that the developmental cycle had been completed. The large number of parasitized cells, even the regenerative ones, the presence of autoinfective spores and the high mortality rate demonstrate that N. ceranae is highly pathogenic to Apis mellifera. Possible relation with bee depopulation syndrome is discussed by authors.

  12. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  13. Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

    1980-10-01

    The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

  14. [2 aspects of immunity in experimental flavivirus infections].

    PubMed

    Semenov, B F; Khozinskiĭ, V V

    1978-01-01

    Experimentally, two aspects protective and damaging, of the immune response were demonstrated in the course of development of infection in mice inoculated with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus, Langat, yellow fever, dengue type 2 or West Nile viruses. The experiments were carried out in animals in which the functions of T- and B-lymphocytes, were temporarily inhibited with cyclophosphane (CP). It was demonstrated that the protective or damaging role of the immune response depended on the method of inoculation of the animals, the virus properties, and characteristics of the mouse strain. The conditions optimal for the development of immunopathological reactions in one infection (TBE) were not identical for those in another infection even when caused by an antigenically related virus (LANGAT). In mice of the AKR strain the possibility of producing a therapeutic effect upon treatment with CP of the animals inoculated with TBE virus was demonstrated.

  15. Clinical findings in cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Braun, U

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical signs and course of disease in five lactating cows and in five dry cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Ten clinically healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows, seronegative for E. phagocytophila, were injected with 50 ml of whole blood containing E. phagocytophila. The cows were examined daily for 21 days, and blood samples were collected for microscopic examination of leukocytes for the infective agent. All cows became ill with symptoms of tick-borne fever after an incubation period of 5 to 9 days. The most important clinical signs were pyrexia (40.2-41.7 degrees C), decreased milk production and mildly to moderately disturbed general condition. In addition, there were respiratory symptoms such as polypnea, nasal discharge, cough and abnormal lung sounds. Clinical signs returned to normal in all cows without treatment after an average of 8 days. E. phagocytophila bodies were seen in leukocytes 5-8 days after infection and were present for 6-14 days. The course of disease was more severe in dry cows than in lactating cows. It can be concluded that experimental infection of cows with E. phagocytophila generally has a mild course. However, the associated decrease in milk production may be of economic importance.

  16. Experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Kistner, T P; Koller, L D

    1975-04-01

    The susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to the common liver fluke (F. hepatica) was studied. Two deer and one sheep comprised each of three experimental groups. Animals in each group were inoculated individually with 250, 500, or 1000 F. hepatica metacercariae. One deer and one sheep given 1000 metacercariae died with lesions consistent with black disease 7 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy 6 or 15 weeks postinoculation, the mean percentage recovery of the inoculum was 38.9% from the deer and 51.9% from the sheep. Fluke eggs recovered from the deer were viable and metacercariae cultured from the eggs were fully infective for sheep. Pathologic changes associated with F. hepatica infection were more severe in the infected deer; consequently, the deer were less resistant to the lethal effects of the parasite than sheep. Considering the experimental results and the fact that naturally acquired common liver fluke infection has been reported infrequently from black-tailed deer, it was concluded that black-tailed deer do not constitute a significant reservoir for F. hepatica in domestic livestock.

  17. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  18. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities. PMID:15851836

  19. Experimental infection of pigs with 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis'.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, A; Chiers, K; Decostere, A; De Bock, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R

    2007-05-01

    'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' is a spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomach of more than 60% of slaughter pigs. The role of 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' in gastric disease of pigs is still unclear. Experimental studies in pigs are lacking because this bacterium is unculturable until now. An inoculation protocol using 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' infected mouse stomach homogenate was used to reproduce the infection in pigs. Control animals were inoculated using negative mouse stomach homogenate. Pigs were inoculated three times with one-week intervals and euthanized 6 weeks post inoculation. Tissue samples were taken from different mucosal stomach regions to detect 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' by PCR and urease test. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated on formalin-fixed tissue samples. Lesions in the pars oesophagea were scored macroscopically. Infection was successful in all challenged animals, with the antrum and the fundus being predominantly positive. Infection was associated with infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the antral mucosa, evolving to follicular gastritis. No apparent inflammation of the fundic stomach region was detected in the infected animals. A clear link between 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' and pars oesophageal lesions could not be found.

  20. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities.

  1. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. PMID:26432777

  2. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  3. Primary experimental infection of riverine buffaloes with Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S C; Sharma, R L; Kalicharan, A; Mehra, U R; Dass, R S; Verma, A K

    1999-05-01

    The clinical course of the primary experimental Fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in riverine buffalo calves of the Murrah breed. Nine male calves aged 12-15 months were randomly assigned to two groups of five (Group I) and four (Group II) animals. Each animal in Group I, was orally infected with 1000 metacercariae (mc) of F. gigantica, whereas Group II animals did not receive any infection dose and served as uninfected controls. No clinical signs of fasciolosis were observed until the sixth week post-infection (PI). Group I animals, however, developed recognised symptoms of acute fasciolosis, comprising apyrexic inappetance, anemia, poor weight gain, diarrhoea and sub-mandibular and facial oedema, respectively, from 5, 6, 8, 16 and 17 weeks PI. The signs were intermittent in nature and of variable duration. The prepatent period was of 92-97 days (mean 95.2 +/- 3.1). One of the five infected animals died on Day 147 PI. At necropsy, 36.8 +/- 11.0% of the infection dose was recovered as adult fluke population. The gross lesions were primarily biliary in nature. Group II, the uninfected controls, throughout the study period of 165 days PI, did not show any symptom and were negative for F. gigantica. The study demonstrated that the onset of adverse effects of F. gigantica on the growth and health of the infected host was mainly noted during late prepatency much before coprological prediction and diagnosis. The significance of preventive therapy against fasciolosis during prepatency has been stressed in endemic areas. PMID:10384904

  4. Feline leukaemia provirus load during the course of experimental infection and in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Huder, J B; Gruber, S; Boretti, F; Sigrist, B; Lutz, H

    2001-07-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection in domestic cats can vary in its outcome (persistent, transient, no infection) for reasons that are not entirely known. It was hypothesized that the initial virus and provirus load could significantly influence the course of retrovirus infection. To determine the role of provirus loads, two methods of PCR, a nested PCR and a fluorogenic probe-based (TaqMan) real-time quantitative PCR, which were specific to the U3 region of FeLV-A were established. FeLV provirus in naturally and experimentally infected cats was then measured. Only 3 weeks after experimental FeLV-A infection, persistently infected cats demonstrated higher provirus loads and lower humoral immune responses than cats that had overcome antigenaemia. Lower initial provirus loads were associated with successful humoral immune responses. Unexpectedly, provirus in the buffy-coat cells of two cats that tested negative for the p27 antigen (a marker for viraemia) was also detected. In 597 Swiss cats, comparison of p27 antigen levels with PCR results revealed broad agreement. However, similar to the experimental situation, a significant number of animals (10%) was negative for the p27 antigen and FeLV-positive by PCR. These cats had a mean provirus load 300-fold lower than that of animals testing positive for the p27 antigen. In conclusion, an association between the provirus load and the outcome of FeLV infection was found. Detection of provirus carriers should contribute to further the control of FeLV. In addition, quantification of provirus loads will lead to a better understanding of FeLV pathogenesis and anti-retrovirus protective mechanisms.

  5. Naturally occurring, nonregressing canine oral papillomavirus infection: host immunity, virus characterization, and experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P K; Klaunberg, B A; Moore, R A; Santos, E B; Parry, N R; Gough, G W; Stanley, M A

    1999-12-20

    Papillomaviruses occasionally cause severe, nonregressing or recurrent infections in their human and animal hosts. The mechanisms underlying these atypical infections are not known. Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) typically regresses spontaneously and is an important model of mucosal human papillomavirus infections. A severe, naturally occurring, nonregressing COPV infection provided an opportunity to investigate some aspects of viral pathogenicity and host immunity. In this case, the papillomas proved refractory to surgical and medical treatments, including autogenous vaccination and vaccination with capsid (L1) virus-like particles. High levels of induced anti-L1 antibodies appeared to have no effect on the infection. The papillomas spread to oesophageal mucosa, perioral haired skin, and remote cutaneous sites. Isolation of COPV from the animal and sequencing of several regions of the viral genome showed no differences to the COPV prototype. Experimental infection of beagle dogs with this viral isolate resulted in the uncomplicated development and regression of oral warts within the usual period, indicating that the virus was not an unusual pathogenic variant. These findings support the hypothesis that the recurrent lesions seen in some human papillomavirus infections, such as recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, are associated with specific defects in host immunity rather than variations in viral pathogenicity. PMID:10600607

  6. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  7. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim was to validate an air sampling technique for ASF virus (ASFV) that could be used to detect and quantify virus excreted in the air after experimental infection of pigs. In an animal experiment with the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 and Netherlands'86 isolates, air samples were collected at several time points. For validation of the air sampling technique, ASFV was aerosolised in an isolator, and air samples were obtained using the MD8 air scan device, which was shown to be suitable to detect ASFV. The half-life of ASFV in the air was on average 19 min when analysed by PCR, and on average 14 min when analysed by virus titration. In rooms with infected pigs, viral DNA with titres up to 10(3.2) median tissue culture infective dose equivalents (TCID50eq.)/m(3) could be detected in air samples from day 4 post-inoculation (dpi 4) until the end of the experiments, at dpi 70. In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV.

  8. Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

    1998-06-15

    A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability.

  9. Experimental infection of rainbow trout with Saprolegnia parasitica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, George E.; Stehly, Guy R.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to experimentally induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The development of a reliable method to produce infected fish is essential to efforts to determine the efficacy of various antifungal treatments. Three methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica zoospores. These methods included application of the following stressors to fish: (1) abrasion and dewatering, (2) water temperature increase, and (3) a combination of abrasion, dewatering, and temperature increase. Neither physical abrasion nor temperature increase stress alone was effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 25.9% of fish stressed by abrasion and dewatering alone became infected. Application of both abrasion and temperature stress, however, induced saprolegniasis in 77.8% of fish tested. Most of these fish became infected after 5 d of stress treatments. No fish became infected or died in the positive control group (not stressed but exposed to S. parasitica zoospores) or the negative control group (not stressed or challenged). This method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, it is important that therapeutic treatments begin promptly after the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease can progress very quickly and often results in mortality.

  10. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis.

  11. Combined intranasal ipratropium bromide and oxymetazoline in experimental rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pitkäranta, A; Wecker, M T; Korts, D C; Hayden, F G

    1998-01-01

    The topical anticholinergic ipratropium bromide and topical decongestant oxymetazoline were tested to determine whether oxymetazoline alone and the combination were well tolerated and reduced rhinorrhea and middle ear pressure abnormalities during experimental rhinovirus infection. The study was double-bind, placebo-controlled, and double dummy in design. Healthy volunteers (n = 109) with low serum neutralizing antibody titer (< or = 1:2) were. Treatments inoculated with rhinovirus (type 39 or Hank's strain) and randomized to treatment with ipra-tropium bromide 0.06% two sprays per nostril (84 micrograms per treatment) and oxymetazoline 0.05% two sprays per nostril, oxymetazoline alone, or placebo. Treatments were self administered twice daily for 5 days beginning 1 day after rhinovirus inoculation. The overall infection rate was 83% and of those infected, 88% felt that they had a cold. During the 3-hour period after dosing, the increase in nasal discharge was significantly lower in the combined ipratropium and oxymetazoline (0.13 +/- 0.17 gm/3 hr, mean +/- SE) than after oxymetazoline alone (0.60 +/- 0.18 gm/3 hr) or vehicle (0.73 +/- 0.18 gm/3 hr). Over the 5-day observation period, total daily nasal discharge also tended to be lower in the ipratropium plus oxymetazoline group (3.67 +/- 0.70 gm/24 hr, mean +/- SE) compared to oxymetazoline (5.61 +/- 0.73: 35% reduction) or the vehicle (5.04 +/- 0.73; 27% reduction) recipients, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subjective assessments of rhinorrhea indicated that the severity of rhinorrhea was significantly better among patients receiving oxymetazoline alone or with ipratropium compared to the vehicle. No significant difference in the cumulative frequencies of middle ear pressure abnormalities (27-31%) were found among the treatment groups. Oxymetazoline does not consistently stimulate or decrease nasal mucus production, and ipratropium added to oxymetazoline is well tolerated and reduces

  12. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  13. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  14. Experimental infections of Anaplasma ovis in pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, J L

    1987-04-01

    Anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) and back to sheep. Anaplasma ovis was recovered in splenectomized sheep, from two of three spleen-intact pronghorns following their inoculation with blood from known A. ovis carrier sheep. These two pronghorns exhibited a 0.5% or higher A. ovis parasitemia within 48 days after exposure, and an anaplasmosis-positive serological response 91 days after exposure. Clinical signs of illness were not observed. Blood from the infected pronghorns produced disease in four splenectomized sheep. PMID:3586197

  15. Hydatidosis in goats in Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of hydatidosis was carried out in slaughtered goats (n = 177) by liver and lung examination at Jammu. The prevalence rate of hydatidosis was 19.8 %. A total of 14.1 % goats had cysts in both the livers and lungs while 2.3 and 3.4 % goats had cysts in the livers or lungs, respectively. A total of 9.1 % goats had fertile cysts. The adult goats (>4 years) had a significantly higher (p = 0.01) prevalence rate as compared to the young goats (<2 years). Sex had no significant effect on the prevalence of hydatidosis in goats. The histopathological section of the affected lungs revealed a thick coat of granulation tissue causing fibrosis. The cysts caused progressive focal pressure atrophic lesions at the sites of predilection, resulting in atelectasis, desquamation of bronchial epithelium and interalveolar haemorrhages. It may be concluded that the slaughter of food animals at an early age would help to reduce the infection prevalence in dogs and subsequently in the food animals. PMID:24505182

  16. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.

  17. Experimental phage therapy of burn wound infection: difficult first steps

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Thomas; Verbeken, Gilbert; Vos, Daniel De; Merabishvili, Maya; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; Zizi, Martin; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem and the antibiotics pipeline is running dry. Bacteriophages (phages) may offer an ‘innovative’ means of infection treatment, which can be combined or alternated with antibiotic therapy and may enhance our abilities to treat bacterial infections successfully. Today, in the Queen Astrid Military Hospital, phage therapy is increasingly considered as part of a salvage therapy for patients in therapeutic dead end, particularly those with multidrug resistant infections. We describe the application of a well-defined and quality controlled phage cocktail, active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, on colonized burn wounds within a modest clinical trial (nine patients, 10 applications), which was approved by a leading Belgian Medical Ethical Committee. No adverse events, clinical abnormalities or changes in laboratory test results that could be related to the application of phages were observed. Unfortunately, this very prudent ‘clinical trial’ did not allow for an adequate evaluation of the efficacy of the phage cocktail. Nevertheless, this first ‘baby step’ revealed several pitfalls and lessons for future experimental phage therapy and helped overcome the psychological hurdles that existed to the use of viruses in the treatment of patients in our burn unit. PMID:25356373

  18. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  19. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressureHorny goat weed might lower blood pressure. Taking it along ...

  20. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  1. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  2. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  3. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two naïve fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

  4. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats.

  5. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  6. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  7. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. PMID:26149866

  8. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province.

  9. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. M.; Abba, Y.; Jesse, F. F. A.; Ilyasu, Y. M.; Saharee, A. A.; Haron, A. W.; Zamri-Saad, M.; Lila, M. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does. PMID:27006831

  10. Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with Rocio virus.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P; Kemp, G E; Cropp, C B; Bowen, G S

    1978-11-01

    Rocio encephalitis is a new epidemic flaviviral infection of man, first described in São Paulo State, Brazil in 1975. The ecology of the viral transmission cycle remains largely unknown. Experimental studies were undertaken to assess the role of a wild avian species, the House Sparrow, as a maintenance or amplifying host. Approximately two-thirds of nesting and adult sparrows developed 2- to 3-day viremias of low to moderate magnitude (2.0--4.3 log/ml). Rocio-immune birds were not protected against challenge with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but prior SLE viral infection prevented detectable viremia in birds challenged with Rocio virus. These studies provide some support for the hypothesis that birds are hosts for Rocio virus, but the House Sparrow probably plays a relatively minor role in viral transmission. Because sparrows are relatively inefficient viremic hosts, they would be expected to play a minor role in transmission should Rocio virus be introduced into the United States.

  11. Semen characteristics and reaction time of Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi infection.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Francis Abidemi; Okubanjo, Oluyinka Oluseyi; Ajanusi, Olagunju Joseph; Fadason, Samuel Tanko

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious, often fatal disease of domestic animals and humans, and a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural development in areas of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. It is caused by hemoflagelate protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. Several species of Trypanosoma such as Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi are known to infect domestic animals. Trypanosoma evansi is one of the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in the world causing disease known as "Surra" in animals. The effects of experimental T evansi infection on some aspects of reproduction in Yankasa rams were investigated over a 108-day period. Rams in the infected group A (n = 7) were each inoculated with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes in 1 mL of donor blood via the jugular vein, whereas the control group B (n = 5) were administered 1 mL of normal saline. Semen volume, gross motility, live and/or dead sperm ratio, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and concentration as well as reaction time of infected and control rams were evaluated on a weekly basis. The results showed a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in semen volume and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration compared to the control rams. Reaction time showed considerable significant (P < 0.05) increase from preinfection values 26.7 ± 4.54 to 94.7 ± 7.54 seconds compared to control 32.9 ± 2.64 to 33.4 ± 4.78 seconds. Furthermore, semen gross motility for infected rams differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control. There was a significant surge (P < 0.05) in the total sperm morphologic abnormalities in the infected rams to 90.75 ± 2.73% by week 20 (14 weeks after infection), compared to preinfection value of 20.9 ± 0.52%. The outcome of this study suggests that infection with T evansi in Yankasa rams has far reaching severe effects on their reproductive performance.

  12. Semen characteristics and reaction time of Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi infection.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Francis Abidemi; Okubanjo, Oluyinka Oluseyi; Ajanusi, Olagunju Joseph; Fadason, Samuel Tanko

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious, often fatal disease of domestic animals and humans, and a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural development in areas of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. It is caused by hemoflagelate protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. Several species of Trypanosoma such as Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi are known to infect domestic animals. Trypanosoma evansi is one of the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in the world causing disease known as "Surra" in animals. The effects of experimental T evansi infection on some aspects of reproduction in Yankasa rams were investigated over a 108-day period. Rams in the infected group A (n = 7) were each inoculated with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes in 1 mL of donor blood via the jugular vein, whereas the control group B (n = 5) were administered 1 mL of normal saline. Semen volume, gross motility, live and/or dead sperm ratio, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and concentration as well as reaction time of infected and control rams were evaluated on a weekly basis. The results showed a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in semen volume and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration compared to the control rams. Reaction time showed considerable significant (P < 0.05) increase from preinfection values 26.7 ± 4.54 to 94.7 ± 7.54 seconds compared to control 32.9 ± 2.64 to 33.4 ± 4.78 seconds. Furthermore, semen gross motility for infected rams differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control. There was a significant surge (P < 0.05) in the total sperm morphologic abnormalities in the infected rams to 90.75 ± 2.73% by week 20 (14 weeks after infection), compared to preinfection value of 20.9 ± 0.52%. The outcome of this study suggests that infection with T evansi in Yankasa rams has far reaching severe effects on their reproductive performance. PMID:27188633

  13. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Kyozaire, J K; Veary, C M; Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F

    2005-06-01

    In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1% were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3%), compared with 43.3% and 36.7% infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7% of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3% of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16,450 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36,300 CFU/ml) or hand-milking (48,000 CFU/ml). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  14. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  15. Cytokine response and outcome of infection depends on the infective dose of parasites in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Sylvia; Rottenberg, Martin; Baz, Adriana

    2003-04-01

    We here analysed whether the cytokine responses in early and late experimental infection with Echinococcus granulosus depend on the dose of parasites to which the host is exposed. To this purpose Balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either 500 or 2000 protoscoleces. Splenocytes of mice were obtained at days 3, 7, 14 and 21 and also on week 37 post-infection and cultured in vitro with protoscolex antigens. Type-1 and type-2 cytokines were analysed in supernatants by ELISA. Results showed that the inoculation of 500 protoscoleces induced an early type-0 and a late type-2 cytokine response, whereas the inoculation of 2000 protoscoleces induced an early type-2 and a late type-0 cytokine response. Parasite growth was lower in the group inoculated with the low infective dose. These results indicate that the cytokine response during the infection by the helminth E. granulosus depends on the dose of parasites to which the host has been exposed.

  16. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    PubMed

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  17. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    PubMed

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  18. Experimental primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: timing and fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M L; Prokay, S L

    1983-01-01

    In contrast to intrauterine rubella infection, the relationship between timing of maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and fetal outcome has not been clearly defined. In order to investigate this relationship, a guinea pig model was utilized to assess the fetal consequences of maternal CMV infection during the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy. Congenital infection occurred in 24 of 35 newborn guinea pigs (69%) delivered to mothers infected during the third trimester, with localization of virus to salivary gland in 17 of the 24 infected newborn guinea pigs. In contrast, only one of 28 (5%) progeny sacrificed following first-trimester maternal infection was congenitally infected (p less than 0.01). Second-trimester maternal infection was associated with an intermediate risk of intrauterine infection with transmission of virus to 17 of 54 progeny (33%) (p less than 0.01). Eight of the 10 fetuses delivered after second-trimester infection had virus in multiple organs including the brain. These data suggest that timing of maternal CMV infection is an important variable affecting fetal outcome, with increased risk of intrauterine infection when maternal infection occurs late in pregnancy. However, if fetal infection occurs earlier in pregnancy, it appears to present a greater threat to the fetus, with the potential for dissemination of virus in multiple fetal tissues, including the brain. PMID:6295164

  19. [Occurrence of nematodiasis among sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Zurliĭski, P

    1977-01-01

    The spread was studied of sheep and goat nematodirosis in the conditions prevailing in the district of Varna for the 1973-1975 period. Füleborn's method was employed with a total of 24,909 coprosamples taken from the animals as follows: sheep--12,690, weaned lambs--7370, lambs--3355, kids--782, and goats--712. Partial helminthologic postmortem examinations were carried out by the digestive method of 104 sheep, 33 goats, 142 weaned lambs, 96 lambs, and 35 kids. The percent of infected animals was determined on the basis of the coprostudies as follows; lambs--20.9 (per cent), kids--26.6, weaned lambs--54.9, sheep--22.6, goats--24.8. The necroscopic investigations revealed 32.3, 40, 64.8, 32.5, 39.4 per cent, respectively. The average parasite burden in number of helminths was 313 (lambs), 85 (kids), 1517 (weaned lambs), 586 (sheep), and goats--290. Greatest number of Nematodirus parasites was found in weaned lambs--16,000, followed by sheep--2260, lambs--1840, goats--800, and kids--240. As many as 100 per cent Nematodirus carriers were found on a sheep farm in the district. It was also found that the north plains of the district are less infected as against the south parts embracing the northern slopes of the Balkan mountain, and along the course of the Kamchia river. It was found that sheep on the private farm-holdings were more strongly infected than those on the cooperative farms. On the other hand, it was established that on farms where lambs and weaned lambs graze together with the adults the former prove more strongly infected than those that are on isolated grasslands.

  20. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

  1. Pathology of spontaneous and experimental infection of North American wild ruminants with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Snyder, S P; Martin, K L

    1983-05-01

    Spontaneous paratuberculosis was studied in free-ranging and captive bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Lesions of paratuberculosis in these species resembled the disease in domestic sheep and goats. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cultured from bighorn sheep was used to orally infect bighorn x mouflon (Ovis musimon) hybrid sheep, elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Clinical paratuberculosis developed only in mule deer and was characterized by poor growth and diarrhea. Gross lesions were mild in all species. Enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes was mild to moderate; the wall of the distal small intestine was affected minimally. Focal to diffuse infiltrates of epithelioid macrophages and giant cells occurred in the cortex of mesenteric lymph nodes, around mesenteric lymphatics, and in the intestinal mucosa. Extraintestinal lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lung were involved in some animals; focal necrosis and mineralization was present in all species but was severe and widespread in the cervids. PMID:6879954

  2. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B.

    PubMed

    Paniker, C K; Nair, C M

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies.

  3. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B*

    PubMed Central

    Paniker, C. K. J.; Nair, C. M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. PMID:4196340

  4. Laboratory findings in cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, N; Huder, J; Wolfensberger, C; Braun, U; Lutz, H

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess various hematological variables in 10 cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for examination of leukocytes for Ehrlichia organisms and for determination of hematological and biochemical variables. In addition, PCR amplification was performed throughout the disease period on blood and milk samples for the detection of E. phagocytophila organisms. The time of seroconversion and the duration of serum titers indicating positivity were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. For all cows, E. phagocytophila organisms were first detected microscopically in leukocytes 5 to 8 days postinfection and could be demonstrated for a period of 6 to 14 days. For all cows, the appearance of E. phagocytophila organisms in leukocytes coincided with transient erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia and a decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration. For five lactating cows, E. phagocytophila organisms were identified in leukocytes of milk samples during the acute phase of the disease, which, we believe, has not previously been reported. E. phagocytophila DNA was detected in blood samples by nested PCR from 1 to 2 days before to 2 to 12 days after the organisms were identified microscopically. In milk samples, E. phagocytophila DNA was detected for an average of 11 days. PMID:9384282

  5. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  6. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  7. The plaque-antiserum method: an assay of virus infectivity and an experimental model of virus infection.

    PubMed

    De Flora, S

    1974-05-01

    Areas of cytopathic effect can be circumscribed in cell monolayers by adding antiserum to the liquid nutrient medium after adsorption of virus. This procedure represents a simple and reliable tool for the titration of virus infectivity and provides an experimental model for studying some aspects of virus infection.

  8. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  9. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  10. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  11. Isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides from Polyarthritis and Mastitis of Goats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H. L.; Rosendal, S.; Goltz, J.; Blackwell, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical signs, pathomorphological changes, and microbiological findings in Canadian goats infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides are discussed. The disease affected mainly young goats and was characterized by septicemia and polyarthritis. Mastitis followed by septicemia was seen in two mature goats. The diagnosis was made by culture and identification of the mycoplasma. Infected goats without clinical signs were identified by cultural and serological (complement fixation) techniques. Healthy carriers are presumably able to transmit the infection and may have brought the disease to Canada. PMID:17422225

  12. Evaluation of Humoral Response and Protective Efficacy of an Inactivated Vaccine Against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Goats.

    PubMed

    Cosseddu, G M; Polci, A; Pinoni, C; Capobianco Dondona, A; Iapaolo, F; Orsini, G; Izzo, F; Bortone, G; Ronchi, F G; Di Ventura, M; El Harrak, M; Monaco, F

    2016-10-01

    Four goats were inoculated with an inactivated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) vaccine. Three unvaccinated goats were kept as controls. After 36 days, the four goats were revaccinated. The immune response was monitored by virus neutralization test showing that two doses of the vaccine were able to stimulate strong immune response in all the vaccinated animals. The vaccinated goat and the controls were challenged with virulent PPRV intranasally. After PPRV challenge, the three control goats showed fever, viremia and virus excretion through mucosal surfaces, whereas the vaccinated goats were fully protected against PPRV infection and replication. PMID:25594237

  13. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  14. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  15. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  16. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGES

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  17. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  18. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  19. [Experimental infection caused by Machupo virus in intact and immunosuppressed albino mice].

    PubMed

    Orlova, S V; Votiakov, V I

    1989-01-01

    Features of the course of experimental infection in white mice caused by Machupo virus in relation to their age, route of virus inoculation, and under conditions of normal and suppressed immune response created by antithymocyte globulin (ATG) were studied. The effect of different ATG doses and intervals of its administration on the experimental infection were demonstrated.

  20. Pathology of experimental aerosol Zaire ebolavirus infection in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Mattix, M E; Johnson, J C; Robinson, C G; Pratt, W D; Cashman, K A; Wahl-Jensen, V; Terry, C; Olinger, G G; Hensley, L E; Honko, A N

    2013-05-01

    There is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis of human ebolavirus infections and no reported human cases acquired by the aerosol route. There is a threat of ebolavirus as an aerosolized biological weapon, and this study evaluated the pathogenesis of aerosol infection in 18 rhesus macaques. Important and unique findings include early infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissues, early fibrin deposition in the splenic white pulp, and perivasculitis and vasculitis in superficial dermal blood vessels of haired skin with rash. Initial infection occurred in the respiratory lymphoid tissues, fibroblastic reticular cells, dendritic cells, alveolar macrophages, and blood monocytes. Virus spread to regional lymph nodes, where significant viral replication occurred. Virus secondarily infected many additional blood monocytes and spread from the respiratory tissues to multiple organs, including the liver and spleen. Viremia, increased temperature, lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, and increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, and hypoalbuminemia were measurable mid to late infection. Infection progressed rapidly with whole-body destruction of lymphoid tissues, hepatic necrosis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, and extravascular fibrin accumulation. Hypothermia and thrombocytopenia were noted in late stages with the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and shock. This study provides unprecedented insight into pathogenesis of human aerosol Zaire ebolavirus infection and suggests development of a medical countermeasure to aerosol infection will be a great challenge due to massive early infection of respiratory lymphoid tissues. Rhesus macaques may be used as a model of aerosol infection that will allow the development of lifesaving medical countermeasures under the Food and Drug Administration's animal rule.

  1. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  2. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E

    1988-07-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  3. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.

  4. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.

  5. Taenia crassiceps infection does not influence the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.

  6. Experimental herpes-like viral infections in marine bivalves: demonstration of interspecies transmission.

    PubMed

    Arzul, I; Renault, T; Lipart, C

    2001-08-22

    Since 1972, herpes-like virus infections have been reported in several marine bivalve species around the world. Viral detection was often associated with high mortality rates in larvae and spat. To determine whether a single virus is able to infect different bivalve host species, we carried out experimental transmission assays. As a first step, 8 assays were performed to infect axenic Crassostrea gigas larvae with virus from infected C. gigas larvae using a previously described protocol. The protocol appeared reliable and PCR was confirmed as a powerful technique for detecting viral DNA in experimentally infected oysters. The defined protocol was then applied to infect different bivalve species. Interspecies viral transmission was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The same phenomenon may occur in private hatcheries and may be promoted by intensive rearing conditions. This hypothesis is reinforced by reports of concomitant mortalities in the larvae of several bivalve species and by the first molecular analysis of infected larval samples.

  7. Variability in susceptibility of voles (Arvicolinae) to experimental infection with Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni.

    PubMed

    Modrý, David; Hofmannová, Lada; Antalová, Zuzana; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni in various species of voles was studied using experimental infections. None of the experimental voles inoculated with 1 × 10(5) oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. shed any oocysts during 40 DPI, except Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), which was susceptible to C. muris infection. Experiments confirmed the resistance of voles of the genus Microtus sensu stricto to infection with mammalian gastric cryptosporidia, which provides a new study model with prospects to more fully understand the processes involved in the phenomenon of host specificity of this group of protists.

  8. Effect of the consumption of Lysiloma latisiliquum on the larval establishment of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Brunet, S; de Montellano, C Martinez-Ortiz; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Capetillo-Leal, C; Hoste, H

    2008-10-20

    The consumption of tannin-rich (TR) forages has been associated with negative effects against gastrointestinal nematodes and with an improved host resilience. It has been hypothesized that tannins affect the capacity of infective larvae to establish in the mucosae of the host. In this study, we aimed at testing this hypothesis using Lysiloma latisiliquum, a tropical TR tree. The objectives were: (i) to evaluate the effect of the consumption of L. latisiliquum on the establishment of nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in goats; (ii) to define the role of tannins in these effects in vivo by using an inhibitor (polyethylene glycol, PEG); and (iii) to examine a possible indirect effect of tannins on the inflammatory response in the digestive mucosa. Eighteen Criollo goats composed three experimental groups. The control group received fresh leaves of Brosimum alicastrum, a plant with a low level of tannins. Two groups received L. latisiliquum leaves either with (L.L.+PEG) or without (L.L.) daily addition of 25 g PEG. After a 7-day adaptation period, each goat was infected with both Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (3000 L3 per species). The goats were slaughtered 5 days after infection and worm counts and histological analyses were performed. No difference in the voluntary feed intake of foliage was observed between the 3 groups. The consumption of L. latisiliquum significantly reduced the larval establishment of both nematode species compared to the control (P<0.01). For both worm species, the effects were totally alleviated with PEG (L.L.+PEG group), suggesting a major role of tannins in the observed effects. Only minor differences in the mucosal cellular response were observed between the 3 groups. These results confirm that the consumption of TR plants reduces the establishment of nematode larvae in the host and that a direct effect is principally involved.

  9. Asymptomatic encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-5

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Allan Jürgen; Cosenza, Mariana; da Costa, Marcio Carvalho; Médici, Kerlei Cristina; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV)-5 infected calves can develop encephalitis and remain asymptomatic. Seven calves were infected intranasally and monitored for 30 days. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was performed from the onset of neurological signs. Multiple sections of brain and the trigeminal ganglion were submitted to histopathology. Virus detection (PCR and isolation) was performed on CSF and tissues. Four calves developed signs of neurologic disease and died. Three calves remained asymptomatic and were euthanized 30 days post-infection. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear pleocytosis occurred in symptomatic and asymptomatic calves. BoHV-5 was isolated and viral DNA was detected in multiple areas of the encephalon of all calves. The viral DNA was detected in the CSF of 2 calves showing neurological signs. Histologically, inflammation was noted in the brain of all calves and confirmed that the encephalitis caused by BoHV-5 may be mild and asymptomatic. PMID:22654135

  10. Effect of Thioridazine on Experimental Cutaneous Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Beth L.; Sohnle, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some non-antibiotic drugs, such as the phenothiazine antipsychotic agents, may have antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods We sought to determine the in vivo antimicrobial effects of the phenothiazine thioridazine in two mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Results Thioridazine significantly suppressed dissemination from skin to spleen and kidney after inoculation of the skin surface. However, the drug did not affect infection parameters in the skin itself. Thioridazine did suppress the size of abscesses produced when the bacteria were injected intradermally. On the other hand, using the cutaneous abscess model we were not able to demonstrate synergistic activity between thioridazine and the β-lactam drug cefazolin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as previously demonstrated in vitro. Conclusion The phenothiazine drug thioridazine has in vivo antimicrobial activity against certain S. aureus skin infections, although the previously-demonstrated reversal of methicillin resistance by this agent may not be readily evident in vivo. PMID:24425833

  11. Experimental infection of birds with epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G S; McLean, R G

    1977-07-01

    Sixty-three birds representing 13 species were inoculated with a strain of epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus from the 1971 Texas outbreak. More than 95% of the birds became infected. Mortality which could be attributed to infection with VE virus was very low. Viremia persisted 2-6 days. Peak viremia levels ranged from 10(3.2) to 10(8.2) suckling mouse intracranial 50% lethal doses per milliliter (SMICLD50/ml). Blood virus levels were highest in juvenile Louisiana Herones, adult Robins and adult Mockingbirds and were lowest in juvenile Common Egrets. Most bird species had blood virus levels about 10(5) SMICLD50/ml (high vector infection potential) for 2-3 days. Neutralizing antibody response was more uniform and frequent in herons (95%) than in passerines (56%). The role of birds in the epidemiology of Venezuelan is discussed.

  12. Using experimental human influenza infections to validate a viral dynamic model and the implications for prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.

  13. The influence of T. evansi infection on the immuno-responsiveness of experimentally infected water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Holland, W G; My, L N; Dung, T V; Thanh, N G; Tam, P T; Vercruysse, J; Goddeeris, B M

    2001-12-13

    In order to define the immuno-suppressive capacity of Trypanosoma evansi infections in buffaloes on the induction of immune responses against heterologous antigens, infected and non-infected buffaloes were vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida (haemorrhagic septicemia) and were simultaneously immunised with a control antigen, human serum albumin (HSA). Antibody responses against HSA were significantly reduced in T. evansi-infected animals, but no conclusive data were obtained on the antibody responses against P. multocida. Conversely, the local inflammatory response at the site of Pasteurella vaccination, as measured by increase in size, was significantly reduced in T. evansi-infected animals. These results indicate that the inductive capacity to mount humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against heterologous antigens is suppressed in T. evansi-infected animals. Consequently, T. evansi infection might interfere with the development of protective immunity upon heterologous vaccinations and could explain the poor protection of Pasteurella-vaccinated buffaloes in T. evansi-endemic areas of Vietnam.

  14. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs. PMID:3010532

  15. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Proffiti, Margherita; Cascio, Paolo; Cerruti, Fulvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi; de Andrés, Damián; Reina, Ramsés; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-08-30

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) globally affect welfare and production of sheep and goats and are mainly controlled through elimination of infected animals, independently of the viral kinetics within the single animal. Control programs are based on highly sensitive serological tests, however the existence of low antibody responders leads to the permanent presence of seronegative infected animals in the flock, thus perpetuating the infection. On the other hand, long-term non-progressors show a detectable antibody response not indicative of a shedding animal, suggesting immune contention of infection. In this study, we analyse two goat populations within the same herd, harbouring low or high proviral SRLV loads respectively, both showing a robust antibody response. In vivo findings were confirmed in vitro since fibroblastic cell lines obtained from one high and one low proviral load representative goats, showed respectively a high and a faint production of virus upon infection with reference and field circulating SRLV strains. Differences in virus production were relieved when strain CAEV-Co was used for experimental infection. We analysed LTR promoter activity, proviral load, entry step and production of virus and viral proteins. Intriguingly, proteasomal activity was higher in fibroblasts from low proviral load animals and proteasome inhibition increased viral production in both cell lines, suggesting the implication of active proteasome-dependent restriction factors. Among them, we analysed relative expression and sequences of TRIM5α, APOBEC3 (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) and BST-2 (Tetherin) and found a global antiviral status in low proviral carriers that may confer protection against viral shedding and disease onset. PMID:27527777

  16. Effect of estrus synchronization on daily somatic cell count variation in goats according to lactation number and udder health status.

    PubMed

    Mehdid, A; Díaz, J R; Martí, A; Vidal, G; Peris, C

    2013-07-01

    Two repeated experiments were carried out in 2 different years to study the effect of estrus on somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy goats. In the first year, 36 Murciano-Granadina goats were used [12 primiparous and 24 multiparous; 22 healthy and 14 with an intramammary infection (IMI)] and, after a 6-d pre-experimental period, were divided into 2 groups according to lactation number, udder health status, SCC, and milk production. One group was kept as a control, whereas the other received an estrus synchronization hormonal treatment lasting 11d. At 24, 48, and 72h after cessation of the hormone treatment, goats were placed in contact with a buck to confirm that they were in estrus. For 32 consecutive days (6 pre-experimental, 11 in hormone treatment, and 15 post-treatment) the SCC per gland and udder were monitored in all animals. In the second year, we repeated the same experimental design using a total of 38 Murciano-Granadina breed goats (12 primiparous and 26 multiparous; 26 healthy and 12 with IMI). Throughout this experiment, milk yield and composition were also recorded daily for each goat. Upon termination of the hormonal treatment, the SCC in udder milk increased significantly in the treatment group compared with the control group over 3 consecutive days. This increase was observed for year (1 and 2), parity (primiparous and multiparous), and udder health status (healthy and IMI). The log10 SCC (cells/mL) increased from 5.5±0.09 before estrus to 6.04±0.09 during treatment; therefore, the geometric mean of the SCC increased 3.5 times during treatment. The maximum values obtained in healthy glands of primiparous goats (geometric mean=0.37 million cells/mL) were lower than in healthy glands (1.1 million cells/mL) or infected glands (1.7 million cells/mL) of multiparous goats. The increase in SCC observed during estrus (200% increase in geometric means) could not be explained by the changes in milk production, which only fell by 13%. During estrus, the

  17. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  18. ATTEMPS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attemps were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studing human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru, and Nepal were held in potassium dichro...

  19. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  20. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  1. Observations on mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae from experimentally and naturally infected Bulinus tropicus.

    PubMed

    Mavenyengwa, M; Mukaratirwa, S; Obwolo, M; Monrad, J

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to establish an ideal method for mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae, a study was carried out to compare the shedding capacities of Bulinus tropicus naturally and experimentally infected with C. microbothrium. A total of 906 F1 B. tropicus between 4 and 5 weeks old were each experimentally infected with two C. microbothrium miracidia and monitored for 12 weeks. The infected snails were fed on dried lettuce and fish flakes and were kept in 1 l plastic aquaria housed in a snail room where temperature, light and humidity were controlled. Seventy-four percent of the experimentally infected snails died during the prepatent period and of the remaining, only 13.2% developed patent infection, while 12.5% were refractory. Snail growth rate was poor and the average shedding rate was 20 cercariae per snail per day. Compared to the experimentally infected snails, 2200 adult B. tropicus, collected from the field and naturally infected with C. microbothrium, yielded high numbers of metacercariae. Eighty-four percent of the snails died within 7 weeks of the study with peak mortality occurring from the 2nd to the 4th week of infection and coinciding with an overall decrease in the number of cercariae shed. PMID:16958259

  2. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  3. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  4. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2000-02-01

    Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

  5. Experimental infections in Venezuelan lizards by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Morales, S; McLure, I

    1981-06-01

    Virulent trypomastigotes of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi were administered to Tropidurus hispidus, Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, Polychrus marmoratus, and Phyllodactylus ventralis (Sauria). Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculations of lizards with mouse blood or with feces of infected Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae, Triatominae), as well as forced ingestion of triturated Rhodnius, produced no parasitaemias detectable either directly or by xenodiagnosis, while control mice became parasitized. Pretreatment with the immunosuppressive drug Fluocinolone acetonide led to establishing patent infections in inoculated lizards. Cryptic infections were established by inoculation of 1 X 10(6) parasites from Davis' medium, or by 95 X 10(3) parasites from lizard tissue culture. Parasites were not seen in tissues. Mice inoculated with blood or tissue homogenates from these lizards became parasitized. Parasites from Davis' medium inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of lizards were capable, to a very low degree, of penetrating the free peritoneal macrophages and changing into amastigotes. The factors possibly responsible for the natural resistance of poikilothermic vertebrates to T. cruzi are discussed. PMID:6115559

  6. Targeting host syntaxin-5 preferentially blocks Leishmania parasitophorous vacuole development in infected cells and limits experimental Leishmania infections.

    PubMed

    Canton, Johnathan; Kima, Peter E

    2012-10-01

    Our previous observations established a role for syntaxin-5 in the development of Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). In this study, we took advantage of the recent identification of Retro-2, a small organic molecule that can cause the redistribution of syntaxin-5; we show herein that Retro-2 blocks LPV development within 2 hours of adding it to cells infected with Leishmania amazonensis. In infected cells incubated for 48 hours with Retro-2, LPV development was significantly limited; furthermore, infected cells harbored four to five times fewer parasites than infected cells incubated in vehicle alone. In vivo studies revealed that Retro-2 curbed experimental L. amazonensis infections in a dose-dependent manner. Retro-2 did not have any appreciable effect on the host cell physiological characteristics; furthermore, it had no apparent toxicity in experimental animals. An unexpected, but welcome, finding was that Retro-2 inhibited the replication of Leishmania parasites in axenic cultures. This study is significant because it identifies an endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi SNARE as a potential target for the control of Leishmania infections; moreover, it suggests that small organic molecules can be identified that can selectively disrupt the vesicle fusion machinery that promotes the development of pathogen-containing compartments without exerting toxic effects on the host.

  7. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  8. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  9. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  10. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K.; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  11. [Chemotherapy of experimental rickettsial infection under the influence of small doses of radiation].

    PubMed

    Basarab, N I

    2003-01-01

    Radiation is of particular importance among a lot of environment factors dangerous for human health, including the effect of small dozes of radiation. State of rickettsial infection under the influence of small dozes of radiation and under administration of immunostimulator Imunal and antibiotic doxycyclin has been studied. Researches were conducted on guinea pigs, using the experimental rickettsial infection. Researches have shown that the use of immunostimulator Imunal and antibiotic doxycyclin had positive effect on the immunity indices of the experimental rickettsial infection in animals in the conditions of influence of small dozes of radiation. PMID:14723161

  12. The humoral immune response of lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Thirkell, D; Spooner, R K; Jones, G E; Russell, W C

    1990-08-01

    Using sera from lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica, the development of a good humoral immune response to M. ovipneumoniae was detected by ELISA. The antibody titres peaked 41 days post-infection and good antibody titres were maintained over the 16-week experimental period. Immunoblotting revealed that antibodies to specific antigens appeared in the sera in a sequential manner, some being seen shortly after infection and others developing only after a substantial time lag. Antibodies were raised against almost all the major antigens detected in one laboratory strain (956/2) and against all antigens previously shown to be conserved in 22 Scottish field isolates of M. ovipneumoniae.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses. PMID:27174360

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.

  15. In vivo validation of Aloe ferox (Mill). Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR as potential anthelminthics and antiprotozoals against mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    Aloe ferox (Mill)., Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR. are some of the plants used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control worms in goats, but information on their efficacy is lacking. The study was conducted to determine efficacy of these plants on gastrointestinal nematodes in natural mixed infections in goats. Forty-eight male goats aged 8-12 months were divided into eight groups (Treatments A-H) of six animals each, balanced in terms of liveweight and worm egg count. Treatments A to F received plant extracts, three animals in each group receiving doses of 250 mg/kg and the other three receiving 500 mg/kg at concentration of 100 mg/ml, while those in G and H received Valbazen® (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg, and 0.5 ml/kg distilled water, respectively per os. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 for faecal egg counts (FEC), and body weights recorded on days 1 and 9. Results showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs by A. ferox extract at dose levels of 500 mg/kg on days 3, 6 and 9, while reductions in Eimeria spp. oocysts were observed on days 3, 6 and 9 for animals that received 500 mg/kg doses. E. elephantina caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Trichuris spp. eggs on days 3 and 6, respectively at 250 mg/kg dose level, whereas L. leonurus also caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) in FEC of Trichuris spp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts at 250 mg/kg dose level on day 9. Albendazole caused reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs on days 3 and 6, Trichuris spp. on days 3, 6 and 9, and on coccidia, it caused a reduction (P > 0.05) on day 1, whereas on days 6 and 9, there was an increase. On total mixed infections, highest FECR% were observed with the extract of A. ferox on days 3 (53%), 6 (54%) and 9 (58%) at 500 mg/kg,whereas albendazole had efficacy levels of 39%, 44% and 29% on days 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Body weight of goats

  16. Experimental infection of Oncomelania quadrasi with Paragonimus ohirai.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, K; Blas, B L; Santos, A T

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred Oncomelania quadrasi collected from Leyte, Philippines were exposed to infection with Paragonimus ohirai, a rodent type lung fluke. In a group, each snail was exposed individually to 10 miracidia hatched from eggs which were brought from Japan to the Philippines. In another group, 100 snails were placed in a Petri dish and P. ohirai miracidia were added to provide 10 per snail. The observations were made each successive week after exposure. All the snails examined were positive for the larvae of P. ohirai. Nine-ten weeks after exposure, many cercariae were recognized. It was proved that O. quadrasi is highly susceptible to P. ohirai. PMID:6505784

  17. The effect of immunosuppressants on experimental infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Spaldonová, R

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented on the effect of immunosuppressive substances such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, amethopterine and a cortizone derivate of betamethasone, on the development of Fasciola hepatica in the rat. The suppression of the immune response of the host to immunosuppressants was reflected in an earlier start of migration of the flukes to the common bile duct, and in an earlier onset of egg production as compared with that in the controls. Of the substances employed, cyclophosphamide and betamethasone were the most effective ones within the period from week 2--6 p.i., which is the time during which the migration of the flukes in the liver parenchyma is highest. Pathological changes in the liver of the animals were less marked than those of the infected controls. Evidence was obtained on an increased pathogenicity of infective larval flukes causing a higher mortality of the hosts in comparison with that of the control animals. On the other hand, the administration of immunosuppressants did neither influence the total number of developed flukes nor the appearance of eosinophilia in the peripheral blood of the treated animals.

  18. Experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. F.; Martorelli, L. F. A.; Aires, C. C.; Sallum, P. C.; Durigon, E. L.; Massad, E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of Desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. Bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 MICLD50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. The presence of rabies virus was detected in brain and salivary glands by fluorescent antibody, mouse inoculation and RT-PCR. The observed mortality for each virus dose was 0, 20, 20 and 60% respectively. Serum neutralizing antibodies were tested for by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, and antibody titres greater than 0.5 IU/ml were found in 53% of bats 30 days after virus inoculation. Resistance to infection was seen in bats that developed low or no detectable antibody response as well as in bats with high titres. Among the 10 bats that died of rabies, eight showed signs of paralytic rabies and two bats showed no clinical signs. PMID:15962559

  19. Experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. V. Protective immunity in subclinical and self-healing infection in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, P M; Dumonde, D C

    1976-01-01

    This study shows how infection of CBA mice with L. tropica can be manipulated so as to mimic the principal features of both subclinical and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis in man. CBA mice were infected with graded inocula of L. tropica promastigotes. The pattern of primary infection was found to be dependent on dose of infecting organisms: mice given low dose inocula (10(2), 10(3)) developed subclinical infections; those given high dose inocula (10(4), 10(5), 10(6)) developed overt, clinical lesions. Size and duration of lesions, and antibody production were directly proportional to dose; delayed hypersensitivity responses were inversely proportional to dose. Protective immunity to challenge infection was induced by both subclinical and clinical infection; and was manifest both during and after the healing stages of primary lesions. Protective immunity was also induced by artificial immunization with sonicated promastigotes in adjuvants but was only manifest if the challenge dose was not too large. The course of challenge infections differed depending on the method of immunization, i.e. whether by infection or artificial immunization. Lymphoid cells from immune CBA mice conferred protection on recipient syngeneic CBA mice against challenge infection; serum from immune mice did not, but suspension of immune peritoneal cells in immune serum enhanced their protective capacity. The experimental induction of protective immunity by low-dose infection, without a clinical allergic response at the site of inoculation, is of importance in designing an immunoprophylactic approach to human leishmaniasis. PMID:1261086

  20. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  1. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  2. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  3. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christina M; Schneider, Jay R; Pedersen, Joel A; Heisey, Dennis M; Johnson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  4. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrPSc staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates. PMID:25673912

  5. Experimental infection of Boa constrictor with an orthoreovirus isolated from a snake with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Darke, Sabina; Marschang, Rachel E; Hetzel, Udo; Reinacher, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Orthoreoviruses have been associated with disease in reptiles, but have not previously been isolated from snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). An orthoreovirus was isolated from a Boa constrictor diagnosed with IBD and then used to conduct a transmission study to determine the clinical importance of this virus. For the transmission study, 10 juvenile boas were experimentally infected with the isolated orthoreovirus and compared to 5 sham-infected control animals. Orthoreovirus was reisolated for a period of 18 wk after infection and weight gain was reduced in infected snakes. Histological examination showed a mild hepatitis in three of four virologically positive snakes up to 12 wk after infection. Results indicated that the orthoreovirus was moderately pathogenic, but, no evidence was found to indicate that it was the causal agent of IBD. In the light of the discovery of Arenaviruses in some snakes with IBD, it was proposed that orthoreoviruses may play a role in synergistic infection.

  6. Transmission of Lawsonia intracellularis to weanling foals using feces from experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Vannucci, F A; Mapes, S; White, A; DiFrancesco, M; Gebhart, C

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether feces from rabbits experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis were infectious to foals. Two rabbits were infected with L. intracellularis, while two rabbits served as controls. Eight foals received daily feces from either the infected or the control rabbits. All rabbits and foals were monitored daily for clinical signs for the entire study period (21days for rabbits, 42days for foals). Feces and blood were collected for the PCR detection of L. intracellularis and serologic analysis, respectively. None of the infected rabbits or foals developed clinical signs compatible with proliferative enteropathy. All infected rabbits and foals shed L. intracellularis in their feces and all seroconverted. The results support the role of rabbits as asymptomatic amplifiers of L. intracellularis and their role as sources of infection for susceptible foals.

  7. Contaminated water delivery as a simple and effective method of experimental Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Hope; Pham, Oanh H.; Benoun, Joseph M.; Ravesloot-Chávez, Marietta M.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In most infectious disease models, it is assumed that gavage needle infection is the most reliable means of pathogen delivery to the gastrointestinal tract. However, this methodology can cause esophageal tearing and induces stress in experimental animals, both of which have the potential to impact early infection and the subsequent immune response. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with virulent Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 either by intragastric gavage preceded by sodium bicarbonate, or by contamination of drinking water. Results We demonstrate that water contamination delivery of Salmonella is equivalent to gavage inoculation in providing a consistent model of infection. Furthermore, exposure of mice to contaminated drinking water for as little as 4 hours allowed maximal mucosal and systemic infection, suggesting an abbreviated window exists for natural intestinal entry. Conclusions Together, these data question the need for gavage delivery for infection with oral pathogens. PMID:26439708

  8. Experimental genital tract infection with Chlamydia psittaci (GPIC agent) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jantos, C A; Augustin, J; Durchfeld-Meyer, B; Baumgärtner, W; Schiefer, H G

    1998-01-01

    The course of experimental chlamydial infection of the male genital tract was studied. Inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC agent) into the vas deferens of rats resulted in chlamydial infection of the epididymis, testis and the prostate gland. The inflammatory response was most prominent at 14 days after infection. Chlamydiae were recovered from the epididymides and the prostate glands for up to 90 and 60 days post inoculation, respectively. Histopathological changes associated with chlamydial infection of the epididymis or prostate gland were characterized by intratubular and interstitial purulent inflammation. Chlamydia-specific IgM- and IgG-antibodies were found in sera of nearly all infected animals. Results of this study indicate that this animal model may be useful to study the pathogenesis, immune responses and sequelae of chlamydial infections of the male genital tract.

  9. Experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of key Anopheles species from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    s.l., An. aquasalis and An. nuneztovari s.l. had higher infection rates than An. darlingi. Conclusion All field-collected Anopheles species, as well as colonized An. aquasalis are susceptible to experimental P. vivax infections by membrane feeding assays. Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis are very susceptible to P. vivax infection. However, colonized An. aquasalis mosquitoes showed the higher infection intensity represented by infection rate and oocyst numbers. This study is the first to characterize experimental development of Plasmodium infections in Amazon Anopheles vectors and also to endorse that P. vivax infection of colonized An. aquasalis is a feasible laboratory model. PMID:24359307

  10. Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation.

    PubMed

    Kiskini, A; Difilippo, E

    2013-11-03

    Oligosaccharides have been widely recognized for their prebiotic and anti-infective properties. Among the different types of mammalian milk, the one of humans is the richest source of naturally derived oligosaccharides. However, their use as a basis for functional foods is hampered, due to their structural complexity, which in turn makes their re-synthesis extremely difficult. Thus, oligosaccharides from other sources have to be used. In this sense, goat milk constitutes a very appealing candidate, as it contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, while goat milk oligosaccharides show significant similarities to human milk oligosaccharides from a structural point of view. Studies on goat milk oligosaccharides are scant, and more data is required in order to provide solid clinical evidence of their beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this review is to collect and present the main research findings on goat milk oligosaccharides structure, health effects and isolation.

  11. Immunopathological assessments of human Blastocystis spp. in experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Hassanin, Kamel M A; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis spp., one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. The host's immune response against Blastocystis spp. infection has also not been defined yet. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the potential pathogenicity of this parasite and its ability to modulate the immune response in experimental infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice. These results demonstrated that the infected immunosuppressed mice were more affected than infected immunocompetent mice. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in the infected immunosuppressed mice showed that Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the layers. Moreover, the epithelia showed exfoliation and inflammatory cell infiltration in submucosa compared to that of the infected immunocompetent mice. As well, examination of the large intestine of the infected immunosuppressed group showed severe goblet cell hyperplasia. Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the large intestine layers compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group. Furthermore, there was a significant upregulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infected immunosuppressed mice compared to that of the infected immunocompetent ones (p ≤ 0.004 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). However, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was significantly downregulated in the infected immunosuppressed group compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group one at 10 days postinfection (p ≤ 0.002 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The results of this study revealed that Blastocystis spp. affected the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups of mice compared to healthy normal (naive) group. Additionally, these data showed that there was a significant upregulation (p ≤ 0.005) of the locally

  12. Bioluminescent avian pathogenic Escherichia coli for monitoring colibacillosis in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Oosterik, Leon H; Tuntufye, Huruma N; Tsonos, Jessica; Luyten, Tom; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Lavigne, Rob; Butaye, Patrick; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2016-10-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, a model for investigating the pathogenesis of APEC infections was established. APEC strain CH2 (O78) was marked with the luciferase operon (luxCDABE) using a Tn7 transposon and tissues of experimentally infected chickens were analysed for a correlation between the bioluminescent signal and the number of bacteria. Transposition of the lux operon into the chromosome of the APEC isolate did not affect sensitivity to lytic bacteriophages and there was no effect on virulence in an intratracheal infection model in 1-day-old chicks, although results with a subcutaneous infection model were inconclusive. A correlation between the number of bacteria and the luminescent signal was found in liquid medium, as well as in homogenised heart, liver, spleen and lung of 4-week-old experimentally infected chickens. This study showed that lux could be used for identification of the infecting strain after experimental infection with APEC in poultry. PMID:27687932

  13. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Dana M.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Gregory, Jacklyn R.; Hardy, Katherine M.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host’s clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill. PMID:26587684

  14. Effects of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection on the male reproductive system in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wu, Z-W; Zhang, L-F; Wu, X-K; Yi, L; Han, Xiaodong

    2010-10-01

    To study the effects of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection on the male reproductive system, the mechanism of infertility induced by Uu infection was investigated in experimental rats. Male Sprague-Dowley rats were infected with Uu4 (serotype 4) through repeated natural sexual intercourse for 8 weeks to establish infection. After 8 weeks, the blood samples of the animals were collected and analysed for cytokine production, and the animals were microdissected for the analysis of the reproductive system. Morphological study showed that spermatozoa exhibited curling and breaks in the rats infected at different dosages. Of the infected rats, 27.5% had both soft and hard calculi in the urinary tract, compared with 12% in the control groups. Uu infection resulted in a decline of sperm quality, eventually leading to the death of the spermatozoa. In the infected animals, the serum interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels increased significantly (P < 0.05), while tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma showed only modest changes. Our observations showed that Uu infection has an impact on sperm morphology, leading to the death of the spermatozoa. It is plausible that the morphological alterations of spermatozoa induced by Uu infection are one of the possible factors that contribute to male infertility.

  15. Electrophoretic pattern of Linguatula serrata larva isolated goat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Rabeeh; Gerami, Abbas; Omrani, Vahid Fallah

    2016-06-01

    Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canid and felid respiratory system. The parasite is tongue-shaped, lightly convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Males measure 1.8-2 cm, while females measure 8-13 cm in length. Disease due to infection with this parasite in humans is more likely to cause pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting, sore and itchy throat, cough, phlegm and runny nose. Present study aimed to determine linguatula's larva somatic antigens in lymph nodes of infected goats and also reveal the major component of antigenic protein. To determine the electrophoretic pattern of L. serrata's larvae, 50 samples were taken from goat's referred to the slaughter house of Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. After performing SDS-PAGE on somatic antigens, 6 bands (19, 20, 36, 48, 75,100 KDa) were seen in which the 36, 48 and 75 KDa bands were more prominent. In conclusion, it is recommended to determine the most important antigenic protein of this parasite could be used an experimental model in infection up to determine the most significant component of this parasite's antigen and use of that in immunogenicity and detection of infection. PMID:27413296

  16. Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E.; Jaax, N.; White, J.; Jahrling, P.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parenteral virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extracellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx and airways. Aggregates of characteristic filamentous virus were present within type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7547435

  17. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Quirk, Travis; Dubey, J P

    2008-06-01

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not fed T. gondii. Skunks were bled before feeding T. gondii, 10 and 23- 25 days postinoculation (PI). All 9 seronegative skunks fed oocysts died of acute toxoplasmosis between 7 and 19 days PI; T. gondii tachyzoites were found in histological sections of many tissues. One of the 10 skunks fed tissue cysts and 1 of the 4 controls also died of acute toxoplasmosis days 19 and 20 PI; these animals probably became infected by ingestion of unexcysted oocysts passed in feces of skunks fed oocysts that were housed in the same room that skunks fed tissue cysts were housed. The remaining 9 skunks fed tissue cysts and the 3 controls developed only a mild illness and were killed in good health on days 23-25 PI. Antibodies to T. gondii were not found in 1:25 serum dilution of any of the 19 of 23 skunks that were alive on day 10 PI; 12 of 13 skunks had antibodies (MAT 1:80 or higher) on the day they were killed. Antibodies were not found in 1 skunk. Results indicate that skunks can develop IgG antibodies to T. gondii within 3 wk PI, and primary toxoplasmosis can be fatal in skunks.

  18. Infectivity and development of Metagonimus yokogawai in experimentally infected domestic ducks (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Liao, Chien-Wei; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Du, Wen-Yuan; Lu, Shen-Che; Huang, Hai-I; Su, Kua-Eyre; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2010-02-26

    Information concerning whether fowl such as duck is a suitable reservoir host of Metagonimus yokogawai is largely unclear to date. In the present study, the growth and development of M. yokogawai metacercaria (Mc) in domestic duck (Cairina moschata) was determined by worm recovery rate (WRR) and morphological changes e.g., the size of fluke's body as well as their internal organs was assessed by using Semichon's acetocarmine staining. Each duck was orally inoculated with 50 Mcs of M. yokogawai and infected ducks were deeply anesthetized with ether and killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14 days post-infection (DPI). On each date, two infected ducks were killed and the small intestines of each duck were separated into four parts then they were opened longitudinally to harvest the flukes. Results revealed that WRR of M. yokogawai from inoculated ducks increased during early infection with a peak as seen at 4 DPI (28.5+/-6.9%); thereafter it gradually decreased and a drastic decline was observed in 14 DPI (2.0+/-1.1%) in the trial. The preference sites for M. yokogawai were low portions of the small intestine; nevertheless the size of fluke's body and organs developed increasingly with time and they maturated to produce ova from 4 DPI onward in the trial. However, present results indicated that ducks, based on the findings of this study, are not suitable hosts for establishment of M. yokogawai infection because most flukes were expelled from duck's intestine within 14 days. Nevertheless, it was proposed that ducks might play a certain role in transmitting M. yokogawai when they deposited the ova via feces into marsh where snails and fish were abundant since they could presumably establish transient and possibly patent infections with this parasite.

  19. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding. PMID:16699143

  20. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  1. Bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with or without collagen-type 1 in osteoporotic bone defects - an experimental study in osteoporotic goats.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Cheung, Wing Hoi; Chow, Simon K H; Thormann, Ulrich; Cheung, Edmond N M; Lips, Katrin S; Schnettler, Reinhard; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2016-06-01

    The intention of the current work is to assess new bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with (HA/col-1) or without collagen-type I (HA) in osteoporotic metaphyseal bone defects in goats. After ovariectomy and special low-calcium diet for three months, 3 drill hole defects in the vertebrae of L3, L4, L5, 4 drill hole defects in the right and left iliac crest and 1 drill hole defect at the distal femur were created in three Chinese mountain goats with a total of 24 defects. The defects were either filled with one of the biomaterials or left empty (empty defect control group). After 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the samples were assessed for new bone formation using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and histomorphometry with 2 regions of interest. Detail histology, enzymehistochemistry and immunohistochemistry as well as connexin-43 in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy were carried out for evaluation of degradation behavior of the materials and cellular responses of the surrounding tissue in respect to the implants. HR-pQCT showed the highest BV/TV ratio (p = 0.008) and smallest trabecular spacing (p = 0.005) for HA compared to the other groups in the region of interest at the interface with 1mm distance to the initially created defect. The HA/col-1 yielded the highest connectivity density (Conn.D) (p = 0.034) and the highest number of trabeculae (Tb.N) (p = 0.002) compared to the HA and the control group. Histomorphometric analysis for the core region of the initially created defect revealed a statistically higher new bone formation in the HA (p = 0.001) and HA/col-1 group (p = 0.001) compared to the empty defect group including all defect sites. This result was confirmed for site specific analysis with significant higher new bone formation for the HA group for vertebral defects compared to the empty defect group (p = 0.029). For the interface region, no

  2. Bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with or without collagen-type 1 in osteoporotic bone defects - an experimental study in osteoporotic goats.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Cheung, Wing Hoi; Chow, Simon K H; Thormann, Ulrich; Cheung, Edmond N M; Lips, Katrin S; Schnettler, Reinhard; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2016-06-01

    The intention of the current work is to assess new bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with (HA/col-1) or without collagen-type I (HA) in osteoporotic metaphyseal bone defects in goats. After ovariectomy and special low-calcium diet for three months, 3 drill hole defects in the vertebrae of L3, L4, L5, 4 drill hole defects in the right and left iliac crest and 1 drill hole defect at the distal femur were created in three Chinese mountain goats with a total of 24 defects. The defects were either filled with one of the biomaterials or left empty (empty defect control group). After 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the samples were assessed for new bone formation using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and histomorphometry with 2 regions of interest. Detail histology, enzymehistochemistry and immunohistochemistry as well as connexin-43 in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy were carried out for evaluation of degradation behavior of the materials and cellular responses of the surrounding tissue in respect to the implants. HR-pQCT showed the highest BV/TV ratio (p = 0.008) and smallest trabecular spacing (p = 0.005) for HA compared to the other groups in the region of interest at the interface with 1mm distance to the initially created defect. The HA/col-1 yielded the highest connectivity density (Conn.D) (p = 0.034) and the highest number of trabeculae (Tb.N) (p = 0.002) compared to the HA and the control group. Histomorphometric analysis for the core region of the initially created defect revealed a statistically higher new bone formation in the HA (p = 0.001) and HA/col-1 group (p = 0.001) compared to the empty defect group including all defect sites. This result was confirmed for site specific analysis with significant higher new bone formation for the HA group for vertebral defects compared to the empty defect group (p = 0.029). For the interface region, no

  3. Experimental rabies in skunks: immune response and salivary gland infection.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Campbell, J B

    1987-01-01

    Groups of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of street rabies virus. At various intervals after inoculation, saliva and sera were tested for rabies virus and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Skunks that developed rabies were killed in terminal stages of the disease and the following examinations were made: titers of virus and antibody in submandibular salivary glands and brain, extent of immunofluorescence in submandibular salivary glands, and histologic examination of various tissues. Skunks that received inocula containing 4 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(5) mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (MICLD50) had detectable serum neutralizing antibodies by 7-12 days postinoculation; however, most of the skunks that received lower doses (40 to 4 x 10(3) MICLD50) did not have detectable serum neutralizing antibodies until clinical signs began. In the salivary glands, slight and extensive immunofluorescence corresponded to high and low titers of tissue neutralizing antibody. Also low viral titers were associated with high tissue neutralizing antibody titers. There was a close correlation between viral titers in right and left submandibular salivary glands. The results suggest that the immune response can impede the process of infection of the salivary glands resulting in lack of antigen or low amounts of antigen in this tissue. This could occur through interference with centrifugal neural transport of virus and/or neutralization of virus during transfer from neural elements to epithelial cells. Lack of infectious virus or low viral titers in salivary glands containing antigen and high levels of tissue neutralizing antibodies can be caused partly by postmortem virus neutralization (during viral titration).

  4. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  5. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  6. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established.

  7. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    PubMed

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  8. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    PubMed

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  9. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  10. Expression of regulatory dendritic cell-related cytokines in cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    MEKATA, Hirohisa; MURATA, Shiro; MINGALA, Claro Niegos; OHASHI, Kazuhiko; KONNAI, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi causes wasting disease in many livestock. T. evansi infection gives rise to inflammatory immune responses, which contribute to the development of inflammation-associated tissue injury. We previously reported that regulatory dendritic cells (DCs), which act as potential regulators of inflammation, were activated in infected mice and transfer of regulatory DCs to infected mice prolonged their survival. However, the kinetics of regulatory DCs in cattle, which are natural hosts of T. evansi, remained unclear. In this study, we report that the expressions of CCL8 and IL-10, which promote the development of regulatory DCs, were up-regulated in cattle experimentally infected with T. evansi. This finding is potentially useful for studying the control strategy of T. evansi infection in cattle. PMID:25819543

  11. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  12. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  13. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  14. Clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters of dairy cows experimentally infected with Vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Izabelle S; Guedes, Maria Isabel M C; Matos, Ana Carolina D; de Oliveira, Tércia M L; Rivetti, Anselmo V; Moura, Ana Carolina J; Paes, Paulo Ricardo O; do Lago, Luiz Alberto; Kroon, Erna G; Lobato, Zélia Inês P

    2013-10-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the etiological agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), an important zoonosis that affects dairy cattle. There are many aspects of the disease that remain unknown, and aiming to answer some of these questions, the clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters of VACV experimentally infected cows were evaluated. In the first part of the study, lactating cows were infected with VACV-GP2 strain. In the second part, animals previously infected with VACV-GP2 were divided into two treatment groups: Group 1, immunosuppressed cows; and Group 2, re-infected cows. In this study, BV could be experimentally reproduced, with similar lesions as observed in natural infections. Moreover, a short incubation period and local lymphadenopathy were also observed. VACV could be detected by PCR and isolated from scabs taken from teat lesions of all inoculated and re-inoculated animals. Lymphocytosis and neutrophilia were observed in all animals from the first part of the experiment, and lymphopenia and relative neutrophilia were observed in the immunosuppressed animals. Detection of viral DNA in oral mucosa lesions suggests that viral reactivation might occur in immunosuppressed animals. Moreover, clinical disease with teat lesions may occur in previously VACV-infected cows under the experimental conditions of the present study.

  15. Cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Fathy, Ghada Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Sara Abdel-Rahman; El-Shafei, Mahmoud Abdel-Atei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin. The study was conducted upon 100 mice that were divided into five groups; 20 each: uninfected control group, Schistosoma mansoni infected untreated mice (infected control), infected mice treated with praziquantel (PZQ), infected mice treated with silymarin and infected mice treated with both praziquantel and silymarin. 10 mice from each group were sacrificed at 10th and 18th weeks post infection respectively. Histopathological investigations were performed. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to evaluate changes of granuloma sizes and numbers. Serum levels of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and TGF-β1) were assessed in the sera of all groups by immunoassay. The measured levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1) were found to be significantly increased in infected mice compared to normal control. At the same time, treated groups with silymarin alone or combined with PZQ showed significant decrease in IL-4, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels compared to infected control. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in IFN-γ level observed in all treated groups compared to infected control. In addition, the histopathological examination of the liver in the group treated with PZQ showed a reduction in the number of livers eggs granuloma at all periods of sacrification compared with the infected untreated group. However, there was more decrease in granulomas diameter in both silymarin treated group or combined with PZQ at all periods of sacrification when compared to infected untreated group. In conclusion; treatment with silymarin combined with PZQ in murine schistosomiasis could reduce hepatic fibrosis by their action on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27605811

  16. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans.

  17. Experimental evolution can unravel the complex causes of natural selection in clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly clear that rapid evolutionary dynamics are an important process in microbial ecology. Experimental evolution, wherein microbial evolution is observed in real-time, has revealed many instances of appreciable evolutionary change occurring on very short timescales of a few days or weeks in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic selection pressures. From clinical infections, including the chronic bacterial lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis that form a focus of my research, there is now abundant evidence suggesting that rapid evolution by infecting microbes contributes to host adaptation, treatment failure and worsening patient prognosis. However, disentangling the drivers of natural selection in complex infection environments is extremely challenging and limits our understanding of the selective pressures acting upon microbes in infections. Controlled evolution experiments can make a vital contribution to this by determining the causal links between predicted drivers of natural selection and the evolutionary responses of microbes. Integration of experimental evolution into studies of clinical infections is a key next step towards a better understanding of the causes and consequences of rapid microbial evolution in infections, and discovering how these evolutionary processes might be influenced to improve patient health.A video of this Prize Lecture, presented at the Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference 2015, can be viewed via this link: Michael A. Brockhurst https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1bodVSl27E.

  18. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Bertran, Kateri; Costa, Taiana P; Rivas, Raquel; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Villalba, Rubén; Solanes, David; Bensaid, Albert; Majó, Natàlia; Pagès, Nonito

    2012-06-01

    West Nile disease (WND) has become a major public and veterinary health concern since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York in 1999. The following panzootic spread in the U.S. and the recent WNV outbreaks in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin have increased interest in WND. Despite considerable investigation of WNV infection in birds, the effects of WNV on avian populations are still largely unknown. In Europe, raptors have been found to be particularly susceptible to WNV infection, but studies in birds of prey are lacking. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report an experimental infection with WNV in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons. We show that 10-week-old captive-reared Gyr-Saker (Falco rusticolus × Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons are susceptible to WNV infection. Neither morbidity nor mortality was observed after subcutaneous WNV inoculation with mixed extracts of non-infected mosquito salivary glands. Both the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed were similar to those previously reported in naturally and experimentally infected North American raptors. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that although Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons do not seem to be a good reservoir for WNV transmission via mosquito, they can become infected with WNV, develop viremia and antibodies, and are able to shed the virus.

  19. Experimental evolution can unravel the complex causes of natural selection in clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly clear that rapid evolutionary dynamics are an important process in microbial ecology. Experimental evolution, wherein microbial evolution is observed in real-time, has revealed many instances of appreciable evolutionary change occurring on very short timescales of a few days or weeks in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic selection pressures. From clinical infections, including the chronic bacterial lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis that form a focus of my research, there is now abundant evidence suggesting that rapid evolution by infecting microbes contributes to host adaptation, treatment failure and worsening patient prognosis. However, disentangling the drivers of natural selection in complex infection environments is extremely challenging and limits our understanding of the selective pressures acting upon microbes in infections. Controlled evolution experiments can make a vital contribution to this by determining the causal links between predicted drivers of natural selection and the evolutionary responses of microbes. Integration of experimental evolution into studies of clinical infections is a key next step towards a better understanding of the causes and consequences of rapid microbial evolution in infections, and discovering how these evolutionary processes might be influenced to improve patient health.A video of this Prize Lecture, presented at the Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference 2015, can be viewed via this link: Michael A. Brockhurst https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1bodVSl27E. PMID:25957311

  20. Innate immune response in experimentally induced bovine intramammary infection with Staphylococcus simulans and S. epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are in several countries the most common bacteria isolated in subclinical mastitis. To investigate the innate immune response of cows to infections with two common mastitis-causing CNS species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, experimental intramammary infection was induced in eight cows using a crossover design. The milk somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, milk amyloid A (MAA), serum amyloid A (SAA) and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined at several time points before and after challenge. All cows became infected and showed mild to moderate clinical signs of mastitis. The spontaneous elimination rate of the 16 infections was 31.3%, with no difference between species. Infections triggered a local cytokine response in the experimental udder quarters, but cytokines were not detected in the uninfected control quarters or in systemic circulation. The innate local immune response for S. simulans was slightly stronger, with significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β and IL-8. The IL-8 response could be divided into early, delayed, or combined types of response. The CNS species or persistency of infection was not associated with the type of IL-8 response. No significant differences were seen between spontaneously eliminated or persistent infections. PMID:21414189

  1. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  2. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  3. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  5. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  6. Which factors influence the outcome of experimental infection with Cystoisospora suis?

    PubMed

    Joachim, Anja; Schwarz, Lukas; Hinney, Barbara; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Vogl, Claus; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2014-05-01

    For reliable predictions of clinical and parasitological outcome of experimental infections with parasites, different models must be evaluated for possible influences of infection time point, infection dose and host-specific parameters such as breed or litter size. To address these issues for Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis, the causative agent of porcine neonatal coccidiosis, 181 piglets from 90 litters (hybrid crosses of different breeds) were included in a retrospective study to evaluate differences in time point and dose of infection in four different experimental models ((1) 1,500 oocysts on the 4th day of life, d.o.l.; (2) 1,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.; (3) 1,000 oocysts, 1st d.o.l.; (4) 5,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.). The target variables body weight gain, faecal consistency and oocyst excretion were evaluated during the acute phase of infection (5-10 days post infection), and the influences of the dependent variables breed or litter size were estimated. Despite differences in the time course of excretion and faecal consistency, neither the average amount of excretion nor the average faecal consistency differed among models, breeds or litters of different size. High individual variability was seen in all four models as described earlier for higher infection doses. When infections on the 1st vs. 4th day of life were compared, no differences in averages could be found, in contrast to previous observations on the influence of age. Other, not yet defined, variables appear to have a greater impact on the outcome of infection than doses and time points in the tested range, despite the reliable outcome of infection with high excretion rates and signs of clinical disease.

  7. Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lange, H; Johansen, O H; Vold, L; Robertson, L J; Anthonisen, I L; Nygard, K

    2014-10-01

    In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.

  8. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In t...

  9. [Studies on the cell-mediated immunity in experimental Naegleria spp. infections].

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Shin, H J; Im, K I

    1989-09-01

    Observations were made on the differences in cell-mediated immune responses in the mice infected with strongly pathogenic Naegleria fowleri ITMAP 359, weakly pathogenic Naegleria jadini 0400, or non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi EGB, respectively. Variations in cell-mediated responses and changes in antibody titers according to the duration after infection were noted. Infections were done by dropping 5 microliters saline suspension containing 10 x 10(4) trophozoites cultured axenically in the CGVS medium into the right nasal cavity of ICR mice aging about 6-7 weeks, under the anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of secobarbital. Following infection, delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) responses in the footpad and blastogenic responses of the mouse spleen cells using [3H]-thymidine were observed on the day 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 after infection. For the preparation of amoeba lysates, each of cultured trophozoites were homogenized with an ultrasonicator, and centrifugated at 20,000 g. The supernatants of amoeba lysates were used as the mitogen and antigen for ELISA. Concanavalin A(Con. A) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) were also used as mitogens in the blastogenic response. 1. The mice infected with N. fowleri showed the mortality rate of 75.7%. The rate was 6.2% for the N. jadini infected group, while no dead mouse was observed for N. gruberi infections. 2. In regard to DTH responses in the N. fowleri infected mice, the level increased in comparison to the control group but declined after 7 days. An increase was also noted for the N. jadini group after 1 day, but gradual decreases were observed through the infection period. In addition, no difference was noted between the N. gruberi infected and control groups. 3. Concerning the blastogenic response of the splenocytes, it increased after 10 days in the experimental group of N. fowleri infection, but the differences were not statistically significant compared with control group. It was evident that N. jadini group was not

  10. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  11. Natural breeding with bulls experimentally infected with Neospora caninum failed to induce seroconversion in dams.

    PubMed

    Osoro, K; Ortega-Mora, L M; Martínez, A; Serrano-Martínez, E; Ferre, I

    2009-03-01

    Four bulls and 56 heifers seronegative to Neospora caninum were used to determine the feasibility of venereal transmission in bovine neosporosis under natural conditions. Bulls were experimentally infected with 10(8) live N. caninum tachyzoites. Two of them with the Nc-1 isolate and the other two with the Nc-Spain-7 isolate. After 13 months of initial infection, each bull was re-infected with the same isolate and dose. The experiments were carried out from March to September during 2006 and 2007 where groups of cyclic heifers were naturally mated by the experimentally infected bulls. In year 2006, two bulls infected with different N. caninum isolate serviced 12 heifers each. In year 2007, the same bulls serviced the same heifers a second time (now primiparous) and six new heifers were also added to each group. In addition, the other two bulls serviced 10 additional heifers each. Experimental animals were monitored for 30 weeks and serum samples were collected weekly and fortnightly in years 2006 and 2007, respectively to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies to N. caninum. Experimentally infected bulls showed a significant increase of specific IgG antibodies from 13 (Nc-SP-7) and 21 (Nc-1) days post-infection. Serum IgG antibody responses of individual animals were similar in kinetics but slightly different in magnitude. Serum samples from heifers were all negative. Pregnant rates were 100% in heifers and 91% in primiparous animals. Calves did not show precolostral specific antibodies to N. caninum. Venereal transmission of bovine neosporosis under natural grazing conditions is unlikely to occur.

  12. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  13. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  14. Pigeons are resistant to experimental infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuehuan; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiuqing; Chen, Jiming; Yao, Jiezhang; Song, Yanjun; Lin, Jian; Han, Chunhua; Duan, Huijuan; Zhao, Jicheng; Pan, Jie; Xie, Jia

    2015-10-01

    To determine the susceptibility of pigeons to the newly emerged avian influenza virus subtype H7N9, we experimentally infected three different types of pigeons (meat, town, and racing) with two different doses (2 × 10(4) or 2 × 10(5) EID50) of H7N9 avian influenza virus A/Chicken/China/2013 by either intranasal and intraocular inoculation (IN + IO) or intravenous injection (IV). In addition, the potential transmission of H7N9 to pigeons by direct close contact with experimentally infected pigeons and chickens was assessed. Results showed that none of the experimentally infected pigeons exhibited any clinical signs regardless of the infection route and dose. Of the 12 racing pigeons that were randomly selected and necropsied, none of them had any gross lesions. In agreement with this finding, virus was not isolated from all pigeons. No detectable H7-specific antibodies were found in any pigeon. In contrast, 11 of 31 chickens that were either directly infected with H7N9 by IN + IO inoculation or by contact with IN + IO-infected chickens had conjunctivitis. Virus was isolated from all 31 chickens and H7-specific antibodies were detected in these chickens. However, none of the IV-infected chickens or chickens in direct contact with IV-infected chickens had any clinical signs. No virus was isolated from these chickens and no H7-specific antibody was detected. Overall, we conclude that pigeons are less or not susceptible to the H7N9 virus at the doses used and are not likely to serve as a reservoir for the virus. However, the virus does cause conjunctivitis in chickens and can transmit to susceptible hosts by direct contact.

  15. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  16. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  17. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-16

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection by sectioning of the small intestine and caecum into four parts. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs. The worm establishment ranged from 15 to 121 flukes (3-24%, mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than two eggs per g faeces (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in all three dogs necropsied on day 58 post infection. The predilection site of the flukes was identified as the lower part of jejunum (93% of total worm burden). The results of the haematological tests did not differ between the infected and uninfected group. Further, no clinical symptoms were observed in the infected group and no macroscopic pathological changes could be assigned to the trematode infections, neither did histopathological examination of the intestine reveal any differences between the infected and the control dogs. This study provides the first basic knowledge on the establishment

  18. Testicular and epididymal pathology in Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Sekoni, Victor O; Ajanusi, Ologunja J; Nok, Andrew J; Adeyeye, Adewale A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological effect of experimental Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) infection on the testes and epididymis of Yankasa rams. Methods Nine intact un-castrated rams were obtained and divided into 2 groups of 6 infected with 1×106 T. congolense and 3 uninfected controls. Four infected and one uninfected control rams were sacrificed on Day 75 post infection and the remaining four rams (two each of infected and control groups) on Day 86 post infection. Results All infected rams became parasitaemic within 7-11 days post infection with clinical trypanosomosis characterized by peri-orbital oedema and a transient period of scrotal oedema, this was followed by progressive decrease in scrotal size. At postmortem, the organs from infected rams were pale and emaciated but no observable lesion was seen in the uninfected control group. At histology, the testes showed areas of necrosis on the interstitial tissue characterized by destruction of cellular structures within the tissues and seminiferous tubules. There was moderate to severe testicular degeneration manifested by loss of tissue architecture and infiltration with macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Fibrous connective tissues were also seen in the testes of the infected rams indicative of replacement of normal cells by fibrous connective tissue. The epididymis of the infected rams had collection of some spermatocytes and desquamated epithelial cells in the epithelial ducts although others were devoid of spermatocytes in their ducts leading to loss of epididymal sperm reserves. However, these were not seen in the uninfected control rams. Conclusions T. congolense causes testicular and epididymal damage which may render the rams infertile or sterile.

  19. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  20. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  1. Experimental infection of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Carrasco-García, R; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Ballesteros, C; Aranaz, A; Romero, B; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; de la Fuente, J; Gortazar, C

    2010-07-29

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly relevant as a host for several pathogenic mycobacteria. We aimed to characterize the first experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in wild boar in order to describe the lesions and the immune response as compared to uninfected controls. Twelve 1-4-month-old wild boar piglets were housed in class III bio-containment facilities. Four concentrations of MAA suspension were used: 10, 10(2) and 10(4) mycobacteria (2 animals each, oropharyngeal route) and 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria (2 animals each by the oropharyngeal and nasal routes). No clinical signs were observed and pathology evidenced a low pathogenicity of this MAA strain for this particular host. Bacteriological and pathological evidence of successful infection after experimental inoculation was found for the group challenged with 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria. These four wild boar showed a positive IFN-gamma response to the avian PPD and the real-time RT-PCR data revealed that three genes, complement component C3, IFN-gamma and RANTES, were significantly down regulated in infected animals. These results were similar to those found in naturally and experimentally M. bovis-infected wild boar and may constitute biomarkers of mycobacterial infection in this species.

  2. The risk of biomaterial-associated infection after revision surgery due to an experimental primary implant infection.

    PubMed

    Engelsman, Anton F; Saldarriaga-Fernandez, Isabel C; Nejadnik, M Reza; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Francis, Kevin P; Ploeg, Rutger J; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C

    2010-10-01

    The fate of secondary biomaterial implants was determined by bio-optical imaging and plate counting, after antibiotic treatment of biomaterials-associated-infection (BAI) and surgical removal of an experimentally infected, primary implant. All primary implants and tissue samples from control mice showed bioluminescence and were culture-positive. In an antibiotic treated group, no bioluminescence was detected and only 20% of all primary implants and no tissue samples were culture-positive. After revision surgery, bioluminescence was detected in all control mice. All the implants and 80% of all tissue samples were culture-positive. In contrast, in the antibiotic treated group, 17% of all secondary implants and 33% of all tissue samples were culture-positive, despite antibiotic treatment. The study illustrates that due to the BAI of a primary implant, the infection risk of biomaterial implants is higher in revision surgery than in primary surgery, emphasizing the need for full clearance of the infection, as well as from surrounding tissues prior to implantation of a secondary implant.

  3. Circulating concentrations of soluble granzyme A and B increase during natural and experimental Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, C C; Konijnenberg, Y; Mulder, L; Loé, C; van Deuren, M; van der Meer, J W M; van Mierlo, G J; Eling, W M C; Hack, C E; Sauerwein, R W

    2003-06-01

    Release of soluble Granzymes (sGranzymes) is considered to reflect activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells. sGranzymes and a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma of malaria patients with natural or experimentally induced Plasmodium falciparum infections. Concentrations of sGranzyme A and B, IL-10, IL-12p70 and CRP were significantly increased in African children presenting with clinical malaria; IL-10 and CRP concentrations were significantly correlated with disease severity. In nonimmune Dutch volunteers which were experimentally infected by P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes, sGranzyme A increment started 1-2 days prior to clinical symptoms and microscopically detectable parasitaemia. This coincided with increases in IFNgamma, IL-12p40 and IL-8, while sGranzyme B and IL-10 levels increased 24-48 h later. The elevation of sGranzyme A and IFNgamma in nonimmune volunteers suggests that NK cells are activated upon release of parasites by infected liver cells and subsequently during blood stage infection; thus, NK cells are likely involved innate immune human host resistance in the early phase of a malaria infection.

  4. Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs

  5. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  6. [The protective activity of 2 normal immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Ch L; Veleva, K V; Tekelieva, R Kh; Pencheva, P I

    1991-02-01

    The antibody levels in 18 batches of the preparations of human immunoglobulin, Immunovenin and Immunovenin-Intact, for intravenous injection were determined in the enzyme immunoassay with the use of the mixture of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide antigens of seven immunotypes. The average antibody titers in these preparations were identical. The preparations were found to have protective action against P. aeruginosa experimental infection in mice.

  7. Modulating effect of ascorbic Acid on transport-induced immunosuppression in goats.

    PubMed

    Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats.

  8. Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production on pancreatic infection in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Maria M.; Sampietre, Sandra; Patzina, Rosely; Jukemura, Jose; Cunha, Jose Eduardo M.; Machado, Marcel C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Acute pancreatitis is one the important causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS results in gut barrier dysfunction that allows bacterial translocation and pancreatic infection to occur. Indomethacin has been used to reduce inflammatory process and bacterial translocation in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production on pancreatic infection. Materials and methods. An experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) was utilized. The animals were divided into three groups: sham (surgical procedure without AP induction); pancreatitis (AP induction); and indomethacin (AP induction plus administration of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, PGE2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured 2 h after the induction of AP. We analyzed the occurrence of pancreatic infection with bacterial cultures performed 24 h after the induction of AP. The occurrence of pancreatic infection (considered positive when the CFU/g was >105), pancreatic histologic analysis, and mortality rate were studied. Results. In spite of the reduction of IL-6, IL-10, and PGE2 levels in the indomethacin group, TNF-α level, bacterial translocation, and pancreatic infection were not influenced by administration of indomethacin. The inhibition of PGE2 production did not reduce pancreatic infection, histologic score, or mortality rate. Conclusion. The inhibition of PGE2 production was not able to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic infection and does not have any beneficial effect in this experimental model. Further investigations will be necessary to discover a specific inhibitor that would make it possible to develop an anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:18345325

  9. Similar Patterns of Infection with Bovine Foamy Virus in Experimentally Inoculated Calves and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are the least known retroviruses commonly found in primates, cats, horses, and cattle. Although FVs are considered apathogenic, simian and feline FVs have been shown to be associated with some transient health abnormalities in animal models. Currently, data regarding the course of infection with bovine FV (BFV) are not available. In this study, we conducted experimental infections of natural (cattle) and heterologous (sheep) hosts with the BFV100 isolate and monitored infection patterns in both hosts during the early phase postinoculation as well as after long-term infection. Four calves and six sheep inoculated with BFV100 showed no signs of pathology but developed persistent infection, as confirmed by virus rescue, consistent detection of BFV-specific antibodies, and presence of viral DNA. In both hosts, antibodies against BFV Gag and Bet appeared early after infection and persisted at high and stable levels while seroreactivity toward Env was consistently detectable only in BFV-infected sheep. Interestingly, the BFV proviral DNA load was highest in lung, spleen, and liver and moderate in leukocytes, while salivary glands contained either low or undetectable DNA loads in calves or sheep, respectively. Additionally, comparison of partial BFV sequences from inoculum and infected animals demonstrated very limited changes after long-term infection in the heterologous host, clearly less than those found in BFV field isolates. The persistence of BFV infection in both hosts suggests full replication competence of the BFV100 isolate with no requirement of genetic adaptation for productive replication in the authentic and even in a heterologous host. PMID:23325680

  10. Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

    1975-01-01

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park.

  11. Multidrug therapy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in experimentally inoculated budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ledwoń, A; Dolka, I; Dolka, B; Cegiełkowska, M; Czopowicz, M; Szeleszczuk, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the four-month experimental therapy of mycobacteriosis in budgerigars may cause a complete recovery. A group of nine budgerigars was infected with a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolate with proven pathogenicity for budgerigars. Five weeks post-inoculation, multidrug therapy was started. Another group comprising six birds received the same treatment but no infection, and the third group also comprising six birds was kept without infection or treatment as a control. The adopted antibiotic regimen included clarithromycin 61 mg/kg b.w., moxifloxacin 25 mg/kg b.w. and ethambutol 60 mg/kg b.w. administered by crop gavage every 12 h for 18 weeks. Despite a significant improvement in the condition of the infected, treated birds, the four-month therapy was not sufficient for the complete recovery of all. PMID:26364975

  12. ORAL SHEDDING OF MARBURG VIRUS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS)

    PubMed Central

    Amman, Brian R.; Jones, Megan E. B.; Sealy, Tara K.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Schuh, Amy J.; Bird, Brian H.; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D.; Martin, Brock E.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (Marburg marburgvirus; MARV) causes sporadic outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in Africa. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of MARV directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern Uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted MHF from 2007–08. Despite learning much about the ecology of MARV through extensive field investigations, there remained unanswered questions such as determining the primary routes of virus shedding and the severity of disease, if any, caused by MARV in infected bats. To answer these questions and others, we experimentally infected captive-bred R. aegyptiacus with MARV under high (biosafety level 4) containment. These experiments have shown infection profiles consistent with R. aegyptiacus being a bona fide natural reservoir host for MARV and demonstrated routes of viral shedding capable of infecting humans and other animals. PMID:25375951

  13. Experimental infection of pigs with Oesophagostomum dentatum: pathogenesis and parasitology of repeated mass infection.

    PubMed

    Poelvoorde, J; Berghen, P

    1981-07-01

    Pigs receiving a limited ration of 1 kg commercial feed per day were infected daily with 50,000 Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae. The animals exhibited serious diarrhoea and anorexia. Although there was neither anaemia nor hypoproteinaemia, there was a significant decrease in plasma sodium and an increase in blood urea nitrogen at the end of the experiment. Large numbers of third and fourth stage larvae were found in the ileal, caecal and colonic mucosae. Only fourth stage larvae, never adults, were observed in the lumen. A continual expulsion of large quantities of third and fourth stage larvae were demonstrated in the faeces beginning with the appearance of diarrhoea. Neither Vibrio coli, Salmonella spp nor Balantidium coli contributed to the course of the enteritis. PMID:7313309

  14. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Luisi, Elena; Forzan, Mario; Giusti, Matteo; Sagona, Simona; Tolari, Francesco; Felicioli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii) determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection.

  15. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Luisi, Elena; Forzan, Mario; Giusti, Matteo; Sagona, Simona; Tolari, Francesco; Felicioli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii) determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection. PMID:25419704

  16. Frequency and intensity of exposure mediate resistance to experimental infection with the hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Dylan; Manickam, Nisha; Simms, Benjamin T.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hookworms are bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes that are a major cause of anemia in resource-limited countries. Despite repeated exposure beginning in early childhood, humans retain lifelong susceptibility to infection without evidence of sterilizing immunity. In contrast, experimental infection of laboratory animals is typically characterized by varying degrees of resistance following primary infection, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, hamsters subjected to a single drug-terminated infection with 100 third stage hookworm larvae were confirmed to be resistant to pathological effects following a subsequent challenge. In a second experiment, hamsters infected twice-weekly with 10 third stage larvae (low inoculum) exhibited clinical and parasitological evidence of continued susceptibility, while those given 100 L3 (high inoculum) developed apparent resistance within 3 days following the initial exposure. The kinetics of parasite-specific IgA, IgM, and IgG antibody production varied by group, which suggests that the humoral immune response to hookworm infection is stimulated by the nature (frequency and intensity) of larval exposure. These results suggest that intermittent low-inoculum larval exposure, which is characterized by prolonged susceptibility to infection, may serve as a more representative model of human hookworm disease for studies of pathogenesis, as well as drug and vaccine development. PMID:23232252

  17. Oxidative stress associated with pathological lesions in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Lucca, Neuber J; Schwertz, Claiton I; Henker, Luan C; Olsson, Débora C; Piva, Manoela M; Sangoi, Manuela; Campos, Luízi P; Moresco, Rafael N; Jaques, Jeandre A; Da silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant status and oxidative profile in serum and liver of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and its relationship with pathological findings. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups: group A consisted of 12 healthy rats and group B of 12 rats infected orally with 20 metacercaria of F. hepatica. At days 20 and 150 post-infection (PI), blood and liver samples of six animals from each group were collected. The protein oxidation (AOPP technique: advanced oxidation protein products) and antioxidants (FRAP technique: ferric reducing antioxidant power) levels were measured in serum and liver. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS technique: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured in liver. AOPP and FRAP levels were increased (P < 0.05) in serum and liver of infected animals in acute and chronic infection when compared with healthy animals. The same occurred with TBARS and NOx levels in the liver (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed periportal fibrous hepatitis, composed of an abundant inflammatory infiltrate in portal spaces on infected animals, as well as bile duct hyperplasia. The results found seem to be related to the host free radical production demonstrated in serum samples and liver due to the parasite infection.

  18. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos; Assis, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canis and grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- Toxocara IgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ. PMID:26422159

  19. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    PubMed Central

    LESCANO, Susana A. Zevallos; dos SANTOS, Sergio Vieira; ASSIS, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canisand grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocaraantibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- ToxocaraIgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ. PMID:26422159

  20. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; Şuteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Domşa, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-02-01

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result.

  1. Meat goat production and marketing.

    PubMed

    Glimp, H A

    1995-01-01

    Production opportunities, management strategies, and marketing options for meat goats in the United States are reviewed in this manuscript. The basis for any expansion must be goat production systems that are biologically and economically sustainable, meeting both producer and consumer needs. Meat goats historically have been kept for brush control. Their use to control noxious plants and in vegetation management will continue to be their primary role in the future. Meat goats are rarely the primary animal production enterprise in the United States, but they are becoming increasingly important contributors to the income of many producers. Meat goat marketing is highly unstructured in the United States, yet prices are generally higher on a per unit of weight basis than other red meat-producing species. Efforts to organize marketing have had only limited success. Over 90% of the world's goats are in developing countries. Goats are increasingly important in these countries as subsistence food producers. Production systems range from goats being a part of nomadic multispecies herds on arid desert rangelands, in agropastoral production systems, to goats being the primary animal enterprise in smallholder farming systems.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  3. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S.; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. IMPORTANCE Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation

  4. [Distribution of orally administered aflatoxin B 1 in the tissues and organs of the goat (Capra)].

    PubMed

    Veselý, D; Veselá, D; Kusák, V; Nesnídal, P

    1978-09-01

    In the experiment the goat was administered an amount of 450 mg aflatoxin B1. The milk taken during the experiment was lyophilized and aflatoxins B1 and M1 were isolated. After the death of the goat some tissues, blood and bile of the experimental animal were analyzed to find out the aflatoxin content.

  5. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Marin, M S; Leunda, M R; Verna, A E; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. BoHV-1 encephalitis is only occasionally reported. However, several cases of neurological disease have been recently attributed to BoHV-1. In this study, the distribution and pathological alterations caused by two BoHV-1 strains in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves during acute infection and reactivation are described. Calves were inoculated intranasally with BoHV-1 Los Angeles (BoHV-1.LA) or Cooper (BoHV-1.Cooper) strains. Acutely infected calves were euthanased at 6 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) and 7 days post-inoculation (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2). Latently infected calves that were given dexamethasone to induce reactivation were euthanased at 2 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) or 5 days (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2) after dexamethasone administration. Both BoHV-1 strains were isolated from the brains of acutely infected calves. Distribution of viral DNA in the neural tissues was similar for both strains. During reactivation, neither BoHV-1.LA nor BoHV-1.Cooper was isolated from any brain section or trigeminal ganglia in infected calves. Macroscopic lesions were not evident in any group. In BoHV-1.LA infected calves, microscopic lesions were found in the brain but not in the trigeminal ganglia. Microscopic lesions in the brain of BoHV-1.Cooper infected calves were not as evident as in BoHV-1.LA infected animals. However, mononuclear infiltrates and neuronophagia were present in trigeminal ganglia. The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. PMID:26831158

  6. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  7. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated.

  8. Antibody and lymphoblastogenic responses of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Norcross, N L

    1991-09-01

    The humoral and cellular immune responses of dogs infected with either a non-pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from a North American dog (Tc-D) or a pathogenic T. cruzi isolate from an opossum (Tc-O) were studied over a 240 day period. Antibody to T. cruzi epimastigote antigens prepared from Tc-O or Tc-D isolates were first detected by ELISA by Day 26 post infection (PI), peaked by day 175 PI and remained elevated throughout the experimental period in both Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Differences in antibody levels between infected groups were not detected. Western blot analyses were performed using Tc-O and Tc-D epimastigote antigens probed with pooled sera and sera from individual Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs prior to infection (Day 0), and during the acute (Day 16-35 PI), indeterminate (Day 50-135 PI) and chronic (Day 235 PI) stages of infection. Generally, the patterns, number of protein bands, and temporal appearance of the protein bands identified by pooled sera and sera from individual dogs within each antigen preparation were similar. However, similarities and differences were present in antibody responses between sera from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Blastogenic responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs to mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed) were not significantly different from controls at any time during the experimental period. The PBMC from both groups of dogs were unresponsive to epimastigote antigens during the acute stage of infection. Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in PBMC responsiveness from controls were observed on Days 70 and 175 PI. Responses decreased to pre-infection levels by Day 240 PI. These studies demonstrate that although two North American T. cruzi isolates have markedly different virulence for dogs, some aspects of their cellular and humoral immune responses are similar while other responses, such as antibody recognition of specific T

  9. Immunomodulation over the course of experimental Arthrographis kalrae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Luciene Airy; Sano, Ayako; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Álvares E Silva, Paula Leonello; Assolini, João Paulo; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2016-10-01

    Arthrographis kalrae is occasionally described as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study investigated the immune response to A. kalrae during murine experimental infection (7, 14, 28 and 56 days post infection). The fungal load was higher in the early phase and mice presented with neurological syndrome over the course of the infection. There was a gradual increase in the level of anti-A. kalrae IgG and increased levels of DTH at 14 days. There was decreased IFN-γ (14-56 days) and an increase in IL-4 (7 and 56 days). Decreased levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17) were observed in the brain at 56 days p.i. The results suggest that the immune response during murine A. kalrae infection modulates to the pattern of Th2 response. This study shows for the first time the cytokines and cellular immunomodulation that occur in response to an experimental infection with A. kalrae in mice. PMID:27638123

  10. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  11. Transcriptomic study of 39 ostreid herpesvirus 1 genes during an experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Amélie; Faury, Nicole; Pépin, Jean-François; Renault, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Massive mortality outbreaks have been reported in France since 2008 among Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, with the detection of a particular OsHV-1 variant called μVar. Virus infection can be induced in healthy spat in experimental conditions allowing to better understand the disease process, including viral gene expression. Although gene expression of other herpesviruses has been widely studied, we provide the first study following viral gene expression of OsHV-1 over time. In this context, an in vivo transcriptomic study targeting 39 OsHV-1 genes was carried out during an experimental infection of Pacific oyster spat. For the first time, several OsHV-1 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 18 h, 26 h and 42 h post-injection. Several transcripts were detected at 2h post-infection and at 18 h post-infection for all selected ORFs. Quantification of virus gene expression at different times of infection was also carried out using an oyster housekeeping gene, Elongation factor. Developing an OsHV-1-specific reverse transcriptase real time PCR targeting 39 viral gene appears a new tool in terms of diagnosis and can be used to complement viral DNA detection in order to monitor viral replication. PMID:24681357

  12. Experimental infection of suckling mice by subcutaneous inoculation with Oropouche virus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo I; Almeida, Mariana F P; Paula, Flávia E; Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Saranzo, Ariane Mattioli; Paula, André E; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Correa, Vani Maria Alves; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Neder, Luciano; Arruda, Eurico

    2012-12-01

    Oropouche virus, of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Simbu, is an important causative agent of arboviral febrile illness in Brazil. An estimated 500,000 cases of Oropouche fever have occurred in Brazil in the last 30 years, with recorded cases also in Panama, Peru, Suriname and Trinidad. We have developed an experimental model of Oropouche virus infection in neonatal BALB/c mouse by subcutaneous inoculation. The vast majority of infected animals developed disease on the 5th day post infection, characterized mainly by lethargy and paralysis, progressing to death within 10 days. Viral replication was documented in brain cells by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and virus titration. Multi-step immunohistochemistry indicated neurons as the main target cells of OROV infection. Histopathology revealed glial reaction and astrocyte activation in the brain and spinal cord, with neuronal apoptosis. Spleen hyperplasia and mild meningitis were also found, without viable virus detected in liver and spleen. This is the first report of an experimental mouse model of OROV infection, with severe involvement of the central nervous system, and should become useful in pathogenesis studies, as well as in preclinical testing of therapeutic interventions for this emerging pathogen.

  13. Experimental infection of suckling mice by subcutaneous inoculation with Oropouche virus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo I; Almeida, Mariana F P; Paula, Flávia E; Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Saranzo, Ariane Mattioli; Paula, André E; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Correa, Vani Maria Alves; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Neder, Luciano; Arruda, Eurico

    2012-12-01

    Oropouche virus, of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Simbu, is an important causative agent of arboviral febrile illness in Brazil. An estimated 500,000 cases of Oropouche fever have occurred in Brazil in the last 30 years, with recorded cases also in Panama, Peru, Suriname and Trinidad. We have developed an experimental model of Oropouche virus infection in neonatal BALB/c mouse by subcutaneous inoculation. The vast majority of infected animals developed disease on the 5th day post infection, characterized mainly by lethargy and paralysis, progressing to death within 10 days. Viral replication was documented in brain cells by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and virus titration. Multi-step immunohistochemistry indicated neurons as the main target cells of OROV infection. Histopathology revealed glial reaction and astrocyte activation in the brain and spinal cord, with neuronal apoptosis. Spleen hyperplasia and mild meningitis were also found, without viable virus detected in liver and spleen. This is the first report of an experimental mouse model of OROV infection, with severe involvement of the central nervous system, and should become useful in pathogenesis studies, as well as in preclinical testing of therapeutic interventions for this emerging pathogen. PMID:22877689

  14. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786

  15. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  16. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. PMID:23199699

  17. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Pablo; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Fernández, Miguel; Ferreras, Maria del Carmen; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; González-Lanza, Camino; Katzer, Frank; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio

    2014-01-29

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development.

  18. Enhancement of Immunohistochemical Detection of Salmonella in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Janczyk, P.; Hünigen, H.; Plendl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1×1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  19. Detection of Vaccinia virus in blood and faeces of experimentally infected cows.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M I M C; Rehfeld, I S; de Oliveira, T M L; Assis, F L; Matos, A C D; Abrahão, J S; Kroon, E G; Lobato, Z I P

    2013-12-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV), a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), affects dairy cattle and milkers, causing economic, veterinary and human health impacts. Despite such impacts, there are no experimental studies about the pathogenesis of BV in cows to assess whether there is a systemic spread of the virus and whether there are different ways of VACV shedding. Trying to answer some of these questions, a study was proposed using experimental inoculation of VACV in cows. All experimentally infected cows developed lesions compatible with VACV infection in cattle. Two of the six animals presented VACV DNA in blood and faecal samples, starting at the 2nd and the 3rd day post-infection (d.p.i.), respectively, and lasting until the 36th d.p.i., in an intermittent way. This study provides new evidence that VACV can be detected in blood and faeces of infected cows, suggesting that BV could be a systemic disease, and also bringing new information about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of BV.

  20. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  1. Evaluation of hemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Karalova, Elena; Voskanyan, Henrik; Ter-Pogossyan, Zarine; Nersisyan, Narek; Hakobyan, Astghik; Saroyan, David; Karalyan, Zaven

    2014-11-01

    African swine fever is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Hemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Hemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired hemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the hemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of d-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the hemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.

  2. Experimental Transmission of Ehrlichia equi to Horses through Naturally Infected Ticks (Ixodes pacificus) from Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Reubel, Gerhard H.; Kimsey, Robert B.; Barlough, Jeffrey E.; Madigan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    We report the experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi from naturally infected Ixodes pacificus ticks to horses. Three weeks after exposure to ticks, two of three horses developed clinical signs compatible with E. equi infection, while one horse remained asymptomatic. 16S rRNA gene PCR of blood leukocyte lysates was positive for all horses at various time points; two horses seroconverted. The 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from tick-exposed horses showed more than 99% homology to corresponding fragments of the 16S rRNA genes of E. equi, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. PMID:9650983

  3. [The protector effect of ribosomal preparations against experimental influenza infection in mice].

    PubMed

    Popa, L M; Repanovici, R; Iliescu, R

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted on the protective effect of some ribosomal preparations, isolated from chorionic-allantoic membranes of chicken embryos, infected or not with parainfluenza (Sendai) or influenza (AoPR8) virus, in mice experimentally inoculated with influenza virus strain AoPR8 adapted to the mouse. Results showed that the tested preparation, containing ribosomes and polysomes isolated from chorio-allantoic membranes of Sendai virus inoculated chicken embryos, ensure the mice complete protection against AoPR8 virus, if administrated before the control infection. PMID:2549704

  4. Impact of experimental duel infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinoccocus granulosus on hepatic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Hala S; Ali, Nehad M; Talaat, Roba M; Osman, Wesam M

    2007-12-01

    Experimental duel infection with S. mansoni and E. granulosus was induced in mice to determine their effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) level and accordingly on the sequences of histopathological lesions affecting the liver. The results showed that serum NO level was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice infected with both parasites (GI) in comparison to either S. mansoni (GIV) or E. granulosus (GV). The NO elevation on hepatic pathological lesions of both diseases showed a marked reduction of granuloma size with absence of concentric fibrosis in GI as early as 4 weeks of concomitant infection as compared to GIV. In spite of the significant increase of NO level when E. granulosus infection induced in late stages of schistosomisais (GsII & III), yet granuloma size was not suppressed. Also, there was absence or death of hydatid cyst in mice (GI) compared to E. granulosus (GV). So, the duel infection with the two parasites affected serum NO level and hepatic histopathology, by ameliorative or deteriorative effects, according to duration of infection with either. PMID:18431992

  5. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, N.M.; Hahn, D.C.; Gould, D.H.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eastern Screech Owls (EASOs) were experimentally infected with the pathogenic New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) by subcutaneous injection or per os. Two of nine subcutaneously inoculated birds died or were euthanatized on 8 or 9 days postinfection (DPI) after <24 hr of lethargy and recumbency. All subcutaneously inoculated birds developed levels of viremia that are likely infectious to mosquitoes, with peak viremia levels ranging from 105.0 to 109.6 plaque-forming units/ml. Despite the viremia, the remaining seven birds did not display signs of illness. All birds alive beyond 5 DPI seroconverted, although the morbid birds demonstrated significantly lower antibody titers than the clinically normal birds. Cagemates of infected birds did not become infected. One of five orally exposed EASOs became viremic and seroconverted, whereas WNV infection in the remaining four birds was not evident. All infected birds shed virus via the oral and cloacal route. Early during infection, WNV targeted skin, spleen, esophagus, and skeletal muscle. The two morbid owls had myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis and mild encephalitis and nephritis, whereas some of the clinically healthy birds that were sacrificed on 14 DPI had myocardial arteritis and renal phlebitis. WNV is a significant pathogen of EASOs, causing pathologic lesions with varying clinical outcomes.

  6. Paramphistomum daubneyi: the number of sporocysts developing in experimentally and naturally infected Galba truncatula.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D

    2008-07-01

    Experimental infections of Galba truncatula with Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out to determine at day 50 (at 24 degrees C) the numbers of sporocysts, which grew in infected snails via the count of first- and second-generation rediae. In snails individually exposed to one, two, three, four, or five miracidia, the numbers of first-generation rediae increased from the one-miracidium group to the five-miracidium snails (from a mean of 6.7 to 26.1), while second-generation rediae decreased in number (from 6.2 to 0.9, respectively). This scale of redial numbers was used to determine the number of sporocysts, which grew in naturally infected snails collected from sedimentary or acid soils between 1993 and 2006. In cercariae-containing snails, natural infections resulting from the development of one to five sporocysts were found in both samples of G. truncatula examined. The numbers of 3-, 4-, and 5-sporocyst infections were increasing over time since 1997, 2000, and 2003, respectively. The utility of such multiple-sporocyst infections is open to question, as the differentiation of second-generation rediae and that of procercariae were delayed and always limited. They might be interpreted as a consequence of a zoonosis, which has been spreading since 1990 in ruminants of central France. PMID:18470698

  7. Experimental Infection of Rhesus Macaques and Common Marmosets with a European Strain of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Verstrepen, Babs E.; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Heteren, Melanie; Buitendijk, Hester; Haaksma, Tom; Beenhakker, Niels; Palù, Giorgio; Richner, Justin M.; Diamond, Michael S.; Bogers, Willy M.; Barzon, Luisa; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infects humans and other mammals. In some cases WNV causes severe neurological disease. During recent years, outbreaks of WNV are increasing in worldwide distribution and novel genetic variants of the virus have been detected. Although a substantial amount of data exists on WNV infections in rodent models, little is known about early events during WNV infection in primates, including humans. To gain a deeper understanding of this process, we performed experimental infections of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a virulent European WNV strain (WNV-Ita09) and monitored virological, hematological, and biochemical parameters. WNV-Ita09 productively infected both monkey species, with higher replication and wider tissue distribution in common marmosets compared to rhesus macaques. The animals in this study however, did not develop clinical signs of WNV disease, nor showed substantial deviations in clinical laboratory parameters. In both species, the virus induced a rapid CD56dimCD16bright natural killer response, followed by IgM and IgG antibody responses. The results of this study show that healthy rhesus macaques and common marmosets are promising animal models to study WNV-Ita09 infection. Both models may be particularly of use to evaluate potential vaccine candidates or to investigate WNV pathogenesis. PMID:24743302

  8. The effect of salinity on experimental infections of a Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Anna H; Li, Caiwen; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-01

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. parasitizes blue crabs along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Infections in blue crabs have only been reported from waters where salinity is >11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0-5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu, and should be capable of maintaining an infection in low-salinity waters even if Hematodinium spp. cells are intolerant of low salinities. We tested this notion by observing the effect of low salinity on the progression of disease in crabs experimentally infected with the parasite. Blue crabs were acclimated to 5 psu or 30 psu salinity treatments. They were inoculated with Hematodinium sp. and necropsied 3, 7, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. The low-salinity treatment did not have an effect on the proliferation of Hematodinium sp. infections in blue crabs; moreover, a greater proportion of infections in crabs in the low-salinity treatment developed dinospore stages than did those in the high-salinity treatment, indicating that salinity may affect the development of the parasite. However, dinospores from in vitro cultures rapidly became inactive when held in salinities <15 psu. Our experiments indicate that Hematodinium spp. can develop in blue crabs at low salinities, but that the parasite is incapable of transmission in this environment, which explains the lack of natural infections in crabs at low salinities.

  9. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  10. Behaviour of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 During the Manufacture and Ripening of an Italian Traditional Raw Goat Milk Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Dalzini, Elena; D’Amico, Stefano; Sfameni, Chiara; Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina Nadia; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Formagelle di capra is a raw goat cheese produced from whole chilled goat milk; traditional technology involving unpasteurised milk and indigenous lactic starter cultures is employed for its production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and ripening of this raw goat milk cheese. Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory scale plant and the count was monitored during production and 30 days of ripening required for this cheese. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 count increased to more than 1.5 Log cfu g–1 during cheese production and remained constant until the end of ripening. The evidence that E. coli O157:H7 is able to survive during the manufacturing and ripening process suggests that the 30-day ripening period alone is insufficient to eliminate levels of viable E. coli O157:H7 in Formaggelle di capra cheese and that the presence of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw goat milk cheeses could represent a potential source of infection for humans and a threat for consumers. PMID:27800324

  11. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  12. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  13. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  14. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. PMID:26578676

  15. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  16. Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Malafaia, Guilherme; Talvani, André

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge about protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in the context of Chagas disease, especially in experimental models. The search of articles was conducted using the electronic databases of SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), PubMed and MEDLINE published between 1960 and March 2010. It was possible to verify that nutritional deficiencies (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition) exert a direct effect on the infection by T. cruzi. However, little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the relationship “nutritional deficiencies and infection by T. cruzi”. A hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease many aspects of this illness still require clarification, including the effects of nutritional deficiencies on immune and pathological mechanisms of T. cruzi infection. PMID:21577255

  17. [Changes in the blood indices of turkey poults experimentally infected with Eimeria adenoides].

    PubMed

    Koĭnarski, V; Kamburov, P

    1985-01-01

    Studied were the changes in the values of sodium, potassium, chlorides, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper in the blood plasma as well as in that of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and the total count of blood cells in turkey poults experimentally infected with Eimeria adenoeides. The birds were divided into three groups of 40 each. The first and second were infected with various numbers of sporulated oocysts, while the third group was kept as a control one. It was found that Na, chlorides, Ca, P, and Fe were lowered, and K and Cu were increased over the same period. The total blood cell count and the hematocrit rose on the 4th and 5th day following infection, while they dropped on the 6th to the eighth day. The same was true of hemoglobin values.

  18. Extraintestinal migration of Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jung; Go, Jai-Hyang; Park, Yun-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-06-01

    Reptiles were known to serve as paratenic hosts for Centrorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in Korea, but the infection course in experimental animals was not elucidated yet. In this study, the tiger keelback snakes (Rhabdophis tigrinus) were collected and digested with artificial pepsin solution, and the larvae of Centrorhynchus were recovered from them. Then, the collected larvae were orally infected to rats for developmental observations. In rats, all the larvae were observed outside the intestine on day 3 post-infection (PI), including the mesentery and abdominal muscles. As for the development in rats, the ovary of Centrorhynchus sp. was observed at day 15 PI, and the cement glands were 3 in number. Based on the morphological characteristics, including the arrangement of proboscis hooks, these larvae proved to be a species of Centrorhynchus, and more studies were needed for species identification.

  19. Effects of non-specific immunopotentiators in experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection. II. Corynebacterium parvum.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, K M; Coutinho, E M; Abath, F G; Montenegro, S M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of Corynebacterium parvum on host protection, tissue reaction and "in vivo" chemotaxis in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were studied. The C. parvum was given intraperitoneally using a dose of 0.7 mg, twice a week (for 4 weeks), thirty days before (prophylactic treatment) or after infection (curative treatment). The host protection was evaluated through the recovery of adult worms by liver perfusion and was lower in the prophylactic group as compared to the control group (p = 0.018), resulting in 44% protection. The "in vivo" leukocyte response in both prophylactic and curative groups was higher as compared to the infected/non treated group (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively). Tissue reactions were described in the experimental and control groups, but there were not remarkable differences among them. The possible biological implications and relevance of the findings for the defensive response of the host and control of schistosomiasis are discussed. PMID:9293078

  20. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  1. Cutaneous pythiosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; Silva, T R; Oliveira-Filho, J C; Riet-Correa, F

    2015-01-01

    Pythiosis is reported for the first time in a goat. The affected goat had daily access to an aquatic environment and had developed an ulcerative lesion on the skin of the left hindlimb. Microscopically, there were dermal pyogranulomas with 'negatively stained' hyphae, which were identified immunohistochemically as Pythium insidiosum. PMID:25555632

  2. Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Amoah, E A; Gelaye, S

    1997-02-01

    Goat selection and reproduction have resulted from using conventional methods of natural mating and artificial insemination. Genetic improvements resulting from these are usually slow. Innovative developments in biotechnology rapidly propagate superior genes, offering hope for modeling and designing animals to fit market and environmental requirements. Use of Tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, and glycerol extender has enabled goat sperm to be stored successfully for several years before being used in cervical or laparoscopic insemination. Laparoscopic recovery of goat embryos to reduce adhesions from repeat surgeries has great potential in improving embryo production for direct transfer or for future transfer after cryopreservation. Goat kids have been produced, as a result of experiments to refine techniques of in vitro maturation and fertilization of recovered oocytes, with successful culture and transfer of embryos. In vitro fertilization technology is also essential for cloning goat embryos and for gene transfer. Transgenic goats have already been produced due to new genes being expressed from biologically active molecules altering the phenotype of the transferred goat. The introduced gene is capable of transmission between generations. The goat's diversified commercial value and convenient size make it a benefactor to new technology for rapid genetic improvement as a supplement to conventional selection methods. PMID:9051483

  3. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    SciTech Connect

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  4. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  5. Morphological alterations in the kidney of rats with natural and experimental Leptospira infection.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva de Faria, M; Athanazio, D A; Gonçalves Ramos, E A; Silva, E F; Reis, M G; Ko, A I

    2007-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread anthropozoonosis, with a broad array of mammalian reservoirs, occurring as rural endemics, urban outbreaks related to floods, and emergent disease associated with water sports and recreational exposure in developed countries. Rats are the major source of human infection, particularly in urban areas; however few reports have focused on the pathology of leptospirosis in this host. This study reports pathological changes in 60 kidneys from captured wild rats and compares these with changes in the kidney of Wistar rats experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain FIOCRUZ L1-130. A broad range of morphological alterations were detected in the kidneys from captured rats but interstitial nephritis was the only feature reproduced under experimental conditions. The role of interstitial nephritis in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis is reviewed and it is suggested that rats may provide a potential tool for the study of colonization mechanisms and host resistance in acute leptospiral disease.

  6. Goats Primed with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Boosted with a Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ag85A Show Enhanced Protection against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Soria, Sergio; Romera, Nadine; Singh, Mahavir; Abad, F. Xavier; Xing, Zhou; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Domingo, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    This is the first efficacy study using the experimental goat model, a natural host of tuberculosis (TB), to evaluate the efficacy of heterologous Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime followed by boosting with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the antigen Ag85A (AdAg85A). Three experimental groups of 11 goat kids each were used: BCG vaccinated, BCG vaccinated and AdAg85A boosted, and nonvaccinated. Twenty-two goat kids were vaccinated with ∼5 × 105 CFU of BCG (week 0), and 11 of them were boosted at week 8 with 109 PFU of AdAg85A. At week 14, all goats were challenged by the endobronchial route with ∼1.5 × 103 CFU of Mycobacterium caprae. The animals were euthanized at week 28. Cellular and humoral immunity induced by vaccination and M. caprae infection was measured throughout the study. After challenge BCG-AdAg85A-vaccinated animals exhibited reduced pathology compared to BCG-vaccinated animals in lungs and in pulmonary lymph nodes. There were significant reductions in bacterial load in both groups of vaccinated goats, but the reduction was more pronounced in prime-boosted animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and humoral responses were identified as prognostic biomarkers of vaccination outcome depending on their correlation with pathological and bacteriological results. As far as we know, this is the first report using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to measure vaccine efficacy against pulmonary TB in an animal model. The use in vaccine trials of animals that are natural hosts of TB may improve research into human TB vaccines. PMID:22761299

  7. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, Soraya; McSorley, Henry J; Daveson, James; Jones, Di; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Oliveira, Luciana M; Speare, Richard; McCarthy, James S; Engwerda, Christian R; Croese, John; Loukas, Alex

    2012-02-01

    The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17) response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  8. Ultrastructural Study on Tissue Alterations Caused by Trypanosomatids in Experimental Murine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Finol, Héctor J.; Roschman-González, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The ultrastructural study in different tissues of mice experimentally infected with isolates of Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania mexicana reveals changes in cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle fibers, and hepatic, adrenal, kidney, and spleen cells. Some of these changes were cytoarchitectural and others consisted of necrosis. Alterations in the microvasculature were also found. The mononuclear cell infiltrate included neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. This work shows that diverse mice tissues are important target for trypanosomatids. PMID:25072046

  9. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. PMID:26991480

  10. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure in Boer goat herds in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Yaglom, H D; Rottinghaus, A A; Pithua, P

    2014-09-01

    Limited data currently exist on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections in goats in the USA. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Boer goats raised in Missouri. Sera collected from 367 Boer goats in 24 herds were tested using a commercial latex agglutination assay. Evidence of T. gondii antibodies was present in 25 of the 367 goats, with titres of 1 : 32 in 4, 1 : 64 in 11, 1 : 128 in 5, 1 : 256 in 3 and 1 : 1024 in 2. Estimates for the apparent animal-level and between-herd prevalence were 6.8% (95% CI = 4.7-9.9%) and 41.7% (95% CI = 24.5-61.2%). These results confirm that Boer goats in Missouri are exposed to T. gondii and may constitute a public health risks.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.

  13. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  14. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  15. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  16. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  17. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  18. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in goats across four provincial level areas in China.

    PubMed

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats.

  19. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  20. Effects of rutin and quercetin on monooxygenase activities in experimental influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Savov, Varban M; Galabov, Angel S; Tantcheva, Lyubka P; Mileva, Milka M; Pavlova, Elitsa L; Stoeva, Emilia S; Braykova, Ana A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the flavonoids rutin and quercetin on hepatic monooxygenase activities in experimental influenza virus infection (EIVI). EIVI causes oxidative stress in the whole organism. This is confirmed by the rapidly increased concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances in influenza-infected mice: lungs - 290%; blood plasma - more than 320%; liver - 230%; brain - 50%. Although known for their antioxidant activities, rutin and quercetin exhibit prooxidant effect in healthy and antioxidant activity in influenza-infected animals. The pretreatment with both flavonoids (20 mg/kg b.w.) restores oxidative damage mostly in the target organ of the infection as well as in the liver of all infected mice (lungs: rutin - 30%, quercetin - 40%, combination - 45%; liver: rutin - 12%; quercetin - 40%; combination - 50%). As far as EIVI causes oxidative stress, toxicosis and inhibition of the hepatic monooxygenase activity, it is important to study the effects of rutin and quercetin on these systems. Both flavonoids induce the level of cytochrome P-450 (rutin - 13%, quercetin - 30%, combination - 22%) but inactivate NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and analgin N-demethylase on the 5th day of EIVI. Probably, these flavonoids affect different components of the monooxygenase system. These effects could be explained with oxidative hepatic intoxication on the 5th critical day of EIVI as well as higher dose treatment. More data are needed on the antioxidant/prooxidant effects of rutin and quercetin, probably due to specific metabolic and physiological activities, chemical structure, etc.

  1. Fasciola hepatica: development of redial generations in experimental infections of Pseudosuccinea columella.

    PubMed

    Dar, Y; Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2014-07-01

    Experimental infections of Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella with one or two miracidia of Fasciola hepatica per snail were carried out to determine the developmental pattern (normal or abnormal) of redial generations and specify the number of free rediae developing in snails according to their generation. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula infected according to the same protocol. Most infected P. columella showed a normal development of redial generations (96.2-98.1 vs 75.5-85.7% for G. truncatula). In each redial category, free rediae were more numerous in P. columella than in G. truncatula, and their number were also greater in the two-miracidia groups than in single-miracidium infections for each lymnaeid considered separately. This increase in redial production was mainly due to the number of first mother (R1a) rediae producing daughter rediae only: 2 per P. columella (vs one redia in G. truncatula) in single-miracidium groups and 3.1 (vs 1.9) in the two-miracidia groups. In P. columella, the mean total number of free rediae developing in single-miracidium and bimiracidial infections was 77.2 and 117.6, respectively (instead of 33.5 and 52.1 rediae in G. truncatula). The number of F. hepatica rediae present in P. columella was related to the number of fully grown sporocysts and the quantity of R1a rediae which developed into the snail body. PMID:24832813

  2. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  3. Experimental infection of Salmonella Enteritidis by the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Valiente Moro, C; Chauve, C; Zenner, L

    2007-05-31

    Dermanyssus gallinae is an important ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe and it is suspected of being a vector of pathogens. We carried out an in vitro study to evaluate the role of D. gallinae as a vector of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis. Two means of infecting the mite were tested: through the blood meal and after cuticular contact. Mites became carriers of Salmonella immediately after the infection with 29% and 53%, respectively, for oral route and cuticular contact. This percentage increased over time until it reached 95% (D7) and 80% (D14). The numerical identification of bacteria on the selective medium SM ID demonstrated the multiplication of Salmonella inside previously infected mites. In addition, transovarial passage as well as transstadial passage (from N1 to N2 stages) were demonstrated. Moreover, the observation of a negative effect of Salmonella on Dermanyssus oviposition was also observed. Finally, previously infected mites were able to contaminate the blood during the blood meal. Therefore, it appears that D. gallinae may act as a biological vector of S. Enteritidis under experimental conditions. It may represent a suitable environment for the development of Salmonella and could be an additional factor for the persistence of salmonellosis infection between successive flocks.

  4. Experimental infection of turkeys with avian pneumovirus and either Newcastle disease virus or Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Elizabeth A; Perkins, Laura E L; Swayne, David E

    2002-01-01

    Avian pneumoviruses (APVs) are RNA viruses responsible for upper respiratory disease in poultry. Experimental infections are typically less severe than those observed in field cases. Previous studies with APV and Escherichia coli suggest this discrepancy is due to secondary agents. Field observations indicate APV infections are more severe with concurrent infection by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In the current study, we examined the role of lentogenic NDV in the APV disease process. Two-week-old commercial turkey poults were infected with the Colorado strain of APV. Three days later, these poults received an additional inoculation of either NDV or E. coli. Dual infection of APV with either NDV or E. coli resulted in increased morbidity rates, with poults receiving APV/NDV having the highest morbidity rates and displaying lesions of swollen infraorbital sinuses. These lesions were not present in the single APV, NDV, or E coli groups. These results demonstrate that coinfection with APV and NDV can result in clinical signs and lesions similar to those in field outbreaks of APV.

  5. Western Immunoblot Analysis of the Antigens of Haemobartonella felis with Sera from Experimentally Infected Cats

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, A. Rick; Pate, Melanie G.; Harvey, John W.; Gaskin, Jack M.; Barbet, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Cats were experimentally infected with a Florida isolate of Haemobartonella felis in order to collect organisms and evaluate the immune response to H. felis. Cryopreserved organisms were thawed and injected intravenously into nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats. Splenectomized animals were given 10 mg of methylprednisolone per ml at the time of inoculation. Blood films were evaluated daily for 1 week prior to infection and for up to 60 days postinfection (p.i.). Blood for H. felis purification was repeatedly collected from splenectomized animals at periods of peak parasitemias. Organisms were purified from infected blood by differential centrifugation, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblot analysis. Serum was collected from nonsplenectomized animals prior to and for up to 60 days p.i. and was used on immunoblots to identify antigens. The combination of splenectomy and corticosteroid treatment resulted in marked, cyclic parasitemias without concurrent severe anemia, providing an opportunity to harvest organisms in a manner that was not lethal to the animals. Several antigens (150, 52, 47, 45, and 14 kDa) were identified. An antigen with a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa appeared to be one of the most immunodominant and was consistently recognized by immune sera collected at various times during the course of infection. These data suggest that one or more of these antigens might be useful for the serologic diagnosis of H. felis infections in cats. PMID:10203508

  6. Dengue virus 3 clinical isolates show different patterns of virulence in experimental mice infection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gustavo P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; Coelho, Luiz F L; S, Policarpo A; Cecilio, Alzira B; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Arantes, Rosa M E; Campos, Marco A; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) may cause symptomatic infection with mild, undifferentiated febrile illness called classical dengue fever (DF) or a more severe disease, potentially fatal, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenesis of DHF is based on the virulence of the infecting DENV and depends on the infecting serotypes and genotypes; it is also based on the immunopathogenesis that is mediated by host immune responses, including dengue virus-cross-reactive antibodies that augment the severity of infections. Involvement of central nervous system (CNS) is extensively described. The present study describes the virulence of DENV-3 isolates in a mouse model by intracranial (i.c.) inoculation with genotypes I and III. Our data suggest that, in this experimental model, DENV-3 genotype I may have the propensity to cause neurological disease in mice, whereas the genotype III is associated with asymptomatic infection in mice. Additionally, the symptomatic mice show a decrease of white blood cell count, infectious DENV in the brains and alterations in levels of IFN-gamma, IL-6 and MCP-1. The results confirm the mouse model as a way to study the biology of DENV-3 isolates and to improve the knowledge about the neurovirulence of the different genotypes of DENV.

  7. Panorganismal metabolic response modeling of an experimental Echinostoma caproni infection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Saric, Jasmina; Li, Jia V; Wang, Yulan; Keiser, Jennifer; Veselkov, Kirill; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Yap, Ivan K S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic profiling of host tissues and biofluids during parasitic infections can reveal new biomarker information and aid the elucidation of mechanisms of disease. The multicompartmental metabolic effects of an experimental Echinostoma caproni infection have been characterized in 12 outbred female mice infected orally with 30 E. caproni metacercariae each, using a further 12 uninfected animals as a control group. Mice were killed 36 days postinfection and brain, intestine (colon, ileum, jejeunum), kidney, liver, and spleen were removed. Metabolic profiles of tissue samples were measured using high-resolution magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy and biofluids measured by applying conventional (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed via principal component analysis, partial least-squares-derived methods and hierarchical projection analyses. Infection-induced metabolic changes in the tissues were correlated with altered metabolite concentrations in the biofluids (urine, plasma, fecal water) using hierarchical modeling and correlation analyses. Metabolic descriptors of infection were identified in liver, renal cortex, intestinal tissues but not in spleen, brain or renal medulla. The main physiological change observed in the mouse was malabsorption in the small intestine, which was evidenced by decreased levels of various amino acids in the ileum, for example, alanine, taurine, glutamine, and branched chain amino acids. Furthermore, altered gut microbial activity or composition was reflected by increased levels of trimethylamine in the colon. Our modeling approach facilitated in-depth appraisal of the covariation of the metabolic profiles of different biological matrices and found that urine and plasma most closely reflected changes in ileal compartments. In conclusion, an E. caproni infection not only results in direct localized (ileum and jejenum) effects, but also causes remote metabolic changes (colon and several peripheral organs), and therefore

  8. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  9. Experimental rabies virus infection in Artibeus jamaicensis bats with CVS-24 variants.

    PubMed

    Reid, J E; Jackson, A C

    2001-12-01

    An experimental model of rabies was established in the fruit-eating bat species Artibeus jamaicensis. The infections caused by CVS-N2c and CVS-B2c, which are both stable variants of CVS-24, were compared after inoculation of adult bats in the right masseter muscle. CVS-N2c produced neurologic signs of rabies with paresis, ataxia, and inability to fly, while CVS-B2c did not produce neurologic signs. Bats were sacrificed and the distribution of rabies virus antigen was assessed in tissue sections with immunoperoxidase staining. Both viruses spread to the brain stem and bilaterally to the trigeminal ganglia by days 2 to 3. CVS-N2c had disseminated widely in the central nervous system (CNS) by day 4 and had involved the spinal cord, thalamus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. CVS-B2c had infected neurons in the spinal cord on day 5 and in the cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebral cortex on day 6. Infected pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus were observed on day 5 in CVS-N2c infection, but infected neurons were never noted in the hippocampus in CVS-B2c infection. CVS-N2c infected many more neurons and more prominently involved neuronal processes than CVS-B2c. CVS-N2c spread more efficiently in the CNS than CVS-B2c. Morphologic changes of apoptosis or biochemical evidence of DNA fragmentation were not observed in neurons with either virus after this route of inoculation. The different neurovirulent properties of these CVS variants in this model were not related to their in vivo ability to induce apoptosis.

  10. The efficacy of milbemycin oxime against pre-adult Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Kok, D J; Schenker, R; Archer, N J; Horak, I G; Swart, P

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in preventing the oesophageal encapsulation of Spirocerca lupi, following the experimental infection of dogs. Two studies were conducted which involved a total of 21 purpose-bred Beagles. Each dog was infected with approximately 40, third stage infective S. lupi larvae. The larvae were dissected from scarabaeid beetles that had been collected from areas endemic for spirocercosis. In the first study, milbemycin oxime (minimum dose 0.5mg/kg body weight) was administered to seven dogs on day 30 post-infection. Seven other dogs served as untreated controls. In the second study, milbemycin oxime (also at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight) was administered to four of seven infected dogs on day 28 post-infection. Treatment was repeated at 14- or 28-day intervals. All of the dogs, from both studies, were euthanized 168 or 169 days after infection. All S. lupi were recovered, and lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus were described and quantified. A single treatment with milbemycin oxime was 79.8% effective in preventing the establishment of S. lupi in the oesophagus. This treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced both the number of S. lupi within the oesophagus and the size of the oesophageal nodules. The efficacy of anthelmintic treatment was increased to 100% when repeat doses of milbemycin oxime were administered at 14- or 28-day intervals. These repeat treatments completely prevented the establishment of S. lupi within the oesophagus and thereby averted the development of oesophageal nodules. As expected, none of the treatment protocols reduced S. lupi related damage within the aorta because the administration of milbemycin oxime only began after the larvae had completed their first stage of migration. PMID:21168275

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat – a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis. Case presentation The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised. Conclusions Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia. PMID:24708822

  12. [Care of pregnancy and prevention of lamb diseases in goats].

    PubMed

    Elze, K; Krische, G

    1995-12-01

    The breeding of dairy goats has spread in Saxony for over 200 years. Recently the keeping of bigger flocks (30-300 animals) for milk and cheese production has become more common. Within the care of the pregnant she goats the feeding recommendation is a main point of the veterinary herd management. The special performances done by the pregnant animals are discussed. The daily need of energy intake is given with about 11 Megajoule Nettoenergy-lactation as well as the daily need of protein with 230 g. Additionally the minimal daily intake of minerals and vitamins is mentioned. Supervising she goats during lambing and avoiding temperatures lower than 18 degrees C in the stables is considered as necessary to prevent hypoglycemia of the newborn lambs. The enzootic process of Clostridium-perfringens-type-B-infection is discussed in connection with the intake of colostrum and the increasing density of pathogen microorganism during the lambing period.

  13. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  14. The effect of adrenal steroids, corticotropin, and growth hormone on resistance to experimental infections.

    PubMed

    KASS, E H; LUNDGREN, M M; FINLAND, M

    1954-01-01

    Cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, and hydrocortisone acetate depress the resistance of mice to pneumococcal and influenza viral infections, although hydrocortisone acetate is somewhat less effective than the free alcohol, when given subcutaneously. Pituitary adrenocorticotropin, even in highly purified form and in oil and beeswax, does not significantly alter the resistance of mice to these experimental infections, even when given in doses which may cause profound eosinopenia, lymphopenia, and weight loss, and which are at the limit of tolerance of the animals. Corticosterone depresses resistance to pneumococcal infections significantly, but fails to alter resistance to influenza viral infections. The findings suggest that murine adrenals may produce one of the known adrenal steroids such as corticosterone along with another steroid, or may produce a steroid other than cortisone, hydrocortisone, or corticosterone. When resistance is decreased by adrenal steroids, survival time is invariably shortened, and the effect of the steroid hormones is frequently demonstrable within the 1st day after infection with pneumococci, making it unlikely that the depression of resistance that is seen is primarily due to depression of antibody formation. A single dose of 5 mg. of cortisone may cause depression of resistance and may decrease the survival time for 3 to 6 days afterward. Growth hormone (somatotropic hormone) in highly purified form, and in the doses used, did not overcome the weight loss induced by cortisone, but the animals treated with growth hormone and cortisone regained their lost weight more rapidly than those receiving cortisone alone. Growth hormone alone caused a slight increase in the rate of gain in weight over controls. Growth hormone alone did not increase resistance to infection, and did not increase the survival time, in mice infected with either pneumococci or influenza virus. Growth hormone in various dosages failed to overcome the effect of cortisone

  15. THE EFFECT OF ADRENAL STEROIDS, CORTICOTROPIN, AND GROWTH HORMONE ON RESISTANCE TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Edward H.; Lundgren, Marguerite M.; Finland, Maxwell

    1954-01-01

    Cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, and hydrocortisone acetate depress the resistance of mice to pneumococcal and influenza viral infections, although hydrocortisone acetate is somewhat less effective than the free alcohol, when given subcutaneously. Pituitary adrenocorticotropin, even in highly purified form and in oil and beeswax, does not significantly alter the resistance of mice to these experimental infections, even when given in doses which may cause profound eosinopenia, lymphopenia, and weight loss, and which are at the limit of tolerance of the animals. Corticosterone depresses resistance to pneumococcal infections significantly, but fails to alter resistance to influenza viral infections. The findings suggest that murine adrenals may produce one of the known adrenal steroids such as corticosterone along with another steroid, or may produce a steroid other than cortisone, hydrocortisone, or corticosterone. When resistance is decreased by adrenal steroids, survival time is invariably shortened, and the effect of the steroid hormones is frequently demonstrable within the 1st day after infection with pneumococci, making it unlikely that the depression of resistance that is seen is primarily due to depression of antibody formation. A single dose of 5 mg. of cortisone may cause depression of resistance and may decrease the survival time for 3 to 6 days afterward. Growth hormone (somatotropic hormone) in highly purified form, and in the doses used, did not overcome the weight loss induced by cortisone, but the animals treated with growth hormone and cortisone regained their lost weight more rapidly than those receiving cortisone alone. Growth hormone alone caused a slight increase in the rate of gain in weight over controls. Growth hormone alone did not increase resistance to infection, and did not increase the survival time, in mice infected with either pneumococci or influenza virus. Growth hormone in various dosages failed to overcome the effect of cortisone

  16. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  17. Pathology of natural Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in goats.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Bahrami, S

    2012-12-01

    Among the arthropods causing diseases to animals, myiasis causes a broad range of infestations depending on the location of larvae and its developmental stages on the body of the host. These infestations reduce host physiological functions, destroy host tissues and cause significant economic losses to livestock worldwide. This study was conducted to find out the pathological changes of goats tissue infested with Przhevalskiana silenus. Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI), improperly named goat hypodermosis, is a myiasis caused by larvae of P. silenus. Out of 16,250 goats examined in the slaughter house in the studied area, 433 (2.67%) were infested with warble fly. The minimum and maximum rate of infectivity was 7 and 84 with an average of 32.4 warbles per animal. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the infested subcutaneous tissues. Infiltration of the mononuclear cell types, tissue necrosis, pyogranulomatous reaction, hyalinization, mineralization, muscle fragmentation, oedema, and hyperemia of arterioles and capillaries were the most important microscopic findings associated with different developmental stages of P. silenus instars in the goats. The results of this survey indicated that GWF is a widespread infestation in Shiraz, Fars Province, southern part of Iran.

  18. Immunohistochemical demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi in tissues of experimentally infected rats and a naturally infected water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sudarto, M W; Tabel, H; Haines, D M

    1990-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi was demonstrated by an immunohistochemical technique in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally infected rats. Trypanosoma evansi was visible readily, nuclei were stained darkly, the cytoplasm was stained moderately, and the cell membranes were delineated clearly. The parasites were present in small- to large-sized blood vessels of all organs, in extravascular spaces of ventricles and neuropil of the brain, and in interstitial tissues of the lung and testes. This method also stained nuclei but not cytoplasm or cell membranes of Trypanosoma congolense, and did not stain Trypanosoma theileri. In a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, the presence of T. evansi could not be demonstrated by conventional histological stains. However, the trypanosomes were recognized readily in the Virchow-Robin spaces and neuropil of the brain by the immunohistochemical method.

  19. Evaluation of furazolidone, sulfadimidine and amprolium to treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Rashid, Ghazanfar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Nasir, Amar; Jahanzaib, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a protozoal and occasionally fatal diarrheic disease of goats imposing heavy economic losses to farming community. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium against coccidiosis in Beetal goats. Twenty-four (24) Beetal goats naturally infected with coccidiosis were randomly divided into four groups of 6 (A-D). Goats in groups A, B and C were treated orally with Furazolidone (10 mg/Kg), Sulfadimidine (100 mg/Kg) and Amprolium (55 mg/Kg), respectively for 7 days. Goats in-group D served as positive control. Oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces counts of individual goats in each group were performed on Days; 0 (pre-treatment) 7, 14 and 21 (post-treatment). OPG counts amongst goats in all groups at day 0 were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7, 14 and 21, OPG values decreased significantly (P<0.05) in groups A, B and C compared to group D. The efficacy of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium was 98.6, 98.0 and 99.6 percent, respectively on Day 21 (end of trial). Statistically, the efficacies of three drugs were not significantly different (P>0.05). In conclusion, Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium are well-tolerated and any one of these may be recommended to effectively treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats.

  20. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104 E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  1. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2015-11-30

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent strain in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran.

  2. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with progressive amyloid deposition in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, A. V.; Roque-Barreira, M. C.; Sartori, A.; Campos-Neto, A.; Rossi, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    likely that they are implicated in the pathogenesis of the mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in hamsters experimentally infected with L donovani. The glomerular changes may also explain the loss of immunoglobulins in the urine and the consequent lowering of serum immunoglobulin levels. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:4025511

  3. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  4. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3-5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated grou