Science.gov

Sample records for goats grazing natural

  1. Nutritional supplementation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under natural grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Rodríguez, G; De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Scaramuzzi, R J; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting at the time when the males were introduced to the females. The ovulation rate at the second male-induced ovulation was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (2.0+/-0.1) than in non-supplemented (1.6+/-0.1) does. For Experiment 2, female goats were supplemented for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days, starting 9 days following buck introduction. The proportion of does that were pregnant in the group supplemented for 28 days was greater (P<0.05) than in the non-supplemented group, but did not differ from 14-day and the 7-day supplemented groups. The proportion of pregnant does was greater (P<0.05) in the group supplemented for 14 days compared to the group supplemented for 7 days and the non-supplemented group. These latter two groups did not differ (P>0.05). In conclusion, feed supplementation for 7 days, starting at the time when males were introduced increased ovulation rate and feed supplementation for 14 or 28 days starting 9 days after males were introduced improved pregnancy rates in goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to males.

  2. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  3. The behavior of sheep and goats co-grazing on pasture with different types of vegetation in the karst region.

    PubMed

    Bojkovski, D; Štuhec, I; Kompan, D; Zupan, M

    2014-06-01

    The Slovenian karst region and similar types of land are difficult to cultivate and often exposed to the process of being abandoned and overgrown with shrubs, trees, and brushwood. Co-grazing in a mixed group may be a way to optimize the management of sheep and goat flocks in such areas. To obtain more knowledge of the natural behavior of small ruminants, the experiment was designed on pasture in the mountain karst region. The experimental area was divided in 6 paddocks, of which 3 paddocks were covered with grass, herbs, and legumes (i.e., grassy paddock [GP]). In the other 3 paddocks the area was additionally overgrown with hazel, beech trees, and bushes (i.e., woody paddock [WP]). In a mixed flock of 40 Slovenian local sheep breed (Istrian Pramenka) and 10 crossbreed goats (Saanen × Alpine goat), 10 animals per species were focally observed during daylight (0500-2100 h). The natural behavior was scored on 12 d, 2 consecutive days in each of the paddocks. Animals were rotated between 6 paddocks according to the balanced schedule. They stayed at each paddock for 5 or 6 d. Observations started on the third day after moving the animals into a specific paddock, following 2 d of adaptation. The results indicated that botanically diverse paddock together with climate conditions affected the behavior. Goats were grazing more (P < 0.001) whereas sheep less in the WP (P = 0.05). In sheep, drinking and salt consumption were higher (both P < 0.001) in the WP, suggesting that salt triggered additional water consumption. The WP enabled conditions where more comfort behavior, that is, autogrooming (both species P < 0.001) and object grooming (both species P < 0.001), was performed. On the second day of observation, animals grazed more compared to the first day (both species P < 0.001), most likely due to lower forage availability. Goats drank (P < 0.001) and consumed more salt on the second day (P < 0.001). With higher temperature sheep and goats grazed less (P < 0.05 and P

  4. The behavior of sheep and goats co-grazing on pasture with different types of vegetation in the karst region.

    PubMed

    Bojkovski, D; Štuhec, I; Kompan, D; Zupan, M

    2014-06-01

    The Slovenian karst region and similar types of land are difficult to cultivate and often exposed to the process of being abandoned and overgrown with shrubs, trees, and brushwood. Co-grazing in a mixed group may be a way to optimize the management of sheep and goat flocks in such areas. To obtain more knowledge of the natural behavior of small ruminants, the experiment was designed on pasture in the mountain karst region. The experimental area was divided in 6 paddocks, of which 3 paddocks were covered with grass, herbs, and legumes (i.e., grassy paddock [GP]). In the other 3 paddocks the area was additionally overgrown with hazel, beech trees, and bushes (i.e., woody paddock [WP]). In a mixed flock of 40 Slovenian local sheep breed (Istrian Pramenka) and 10 crossbreed goats (Saanen × Alpine goat), 10 animals per species were focally observed during daylight (0500-2100 h). The natural behavior was scored on 12 d, 2 consecutive days in each of the paddocks. Animals were rotated between 6 paddocks according to the balanced schedule. They stayed at each paddock for 5 or 6 d. Observations started on the third day after moving the animals into a specific paddock, following 2 d of adaptation. The results indicated that botanically diverse paddock together with climate conditions affected the behavior. Goats were grazing more (P < 0.001) whereas sheep less in the WP (P = 0.05). In sheep, drinking and salt consumption were higher (both P < 0.001) in the WP, suggesting that salt triggered additional water consumption. The WP enabled conditions where more comfort behavior, that is, autogrooming (both species P < 0.001) and object grooming (both species P < 0.001), was performed. On the second day of observation, animals grazed more compared to the first day (both species P < 0.001), most likely due to lower forage availability. Goats drank (P < 0.001) and consumed more salt on the second day (P < 0.001). With higher temperature sheep and goats grazed less (P < 0.05 and P

  5. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  6. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E

    2011-03-01

    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on

  7. Responses of arthropod fauna assemblages to goat grazing management in northern Spanish heathlands.

    PubMed

    Rosa García, Rocío; Jáuregui, Berta M; García, Urcesino; Osoro, Koldo; Celaya, Rafael

    2009-08-01

    Changes in arthropod fauna assemblages after different goat grazing treatments (breeds and stocking rates) and responses to grazing cessation were studied in a heath-gorse shrubland located in northern Spain. Three treatments (low grazing pressure and high grazing pressure with Cashmere breed and high grazing pressure with local Celtiberic breed) with three replicates were randomly allocated to nine plots. Fauna data were collected three times per year during 3 grazing yr (2003, 2004, and 2005) and three times during 2007, i.e., 2 yr after grazing cessation. Arthropods were collected by 12 pitfall traps per plot, whereas vegetation cover and height were estimated by 100 random contacts per plot. Arthropod community composition was mostly affected by sampling year during the grazing period (between 2003 and 2005) but also between 2005 and 2007 (after cessation). Species composition differed between treatments, although the differences were not attributed to the stocking rates or to the goat breeds along those periods. Differences between treatments remained constant from 2003 to 2005 and between 2005 and 2007. Heather height explained most of the variance in arthropod species data during the last grazing year (2005), whereas heather cover was the most explanatory environmental variable 2 yr after grazing cessation (2007). Grazing effects still remained on both vegetation and fauna 2 yr after grazing cessation. PMID:19689876

  8. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  9. Persistence of the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against Haemonchus contortus in grazing South African goats

    PubMed Central

    Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the duration of anthelmintic effect of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in grazing goats, as data for the persistence of efficacy of COWP in this host species is limited. Forty-eight indigenous male goats were infected naturally by grazing them on Haemonchus contortus-infected pasture. When the faecal egg count (FEC) in the goats was 3179 ± 540 eggs per gram of faeces (mean ± standard error), half the animals were treated with 4 g COWP (day 0; mean live weight = 25.5 ± 0.8 kg). Eight treated (COWP) and eight non-treated (CONTROL) goats were removed from the pasture on each of days 7, 28 and 56, maintained for 27 or 29 days in concrete pens and then humanely slaughtered for nematode recovery. Mean liver copper levels were in the high range in the goats removed from pasture at day 7 (treated: 191 ± 19.7 ppm; untreated: 120 ± 19.7 ppm; P = 0.022), but had dropped to normal levels at days 28 and 56. The mean H. contortus burdens of the treated versus the non-treated goats were, respectively, 184 ± 48 and 645 ± 152 for the goats removed from pasture at day 7 (71% reduction; P = 0.004), 207 ± 42 and 331 ± 156 at day 28 (37% reduction; P = 0.945) and 336 ± 89 and 225 ± 53 at day 56 (−49% reduction; P = 0.665). Weekly monitoring of FECs after treatment until slaughter indicated that the COWP-treated goats had lower FECs than the controls, the treatment main effect being significant at days 7, 28 and 56 (P < 0.01). The day main effect and the treatment × day interaction were only significant for the goats removed from pasture at day 28 (P ≤ 0.001). Packed cell volumes increased during the course of the experiment (day, P < 0.001), but the treatment main effect was significant only for the goats removed from pasture at day 28 (CONTROL 28 d, 28.65 ± 0.52% < COWP 28 d, 31.31 ± 0.52%; P < 0.001). No differences in live weight between groups were considered to be of any

  10. Mixed grazing systems of goats with cattle in tropical conditions: an alternative to improving animal production in the pasture.

    PubMed

    d'Alexis, S; Periacarpin, F; Jackson, F; Boval, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed grazing systems combining sheep and cattle have shown better growth performance for one or both species. This observation has been attributed to their complementary feeding behaviour and the reduced host infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. Less attention has been paid to mixed grazing systems combining goats and cattle. Here, continuously grazing goats mixed with cattle (M) were compared with control goats reared alone (C) under tropical conditions. The comparison was conducted with gastrointestinal nematode-infected (I) and non-infected (nI) goats. Thus, the four treatments were cattle with gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats (MI), gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats alone (CI), cattle with non-infected goats (MnI) and non-infected goats (CnI). Average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and grass production were measured for the four groups of animals (six goats and two heifers treated with MI or MnI) grazing for 3 months on 4 subplots. Monthly measurements were performed over 5-day periods. This pattern was replicated in space for a second set of four subplots and in time for six successive cohorts of animals (bands 1 to 6). The ADG of goats in mixed grazing conditions was higher than controls irrespective of the infection status (32.6 v. 18.4 g/day for MI v. CI; 44.2 v. 33.5 g/day for MnI v. CnI). Concomitantly, the average biomass was lower for mixed grazing animals compared with controls (174 v. 170 for MI and MnI; 235 v. 208 for CI and CnI, respectively), suggesting better use of the sward. For daily BW gain (g/kg DM), mixed grazing also yielded better results than the control (1.88 v. 0.52 g BW/kg DM per day for MI v. CI; 2.08 v. 1.47 g BW/kg DM per day for MnI and CnI). Mixed grazing of goats and heifers offers a promising alternative for increasing goat and overall animal production as well as improving the management of pastures.

  11. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  12. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  13. Efficiency of feeding Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores to control nematode parasites of first-season grazing goats in France.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Pors, I; Chartier, C

    2007-04-01

    A field trial, conducted over two consecutive years, was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the administration of spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to young goats for the control of nematode parasite infections on a French commercial dairy goat flock. For both years, the first-year grazing kids were divided into two similarly managed groups (fungus and control groups): in 2003 a daily dose rate of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight was given to the fungus-group animals, while in 2004 a daily dose rate of 10(6) spores/kg body weight was used; the other half of the kids, acting as control, did not receive the spores. Parameters measured every 3 weeks included nematode egg excretion, larval development in faecal cultures and pasture larval counts. Additionally, at the beginning, the middle and the end of each grazing season, the goats were weighed and blood samples for pepsinogen determination were collected. In 2003, similar results were recorded for all the measured parameters in the control and fungus groups. In contrast, in 2004, the kids receiving the spores showed lower faecal egg counts and pepsinogen levels at the end of the season and higher growth rate compared to kids of the control group.

  14. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    PubMed Central

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; İnce, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g∗m−1) and dry matter yield (kg∗ha−1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head∗ha∗yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  15. An investigation on forage yield capacity of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and grazing planning of Mediterranean maquis scrublands for traditional goat farming.

    PubMed

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; Akyol, Ayhan; İnce, Duygu; Türkoğlu, Türkay; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g ∗ m(-1)) and dry matter yield (kg ∗ ha(-1)) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head ∗ ha ∗ yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming.

  16. Effects of supplementation on intake, growth rate, and fleece production by female Angora kid goats grazing rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E; Taylor, C A; Lupton, C J; Brooks, T D

    1993-11-01

    Ninety-eight and 88 female Angora kid goats (6 mo of age) were grazed/browsed on Edwards Plateau rangeland in 92- and 88-d trials in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The goats were either not supplemented (negative control, NC) or fed isoenergetic amounts of corn (C), a corn/cottonseed meal/molasses mixture (C/CSM), or a corn/cottonseed meal/fish meal/molasses mixture (C/CSM/FM). The C/CSM and C/CSM/FM supplements provided equal CP but different amounts of ruminally undegraded protein (UDP). The goats were allowed to graze/browse in a common pasture and were separated into treatment groups three times each week for feeding. Intakes of supplement and forage were measured using a dual-marker technique. Forage intake was not increased with supplemental feeding (P = .21), but tended (P = .08) to be greater with high-protein supplements than with C. Total digestible DMI was greater (P < .01) for supplemented goats and was not affected by supplement type. Supplemental feeding increased BW gain (P < .01) and clean fleece weight (CFW; P < .01). High-protein supplements increased BW gain (P < .01), CFW (P = .07), fiber diameter (FD; P < .01), and staple length (P < .01) compared with C. Greater amounts of UDP (C/CSM/FM) did not increase BW gain (P = .99) but tended to increase CFW (P = .12) and FD (P = .15). Supplemental feeding increased total digestible DMI by partial substitution (corn) for forage or addition (high-protein supplements) to forage, and both energy and protein increased BW gain and CFW and influenced mohair traits. PMID:8270536

  17. Sheep-goat hybrid born under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Mine; Kedikilwe; Ndebele; Nsoso

    2000-07-01

    The paper reports a 5 year old male sheep-goat interspecific hybrid born under natural conditions. The hybrid was castrated at 10 months of age. Karyotype analysis confirmed that the animal was a male and a hybrid with 57 chromosomes, an intermediate number between sheep (2n=54) and goat (2n=60). Morphological characteristics of the animal were compared with those of castrated male Tswana goats of the same age. Data on castrated male Tswana sheep of the same age are not available. The hybrid at 5 years of age weighed 93kg compared to 53.73+/-13.83kg, the average weight of castrated Tswana male goats of the same age. The paper also raises a question of whether the animal could be of commercial interest in meat production in Botswana. PMID:10818315

  18. Composition of Ileal Bacterial Community in Grazing Goats Varies across Non-rumination, Transition and Rumination Stages of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, 18 Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42, and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity [volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase] was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that each age group harbored its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P < 0.01) from d 0 to 70. At the phylum level, abundances of Cyanobacteria (P = 0.018) and TM7 (P = 0.010) increased linearly, abundances of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.075) and Fibrobacteres (P = 0.076) tended to increase linearly, whist Proteobacteria abundance tended to decline quadratically (P = 0.052) with age. At the genus level, Enterococcus (30.9%), Lactobacillus (32.8%), and Escherichia (2.0%) dominated at d 0, while Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, SMB53, and Fibrobacter surged in abundance after day 20. The highest amylase activity was observed at day 42, while xylanase activity increased quadratically (P = 0.002) from days 28 to 70. Correlation analysis indicated that abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus, and p-75-a5 positively correlated with enzyme activity. Collectively, ileal bacteria in grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity. PMID:27656165

  19. Composition of Ileal Bacterial Community in Grazing Goats Varies across Non-rumination, Transition and Rumination Stages of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, 18 Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42, and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity [volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase] was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that each age group harbored its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P < 0.01) from d 0 to 70. At the phylum level, abundances of Cyanobacteria (P = 0.018) and TM7 (P = 0.010) increased linearly, abundances of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.075) and Fibrobacteres (P = 0.076) tended to increase linearly, whist Proteobacteria abundance tended to decline quadratically (P = 0.052) with age. At the genus level, Enterococcus (30.9%), Lactobacillus (32.8%), and Escherichia (2.0%) dominated at d 0, while Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, SMB53, and Fibrobacter surged in abundance after day 20. The highest amylase activity was observed at day 42, while xylanase activity increased quadratically (P = 0.002) from days 28 to 70. Correlation analysis indicated that abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus, and p-75-a5 positively correlated with enzyme activity. Collectively, ileal bacteria in grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity.

  20. Composition of Ileal Bacterial Community in Grazing Goats Varies across Non-rumination, Transition and Rumination Stages of Life.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, 18 Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42, and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity [volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase] was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that each age group harbored its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P < 0.01) from d 0 to 70. At the phylum level, abundances of Cyanobacteria (P = 0.018) and TM7 (P = 0.010) increased linearly, abundances of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.075) and Fibrobacteres (P = 0.076) tended to increase linearly, whist Proteobacteria abundance tended to decline quadratically (P = 0.052) with age. At the genus level, Enterococcus (30.9%), Lactobacillus (32.8%), and Escherichia (2.0%) dominated at d 0, while Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, SMB53, and Fibrobacter surged in abundance after day 20. The highest amylase activity was observed at day 42, while xylanase activity increased quadratically (P = 0.002) from days 28 to 70. Correlation analysis indicated that abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus, and p-75-a5 positively correlated with enzyme activity. Collectively, ileal bacteria in grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity. PMID:27656165

  1. Goat-sheep hybrid born under natural conditions in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Letshwenyo, M; Kedikilwe, K

    2000-06-17

    In Botswana it is common practice to rear goats (Capara hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) together in one kraal. Under such conditions it is also not uncommon to see the two species mating, but such matings have never been reported to produce a viable offspring. In this field observation a viable offspring was born naturally from a mating between a female goat and a male sheep. Chromosomal analysis showed that the hybrid had 57 chromosomes, intermediate between the 60 possessed by its dam and the 54 possessed by its sire. In August 1999 the hybrid was five years old. PMID:10901216

  2. Inferring the Skeletal Muscle Developmental Changes of Grazing and Barn-Fed Goats from Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinyu; Jiao, Jinzhen; Tan, Zhi-Liang; He, Zhixiong; Beauchemin, Karen A; Forster, Robert; Han, Xue-Feng; Tang, Shao-Xun; Kang, Jinghe; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-09-14

    Thirty-six Xiangdong black goats were used to investigate age-related mRNA and protein expression levels of some genes related to skeletal muscle structural proteins, MRFs and MEF2 family, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition during skeletal muscle growth under grazing (G) and barn-fed (BF) feeding systems. Goats were slaughtered at six time points selected to reflect developmental changes of skeletal muscle during nonrumination (days 0, 7, and 14), transition (day 42), and rumination phases (days 56 and 70). It was observed that the number of type IIx in the longissimus dorsi was increased quickly while numbers of type IIa and IIb decreased slightly, indicating that these genes were coordinated during the rapid growth and development stages of skeletal muscle. No gene expression was affected (P > 0.05) by feeding system except Myf5 and Myf6. Protein expressions of MYOZ3 and MEF2C were affected (P < 0.05) by age, whereas PGC-1α was linearly decreased in the G group, and only MYOZ3 protein was affected (P < 0.001) by feeding system. Moreover, it was found that PGC-1α and MEF2C proteins may interact with each other in promoting muscle growth. The current results indicate that (1) skeletal muscle growth during days 0-70 after birth is mainly myofiber hypertrophy and differentiation, (2) weaning affects the expression of relevant genes of skeletal muscle structural proteins, skeletal muscle growth, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition, and (3) nutrition or feeding regimen mainly influences the expression of skeletal muscle growth genes. PMID:27561543

  3. Feeding corn during the last 12 days of gestation improved colostrum production and neonatal activity in goats grazing subtropical semi-arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vera, S; Terrazas, A; Delgadillo, J A; Serafín, N; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Hernández, H

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to investigate if partial substitution of a grazing diet with a supplemental high-starch feed during the last 12 d of gestation improved colostrum yield and neonatal activity in goat does grazing semi-arid rangeland. For the first objective, 25 pregnant does were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) grazing only (control; n = 11), and 2) grazing plus 0.6 kg/d of supplemental corn (as fed), a high starch feed, during the last 12 ± 1.0 d before parturition (SC; n = 14). Colostrum was collected at parturition and again at 1, 3, 6, and 10 h postpartum for yield and composition. In all goats, blood concentrations of glucose and plasma progesterone were determined. Total colostrum yield/10 h was greater (P = 0.002) in the SC does (1,102 ± 144 g) than in control does (405 ± 50 g). From 6 to 10 h postpartum, contents of colostrum protein and solids not fat were less (P ≤ 0.012) whereas lactose contents were greater (P = 0.035) in the SC does than in control does. Concentration of glucose in the blood at parturition was greater (P = 0.037) in the SC does (160 ± 13 mg/dL) than in control does (115 ± 12 mg/dL). A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in plasma progesterone concentrations occurred 1 d before parturition in control does, whereas the decrease (P = 0.008) occurred 3 d before parturition in SC does. For the second objective, 20 does (10 per group) and their single kids were randomly assigned to the same treatments as above for evaluation of dietary treatment on neonatal activity. Kid activity was assessed using videos recorded during the first 90 min after birth. Frequency of low-pitched bleats was greater (P < 0.001) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Frequencies and durations of teat seeking from 30 to 90 min after birth and of suckling activity were greater (P ≤ 0.015) in kids of SC does than in kids of controls. Duration of parturition was longer (P = 0.001) in control does (58 ± 10.2 min) than in SC does (21 ± 2.8 min

  4. Age and feeding system (supplemental feeding versus grazing) modulates colonic bacterial succession and host mucosal immune maturation in goats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, J; Lu, Q; Forster, R J; Zhou, C; Wang, M; Kang, J; Tan, Z

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiome plays important roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal tract functional development and host mucosal immune maturation. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age and feeding system (supplemental feeding [Sup] vs. grazing [G]) could alter colonic bacterial diversity and host mucosal immune maturation. Thirty Liuyang black goat kids ( = 4) were slaughtered on d 0, d 7 (nonrumination), d 28, d 42 (transition), and d 70 (rumination). The colonic microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Host colonic mucosal immune maturation was examined using mRNA level expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR), proinflammatory cytokines, and the Toll-IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptor. A correlation analysis was conducted to elucidate the relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters and host immune maturation variables. The results showed that α diversity indexes ( < 0.05), abundances of genera ( = 0.003) and ( = 0.024), ( = 0.004), and ( = 0.046) mRNA expressions were lower for Sup than for G, whereas the abundance of genera and ( < 0.05) was greater for Sup than for G. Regardless of the feeding system, bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number and α diversity indexes increased ( < 0.05), whereas Proteobacteria abundance decreased linearly from d 0 to 70 after birth ( = 0.026). At the genus level, dominated the first week and declined sharply afterward, whereas abundance was greatest on d 7. abundance decreased linearly ( = 0.021), whereas abundances of , , , , and increased with age ( < 0.05). These findings coincided with increased , , and myeloid differentiation factor 88 () mRNA expressions with age ( < 0.05). Finally, correlation analysis revealed that different genera participated in different roles in fermentation capacity and host mucosal immune maturation. Collectively, colonic bacterial diversity and host mucosal immune maturation are age related, and concentrate supplement could alter

  5. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Distribution of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 Expression along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Housing versus Grazing Kid Goats.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Li, Hengzhi; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; He, Zhixiong; Kang, Jinghe; Yan, Qiongxian; Tan, Zhiliang; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-03-23

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is reported as a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor that elicits free fatty acid (FFA) regulation on metabolism homeostasis. The study aimed to clone the gpr120 gene of goats (g-GPR120) and subsequently investigate phylogenetic analysis and tissue distribution throughout the digestive tracts of kid goats, as well as the effect of housing versus grazing (H vs G) feeding systems on GPR120 expression. Partial coding sequence (CDS) of g-GPR120 was cloned and submitted to NCBI (accession no. KU161270 ). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that g-GPR120 shared higher homology in both mRNA and amino acid sequences for ruminants than nonruminants. Immunochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis showed that g-GPR120 was expressed throughout the digestive tracts of goats. The expression of g-GPR120 was affected by feeding system and age, with greater expression of g-GPR120 in the G group. It was concluded that the g-GPR120-mediated LCFA chemosensing mechanism is widely present in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract of goats and that its expression can be affected by feeding system and age. PMID:26914739

  6. [Community structure and diversity of soil arthropods in naturally restored sandy grasslands after grazing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-tao; Zhao, Ha-lin; Zhao, Xue-yong

    2010-11-01

    Taking the Naiman Desertification Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as a base, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil arthropods in the naturally restored sandy grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance, with the effects of vegetation and soil on this community structure approached. In the non-grazing grassland, soil arthropods were rich in species and more in individuals, and had the highest diversity. In the restored grassland after light grazing, soil arthropods had the lowest evenness and diversity. In the restored grassland after moderate grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were lesser but the major groups were more, and the evenness and diversity were higher. In the restored grassland after heavy grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were more but the major groups were lesser, and the diversity was higher. Plant individuals' number, vegetation height and coverage, and soil alkalinity were the main factors affecting the soil arthropod community in naturally restored grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance. It was implied that after 12-year exclosure of grassland, soil arthropod community could be recovered to some degree, while grazing disturbance had long-term negative effects on the arthropod community.

  7. [Community structure and diversity of soil arthropods in naturally restored sandy grasslands after grazing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-tao; Zhao, Ha-lin; Zhao, Xue-yong

    2010-11-01

    Taking the Naiman Desertification Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as a base, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil arthropods in the naturally restored sandy grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance, with the effects of vegetation and soil on this community structure approached. In the non-grazing grassland, soil arthropods were rich in species and more in individuals, and had the highest diversity. In the restored grassland after light grazing, soil arthropods had the lowest evenness and diversity. In the restored grassland after moderate grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were lesser but the major groups were more, and the evenness and diversity were higher. In the restored grassland after heavy grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were more but the major groups were lesser, and the diversity was higher. Plant individuals' number, vegetation height and coverage, and soil alkalinity were the main factors affecting the soil arthropod community in naturally restored grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance. It was implied that after 12-year exclosure of grassland, soil arthropod community could be recovered to some degree, while grazing disturbance had long-term negative effects on the arthropod community. PMID:21361009

  8. Pathology of natural Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in goats.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Bahrami, S

    2012-12-01

    Among the arthropods causing diseases to animals, myiasis causes a broad range of infestations depending on the location of larvae and its developmental stages on the body of the host. These infestations reduce host physiological functions, destroy host tissues and cause significant economic losses to livestock worldwide. This study was conducted to find out the pathological changes of goats tissue infested with Przhevalskiana silenus. Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI), improperly named goat hypodermosis, is a myiasis caused by larvae of P. silenus. Out of 16,250 goats examined in the slaughter house in the studied area, 433 (2.67%) were infested with warble fly. The minimum and maximum rate of infectivity was 7 and 84 with an average of 32.4 warbles per animal. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the infested subcutaneous tissues. Infiltration of the mononuclear cell types, tissue necrosis, pyogranulomatous reaction, hyalinization, mineralization, muscle fragmentation, oedema, and hyperemia of arterioles and capillaries were the most important microscopic findings associated with different developmental stages of P. silenus instars in the goats. The results of this survey indicated that GWF is a widespread infestation in Shiraz, Fars Province, southern part of Iran.

  9. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  10. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: Dose titration study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding h...

  11. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein.

    PubMed

    Reiten, Malin R; Bakkebø, Maren K; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrP(C) in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrP(C) knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrP(C). Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrP(C) (PRNP(Ter/Ter) ) compared to heterozygous (PRNP (+/Ter)) and normal (PRNP (+/+)) kids. Levels of cell surface PrP(C) and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNP (Ter/Ter), intermediate in PRNP (+/Ter) and high in PRNP (+/+) kids. The PRNP (Ter/Ter) animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrP(C) has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrP(C) in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrP(C)-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrP(C).

  12. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Reiten, Malin R.; Bakkebø, Maren K.; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M.; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A.; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrPC in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrPC knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrPC. Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrPC (PRNPTer/Ter) compared to heterozygous (PRNP+/Ter) and normal (PRNP+/+) kids. Levels of cell surface PrPC and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNPTer/Ter, intermediate in PRNP+/Ter and high in PRNP+/+ kids. The PRNPTer/Ter animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrPC has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrPC in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrPC-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrPC. PMID:26217662

  13. The impact of grazing on plant fractal architecture and fitness of a mediterranean shrub (Anthyllis cytisoidesL.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escos, J.; Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    1. We examined natural grazing by livestock (sheep and goats) on Albaida Anthyllis cytisoides L. with the aim of determining whether variation in the allometric relationships between plant parts provides a sensitive indicator of the impact of grazing.2. The intra-individual variation in translatory symmetry with scale and increased complexity of fractal structures reflect environmental disturbance under heavy grazing pressure and lack of grazing.3. Fitness consequences of grazing were also investigated. Grazing promotes growth and adult survival, and a drop in seed production as a consequence of consumption. In spite of that, total inclusive fitness (population rate of change) tends to increase with grazing.4. Moderate grazing, while promoting growth, also enhances stability of vegetative structures. The favourable effect of moderate levels of herbivory on A. cytisoides is reflected in the homeostatic maintenance of its translatory symmetry and in the increased complexity of its fractal structures.

  14. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting

  15. Grazing-induced effects on soil properties modify plant competitive interactions in semi-natural mountain grasslands.

    PubMed

    Medina-Roldán, Eduardo; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-09-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks are widely recognized as playing a significant role in structuring plant communities through their effects on plant-plant interactions. However, the question of whether plant-soil feedbacks can be indirectly driven by other ecological agents, such as large herbivores, which are known to strongly modify plant community structure and soil properties, remains poorly explored. We tested in a glasshouse experiment how changes in soil properties resulting from long-term sheep grazing affect competitive interactions (intra- and inter-specific) of two graminoid species: Nardus stricta, which is typically abundant under high sheep grazing pressure in British mountain grasslands; and Eriophorum vaginatum, whose abundance is typically diminished under grazing. Both species were grown in monocultures and mixtures at different densities in soils taken from adjacent grazed and ungrazed mountain grassland in the Yorkshire Dales, northern England. Nardus stricta performed better (shoot and root biomass) when grown in grazing-conditioned soil, independent of whether or not it grew under inter-specific competition. Eriophorum vaginatum also grew better when planted in soil from the grazed site, but this occurred only when it did not experience inter-specific competition with N. stricta. This indicates that plant-soil feedback for E. vaginatum is dependent on the presence of an inter-specific competitor. A yield density model showed that indirect effects of grazing increased the intensity of intra-specific competition in both species in comparison with ungrazed-conditioned soil. However, indirect effects of grazing on the intensity of inter-specific competition were species-specific favouring N. stricta. We explain these asymmetric grazing-induced effects on competition on the basis of traits of the superior competitor and grazing effects on soil nutrients. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings for plant community dynamics in grazed, semi-natural

  16. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  17. Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O

    2014-01-01

    Twelve white Fulani × N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79 ± 1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in mineral contents (Ca, K, P and Mg) were recorded for L. leucocephala leaves compared to other forage resources. Variations (P < 0.05) were observed in the average daily gain. Animals on grazing + L. leucocephala leaves diet had the highest (113 g/day) average daily gain, while those on sole grazing showed the least value (26.2 g/day). Packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, urea and calcium concentration showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Effective utilization of forage resources from the natural pasture by the calves was attained on supplementation with conserved forages and L. leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters. PMID:24077958

  18. [Greenhouse gases emission or uptake in Inner Mongolia natural and free-grazing grasslands].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuesi; Xue, Min; Huang, Yao; Liu, Guangren; Wang, Mingxing; Gi, Baoming

    2003-03-01

    GC-MS was used to measure the greenhouse emission of Inner Mongolia Grassland. The results showed that four kinds of typical semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia had their own special seasonal patterns as the source of atmospheric N2O and CO2 emission and the sink of atmopsheric CH4, which were controlled by seasonal weather variation. Different soil and vegetation types and precipitation influenced the intensity of emission and upatake of the gases. Compared with natural grassland, free grazing decreased CH4 uptake and N2O emission, but increased CO2 emission.

  19. The ovulation rate in anoestrous female goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect is increased by nutritional supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Rivas-Muñoz, R; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Malpaux, B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Delgadillo, J A

    2008-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine if feed supplementation before exposure of anoestrous does to males increases ovulation rate. Does (n=50) grazing natural vegetation were divided into two groups (n=25). One group received no feed supplementation, while the other was supplemented daily, with a mixture of 950 g of alfalfa hay, 290 g of rolled corn and 140 g of soy bean per animal for 7 days before exposure to bucks. On April 7, all females were exposed to four adult sexually active bucks (two per group) for 15 days. The ovulation rate at the ovulation detected within 5 days of exposure to males, assessed by transrectal ultrasonography, was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (1.6+/-0.2) than in non-supplemented females (1.0+/-0.2). In contrast, ovulation rate at the subsequent ovulation, detected between days 6 and 15 of contact with males, was not different (P>0.05) between supplemented (1.3+/-0.1) and non-supplemented females (1.3+/-0.2). Feed supplementation 7 days before exposure to sexually active bucks of females managed under grazing conditions increased their ovulation rate at the first male-induced ovulation but the stimulatory effect of supplementation did not persist and was not observed at the subsequent ovulation. PMID:18178343

  20. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects. PMID:24662092

  1. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  2. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China.

  3. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population.

  4. Size-selective grazing on bacteria by natural assemblages of estuarine flagellates and ciliates.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J M; Sherr, E B; Sherr, B F

    1990-01-01

    The small average cell size of in situ bacterioplankton, relative to cultured cells, has been suggested to be at least partly a result of selection of larger-sized cells by bacterivorous protozoa. In this study, we determined the relative rates of uptake of fluorescence-labeled bacteria (FLB), of various cell sizes and cell types, by natural assemblages of flagellates and ciliates in estuarine water. Calculated clearance rates of bacterivorous flagellates had a highly significant, positive relationship with size of FLB, over a range of average biovolume of FLB of 0.03 to 0.08 microns3. Bacterial cell type or cell shape per se did not appear to affect flagellate clearance rates. The dominant size classes of flagellates which ingested all types of FLB were 3- to 4-microns cells. Ciliates also showed a general preference for larger-sized bacteria. However, ciliates ingested a gram-positive enteric bacterium and a marine bacterial isolate at higher rates than they did a similarly sized, gram-negative enteric bacterium or natural bacterioplankton, respectively. From the results of an experiment designed to test whether the addition of a preferentially grazed bacterial strain stimulated clearance rates of natural bacterioplankton FLB by the ciliates, we hypothesized that measured differences in rates of FLB uptake were due instead to differences in effective retention of bacteria by the ciliates. In general, clearance rates for different FLB varied by a factor of 2 to 4. Selective grazing by protozoa of larger bacterioplankton cells, which are generally the cells actively growing or dividing, may in part explain the small average cell size, low frequency of dividing cells, and low growth rates generally observed for assemblages of suspended bacteria. PMID:2107794

  5. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  6. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases.

  7. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca

    PubMed Central

    Keating, M. Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W.; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence–the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  8. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ≥3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  9. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  10. Assessment of water resource potential for common use of cow and goat by GIS (Case study: Boroujerd Rangeland, Sarab Sefid, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariapour, A.; Karami, K.; Sadr, A.

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important factors to sustainability utilization of natural potential by rangeland grazing suitability is water resources suitability. This study is a model for quantitative, qualitative and spatial distance assessment of water resource's propriety for goat and cow grazing based on geographic information systems (GIS) in Boroujerd Sarab Sefid rangeland, Lorestan province, Iran 2013. In this research from combining three factors such as quantity, quality and water resource's distances; the final model of degree of propriety of water resources for goat and cow grazing is characterized. Results showed that slope factor was the reason of limitation, and it is considered as a limiting factor in propriety of water resources, so in terms of access to water resources for goat grazing, 4856.4 ha (100%) located in S1 classes and for cow grazing, 4023.14 ha (68.6%) located in S1(suitability) classes, 1,187 ha (20.24%) in S2 classes and 654.8 ha (11.16%) located in S3 classes, respectively for both. So according to the results the rangelands in this region are most suitable for goat because of terrain and weather but this, in combination with, cow hasbandry will allow diversity of economic production and stability of incomes.

  11. The fate of biogenic iron during a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural fertilisation: Impact of copepod grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, Géraldine; Vincent, Dorothée; Christaki, Urania; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2008-03-01

    The impact of copepod grazing on Fe regeneration was investigated in a naturally iron-fertilised area during Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS, Jan.-Feb. 2005). 55Fe-labelled natural plankton assemblages (<200 μm) were offered as food to copepod predators sampled in the field ( Calanus propinquus, Rhincalanus gigas, Metridia lucens and Oithona frigida). Diatoms ( Eucampia antarctica, Corethron inerme and Navicula spp.) constituted the bulk of the protists whereas microzooplankton (i.e. ciliates and dinoflagellates) were in very low abundance. Copepod grazing on phytoplankton ranged from 0.3 to 2.6 μgC ind -1 d -1 and reflected low utilisation of the food stocks (1-10% of total Chlorophyll a d -1) and low daily rations (0.2-3.3% body C d -1). Copepod grazing resulted in a 1.7-2.3-fold increase in Fe regeneration. Less than 1% of the regenerated Fe was complexed with hydrophobic organic ligands, as determined by extraction onto hydrophobic C18 columns. This suggests that Fe was regenerated as inorganic species and/or bound to freely soluble organic ligands. The biogenic Fe budget established from our study and literature based data indicates that most of the primary production is recycled through the detrital pool, which represents the largest Fe pool (49% of total Fe). Our iron budget further indicates that mesozooplankton and diatoms represent the dominant Fe biomasses above the Kerguelen plateau. The rate of Fe regeneration accounts for half of the Fe demand, strengthening the need for new Fe sources to sustain the massive phytoplankton bloom above the Kerguelen plateau.

  12. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  13. Plants of the Cerrado naturally selected by grazing sheep may have potential for inhibiting development of Haemonchus contortus larva.

    PubMed

    Morais-Costa, Franciellen; Soares, Ana Cláudia Maia; Bastos, Gabriela Almeida; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Braga, Fernão Castro; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2015-10-01

    Plant species naturally selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado region of Brazil were assessed in vitro for activity against Haemonchus contortus. One year of observations showed the plant families in the region exhibiting greatest richness to be Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, and Annonaceae. Nine species commonly selected by grazing sheep showed variation in the selectivity index with respect to the dry and rainy seasons. Coproculture was conducted in five replicates of 11 treatments: ivermectin, distilled water, or dehydrated leaves of nine selected plant species administered at 333.3 mg g(-1) fecal culture. The dried powder of Piptadenia viridiflora and Ximenia americana leaves significantly reduced the number of infective larvae compared to the distilled water control. These species showed efficacy of over 85 % despite low concentrations of proanthocyanidin. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of extracts of these plants showed major peaks of UV spectra characteristic of flavonoids. Those naturally selected plant species with high antihelminthic efficacy show promise for use in diet as an alternative control of H. contortus in sheep.

  14. How does targeted grazing with small ruminants influence subsequent patch use by mule deer and cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plots on rangeland infested with one-seed juniper were exposed to high (small patches; 10m2/AU/day) or low (large patches; 60 m2/AU/day) density stocking (vs control plots without grazing) of goats and goats plus sheep (2 replicates/treatment) during a summer targeted grazing experiment. Frequency o...

  15. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    , respectively, than control animals within 7 days, and these differences were maintained or increased throughout the trial. After 4 weeks of pellet feeding in Exp. 2, fecal scores were lower (P<0.01) in both SL-fed groups compared with control animals, indicating fewer signs of coccidiosis. There was no effect of diet on PCV values throughout either experiment. Dried, pelleted SL has excellent potential as a natural anti-coccidial feed for weaned goats. PMID:24857771

  16. Grazing-induced reduction of natural nitrous oxide release from continental steppe.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Benjamin; Zheng, Xunhua; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Chen, Weiwei; Dannenmann, Michael; Han, Xingguo; Sutton, Mark A; Wu, Honghui; Yao, Zhisheng; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) have increased significantly since pre-industrial times owing to anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle, with animal production being one of the main contributors. Grasslands cover about 20 per cent of the temperate land surface of the Earth and are widely used as pasture. It has been suggested that high animal stocking rates and the resulting elevated nitrogen input increase N(2)O emissions. Internationally agreed methods to upscale the effect of increased livestock numbers on N(2)O emissions are based directly on per capita nitrogen inputs. However, measurements of grassland N(2)O fluxes are often performed over short time periods, with low time resolution and mostly during the growing season. In consequence, our understanding of the daily and seasonal dynamics of grassland N(2)O fluxes remains limited. Here we report year-round N(2)O flux measurements with high and low temporal resolution at ten steppe grassland sites in Inner Mongolia, China. We show that short-lived pulses of N(2)O emission during spring thaw dominate the annual N(2)O budget at our study sites. The N(2)O emission pulses are highest in ungrazed steppe and decrease with increasing stocking rate, suggesting that grazing decreases rather than increases N(2)O emissions. Our results show that the stimulatory effect of higher stocking rates on nitrogen cycling and, hence, on N(2)O emission is more than offset by the effects of a parallel reduction in microbial biomass, inorganic nitrogen production and wintertime water retention. By neglecting these freeze-thaw interactions, existing approaches may have systematically overestimated N(2)O emissions over the last century for semi-arid, cool temperate grasslands by up to 72 per cent.

  17. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Proffiti, Margherita; Cascio, Paolo; Cerruti, Fulvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi; de Andrés, Damián; Reina, Ramsés; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-08-30

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) globally affect welfare and production of sheep and goats and are mainly controlled through elimination of infected animals, independently of the viral kinetics within the single animal. Control programs are based on highly sensitive serological tests, however the existence of low antibody responders leads to the permanent presence of seronegative infected animals in the flock, thus perpetuating the infection. On the other hand, long-term non-progressors show a detectable antibody response not indicative of a shedding animal, suggesting immune contention of infection. In this study, we analyse two goat populations within the same herd, harbouring low or high proviral SRLV loads respectively, both showing a robust antibody response. In vivo findings were confirmed in vitro since fibroblastic cell lines obtained from one high and one low proviral load representative goats, showed respectively a high and a faint production of virus upon infection with reference and field circulating SRLV strains. Differences in virus production were relieved when strain CAEV-Co was used for experimental infection. We analysed LTR promoter activity, proviral load, entry step and production of virus and viral proteins. Intriguingly, proteasomal activity was higher in fibroblasts from low proviral load animals and proteasome inhibition increased viral production in both cell lines, suggesting the implication of active proteasome-dependent restriction factors. Among them, we analysed relative expression and sequences of TRIM5α, APOBEC3 (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) and BST-2 (Tetherin) and found a global antiviral status in low proviral carriers that may confer protection against viral shedding and disease onset. PMID:27527777

  18. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  19. Consequences of livestock grazing on water quality and Benthic algal biomass in a Canadian natural grassland plateau.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Kendall, Sharon

    2002-06-01

    The effects of livestock grazing on selected riparian and stream attributes, water chemistry, and algal biomass were investigated over a two-year period using livestock enclosures and by completing stream surveys in the Cypress Hills grassland plateau, Alberta, Canada. Livestock enclosure experiments, partially replicated in three streams, comprised four treatments: (1) early season livestock grazing (June-August), (2) late season livestock grazing (August-September), (3) all season grazing (June-September), and (4) livestock absent controls. Livestock grazing significantly decreased streambank stability, biomass of riparian vegetation, and the extent to which aquatic vegetation covered the stream channels compared with livestock-absent controls. Water quality comparisons indicated significant differences among the four livestock grazing treatments in Battle and Graburn creeks but not in Nine Mile Creek. In Graburn Creek, the concentration of total phosphorus in the all-season livestock grazing treatment was significantly higher than that in the livestock-absent control, and the early season and late season grazing treatments. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus in the all-season livestock grazing treatment also exceeded that in livestock-absent control. In contrast, differences in water quality variables in the remaining 22 comparisons (i.e., 22 of the total 24 comparisons) were minor even when differences were statistically significant. Effects of livestock grazing on algal biomass were variable, and there was no consistent pattern among creeks. At the watershed scale, spatial variation in algal biomass was related (P < 0.05) with concentrations of NO(2)(-) + NO(3) (-) and soluble reactive phosphorus in two of the four study creeks. Nutrient diffusing substrata experiments showed that algal communities were either nitrogen-limited or not limited by nutrients, depending on stream and season.

  20. Characterization of the goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in the semi-arid regions of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nampanzira, Dorothy Kalule; Kabasa, John David; Nalule, Sara Agnes; Nakalembe, Immaculate; Tabuti, John Robert Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are widely distributed in Africa and Asia, and are important to the subsistence and economic livelihoods of many people in these areas. The goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in Buyende district (Uganda) was characterised by determining the goat rearing practices, feed resources fed on by goats and availability of browse species mentioned by small holder farmers. Data was gathered using ethnobotanical and ecological approaches. Results from the ethnobotanical survey revealed that farmers were rearing indigenous goat breeds that are managed by tethering in natural pastures during the rainy season but free ranging during the dry season (i.e. when no crops are susceptible of damage). Major challenges facing goat production in the study area were diseases, shortage of land and inadequate pastures. The reduction of grazing land due to crop farming, has led to tethering of animals which in turn leads to restricted feeding. Goats were known to feed on 48 plant species distributed in 18 families and 39 genera dominated by trees and shrubs. Browse species were known to stay longer in the dry season when the grass and herbaceous species were no longer available. The most frequently mentioned browse species were Ficus natalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Acalypha psilostachya, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Lantana camara while Panicum maximum and Impeata cylindrica were the most mentioned herbaceous species. 31 browse species were encountered in the ecological survey. These were dominated by Combretum molle, L. camara, A. zygia, M. indica, and Albizia coriaria. In conclusion, the rearing practices of goats in Buyende district are comprised of indigenous goats tethered in natural pastures especially browses which stay longer through the dry season. However, most of the preferred browses are rare according to the computed IVI (i.e. less than 30%). PMID:25932373

  1. Characterization of the goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in the semi-arid regions of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nampanzira, Dorothy Kalule; Kabasa, John David; Nalule, Sara Agnes; Nakalembe, Immaculate; Tabuti, John Robert Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are widely distributed in Africa and Asia, and are important to the subsistence and economic livelihoods of many people in these areas. The goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in Buyende district (Uganda) was characterised by determining the goat rearing practices, feed resources fed on by goats and availability of browse species mentioned by small holder farmers. Data was gathered using ethnobotanical and ecological approaches. Results from the ethnobotanical survey revealed that farmers were rearing indigenous goat breeds that are managed by tethering in natural pastures during the rainy season but free ranging during the dry season (i.e. when no crops are susceptible of damage). Major challenges facing goat production in the study area were diseases, shortage of land and inadequate pastures. The reduction of grazing land due to crop farming, has led to tethering of animals which in turn leads to restricted feeding. Goats were known to feed on 48 plant species distributed in 18 families and 39 genera dominated by trees and shrubs. Browse species were known to stay longer in the dry season when the grass and herbaceous species were no longer available. The most frequently mentioned browse species were Ficus natalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Acalypha psilostachya, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Lantana camara while Panicum maximum and Impeata cylindrica were the most mentioned herbaceous species. 31 browse species were encountered in the ecological survey. These were dominated by Combretum molle, L. camara, A. zygia, M. indica, and Albizia coriaria. In conclusion, the rearing practices of goats in Buyende district are comprised of indigenous goats tethered in natural pastures especially browses which stay longer through the dry season. However, most of the preferred browses are rare according to the computed IVI (i.e. less than 30%).

  2. Effects of open grazing and livestock exclusion on floristic composition and diversity in natural ecosystem of Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rowaily, Saud L.; El-Bana, Magdy I.; Al-Bakre, Dhafer A.; Assaeed, Abdulaziz M.; Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Ali, Mohammed Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing is one of the main causes of rangeland degradation in Saudi Arabia. Fencing to exclude grazers is one of the main management practices used to restore vegetation and conserve biodiversity. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in plant diversity and abundance, floristic composition and plant groups of the major life forms in response to thirty-five years of grazing exclosure in western Saudi Arabia. These vegetation attributes and palatability were compared in 30 sampling stands located in the excluded and grazed sites. Our results showed that livestock exclusion significantly increased covers, density and species richness of annuals, grasses, perennial forbs, shrubs and trees. Exclosure enhanced the abundance and richness of palatable species and depressed the development of weedy species. About 66.7% of the recorded species at the excluded site were highly palatable compared to 34.5% at the grazed site. In contrary, about 55.2% unpalatable species were found in the grazed site compared to 25.8% in the protected site. Jaccard’s similarity index between the excluded and grazed sites showed lower values of 0.39%, 0.40% and 0.31% at levels of families, genus and species, respectively. The results suggest that establishing livestock exclusion may be a useful sustainable management tool for vegetation restoration and conservation of plant diversity in degraded rangelands of arid regions. PMID:26150749

  3. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  4. Microscopical and immunological features of tuberculoid granulomata and cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Tomás, L; Ortega, N; Buendía, A J; del Rio, L; Salinas, J; Bezos, J; Caro, M R; Navarro, J A

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae). Although typical tuberculoid granulomata are usually observed in the lungs and lymph nodes of infected goats, the presence of cavitary lesions with exuberant mycobacterial growth is also a common feature in this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunological mechanisms that lead to liquefaction and cavity formation by comparing granulomata and cavitary lesions. Samples from animals positive by skin testing were collected for microscopical and immunohistochemical examination. Samples were also collected for analysis of cytokine gene expression in the lesions by real time polymerase chain reaction. There were marked differences between granulomata and cavitary lesions. In cavitary lesions there was a substantial population of neutrophils and a significant decrease in the number of CD4(+) T cells, with concomitant increases in other T-cell populations (CD8(+) and cells expressing the γδ form of the T-cell receptor). The enzyme iNOS was strongly expressed by macrophages in the cavitary lesions. There was no difference in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the lesions. These findings suggest that cavitary lesions are reactivation sites, where conditions are optimal for Mycobacterium proliferation and that immunological mechanisms may underlie the severe destruction of lung tissue that characterizes the cavitary pathology.

  5. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  6. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  7. Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Amoah, E A; Gelaye, S

    1997-02-01

    Goat selection and reproduction have resulted from using conventional methods of natural mating and artificial insemination. Genetic improvements resulting from these are usually slow. Innovative developments in biotechnology rapidly propagate superior genes, offering hope for modeling and designing animals to fit market and environmental requirements. Use of Tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, and glycerol extender has enabled goat sperm to be stored successfully for several years before being used in cervical or laparoscopic insemination. Laparoscopic recovery of goat embryos to reduce adhesions from repeat surgeries has great potential in improving embryo production for direct transfer or for future transfer after cryopreservation. Goat kids have been produced, as a result of experiments to refine techniques of in vitro maturation and fertilization of recovered oocytes, with successful culture and transfer of embryos. In vitro fertilization technology is also essential for cloning goat embryos and for gene transfer. Transgenic goats have already been produced due to new genes being expressed from biologically active molecules altering the phenotype of the transferred goat. The introduced gene is capable of transmission between generations. The goat's diversified commercial value and convenient size make it a benefactor to new technology for rapid genetic improvement as a supplement to conventional selection methods. PMID:9051483

  8. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant/antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nawito, M. F.; Hameed, Amal R. Abd El; Sosa, A. S. A.; Mahmoud, Karima Gh. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet) and another group grazing natural forage (low diet). Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Results: MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Conclusion: Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt. PMID:27651665

  9. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant/antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nawito, M. F.; Hameed, Amal R. Abd El; Sosa, A. S. A.; Mahmoud, Karima Gh. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet) and another group grazing natural forage (low diet). Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Results: MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Conclusion: Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  10. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S.; El-Tarabany, Akram A.; Atta, Mostafa A.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  11. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    PubMed

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  12. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    PubMed

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  13. Biological control of infective larvae of a gastro-intestinal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta) and a small lungworm (Muellerius capillaris) by Duddingtonia flagrans in goat faeces.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Chartier, C

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in French grazing dairy goat flocks led to a search for nematode-control schemes based on integrated approaches with non-chemical options, like vaccination, grazing management, or biological control using nematophagous fungi. The effect of the daily feeding of goats with spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on third-stage larvae (L3) of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in faecal cultures. In addition, the effect of D. flagrans on the survival of first-stage larvae (L1) of Muellerius capillaris was tested. Twenty-two culled dairy goats previously raised in a zero-grazing system were twice infected at monthly intervals with 5,000 and then 7,500 T. circumcincta L3. Eight animals were infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible (BZs) strain while the remainder received a benzimidazole-resistant one (BZr). Six culled goats naturally infected with M. capillaris were purchased from private farms. All the goats were divided in two groups, one group receiving daily 5 x 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight per goat for seven consecutive days in the food, the other group acting as control. For T. circumcincta-infected goats, individual egg counts and coprocultures (13 days, 25 degrees C) followed by L3 extraction with the Baermann method were performed. For M. capillaris-infected goats, extraction of L1 with the Baermann apparatus was individually performed on day 0 and after coprocultures on days 7, 10 and 14. Reductions in percentage development of T. circumcincta L3 in fungus groups compared with control groups ranged from 84% (BZs strain) to 90% (BZr strain). A decrease in M. capillaris L1 recovery was noted on days 7 and 10 (a reduction of 70% compared with day 0) and on day 14 (85%), but this pattern was similar in both groups, whether receiving the fungus or not. At the dosage of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight, D. flagrans was highly effective in reducing the larval

  14. 25 CFR 161.207 - What livestock are authorized to graze?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What livestock are authorized to graze? 161.207 Section 161.207 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED... livestock are authorized to graze on the Navajo Partitioned Lands: horses, cattle, sheep, goats,...

  15. How does targeted grazing with small ruminants influence subsequent patch use by mule deer and cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targeted grazing with small ruminants has been suggested as a means to control one-seed juniper encroachment (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg) and enhance habitat for livestock and wildlife. We determined the short term influence of a localized targeted grazing treatment with goats and sheep cond...

  16. Fungi: A major source of radiocesium contamination of grazing ruminants in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.; Garmo, T.H.; Hansen, H.S.; Staaland, H.

    1990-08-01

    Transfer of radiocesium from vegetation to milk was studied in dairy goats grazing heavily contaminated mountain pasture in southern Norway in the years following the Chernobyl accident. Radiocesium activity in milk and green vegetation remained stable throughout 1986 and 1987. In 1988, a sudden three- to fivefold increase in milk radioactivity occurred during the second half of the summer. Whole-body content of radioactivity in sheep and reindeer also increased rapidly. This coincided with an abundant growth of fungal fruit bodies with radiocesium levels up to 100 times higher than green vegetation. Fungal radiocesium was found to be highly available in a digestibility study with goats. Milk radioactivity levels in the field could be accounted for by consumption of as little as 20-100 g d-1 of fungal dry matter (DM). The importance of fungal fruit bodies in transferring radiocesium to ruminants was further substantiated by comparing meat activities in grazing ruminants in 1988 and 1989. Fungal fruit bodies were present in minor quantities in 1989, and radioactivity levels in sheep and reindeer in August-September were only 28-35% of those in 1988. This ability of fungi to mobilize radiocesium from natural soils and transfer the isotopes into the human food chain greatly enhances the vulnerability of food production in natural ecosystems to radiocesium pollution.

  17. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics world-wide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, inclu...

  18. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  19. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    RÍOS, Elvio E.; CHOLICH, Luciana A.; CHILESKI, Gabriela; GARCÍA, Enrique N.; LÉRTORA, Javier; GIMENO, Eduardo J.; GUIDI, María G.; MUSSART, Norma; TEIBLER, Gladys P.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina. PMID:25728544

  20. Identification and pharmacological analyses of eight naturally occurring caprine melanocortin-1 receptor mutations in three different goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi; Chai, Jin; Chen, Mingxin; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and plays a central role in animal coat color. We have sequenced the full coding region of 954bp of the MC1R gene in 72 goats of three breeds with different coat colors and identified five missense mutations (K226E, F250V, G255D, V265I, and C267W) and one silent mutation (A61A), among which two haplotypes with complete linkage disequilibrium (A61A and F250V, G255D and V265I) were found. We performed detailed functional studies on the six single and two double mutations in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. We found that none of the mutants had decreased cell surface expression. However, all the mutants except A61A had decreased constitutive activities in the cAMP pathway. Five mutations (F250V, G255D, G267W, A61A/F250V, G255D/V265I) exhibited significant defects in ligand binding and consequent agonist-induced cAMP signaling and ERK1/2 activation. Additionally, K226E, with normal ligand binding affinity and cAMP signaling, showed a significant defect in ERK1/2 activation, exhibiting biased signaling. Co-expression studies showed that the five defective mutants did not affect wild-type MC1R signaling, hence they were not dominant negative. In summary, we provided detailed data of these goat MC1R mutations leading to a better understanding of the role of MC1R mutation and coat color in goats. PMID:27229376

  1. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  2. Suppression of sheep and goat lymphocyte proliferation by sheep, goat, and sheep x goat hybrid trophoblast tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; White, K L; Horohov, D W

    1991-11-01

    Immunosuppressive activity of conditioned medium from cultured ovine, caprine, and hybrid trophoblast tissue was examined. Conceptuses were obtained from naturally mated donor ewes and does at d 20 of gestation and trophoblast tissue was cultured for 24 h in medium supplemented with 15% calf serum and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. Conditioned medium was added to pokeweed mitogen-stimulated sheep and goat lymphocyte cultures. Quantification of [3H]thymidine uptake by cells was used to measure lymphocyte proliferation. Ovine, caprine, and hybrid conditioned medium effectively suppressed sheep and goat lymphocyte proliferation (P less than .01). There were no differences (P greater than .05) between the immunosuppressive activity of the three tissue types on either sheep or goat lymphocytes. For all treatment groups, sheep lymphocytes were suppressed more than goat lymphocytes (P less than .05). These results indicate that, at d 20 of gestation, sheep x goat hybrid trophoblast tissue is capable of suppressing pokeweed mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:1752830

  3. Natural infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in dairy goats, associated with possible risk factors of the studied properties.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, T C B; Huber, F; Gomes, R S; Alves, L L

    2005-11-25

    Visits were made to six farms raising dairy goats located in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, seeking to identify parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. During the visits, fecal samples were collected from approximately 10% of the stock of each property. A questionnaire was given to the keepers on each property to obtain data for epidemiological analysis. A total of 105 fecal samples was collected, 56 from adult animals (over 12 months of age) and 49 from juvenile animals (less than 12 months). The fecal material was processed and subjected to the centrifuge-flotation technique and to staining with safranine-methylene blue. Protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium were found at two properties, where the hygiene conditions of the installations were considered average and the stalls were made of wood slats raised from the ground. A total of five (4.8%) of the samples was found to be positive for the presence of this protozoan, all from juvenile animals. Cysts of the genus Giardia were found at two properties. Of the 105 samples analyzed, the protozoan was detected in 15 (14.3%), all in juvenile animals, and animals in the age range of 1-3 months had significantly more infections. Age, sanitary condition of the stalls and stalls made of wood slats and raised from the ground, can be pointed out as possible risk factors for infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. The study reports for the first time the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Moderation is best: effects of grazing intensity on plant--flower visitor networks in Mediterranean communities.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Amparo; Tscheulin, Thomas; Devalez, Jelle; Nakas, Georgios; Stefanaki, Anastasia; Hanlidou, Effie; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-04-01

    The structure of pollination networks is an important indicator of ecosystem stability and functioning. Livestock grazing is a frequent land use practice that directly affects the abundance and diversity of flowers and pollinators and, therefore, may indirectly affect the structure of pollination networks. We studied how grazing intensity affected the structure of plant-flower visitor networks along a wide range of grazing intensities by sheep and goats, using data from 11 Mediterranean plant-flower visitor communities from Lesvos Island, Greece. We hypothesized that intermediate grazing might result in higher diversity as predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which could in turn confer more stability to the networks. Indeed, we found that networks at intermediate grazing intensities were larger, more generalized, more modular, and contained more diverse and even interactions. Despite general responses at the network level, the number of interactions and selectiveness of particular flower visitor and plant taxa in the networks responded differently to grazing intensity, presumably as a consequence of variation in the abundance of different taxa with grazing. Our results highlight the benefit of maintaining moderate levels of livestock grazing by sheep and goats to preserve the complexity and biodiversity of the rich Mediterranean communities, which have a long history of grazing by these domestic animals.

  5. Moderation is best: effects of grazing intensity on plant--flower visitor networks in Mediterranean communities.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Amparo; Tscheulin, Thomas; Devalez, Jelle; Nakas, Georgios; Stefanaki, Anastasia; Hanlidou, Effie; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-04-01

    The structure of pollination networks is an important indicator of ecosystem stability and functioning. Livestock grazing is a frequent land use practice that directly affects the abundance and diversity of flowers and pollinators and, therefore, may indirectly affect the structure of pollination networks. We studied how grazing intensity affected the structure of plant-flower visitor networks along a wide range of grazing intensities by sheep and goats, using data from 11 Mediterranean plant-flower visitor communities from Lesvos Island, Greece. We hypothesized that intermediate grazing might result in higher diversity as predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which could in turn confer more stability to the networks. Indeed, we found that networks at intermediate grazing intensities were larger, more generalized, more modular, and contained more diverse and even interactions. Despite general responses at the network level, the number of interactions and selectiveness of particular flower visitor and plant taxa in the networks responded differently to grazing intensity, presumably as a consequence of variation in the abundance of different taxa with grazing. Our results highlight the benefit of maintaining moderate levels of livestock grazing by sheep and goats to preserve the complexity and biodiversity of the rich Mediterranean communities, which have a long history of grazing by these domestic animals. PMID:27411251

  6. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference. PMID:25416966

  7. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  8. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressureHorny goat weed might lower blood pressure. Taking it along ...

  9. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P < 0.05) versus the indoor group. The crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items. PMID:22820940

  10. [Occurrence of nematodiasis among sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Zurliĭski, P

    1977-01-01

    The spread was studied of sheep and goat nematodirosis in the conditions prevailing in the district of Varna for the 1973-1975 period. Füleborn's method was employed with a total of 24,909 coprosamples taken from the animals as follows: sheep--12,690, weaned lambs--7370, lambs--3355, kids--782, and goats--712. Partial helminthologic postmortem examinations were carried out by the digestive method of 104 sheep, 33 goats, 142 weaned lambs, 96 lambs, and 35 kids. The percent of infected animals was determined on the basis of the coprostudies as follows; lambs--20.9 (per cent), kids--26.6, weaned lambs--54.9, sheep--22.6, goats--24.8. The necroscopic investigations revealed 32.3, 40, 64.8, 32.5, 39.4 per cent, respectively. The average parasite burden in number of helminths was 313 (lambs), 85 (kids), 1517 (weaned lambs), 586 (sheep), and goats--290. Greatest number of Nematodirus parasites was found in weaned lambs--16,000, followed by sheep--2260, lambs--1840, goats--800, and kids--240. As many as 100 per cent Nematodirus carriers were found on a sheep farm in the district. It was also found that the north plains of the district are less infected as against the south parts embracing the northern slopes of the Balkan mountain, and along the course of the Kamchia river. It was found that sheep on the private farm-holdings were more strongly infected than those on the cooperative farms. On the other hand, it was established that on farms where lambs and weaned lambs graze together with the adults the former prove more strongly infected than those that are on isolated grasslands.

  11. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign.

    PubMed

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity.

  13. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  14. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  15. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  16. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  17. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not

  18. Fiber degradation potential of natural co-cultures of Neocallimastix frontalis and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-Qin; Long, Rui-Jun; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hong-Jian; Shen, Xi-Hui; Shi, Rui-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Ye; Du, Jun-Guo; Qi, Xiao-Jin; Ye, Qian-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Several natural anaerobic fungus-methanogen co-cultures have been isolated from rumen and feces source of herbivores with strong fiber degrading ability. In this study, we isolated 7 Neocallimastix with methanogen co-cultures from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. Based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences (ITS1), all the fungi were identified as Neocallimastix frontalis. The co-cultures were confirmed as the one fungus - one methanogen pattern by the PCR-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) assay. All the methanogens were identified as Methanobrevibacter ruminantium by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. We investigated the biodegrading capacity of the co-culture (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 on wheat straw, corn stalk and rice straw in a 7 days-incubation. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD) and neural detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) values of the substrates in the co-culture were significantly higher than those in the mono-culture N. frontalis Yaktz1. The co-culture exhibited high polysaccharide hydrolase (xylanase and FPase) and esterase activities. The xylanase in the co-culture reached the highest activity of 12500 mU/ml on wheat straw at the day 3 of the incubation. At the end of the incubation, 3.00 mmol-3.29 mmol/g dry matter of methane were produced by the co-culture. The co-culture also produced high level of acetate (40.00 mM-45.98 mM) as the end-product during the biodegradation. Interestingly, the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture produced large amount of lactate (8.27 mM-11.60 mM) and ethanol (163.11 mM-242.14 mM), many times more than those recorded in the previously reported anaerobic fungi. Our data suggests that the (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 co-culture and the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture both have great potentials for different industrial use.

  19. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  20. The use of goat grazing to biologically suppress perennial pepperweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is a creeping rooted exotic weed that has infested riparian areas, native hay meadows and agronomic fields throughout the western United States. Perennial pepperweed is a highly invasive weed that causes management and economic problems through the loss of...

  1. Degree of antioxidant protection: a parameter to trace the origin and quality of goat's milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Marconi, S; Fedele, V; Claps, S; Rubino, R

    2007-10-01

    Traceability is an essential tool in reassuring consumers and traders that food is as safe, authentic, and of good quality as expected. Today, food traceability procedures often consist of attached documents and declarations, but scientific parameters that could objectively identify a product would be preferable. Scientific efforts in this area are mostly focused on selection and validation of experimental indicators that would be useful for tracing a food product in any step of its commercial life, describing its raw materials, processing procedures, and storage conditions. In this research, milk and cheese samples from zero grazing and grazing goats were studied to identify a tracing parameter correlated to the feeding system. In particular, alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol were analyzed by HPLC on a normal phase column and were combined to calculate the degree of antioxidant protection (DAP). This parameter, expressed as the molar ratio between antioxidant compounds and an oxidation target, is useful for tracing and distinguishing products from grazing and zero-grazing animals. Degree of antioxidant protection values greater than 7.0 x 10(-3) were found in samples from grazing goats and values lower than 7.0 x 10(-3) were found in samples from zero-grazing goats, for both milk and cheese, meaning that cholesterol was highly protected against oxidative reactions when herbage was the only feed or was dominant in the goat diet. The reliability of DAP to measure the antioxidant protection of cholesterol appeared more effective when the feeding system was based on grazing than when cut herbage was utilized indoors by animals. The DAP index was able to distinguish dairy products when the grazed herbage in the goats' diet exceeded 15%.

  2. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  3. Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and k...

  4. Neonate behavior in goats is affected by maternal ingestion of Ipomoea carnea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and kids of prena...

  5. One seed juniper intake by sheep and goats supplemented with degradable or by-pass protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful prescribed grazing of one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) with sheep and goats may depend on identifying times of the year when juniper terpenoid levels are less likely to deter herbivory and could be contingent on the use of protein supplements to help animals detoxify ...

  6. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services.

  7. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  8. Grazing: the whole picture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

  9. Discontinuous dynamics with grazing points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.; Kıvılcım, A.

    2016-09-01

    Discontinuous dynamical systems with grazing solutions are discussed. The group property, continuation of solutions, continuity and smoothness of solutions are thoroughly analyzed. A variational system around a grazing solution which depends on near solutions is constructed. Orbital stability of grazing cycles is examined by linearization. Small parameter method is extended for analysis of grazing orbits, and bifurcation of cycles is observed in an example. Linearization around an equilibrium grazing point is discussed. The results can be extended on functional differential equations, partial differential equations and others. Appropriate illustrations are depicted to support the theoretical results.

  10. Grazing Land Management Strongly Controls Water Quality, Sediment and Channel Dynamics in Tallgrass Prairie Headwater Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, B. G.; Daniels, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the prairie remnants of North America, watershed sediment regimes are heavily influenced by livestock grazing practices. Despite dramatic declines in stream water quality and ecosystem function concomitant with increasing gazing pressures, there have been no studies to quantitatively assess the relationship between various grazing treatments and sediment production in natural grassland ecosystems. In this study, we evaluate suspended sediment transport and channel morphology in the Flint Hills physiographic province using a paired whole-watershed approach, including 2 replicates of high density cattle grazing, 2 replicates of low density cattle grazing, 3 replicates of bison grazing and 3 replicates of no grazing. As expected, results demonstrate that cattle grazing operations increase e-coli, sediment concentrations and increase channel width. However, no significant differences in e-coli, suspended sediment dynamics or channel geomorphology were found between bison grazed and ungrazed watersheds.

  11. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  12. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  13. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  14. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  15. Quantitative exploration of the contribution of settlement, growth, dispersal and grazing to the accumulation of natural marine biofilms on antifouling and fouling-release coatings

    PubMed Central

    Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Hmelo, Laura R.; Fredricks, Helen F.; Ossolinski, Justin E.; Pedler, Byron E.; Bogorff, Daniel J.; Smith, Peter J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of microbial biofilms on ships' hulls negatively affects ships' performance and efficiency while also moderating the establishment of even more detrimental hard-fouling communities. However, there is little quantitative information on how the accumulation rate of microbial biofilms is impacted by the balance of the rates of cell settlement, in situ production (ie growth), dispersal to surrounding waters and mortality induced by grazers. These rates were quantified on test panels coated with copper-based antifouling or polymer-based fouling-release coatings by using phospholipids as molecular proxies for microbial biomass. The results confirmed the accepted modes of efficacy of these two types of coatings. In a more extensive set of experiments with only the fouling-release coatings, it was found that seasonally averaged cellular production rates were 1.5 ± 0.5 times greater than settlement and the dispersal rates were 2.7 ± 0.8 greater than grazing. The results of this study quantitatively describe the dynamic balance of processes leading to microbial biofilm accumulation on coatings designed for ships' hulls. PMID:24417212

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  17. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Wild Herbivore Grazing Enhances Insect Diversity over Livestock Grazing in an African Grassland System

    PubMed Central

    Roets, Francois; Samways, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa’s grassland biodiversity is threatened by habitat transformation such as commercial forestry. Ecological networks (ENs) have been instigated to alleviate the pressure of habitat transformation on local biodiversity. ENs are large scale webs of corridors and patches of natural vegetation criss-crossing production landscapes that can simulate conditions in protected areas (PAs). Many ENs have lost many native large mammal species, which have been replaced by domestic livestock to retain natural grazing dynamics, which could have an impact on the long-term value of ENs for insects. Here we compared dung beetle, butterfly and grasshopper diversity in ENs across a landscape mosaic of timber plantations, where 1) wild megaherbivores were maintained, 2) in ENs where these herbivores were replaced by livestock and, 3) in a nearby World Heritage PA which retained its natural complement of megaherbivores. Sites in the PA far from any plantation were similar in composition to those in the wild grazed EN. Presence of the wild grazers improved the alpha- and beta-diversity of all focal insect taxa when compared to domestic grazing. Furthermore, species composition shows significant differences between the two grazing systems indicating that an assemblage of native large mammals facilitates insect diversity conservation. We support the maintenance or introduction of large native mammals in ENs or similar conservation areas in production landscapes to simulate the ecological conditions and natural heterogeneity in nearby PAs. PMID:27783685

  19. Susceptibility of goats and calves after experimental inoculation or contact exposure to a Canadian strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides isolated from a goat.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S

    1983-01-01

    Transmissibility of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection from experimentally inoculated goats to other goats and calves was studied. Eight goats and six calves were housed in an 18 m2 room. Six of the goats were inoculated endobronchially with strain D44 isolated from a natural case of polyarthritis in Ontario. These six goats died within a week of Mycoplasma septicemia. The two contact goats or the six calves never showed signs of disease and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered from these animals. The contact goats and four calves were killed 25 days after exposure. They were all seronegative, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered at necropsy and none had pathomorphological changes attributable to this Mycoplasma. The two remaining calves were inoculated endobronchially with 10(9) CFU of strain D44 and observed for 20 days. They never showed signs of disease and did not have significant lesions at necropsy. Both developed a significant serological response to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, although this organism was not recovered during the experimental period or at necropsy. This study did not provide evidence for transmission of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from endobronchially inoculated goats to contact goats or calves and endobronchially inoculated calves did not develop pneumonia. This would suggest that the infection of the goat population in Canada with this pathogen would not be a significant threat to the cattle population. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6365296

  20. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  1. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing... residency on the New Lands Range Unit of permit issue, and (4) Own livestock which graze on the range...

  2. Fire management in fens and wet grasslands grazed by cattle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Managers grapple with the problem of shrub invasion in fens and wet grasslands, and the invasion of shrubs is a particular problem in newly acquired natural areas that were once grazed by cattle. The specific management for any particular fen or wet grassland depends greatly on its previous land-use history. Managers should have a clear understanding of the grazing and drainage history of newly acquired fens and wet grasslands so that well-informed management decisions can be made.

  3. Adaptive grazing management experiment: The new frontier of grazing management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment at the USDA-ARS Central Plains Experimental Range addresses important gaps in our current understanding of grazing management including: 1) lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions, 2) need for mana...

  4. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  5. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  6. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seastedt, T. R.; Dyer, M. I.; Turner, Clarence L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables.

  7. Simulating rotational grazing management.

    PubMed

    Cros, M J; Duru, M; Garcia, F; Martin-Clouaire, R

    2001-09-01

    Dairy systems predominantly based on rotational grazing are notoriously hard to manage. In order to ensure profitability, this type of production requires quite good organisation, planning, and operating capability on the part of the farmer. A simulation-based decision support system, called SEPATOU, has been developed for this purpose. At the core of the decision support approach lies an explicit and rigorous modelling of the management strategy that underlies a dairy farmer's decision-making behaviour (real or hypothetical). The SEPATOU system is a discrete-event simulator that reproduces the day-to-day dynamics of the farmer's decision process and the response of the controlled biophysical system for which models of grass growth, animal consumption, and milk production are used. SEPATOU provides the means to evaluate and compare tentative strategies by simulating their application throughout the production season under different hypothetical weather conditions. The relative worth of a strategy can be assessed by analysing the effects on the biophysical system and their variability across the representative range of possible conditions that is considered. The activities to be managed concern the type and amount of conserved feed, where to fertilise and how much, the choice of fields to harvest, and most importantly, which field to graze next. Typically, SEPATOU is designed to be used by extension services and farming system scientists. It is implemented in C++ and is currently undergoing a validation process with the intended users. PMID:11697661

  8. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  9. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  10. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  11. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  12. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  13. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  14. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior and diet selection of grazing ruminants can be influenced by a lot of factors. Firstly, they learn from their dams. Secondly, they learn from peers. Thirdly, they learn by trial and error. Work at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ‘ruminal fill’, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect gr...

  15. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  16. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    PubMed

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  17. Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation.

    PubMed

    Kiskini, A; Difilippo, E

    2013-11-03

    Oligosaccharides have been widely recognized for their prebiotic and anti-infective properties. Among the different types of mammalian milk, the one of humans is the richest source of naturally derived oligosaccharides. However, their use as a basis for functional foods is hampered, due to their structural complexity, which in turn makes their re-synthesis extremely difficult. Thus, oligosaccharides from other sources have to be used. In this sense, goat milk constitutes a very appealing candidate, as it contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, while goat milk oligosaccharides show significant similarities to human milk oligosaccharides from a structural point of view. Studies on goat milk oligosaccharides are scant, and more data is required in order to provide solid clinical evidence of their beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this review is to collect and present the main research findings on goat milk oligosaccharides structure, health effects and isolation.

  18. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization

  19. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization

  20. Impact of zooplankton grazing on Alexandrium blooms in the offshore Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.; Borkman, David G.

    2005-09-01

    Zooplankton grazing was investigated by shipboard experiments during natural blooms of Alexandrium spp. in the offshore Gulf of Maine in spring and/or summer of 1998, 2000, and 2001. Grazing studies were done in conjunction with studies of accumulation of Alexandrium toxins in the zooplankton, as part of the ECOHAB-Gulf of Maine regional program. Several species of copepods, marine cladocerans, and appendicularians were allowed to graze upon natural phytoplankton assemblages, at ambient temperatures (14-17 °C). Grazing was measured by quantitative microscopic analyses of disappearance of phytoplankton cells in initial, control, and experimental food suspensions. Thus, we were able to examine grazing upon Alexandrium in comparison to grazing on other co-occurring phytoplankton taxa. Even during Alexandrium "blooms," this dinoflagellate was a minor component of the overall phytoplankton assemblage. It was present at stations where grazing experiments were conducted at levels of 0.12-7.57×10 3 cells l -1, or 0.03-3.93% of total phytoplankton cells. Maximum ingestion of Alexandrium accounted for only up to 3.2% of total cells ingested. Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by athecate microflagellates, and to a lesser extent by diatoms and non-toxic dinoflagellates. Microflagellates were present at abundances of 159.62-793.93 cells ml -1, or 60.6-95.56% of total cells. Grazing on microflagellates accounted for 35.59-98.21% of total grazing. Grazing on Alexandrium spp. and microflagellates was generally non-selective, with these taxa being ingested in similar proportions to their availability in food assemblages. Grazing on diatoms was selective, with diatoms being disproportionately ingested, compared to their proportions in food assemblages. There were no apparent adverse effects of Alexandrium on grazers during incubations of 18-24 h, and grazer survival was 100%. Estimated daily zooplankton grazing impact on Alexandrium spp. field populations by field

  1. Meat goat production and marketing.

    PubMed

    Glimp, H A

    1995-01-01

    Production opportunities, management strategies, and marketing options for meat goats in the United States are reviewed in this manuscript. The basis for any expansion must be goat production systems that are biologically and economically sustainable, meeting both producer and consumer needs. Meat goats historically have been kept for brush control. Their use to control noxious plants and in vegetation management will continue to be their primary role in the future. Meat goats are rarely the primary animal production enterprise in the United States, but they are becoming increasingly important contributors to the income of many producers. Meat goat marketing is highly unstructured in the United States, yet prices are generally higher on a per unit of weight basis than other red meat-producing species. Efforts to organize marketing have had only limited success. Over 90% of the world's goats are in developing countries. Goats are increasingly important in these countries as subsistence food producers. Production systems range from goats being a part of nomadic multispecies herds on arid desert rangelands, in agropastoral production systems, to goats being the primary animal enterprise in smallholder farming systems.

  2. Productive responses of breeding Cashmere goats and their kids to different stocking rates on improved upland pastures.

    PubMed

    Celaya, R; Moreno-Gonzalo, J; López López, C; Ferreira, L M M; García, U; Ferre, I; Osoro, K

    2016-03-01

    Although goat meat production could be an option for diversification in improved upland pastures in northern Spain, precise information on the optimal grazing management to enhance goat performance and maximize production per unit land area is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 stocking rates, high stocking rate (HSR; 20 goats/ha), medium stocking rate (MSR; 15 goats/ha), and low stocking rate (LSR; 10 goats/ha), on gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections and productive responses of Cashmere goats grazing such pastures. Treatments were replicated twice on 6 paddocks sown with and and with a high presence of the native grass . The experiment lasted 3 grazing seasons (from spring to autumn). Pastures were sampled for sward height and botanical and proximate composition. Body weight and BCS changes of goats were monitored and GI nematode infections were assessed by fecal egg counts (FEC). The established treatments resulted in lower mean sward height in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (9.6, 11.5, and 14.4 cm, respectively; < 0.001). Pasture botanical composition and nutritive quality did not differ between treatments. The mean FEC of does across the 3 grazing seasons were greater ( < 0.05) in the HSR than in the LSR. spp., , and were the most prevalent nematode species identified in coprocultures. Does showed more favorable ( < 0.001) BW and BCS changes in the LSR than in the MSR and HSR (-14, -30, and -52 g/d and -0.1, -0.3, and -0.7 BCS units [scale 1 to 5], respectively). Greater ( < 0.001) kids' BW gains were observed in the LSR and MSR (average 94 g/d) compared with the HSR (70 g/d). Inversely, kid output per unit land area was greater in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (320, 258, and 192 kg∙ha∙yr, respectively; < 0.001), whereas daily kids' BW gains per hectare were greater ( < 0.001) in the HSR and MSR (average 1.37 kg∙d∙ha) compared with the LSR (0.98 kg∙d∙ha). A medium stocking rate of 15 goats/ha could

  3. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  4. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  5. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  6. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized...

  7. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  8. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  9. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 5 loci breed combinations. The DA measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest distance was between Marwari and Sirohi (0.135). The highest distance was between Pashmina and Black Bengal. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that 6.59% of variance exists among the Indian goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  10. Physiological and behavioral reactions elicited by simulated and real-life visual and acoustic helicopter stimuli in dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports and a few scientific publications suggest that flyovers of helicopters at low altitude may elicit fear- or anxiety-related behavioral reactions in grazing feral and farm animals. We investigated the behavioral and physiological stress reactions of five individually housed dairy goats to different acoustic and visual stimuli from helicopters and to combinations of these stimuli under controlled environmental (indoor) conditions. The visual stimuli were helicopter animations projected on a large screen in front of the enclosures of the goats. Acoustic and visual stimuli of a tractor were also presented. On the final day of the study the goats were exposed to two flyovers (altitude 50 m and 75 m) of a Chinook helicopter while grazing in a pasture. Salivary cortisol, behavior, and heart rate of the goats were registered before, during and after stimulus presentations. Results The goats reacted alert to the visual and/or acoustic stimuli that were presented in their room. They raised their heads and turned their ears forward in the direction of the stimuli. There was no statistically reliable rise of the average velocity of moving of the goats in their enclosure and no increase of the duration of moving during presentation of the stimuli. Also there was no increase in heart rate or salivary cortisol concentration during the indoor test sessions. Surprisingly, no physiological and behavioral stress responses were observed during the flyover of a Chinook at 50 m, which produced a peak noise of 110 dB. Conclusions We conclude that the behavior and physiology of goats are unaffected by brief episodes of intense, adverse visual and acoustic stimulation such as the sight and noise of overflying helicopters. The absence of a physiological stress response and of elevated emotional reactivity of goats subjected to helicopter stimuli is discussed in relation to the design and testing schedule of this study. PMID:21496239

  11. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Instability of development and fractal architecture in dryland plants as an index of grazing pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.; Wachocki, B.; Freeman, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental instability has been used to monitor the well-being of natural populations exposed to physical, chemical and biological stressors. Here, we use developmental instability to assess the impact of grazing on Chrysothamnus greenii and Seriphidium novumshrubs, and Oryzopsis hymenoidesgrass, common in the arid intermountain west of the U.S.A. Statistical noise in allometric relations was used as an indicator of developmental instability arising from grazing-induced stress. Unpalatable species that are not grazed (Chrysothamnus greenii) or species that are dormant during the winter–spring grazing period (Oryzopsis hymenoides) show lower allometric variability under high grazing pressure. Palatable species (Seriphidium novum) exhibit high developmental instability under low and high grazing pressure. Grazing pressure imposed by presumably co-adapted wild herbivores enhances developmental stability in species habituated to moderate grazing, likeOryzopsis hymenoides, but stresses plants such as Chrysothamnus greenii that prefer disturbed environments. These grazing effects are probably due to the impact grazing has on competitive relationships and not to the direct action of the herbivore on the plants.

  13. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks.

  14. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  15. Cutaneous pythiosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; Silva, T R; Oliveira-Filho, J C; Riet-Correa, F

    2015-01-01

    Pythiosis is reported for the first time in a goat. The affected goat had daily access to an aquatic environment and had developed an ulcerative lesion on the skin of the left hindlimb. Microscopically, there were dermal pyogranulomas with 'negatively stained' hyphae, which were identified immunohistochemically as Pythium insidiosum. PMID:25555632

  16. The on-ranch economics of riparian zone cattle grazing management.

    PubMed

    Unterschultz, James R; Miller, Jamie; Boxall, Peter C

    2004-05-01

    A simulation model of a cattle ranch based in southern Alberta, Canada was developed to evaluate the on-ranch economics of adopting different grazing management strategies to improve riparian grazing capacity in natural grass rangeland. Under low-cost scenarios, there are positive economic incentives to adopt strategies to maintain riparian zones that already have high grazing capacity. However, riparian zones that have declined to moderate or low grazing capacity may require additional economic incentives to encourage ranches to adopt more costly management strategies to improve the grazing capacity. The economic incentives to adopt costly management strategies are highly sensitive to the size and shape of the riparian zone and rates of grazing capacity decline or improvement.

  17. Impact of cattle grazing on the occupancy of a cryptic, threatened rail.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Orien M W; Tecklin, Jerry; Beissinger, Steven R

    2012-07-01

    Impacts of livestock grazing in arid and semiarid environments are often concentrated in and around wetlands where animals congregate for water, cooler temperatures, and green forage. We assessed the impacts of winter-spring (November-May) cattle grazing on marsh vegetation cover and occupancy of a highly secretive marsh bird that relies on dense vegetation cover, the California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus), in the northern Sierra Nevada foothills of California, U.S.A. Using detection-nondetection data collected during repeated call playback surveys at grazed vs. ungrazed marshes and a "random changes in occupancy" parameterization of a multi-season occupancy model, we examined relationships between occupancy and habitat covariates, while accounting for imperfect detection. Marsh vegetation cover was significantly lower at grazed marshes than at ungrazed marshes during the grazing season in 2007 but not in 2008. Winter-spring grazing had little effect on Black Rail occupancy at irrigated marshes. However, at nonirrigated marshes fed by natural springs and streams, grazed sites had lower occupancy than ungrazed sites. Black Rail occupancy was positively associated with marsh area, irrigation as a water source, and summer vegetation cover, and negatively associated with marsh isolation. Residual dry matter (RDM), a commonly used metric of grazing intensity, was significantly associated with summer marsh vegetation cover at grazed sites but not spring cover. Direct monitoring of marsh vegetation cover, particularly at natural spring- or stream-fed marshes, is recommended to prevent negative impacts to rails from overgrazing. PMID:22908720

  18. Impact of cattle grazing on the occupancy of a cryptic, threatened rail.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Orien M W; Tecklin, Jerry; Beissinger, Steven R

    2012-07-01

    Impacts of livestock grazing in arid and semiarid environments are often concentrated in and around wetlands where animals congregate for water, cooler temperatures, and green forage. We assessed the impacts of winter-spring (November-May) cattle grazing on marsh vegetation cover and occupancy of a highly secretive marsh bird that relies on dense vegetation cover, the California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus), in the northern Sierra Nevada foothills of California, U.S.A. Using detection-nondetection data collected during repeated call playback surveys at grazed vs. ungrazed marshes and a "random changes in occupancy" parameterization of a multi-season occupancy model, we examined relationships between occupancy and habitat covariates, while accounting for imperfect detection. Marsh vegetation cover was significantly lower at grazed marshes than at ungrazed marshes during the grazing season in 2007 but not in 2008. Winter-spring grazing had little effect on Black Rail occupancy at irrigated marshes. However, at nonirrigated marshes fed by natural springs and streams, grazed sites had lower occupancy than ungrazed sites. Black Rail occupancy was positively associated with marsh area, irrigation as a water source, and summer vegetation cover, and negatively associated with marsh isolation. Residual dry matter (RDM), a commonly used metric of grazing intensity, was significantly associated with summer marsh vegetation cover at grazed sites but not spring cover. Direct monitoring of marsh vegetation cover, particularly at natural spring- or stream-fed marshes, is recommended to prevent negative impacts to rails from overgrazing.

  19. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  20. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  1. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  2. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  3. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  4. China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Song, Yang; Gulledge, Jay; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Sheng; Han, Xing-Guo

    A budget for the methane (CH 4) cycle in the Xilin River basin of Inner Mongolia is presented. The annual CH 4 budget in this region depends primarily on the sum of atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils, emission from small wetlands, and emission from grazing ruminants (sheep, goats, and cattle). Flux rates for these processes were averaged over multiple years with differing summer rainfall. Although uplands constitute the vast majority of land area, they consume much less CH 4 per unit area than is emitted by wetlands and ruminants. Atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils was -3.3 and -4.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 in grazed and ungrazed areas, respectively. Average CH 4 emission was 791.0 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from wetlands and 8.6 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from ruminants. The basin area-weighted average of all three processes was 6.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1, indicating that ruminant production has converted this basin to a net source of atmospheric CH 4. The total CH 4 emission from the Xilin River basin was 7.29 Gg CH 4 y -1. The current grazing intensity is about eightfold higher than that which would result in a net zero CH 4 flux. Since grazing intensity has increased throughout western China, it is likely that ruminant production has converted China's grazed temperate grasslands to a net source of atmospheric CH 4 overall.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  6. [Environmental control of gastrointestinal strongylosis in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Garippa, G

    2006-09-01

    Gastrointestinal strongylosis are the dominant parasitic infections of sheep and goats. The successful control of these parasites cannot be done exclusively with anthelmintics, but the first step is an integrated program for environmental prophylaxis. The correct planning of the prophylaxis program has to be preceded by the analysis of the related problems: (1) the parasitological status of farm livestock; (2) knowledge of the farm management; (3) hydrogeological, pedological and climatic-environmental aspects. The environmental control strategies can be resumed as follows: avoiding animals from different farms to share the same pasture; avoiding animals of different age classes to graze together; parcel the pastures to permit a rational rotation; rotational grazing of pastures according to the seasonal development of parasites; stocking rate; young animals grazing ahead of the older animal ones; crop management practices (draining, ploughing, harrowing, scrub clearing, fertilizing, etc.). These measures make the habitat less suitable for the free-living stages of gastrointestinal strongyles, reducing the potential of infection of the same pastures. PMID:17176954

  7. The Impact of Livestock Grazing on US Rangeland Productive Capacity from 1981 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Kulawardhana, R. W.; Reeves, M. C.; Mitchell, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Humans have appropriated an estimated 20% of global net primary productivity (NPP) and 38% of this population is dependant on the $900 billion yr-1 in ecosystem services from drylands that cover 41% of the terrestrial surface. Commercial and subsistence livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) grazing is embedded in this appropriation and has been implicated in dryland degradation. However, the extent of dryland degradation is unknown with estimates ranging from 10 - 80%. As a solution to this problem, we derived rangeland above-ground biomass or the forage available for grazing from a 1981 - 2009 time-series of 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP and 8-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (AVHRR-GIMMS) annual summed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We derived the forage required by livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) at the county and state spatial scales from annual agricultural census records that were collected by the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS) from 1981 - 2009. We found that in 2002 US rangelands covered some 257 million ha and that grazing livestock reached 216 million tons of biomass appropriated though only an estimated 149 million tons were available in the US. Consequently, the percentage US rangeland impacted by livestock appropriation of NPP (distributed at the state spatial scale) was 19%. This hotspot was primarily located in southwestern Arizona.

  8. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    PubMed

    Török, Péter; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i) How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii) What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii) Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands) was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable livestock type.

  9. Impacts of rotational grazing and riparian buffers on physicochemical and biological characteristicsof southeastern Minnesota, USA, streams.

    PubMed

    Sovell, L A; Vondracek, B; Frost, J A; Mumford, K G

    2000-12-01

    We assessed the relationship between riparian management and stream quality along five southeastern Minnesota streams in 1995 and 1996. Specifically, we examined the effect of rotationally and continuously grazed pastures and different types of riparian buffer strips on water chemistry, physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish as indicators of stream quality. We collected data at 17 sites under different combinations of grazing and riparian management, using a longitudinal design on three streams and a paired watershed design on two others. Continuous and rotational grazing were compared along one longitudinal study stream and at the paired watershed. Riparian buffer management, fenced trees (wood buffer), fenced grass, and unfenced rotationally grazed areas were the focus along the two remaining longitudinal streams. Principal components analysis (PCA) of water chemistry, physical habitat, and biotic data indicated a local management effect. The ordinations separated continuous grazing from sites with rotational grazing and sites with wood buffers from those with grass buffers or rotationally grazed areas. Fecal coliform and turbidity were consistently higher at continuously grazed than rotationally grazed sites. Percent fines in the streambed were significantly higher at sites with wood buffers than grass and rotationally grazed areas, and canopy cover was similar at sites with wood and grass buffers. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics were significant but were not consistent across grazing and riparian buffer management types. Fish density and abundance were related to riparian buffer type, rather than grazing practices. Our study has potentially important implications for stream restoration programs in the midwestern United States. Our comparisons suggest further consideration and study of a combination of grass and wood riparian buffer strips as midwestern stream management options, rather than universally installing wood buffers in every instance

  10. Traditional Cattle Grazing in a Mosaic Alkali Landscape: Effects on Grassland Biodiversity along a Moisture Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Török, Péter; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i) How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii) What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii) Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands) was sampled from 2006–2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable livestock type

  11. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

  12. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  13. Vasoconstrictive responses by the carotid and auricular arteries in goats to ergot alkaloid exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of “Kentucky 31” tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E−) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E− and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E− seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 μg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E− treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their

  14. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  15. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of each kind of livestock which may be grazed on...

  16. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  17. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.

    PubMed

    Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  18. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  19. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  20. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  1. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  2. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.

  3. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination. PMID:27349114

  4. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing... drought of several years has not broken. The Navajo Tribe therefore requests that the matter...

  5. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing... drought of several years has not broken. The Navajo Tribe therefore requests that the matter...

  6. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing... drought of several years has not broken. The Navajo Tribe therefore requests that the matter...

  7. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing... drought of several years has not broken. The Navajo Tribe therefore requests that the matter...

  8. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  9. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  10. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  11. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  12. Evaluation of furazolidone, sulfadimidine and amprolium to treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Rashid, Ghazanfar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Nasir, Amar; Jahanzaib, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a protozoal and occasionally fatal diarrheic disease of goats imposing heavy economic losses to farming community. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium against coccidiosis in Beetal goats. Twenty-four (24) Beetal goats naturally infected with coccidiosis were randomly divided into four groups of 6 (A-D). Goats in groups A, B and C were treated orally with Furazolidone (10 mg/Kg), Sulfadimidine (100 mg/Kg) and Amprolium (55 mg/Kg), respectively for 7 days. Goats in-group D served as positive control. Oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces counts of individual goats in each group were performed on Days; 0 (pre-treatment) 7, 14 and 21 (post-treatment). OPG counts amongst goats in all groups at day 0 were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7, 14 and 21, OPG values decreased significantly (P<0.05) in groups A, B and C compared to group D. The efficacy of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium was 98.6, 98.0 and 99.6 percent, respectively on Day 21 (end of trial). Statistically, the efficacies of three drugs were not significantly different (P>0.05). In conclusion, Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium are well-tolerated and any one of these may be recommended to effectively treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats.

  13. Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study reports on mollusc grazing of two epiphytic cyanobacterial lichens (Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Lobaria pulmonaria) transplanted within three Picea abies-dominated boreal rain forest stands (clear-cut, young and old forests) in west central Norway. Grazing was particularly high in transplants located in the old forest and was almost absent in clear-cut transplants. Grazing marks were absent on natural thalli on nearby spruce twigs (required creeping distance for mollusc from the ground >4 m). Transplantation of lichens from twigs to artificial transplantation frames reduced the creeping distance to 1.2 m, and caused a significant increase in grazing damage in P. crocata. Given a paired choice under transplantation, molluscs consistently preferred P. crocata and avoided L. pulmonaria, implying species-specific differences in herbivore defence. Pseudocyphellaria crocata has a much lower content of the medullary depsidones stictic and constictic acid than L. pulmonaria. Heavy grazing occurred in the P. crocata thalli lowest in these two depsidones. The upper part of the medulla hosting the photobiont was the preferred fodder for grazing molluscs. Molluscs avoided the yellow soralia in P. crocata (localised pulvinic acid), suggesting a role for pulvinic acid in preventing grazing of detached soredia and early establishment stages. The preference of P. crocata for thin spruce twigs is probably a result of a lower grazing pressure on twigs compared to e.g. deciduous stems that frequently support the better defended L. pulmonaria. Ongoing climate changes with increased annual rainfall and milder winters have presumably increased mollusc grazing, particularly in SW parts of Norway which have more species of lichen-feeding molluscs than the boreal sites studied. These temperate areas lacking natural spruce populations have recently experienced reported extinctions of the poorly defended P. crocata from rocks and deciduous stems prone to mollusc grazing. Lichen

  14. Fecal coliform concentrations in runoff from a grazed, reclaimed surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.G.; Perry, H.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relatively scarcity of flat or moderately sloping land in Central Appalachia make reclaimed surface mined lands attractive for agricultural uses. A reclaimed surface coal mine in southern West Virginia was placed under grazing management during the 1984 and 1985 grown seasons. Discharge was collected from summer-grazed watersheds of about 2.8 ha and 8.9 ha and analyzed, by the membrane-filtration method, for fecal coliforms (FC). Prior to grazing in 1984, FC counts were < 200/100 ml. During the grazing season, FC ranged from < 0/100 ml to > 1000/100 ml in 1984 and from 0/100 ml to > 2500/100 ml in 1985. FC counts remained high during warm periods for several months after grazing ceased. It was concluded that the bacteriological quality of receiving streams was impacted by grazing the reclaimed area and recommended standards for point sources were often exceeded; however, the FC counts did not appear to be any greater than what would have been expected from grazed, undisturbed areas. Reclaimed surface mines areas in Appalachia have the potential to be a valuable flat land resource and grazing appears to be an alternative post mine land use that affects bacteriological water quality in a similar manner as natural pastures. However, good management practices may be necessary to avoid bacterial contamination of adjacent bodies of water.

  15. Using Social Media to Discover Public Values, Interests, and Perceptions about Cattle Grazing on Park Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Sheila J.

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, FlickrTM that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  16. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  17. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J; Ellis, Roger P; Grant, Cornelia C; Kruger, Fred J; Kruger, Laurence M; Moxley, Courtney; Owen-Smith, Norman; Peel, Mike J S; Smit, Izak P J; Vickers, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    Grazing lawns are a distinct grassland community type, characterised by short-stature and with their persistence and spread promoted by grazing. In Africa, they reveal a long co-evolutionary history of grasses and large mammal grazers. The attractiveness to grazers of a low-biomass sward lies in the relatively high quality of forage, largely due to the low proportion of stem material in the sward; this encourages repeat grazing that concomitantly suppresses tall-grass growth forms that would otherwise outcompete lawn species for light. Regular grazing that prevents shading and maintains sward quality is thus the cornerstone of grazing lawn dynamics. The strong interplay between abiotic conditions and disturbance factors, which are central to grazing lawn existence, can also cause these systems to be highly dynamic. Here we identify differences in growth form among grazing lawn grass species, and assess how compositional differences among lawn types, as well as environmental variables, influence their maintenance requirements (i.e. grazing frequency) and vulnerability to degradation. We also make a clear distinction between the processes of lawn establishment and lawn maintenance. Rainfall, soil nutrient status, grazer community composition and fire regime have strong and interactive influences on both processes. However, factors that concentrate grazing pressure (e.g. nutrient hotspots and sodic sites) have more bearing on where lawns establish. Similarly, we discuss the relevance of enhanced rates of nitrogen cycling and of sodium levels to lawn maintenance. Grazer community composition and density has considerable significance to grazing lawn dynamics; not all grazers are adapted to foraging on short-grass swards, and differences in body size and relative mouth dimensions determine which species are able to convert tall-grass swards into grazing lawns under different conditions. Hence, we evaluate the roles of different grazers in lawn dynamics, as well as the

  18. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J; Ellis, Roger P; Grant, Cornelia C; Kruger, Fred J; Kruger, Laurence M; Moxley, Courtney; Owen-Smith, Norman; Peel, Mike J S; Smit, Izak P J; Vickers, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    Grazing lawns are a distinct grassland community type, characterised by short-stature and with their persistence and spread promoted by grazing. In Africa, they reveal a long co-evolutionary history of grasses and large mammal grazers. The attractiveness to grazers of a low-biomass sward lies in the relatively high quality of forage, largely due to the low proportion of stem material in the sward; this encourages repeat grazing that concomitantly suppresses tall-grass growth forms that would otherwise outcompete lawn species for light. Regular grazing that prevents shading and maintains sward quality is thus the cornerstone of grazing lawn dynamics. The strong interplay between abiotic conditions and disturbance factors, which are central to grazing lawn existence, can also cause these systems to be highly dynamic. Here we identify differences in growth form among grazing lawn grass species, and assess how compositional differences among lawn types, as well as environmental variables, influence their maintenance requirements (i.e. grazing frequency) and vulnerability to degradation. We also make a clear distinction between the processes of lawn establishment and lawn maintenance. Rainfall, soil nutrient status, grazer community composition and fire regime have strong and interactive influences on both processes. However, factors that concentrate grazing pressure (e.g. nutrient hotspots and sodic sites) have more bearing on where lawns establish. Similarly, we discuss the relevance of enhanced rates of nitrogen cycling and of sodium levels to lawn maintenance. Grazer community composition and density has considerable significance to grazing lawn dynamics; not all grazers are adapted to foraging on short-grass swards, and differences in body size and relative mouth dimensions determine which species are able to convert tall-grass swards into grazing lawns under different conditions. Hence, we evaluate the roles of different grazers in lawn dynamics, as well as the

  19. Importance of intense male sexual behavior for inducing the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory female goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alfaro, J C; Hernández, H; Flores, J A; Duarte, G; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Fernández, I G; Bedos, M; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A; Vielma, J

    2014-10-15

    The present study was carried out to determine whether the presence of photostimulated sedated male goats could stimulate the LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonal anestrous goats. Sexually experienced male goats were treated with artificial long days (16 hours light per day) from 1 November to 15 January to stimulate their sexual activity in March and April, corresponding to the natural sexual rest. A female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to non-sedated males who displayed an intense sexual behavior and provided strong odor (non-sedated group). Another female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to the photo-stimulated male goats, but these males were sedated with Xylazine 2% to prevent the expression of sexual behavior (sedated group). The sedated males also provided a strong odor. Females of both groups had full physical and visual contact with non-sedated or sedated males. In both groups, the males remained with females during 4 days. The LH preovulatory surge of 10 female goats per group was measured by determination of LH plasma concentrations in samples taken every 3 hours. In addition, in all goats, (n=20 by group), ovulation was determined by measuring plasma concentrations of progesterone. The proportion of female goats showing a preovulatory LH surge was higher in goats exposed to non-sedated (10/10) than in those exposed to sedated bucks (0/10; P<0.0001). Similarly, most of does in contact with non-sedated males ovulated (19/20), but none of those in contact with sedated males did so (0/20; P<0.0001). We conclude that the expression of an intense sexual behavior by male goats is necessary to induce LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory goats.

  20. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  1. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Assadullah; Ababneh, M. MK.; Giadinis, N. D.; Lafi, S. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats) during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9%) biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188 = 45.7%). Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711) primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188) among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR = 2.92, CI: 1.1–7.7) and grazing at common pasture (OR = 2.78, CI: 1.05–7.36) were statistically significant (P ≤ .05) risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks. PMID:21052561

  2. Changes in Semi-Arid Plant Species Associations along a Livestock Grazing Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, vegetation is heterogeneously distributed, with plant species often associating in patches. These associations between species are not constant, but depend on the particular response of each species to environmental factors. Here, we investigated how plant species associations change in response to livestock grazing in a semi-arid ecosystem, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in South East Spain. We established linear point-intercept transects at four sites with different grazing intensity, and recorded all species at each point. We investigated plant associations by comparing the number of times that each pair of species occurred at the same spatial point (co-occurrences), with the expected number of times based on species abundances. We also assessed associations for each shrub and grass species by considering all their pairs of associations and for the whole plant community by considering all pairs of associations on each site. At all sites, the plant community had a negative pattern of association, with fewer co-occurrences than expected. Negative association in the plant community increased at maximum grazing intensity. Most species associated as expected, particularly grass species, and positive associations were most important at intermediate grazing intensities. No species changed its type of association along the grazing gradient. We conclude that in the present plant community, grazing-resistant species compete among themselves and segregate in space. Some shrub species act as refuges for grazing-sensitive species that benefit from being spatially associated with shrub species, particularly at intermediate grazing intensities where positive associations were highest. At high grazing intensity, these shrubs can no longer persist and positive associations decrease due to the disappearance of refuges. Spatial associations between plant species and their response to grazing help identify the factors that organize plant communities, and

  3. GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding.

    PubMed

    Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding.

  4. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  5. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  6. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  7. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  8. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The... their habitats; public outdoor recreation; conservation of scenic, wilderness, and scientific...

  9. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  10. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  11. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  12. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (P<0.05) and carcass weight (P=0.10) were greater when goats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA.

  13. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (P<0.05) and carcass weight (P=0.10) were greater when goats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. PMID:25817803

  14. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  15. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease.

  16. Grazing rates and functional diversity of uncultured heterotrophic flagellates.

    PubMed

    Massana, Ramon; Unrein, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Raquel; Forn, Irene; Lefort, Thomas; Pinhassi, Jarone; Not, Fabrice

    2009-05-01

    Aquatic assemblages of heterotrophic protists are very diverse and formed primarily by organisms that remain uncultured. Thus, a critical issue is assigning a functional role to this unknown biota. Here we measured grazing rates of uncultured protists in natural assemblages (detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)), and investigated their prey preference over several bacterial tracers in short-term ingestion experiments. These included fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) and two strains of the Roseobacter lineage and the family Flavobacteriaceae, of various cell sizes, which were offered alive and detected by catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH after the ingestion. We obtained grazing rates of the globally distributed and uncultured marine stramenopiles groups 4 and 1 (MAST-4 and MAST-1C) flagellates. Using FLB, the grazing rate of MAST-4 was somewhat lower than whole community rates, consistent with its small size. MAST-4 preferred live bacteria, and clearance rates with these tracers were up to 2 nl per predator per h. On the other hand, grazing rates of MAST-1C differed strongly depending on the tracer prey used, and these differences could not be explained by cell viability. Highest rates were obtained using FLB whereas the flavobacteria strain was hardly ingested. Possible explanations would be that the small flavobacteria cells were outside the effective size range of edible prey, or that MAST-1C selects against this particular strain. Our original dual FISH protocol applied to grazing experiments reveals important functional differences between distinct uncultured protists and offers the possibility to disentangle the complexity of microbial food webs.

  17. Grazed Riparian Management and Stream Channel Response in Southeastern Minnesota (USA) Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, Joseph A.; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N.

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response.

  18. Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magner, J.A.; Vondracek, B.; Brooks, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams.

    PubMed

    Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response.

  20. Protistan grazing in a meromictic freshwater lake with anoxic bottom water.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Andreas; Pachiadaki, Maria; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Phagotrophic protists are an important mortality factor of prokaryotes in most aquatic habitats. However, no study has assessed protistan grazing as loss factor of bacterial biomass across the stratification gradient of a temperate freshwater meromictic lake. Protistan grazing effect was quantified in the mixolimnion, the transition zone, and the sulfidic anoxic monimolimnion of Lake Alatsee (Germany). Grazing experiments were performed using prey analogues from the natural prokaryotic assemblage. Daily grazing effect declined from the mixolimnion to the monimolimnion. Heterotrophic flagellates were phagotrophically active in all three water horizons and the main grazers in the monimolimnion. Pigmented flagellates accounted for 70% of total grazing in the mixolimnion and ciliates only for a small fraction of grazing in each depth. Prokaryotic biomass removal peaked in the interface, but protistan impact on the respective prokaryotic abundance was low. Grazing in the anoxic monimolimnion was negligible, with prokaryotic turnover rate being only 0.4% of standing stock. Our results support the assumption that protistan predation in anoxic waters is lower than in oxygenated ones and identify the interface as a microhabitat that supports high grazer biomass, pinpointing the importance of purple sulfur bacteria as carbon source for the upper mixolimnion and the bottom monimolimnion.

  1. MEASURING INVERTEBRATE GRAZING ON SEAGRASSES AND EPIPHYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes methods to assess grazing rates, grazer preferences, and grazer impacts, by mobile organisms living in the canopy or in the rhizome layer in any seagrass system. One set of methods quantifies grazing activity in small to medium sized, mobile organisms livin...

  2. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees...

  3. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees...

  4. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees...

  5. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees...

  6. DMSP and DMS dynamics and microzooplankton grazing in the Labrador Sea: application of the dilution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Levasseur, Maurice; Cantin, Guy; Michaud, Sonia

    2000-12-01

    We adapted the dilution technique to study microzooplankton grazing of algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) vs. Chl a, and to estimate the impact of microzooplankton grazing on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Labrador Sea. Phytoplankton numbers were dominated by autotrophic nanoflagellates in the Labrador basin, but diatoms and colonial Phaeocystis pouchetii contributed significantly to phytomass at several high chlorophyll stations and on the Newfoundland and Greenland shelfs. Throughout the region, growth of algal Chl a and DMSP was generally high (0.2-1 d -1), but grazing rates were lower and more variable, characteristic of the early spring bloom period. Production and consumption of Chl a vs. DMSP followed no clear pattern, and sometimes diverged greatly, likely because of their differing distributions among algal prey taxa and size class. In several experiments where Phaeocystis was abundant, we observed DMS production proportional to grazing rate, and we found clear evidence of DMS production by this haptophyte following physical stress such as sparging or filtration. It is possible that grazing-activated DMSP cleavage by Phaeocystis contributes to grazer deterrence: protozoa and copepods apparently avoided healthy colonies (as judged by relative growth and grazing rates of Chl a and DMSP), and grazing of Phaeocystis was significant only at one station where cells were in poor condition. Although we hoped to examine selective grazing on or against DMSP-containing algal prey, the dilution technique cannot differentiate selective ingestion and varying digestion rates of Chl a and DMSP. We also found that the dilution method alone was poorly suited for assessing the impact of grazing on dissolved sulfur pools, because of rapid microbial consumption and the artifactual release of DMSP and DMS during filtration. Measuring and understanding the many processes affecting organosulfur cycling by the microbial food web in natural populations remain a

  7. Soil organic carbon responses to grazing and woody plant encroachment in a semi-desert grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, H. L.; Archer, S. R.; McClaran, M.; Ojima, D.; Keough, C.; Parton, W.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of carbon (C) in grassland and savanna ecosystems is belowground. Recent estimates suggest the historic and ongoing proliferation of woody plants in these systems may account for a significant fraction of the Northern Hemisphere carbon (C) sink. A large degree of uncertainty in the direction and magnitude of soil C pool response to woody encroachment exists, however. Soil organic C (SOC) response to woody encroachment may be modified by current and historical land management patterns, but the nature of these relationships is poorly understood. We used CENTURY, a process-based ecosystem model, to explore historical patterns and project future changes in SOC in response to Prosopis velutina encroachment and livestock grazing in a southern Arizona semi-desert grassland. We parameterized and adapted CENTURY for our study site using woody and herbaceous biomass data and P. velutina growth rate estimates. Modeled contemporary SOC levels were +/- 15% of measured levels. Simulations of historical grazing management suggest that grassland SOC dropped nearly 50% (from 1020 to 530 g C m-2) in response to heavy, continuous livestock grazing initiated around 1850. SOC recovery varied with the degree of relaxation of grazing intensity, with nearly full recovery occurring in areas where grazing was excluded between 1903 and 2005 (modeled SOC = 930 g C m-2 in 2005). Woody encroachment, beginning around 1900, had a strong positive influence on modeled SOC, with the greatest accumulations associated with plants greater than 60 years old. Grazing mediated this response, such that sub-canopy SOC in grazed areas was 200-300 g C m-2 less than that in ungrazed areas. Forward simulations suggest that SOC will continue to increase until woody plant stands reach ca. 130 years of age, at which point SOC will stabilize around 3300 g C m^{- 2} for grazed sites and 3000 g C m-2 for ungrazed sites. Results indicate that woody plant encroachment has strong positive influence on SOC

  8. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level.

  9. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, W.; Stewart, P.; Konold, T.; Street, S.; Langeveld, J.; Windl, O.; Ortiz-Pelaez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. PMID:26755614

  10. Molecular characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Halima; Lababidi, Samer; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Baum, Michael; Tibbo, Markos

    2012-08-01

    Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats.

  11. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  12. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  13. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost.

  14. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide

  15. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  16. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide

  17. Generation of Five Human Lactoferrin Transgenic Cloned Goats Using Fibroblast Cells and Their Methylation Status of Putative Differential Methylation Regions of IGF2R and H19 Imprinted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF). However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR) pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R) of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future. PMID:24204972

  18. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  19. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  20. Characterization of an unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goat by transmission in knock-in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M

    2013-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.

  1. Habitat and Grazing Influence on Terrestrial Ants in Subtropical Grasslands and Savannas of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maintenance of species diversity in modified and natural habitats is a central focus of conservation biology. The Iberá Nature Reserve (INR) protects highly diverse ecosystems in northeastern Argentina, including one of the largest freshwater wetlands in South America. Livestock grazing is one o...

  2. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  3. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  4. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  5. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  6. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the...

  7. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the...

  8. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the...

  9. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the...

  10. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... of grazing land or pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the county for at least 8 consecutive weeks during the...

  11. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of grazing cattle movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of animal movement is significant for ecology and biology. Yet researchers have so far been unable to fully understand these drivers, largely due to low data resolution. In this study, we analyse a high-frequency movement dataset for a group of grazing cattle and investigate their spatiotemporal patterns using a simple two-state ‘stop-and-move’ mobility model. We find that the dispersal kernel in the moving state is best described by a mixture exponential distribution, indicating the hierarchical nature of the movement. On the other hand, the waiting time appears to be scale-invariant below a certain cut-off and is best described by a truncated power-law distribution, suggesting that the non-moving state is governed by time-varying dynamics. We explore possible explanations for the observed phenomena, covering factors that can play a role in the generation of mobility patterns, such as the context of grazing environment, the intrinsic decision-making mechanism or the energy status of different activities. In particular, we propose a new hypothesis that the underlying movement pattern can be attributed to the most probable observable energy status under the maximum entropy configuration. These results are not only valuable for modelling cattle movement but also provide new insights for understanding the underlying biological basis of grazing behaviour. PMID:27555220

  12. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of grazing cattle movement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of animal movement is significant for ecology and biology. Yet researchers have so far been unable to fully understand these drivers, largely due to low data resolution. In this study, we analyse a high-frequency movement dataset for a group of grazing cattle and investigate their spatiotemporal patterns using a simple two-state 'stop-and-move' mobility model. We find that the dispersal kernel in the moving state is best described by a mixture exponential distribution, indicating the hierarchical nature of the movement. On the other hand, the waiting time appears to be scale-invariant below a certain cut-off and is best described by a truncated power-law distribution, suggesting that the non-moving state is governed by time-varying dynamics. We explore possible explanations for the observed phenomena, covering factors that can play a role in the generation of mobility patterns, such as the context of grazing environment, the intrinsic decision-making mechanism or the energy status of different activities. In particular, we propose a new hypothesis that the underlying movement pattern can be attributed to the most probable observable energy status under the maximum entropy configuration. These results are not only valuable for modelling cattle movement but also provide new insights for understanding the underlying biological basis of grazing behaviour. PMID:27555220

  13. Fouling mediates grazing: intertwining of resistances to multiple enemies in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Jormalainen, Veijo; Wikström, Sofia A; Honkanen, Tuija

    2008-03-01

    Macroalgae have to cope with multiple natural enemies, such as herbivores and epibionts. As these are harmful for the host, the host is expected to show resistance to them. Evolution of resistance is complicated by the interactions among the enemies and the genetic correlations among resistances to different enemies. Here, we explored genetic variation in resistance to epibiosis and herbivory in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, both under conditions where the enemies coexisted and where they were isolated. F. vesiculosus showed substantial genetic variation in the resistance to both epibiosis and grazing. Grazing pressure on the alga was generally lower in the presence than in the absence of epibiota. Furthermore, epibiosis modified the susceptibility of different algal genotypes to grazing. Resistances to epibiosis and grazing were independent when measured separately for both enemies but positively correlated when both these enemies coexisted. Thus, when the enemies coexisted, the fate of genotypes with respect to these enemies was intertwined. Genotypic correlation between phlorotannins, brown-algal phenolic secondary metabolites, and the amount of epibiota was negative, indicating that these compounds contribute to resistance to epibiosis. In addition, phlorotannins correlated also with the resistance to grazing, but this correlation disappeared when grazing occurred in the absence of epibiota. This indicates that the patterns of selection for the type of the resistance as well as for the resistance traits vary with the occurrence patterns of the enemies.

  14. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... association may hold a grazing permit to benefit its members according to the rules of the association constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand...

  15. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management. PMID:24343048

  16. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  17. Efficacy of 'indigenous vaccine' using native 'Indian bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis for the control of clinical Johne's disease in an organized goat herd.

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Chandel, B S; Chauhan, H C; Dadawala, A; Singh, S V; Singh, P K

    2013-06-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of a new 'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from native highly pathogenic 'Indian Bison Type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) of goat origin has been evaluated with respect to control of clinical Johne's disease in naturally infected Mehsana breed of goat in North Gujarat. Fifty goats from Sheep and Goats Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, were randomly divided into 2 groups viz.,'Vaccinated'(n = 35) and 'Control'(n = 15). After vaccination, goats were monitored for physical condition, morbidity, mortality, body weights, shedding of MAP in feces, internal condition, gross lesions and humoral immune responses up to 120 days (at each interval of 30 days). At the end of 120 days trial, there was marked overall improvement in physical condition and body weights of vaccinated goats as compared to 'Control' goats. Vaccinated goats gained significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weights, hardly exhibited any lesions characteristic of JD, had significantly higher (P < 0.01) antibody titers and shedding of MAP was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced. Few of the vaccinated goats were positive for MAP DNA in faecal PCR and blood PCR before vaccination. However, all were found as negative at 120 days post vaccination (DPV). Overall vaccine exhibited effective in restriction of MAP infection and significant improvement in production parameters and reduction in mortality and morbidity due to JD. The trial in the herd will be continued.

  18. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  19. Climatic factors and reindeer grazing -- the effects on soil carbon dynamics in subarctic boreal pine forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems, affecting plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil carbon dynamics. In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we investigated how the reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest combined with climate (air temperature and precipitation) affects soil temperature, soil water content, and ultimately the CO2 efflux from forest soils. The study was carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013 and 2014, where 2013 was an extremely dry year (specially the summer), and the year 2014 was a "normal" year in means of precipitations. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. We established the experiment as a split plot experiment with 2 blocks and 5 sub-plots per treatment that were divided into grazed and non-grazed parts, separated with a fence. The sample plots are located along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from reindeer already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. Our study showed that in subarctic mature pine forests, soil temperatures were higher, and soil water content was fluctuating more on grazed areas compared to non-grazed areas in both years. In both years, the soil water content on the grazed area was highest in June. The situation changed somewhere in the second half of July when the moisture content in the non-grazed area was higher. We found

  20. Toxoplasma-induced abortion in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Fifteen pregnant goats serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated orally with 10, 100, or 1,000 infective oocysts of the GT-1 strain of T gondii. Four goats received 10 oocysts, 6 received 100 oocysts, and 5 received 1,000 oocysts. Six pregnant goats served as noninoculated controls. All inoculated goats became pyretic (40-41 C) and were dyspneic between 4 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Two goats inoculated in early pregnancy (68 and 70 days) with 100 oocysts had enlarged uteri; fetal membranes but no fetuses were found when they were killed 86 and 88 DAI. Three goats aborted or had a stillborn kid 9, 10, and 11 DAI. The remaining 10 goats delivered kids infected with T gondii; 8 goats had at least 1 stillborn kid, and 2 goats had infected but otherwise normal kids at birth. Placenta and tissues of fetuses and kids were inoculated into mice for determination of Toxoplasma infectivity. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the fetal placenta of 6 of 7 goats as early as 10 DAI and as late as 62 DAI. The organism was isolated from every fetus or kid that was born 18 DAI but not from fetuses or kids born 9, 10, and 11 DAI. Two kids were born 15 DAI; T gondii was isolated from 1 kid but not from the other, suggesting that T gondii invaded fetal tissues between 11 and 15 DAI. Of the 20 transplacentally infected kids, T gondii was isolated more frequently from the skeletal muscle, heart, lung, and brain than from other tissues.

  1. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    PubMed

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs. PMID:10386009

  2. [A Christmas straw goat astray].

    PubMed

    Bloch, Sune Land; Nielsen, Hans Ulrik Kjærem

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old otherwise healthy man presented to our clinic with suspected acute epiglottitis. The patient had a 1-week history of pain in the throat and fever for the latest 24 hours. During the physical examination, the patient mentioned that he had been eating a Christmas straw goat at a party one week previously. Direct fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed a red and swollen lingual surface of the epiglottis, but no foreign bodies were identified. After inhalation of adrenalin, a 4 cm straw became visible in the epiglottic vallecula. Mimic of acute epiglottitis from a straw in the vallecula has to our knowledge never been described in the literature.

  3. Muellerius capillaris in north-east Zaire: prevalence in sheep and goats and determination of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Chartier, C

    1989-12-01

    Muellerius capillaris was the only species of nematode recovered from the lungs of young and adult sheep and goats of north-east Zaire. The prevalences were of 19% (sheep) and 32% (goats). The slug Atoxon pallens contained larvae in natural conditions and represents a potential intermediate host. The land snails Achatinidae (Achatina stuhlmanni and Limicolaria spp.) could not be experimentally infected with M. capillaris larvae. PMID:2600412

  4. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  5. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  6. Hydatidosis in goats in Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of hydatidosis was carried out in slaughtered goats (n = 177) by liver and lung examination at Jammu. The prevalence rate of hydatidosis was 19.8 %. A total of 14.1 % goats had cysts in both the livers and lungs while 2.3 and 3.4 % goats had cysts in the livers or lungs, respectively. A total of 9.1 % goats had fertile cysts. The adult goats (>4 years) had a significantly higher (p = 0.01) prevalence rate as compared to the young goats (<2 years). Sex had no significant effect on the prevalence of hydatidosis in goats. The histopathological section of the affected lungs revealed a thick coat of granulation tissue causing fibrosis. The cysts caused progressive focal pressure atrophic lesions at the sites of predilection, resulting in atelectasis, desquamation of bronchial epithelium and interalveolar haemorrhages. It may be concluded that the slaughter of food animals at an early age would help to reduce the infection prevalence in dogs and subsequently in the food animals. PMID:24505182

  7. Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Andre T; Pfister, James A; Ferreira, Marcos Barbosa; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2011-04-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and kids of prenatal ingestion of this plant. Freshly harvested leaves of I. carnea (10 g/kg body weight) were fed daily to nine pregnant goats from the fifth to the 16th week of gestation; five pregnant goats were controls. Dam and kid behavior were evaluated during 2-hr postpartum. Further evaluation of the offspring was performed using various tests after birth: (1) reaching and discriminating their dam from an alien doe (two tests at 12-hr postpartum), and (2) navigating a progressive maze (2, 4, and 6 days postpartum). Postnatal (n = 2) and fetal (n = 2) mortality were observed in the treated group. Intoxicated kids had difficulty in standing at birth, and only one was able to suckle within 2 hr of birth. Treated kids were slower than controls to arrive at their dam in the discrimination test; treated kids often (seven of nine completed tests) incorrectly chose the alien dam (controls: 0/10 tests). During some runs on days 2, 4, and 6 postpartum, treated kids were slower to leave the starting point of the maze, and were slower to arrive at the dam on all test days. This study suggests that the offspring of pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays.

  8. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  9. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  10. Studies on clinical signs and biochemical alteration in pregnancy toxemic goats

    PubMed Central

    Vasava, Prasannkumar R.; Jani, R. G.; Goswami, H. V.; Rathwa, S. D.; Tandel, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically. Results: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. In this study, the level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (84.23±1.44 IU/L), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (216.01±4.07 IU/L), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (22.24±0.31 mg/dl), creatinine (2.13±0.09 mg/dl), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (0.46±0.83 mmol/L), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1.67±0.71 mmol/L) was significantly higher whereas glucose (30.89±0.38 mg/dl) and calcium (8.10±0.20 mg/dl) levels were significantly decreased in pregnancy toxemic goats as compared to healthy goats. Conclusion: The goats with pregnancy toxemia exhibited clinical signs include anorexia, recumbency, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. Biochemically, there were significantly decreased the level of glucose and calcium, and increased level of SGPT, SGOT, BUN, creatinine, BHBA, and NEFA in the pregnancy toxemic goats. PMID:27651676

  11. Economic impact of Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in native goats of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anish; Katoch, Rajesh; Khajuria, Jitender Kumar; Katoch, Meenu; Rastogi, Ankur

    2012-03-01

    Economic losses incurred by Przhevalskiana silenus in goats of Jammu province of Jammu and Kashmir (North India) were assessed from July 2005 to June 2006. Abattoir studies revealed holes in hides for 112 days (mid-December 2005 to first week of April 2006) and trimming of carcass for 243 days (July 2005 to February 2006) during a lifecycle, leading to annual losses of Rs. 7,391,432 and Rs. 10,510,837, respectively. An effect on production traits (weight gain and milk) was assessed on naturally P. silenus-infested Beetal goats. The mean body weight loss of warbled goats was 2.40 kg (equal to 1.096 kg of meat, assuming 45.7% dressing percentage of goat) leading to an annual loss of Rs. 35,473,265. The mean milk yield loss per warbled goat per day was 101.7 g resulting in losses to the tune of Rs. 19,879,012. It can be concluded that P. silenus infestation resulted in an overall loss of Rs. 73,254,547, i.e. 73.26 million annually (equivalent to US $1.62 million; US $1 = Rs. 45.24), where reduced growth alone contributed 49% of the total losses. A study recommends that a control scheme against P. silenus infestation in goats using an effective insecticide should be followed to prevent huge economic losses in hide, milk and meat production. Economic losses associated with P. silenus infestation in goats were estimated for the first time from India.

  12. Studies on clinical signs and biochemical alteration in pregnancy toxemic goats

    PubMed Central

    Vasava, Prasannkumar R.; Jani, R. G.; Goswami, H. V.; Rathwa, S. D.; Tandel, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically. Results: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. In this study, the level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (84.23±1.44 IU/L), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (216.01±4.07 IU/L), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (22.24±0.31 mg/dl), creatinine (2.13±0.09 mg/dl), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (0.46±0.83 mmol/L), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1.67±0.71 mmol/L) was significantly higher whereas glucose (30.89±0.38 mg/dl) and calcium (8.10±0.20 mg/dl) levels were significantly decreased in pregnancy toxemic goats as compared to healthy goats. Conclusion: The goats with pregnancy toxemia exhibited clinical signs include anorexia, recumbency, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. Biochemically, there were significantly decreased the level of glucose and calcium, and increased level of SGPT, SGOT, BUN, creatinine, BHBA, and NEFA in the pregnancy toxemic goats.

  13. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Allison S.; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and −15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg−1 body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (P<0.05). The greatest increases in positive joint work occurred at the hip and ankle. During downhill running, mechanical energy was decreased in two main ways: goats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the

  14. Identification of goat allotypic determinants and generation of goat-mouse hybridomas secreting goat IgG2.

    PubMed

    Capparelli, R; Del Sorbo, G; Iannelli, D

    1990-01-01

    Five allotypic determinants controlled by independent genes have been identified in goat. Of these determinants, four have been detected with alloimmune antisera and one with monoclonal antibodies. The specificities A1, C1 and D1 are lipoproteins; B1 is possibly an alpha 2 macroglobulin and E1 and IgG2. The specificity B1 is not expressed until the age of 3-4 months. The gene controlling the specificity E1 is present at about the same frequency (0.38-0.41) in goat, sheep, cattle and water buffalo. Stable hybridomas secreting goat IgG2 have been obtained by the fusion of goat peripheral lymphocytes with mouse myeloma cells.

  15. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  16. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    PubMed

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  17. Influence of grazing management on claw disorders in Swedish freestall dairies with mandatory grazing.

    PubMed

    Bergsten, C; Carlsson, J; Jansson Mörk, M

    2015-09-01

    Our hypothesis was that grazing time, the number of days (duration) and number of hours per day, affected claw health. From Swedish freestall herds that fulfilled our criteria of claw-trimming routines, 201 herds were randomly selected for a telephone interview regarding grazing management. Herd data were retrieved from the Swedish Official Milk Recording Scheme. Claw disorders to be analyzed were recorded at maintenance claw trimming before and after the grazing period and included mild and severe dermatitis, severe heel-horn erosion, and sole ulcer (including severe sole hemorrhage). Any remark included one or more of these recorded disorders. The odds for having a recorded claw disorder at the autumn trimming in relation to grazing management, as well as to herd- and cow-related parameters, was tested using multilevel logistic regression models. The final statistical analysis included 17,600 cows in 174 herds, which were distributed from the south to the north of Sweden with decreasing length of mandatory grazing period because of climate. Grazing duration was statistically associated with the risk of sole ulcer, but it was not linear. However, grazing duration was not statistically associated with the odds for any remark, dermatitis, or heel-horn erosion. The odds for dermatitis were lower with access to pasture for 24 h compared with either day or night access. Otherwise, the number of hours that the animals had access to grazing per day was not significantly associated with any of the other analyzed claw disorders. Higher pasture stocking density (number of cow hours per day per hectare) was associated with a higher odds for dermatitis and sole ulcer. For all recorded claw disorders, the highest odds for having a disorder after the grazing period were consistently when the cow had the same claw disorder before the release to pasture. The positive effects of grazing on claw health were less than expected, and the previous known effects of breed, days in milk

  18. Influence of grazing management on claw disorders in Swedish freestall dairies with mandatory grazing.

    PubMed

    Bergsten, C; Carlsson, J; Jansson Mörk, M

    2015-09-01

    Our hypothesis was that grazing time, the number of days (duration) and number of hours per day, affected claw health. From Swedish freestall herds that fulfilled our criteria of claw-trimming routines, 201 herds were randomly selected for a telephone interview regarding grazing management. Herd data were retrieved from the Swedish Official Milk Recording Scheme. Claw disorders to be analyzed were recorded at maintenance claw trimming before and after the grazing period and included mild and severe dermatitis, severe heel-horn erosion, and sole ulcer (including severe sole hemorrhage). Any remark included one or more of these recorded disorders. The odds for having a recorded claw disorder at the autumn trimming in relation to grazing management, as well as to herd- and cow-related parameters, was tested using multilevel logistic regression models. The final statistical analysis included 17,600 cows in 174 herds, which were distributed from the south to the north of Sweden with decreasing length of mandatory grazing period because of climate. Grazing duration was statistically associated with the risk of sole ulcer, but it was not linear. However, grazing duration was not statistically associated with the odds for any remark, dermatitis, or heel-horn erosion. The odds for dermatitis were lower with access to pasture for 24 h compared with either day or night access. Otherwise, the number of hours that the animals had access to grazing per day was not significantly associated with any of the other analyzed claw disorders. Higher pasture stocking density (number of cow hours per day per hectare) was associated with a higher odds for dermatitis and sole ulcer. For all recorded claw disorders, the highest odds for having a disorder after the grazing period were consistently when the cow had the same claw disorder before the release to pasture. The positive effects of grazing on claw health were less than expected, and the previous known effects of breed, days in milk

  19. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  20. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales) to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae) and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth A; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-12-01

    Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhi- zome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior. PMID:25720186

  2. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  3. Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Fecal Samples in Meat Goats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…

  4. A case of a sheep-goat hybrid in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Scott, I A; Pearce, P D; Dewes, H F; Thompson, J W

    1990-04-01

    The natural mating of a doe with a ram produced a female hybrid which had 57 chromosomes, including three metacentric autosomes. We believe this to be the first authenticated report of a sheep-goat hybrid in New Zealand. PMID:16031565

  5. EFFECTS OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZING ON PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES IN ESCAMBIA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of microheterotroph and meso-zooplankton grazing in nutrient enriched natural waters of Escambia Bay have been conducted for the past two years. These studies include experimental scale (1 l, 8 l, and 80 l) and lab/field comparisons. Sites for these studies include oligoh...

  6. Biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide: Krill grazing

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, K.L.; DiTullio, G.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a dominant sulfur compound in sea water, is a possible precursor for cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere and may influence global climate. The primary source of DMS is phytoplankton, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, and concentrations of DMS in the ocean vary spatially and temporally. Laboratory studies suggest zooplankton grazing may be an important process leading to the formation of DMS in the ocean. This paper describes ocean studies which examine the suggestion that grazing by krill may be a significant source for DMS production in the antarctic coastal region. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  8. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  9. Copper toxicosis in a Boer goat.

    PubMed

    Cregar, Laura C; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Ringen, Davin R; Evans, Tim J; Johnson, Gayle C; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented with a 1-day history of pigmenturia, anorexia, and shivering. Anemia was not present initially, but progressive hemolytic anemia developed subsequently and was characterized by the finding of Heinz bodies in both intact RBCs and in ghost cells and the presence of atypical fusiform RBCs. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase, hyperbilirubinemia, and azotemia. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed necrosis of individual hepatocytes and intracytoplasmic rhodamine-positive granules, consistent with copper. Copper concentration in ante-mortem hepatic tissue was increased, and a diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made. Despite supportive therapy, the goat continued to decline and was euthanized. Necropsy findings included hepatic necrosis and hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Freshly collected specimens of liver and kidney had markedly increased copper concentrations. The mineral composition of the water, grass hay, and goat chow was evaluated, and toxins and significant mineral imbalances were not found. The underlying cause of the hepatic accumulation and subsequent release of copper remains unclear in this goat. Recently, Boer goats have been recognized as being prone to copper toxicosis and may be more susceptible than other breeds; similar to sheep, Boer goats may experience a hemolytic crisis secondary to copper toxicosis.

  10. INFLUENCE OF PROTOZOAN GRAZING ON CONTAMINANT BIODEGRADATION. (R825418)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of protozoan grazing on biodegradation rates in samples from contaminated aquifer sediment was evaluated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Predator¯prey biomass ratios suggested that protozoan grazing might be influencing bacterial populations....

  11. Environmental and social cues can be used in combination to develop sustainable breeding techniques for goat reproduction in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A

    2011-01-01

    Goat breeds from subtropical latitudes show different annual reproductive cycles. Some of them display large seasonal variations in their annual breeding season, while others display a moderate seasonality or sexual activity all year round. This reproductive seasonality causes seasonality of milk, cheese and meat productions and, as a consequence, induces wide variation in producer incomes. To solve this problem and provide methods allowing producers to breed animals during the anestrous period and stabilize production all year round, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of their annual sexual activity and to identify the environmental factors controlling the timing of the annual reproductive cycle. Then, it is possible to build on these knowledge sustainable breeding techniques adapted to the environmental, economic and social characteristics of the local breeding system. In this review, I will illustrate this strategy through the example of our experiments in subtropical goats. First, we determined the characteristics of the annual breeding season in both male and female goats. Second, we identified the photoperiod as the major environmental factor controlling the timing of this annual breeding season. Third, we used the photoperiod to stimulate indirectly the sexual behavior of does. Indeed, we used photoperiodic treatments to stimulate the sexual activity of bucks during the non-breeding season. These sexually active male goats were then used to induce and synchronize the estrous behavior and ovulatory activity of anestrous females in confined or grazing conditions by using the 'male effect'. Under subtropical conditions, these results constitute an original manner to control the reproductive activity of local goats using the photoperiod combined with the 'male effect.'

  12. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  13. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  14. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  15. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  16. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  17. 25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 Section 166.305 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before we grant, modify,...

  18. 25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 167.11 Section 167.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.11... automatically renewed annually until terminated. Any Navajo eligible to hold a grazing permit as defined...

  19. 25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tenure of grazing permits. 167.11 Section 167.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.11... automatically renewed annually until terminated. Any Navajo eligible to hold a grazing permit as defined...

  20. 25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 167.11 Section 167.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.11... automatically renewed annually until terminated. Any Navajo eligible to hold a grazing permit as defined...

  1. 25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 167.11 Section 167.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.11... automatically renewed annually until terminated. Any Navajo eligible to hold a grazing permit as defined...

  2. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established. Board members will be elected to terms not to exceed 2 years. (d) Charter and bylaws. (1) The... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing advisory boards. 222... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards....

  3. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and...

  4. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and...

  5. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and...

  6. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and...

  7. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and...

  8. How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

  9. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... their habitats; public outdoor recreation; conservation of scenic, wilderness, and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values for which... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  10. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... their habitats; public outdoor recreation; conservation of scenic, wilderness, and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values for which... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  11. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... their habitats; public outdoor recreation; conservation of scenic, wilderness, and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values for which... RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  12. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  13. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  14. Predicting forage intake in extensive grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary intake by cattle and other ruminants is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective gra...

  15. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... published a 60-day notice (75 FR 3914) requesting comments on the proposed information collection. The... Bureau of Land Management Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: 30-day Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)...

  16. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permittee who has five or more horses on his current permit will be required to apply any acquired sheep... shall be authorized to graze more than ten head of horses or to accumulate a total of over 350 sheep... permitted holdings of any individual permittee shall not exceed 350 sheep units or the equivalent...

  17. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  18. Delineating Grazing: Observations of Remote Control Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Susan Tyler; Newton, Gregory D.

    1995-01-01

    States that contrary to previous reports of "grazing," most viewers only used their remote control devices (RCDs) once or twice every half hour. Claims that the dominant RCD operation was direct channel punching, as opposed to dial turning. Concludes that most RCD activity did not take place during a program, thus voiding industry concerns over…

  19. The Gratifications of Grazing: Why Flippers Flip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.; Bellamy, Robert V., Jr.

    An exploratory study focused on usage patterns of television remote control devices (RCDs), examining how and why individuals use television RCDs to "graze." The study identified the gratifications obtained from RCD use and evaluated their relative importance in accounting for variations in RCD use. Subjects were 455 undergraduates in…

  20. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... association's constitution and bylaws. (3) The officers other than secretary and treasurer must be grazing permittees on the range unit involved. (4) The association's activities must be governed by a constitution and bylaws acceptable to the Commissioner and signed by him. (5) The association's constitution...

  1. Grazing Improvement Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Barrasso, John [R-WY

    2011-05-26

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley, CO AGENCY... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  3. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  4. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  5. First molecular evidence for the presence of Anaplasma DNA in milk from sheep and goats in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Cao, Shuxuan; Jian, Fuchun; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of Anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. In the present study, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. DNA in milk collected from sheep and goats in China. A total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). The blood specimens corresponding to the A. ovis DNA-positive milk were analyzed for Anaplasma DNA presence, and A. ovis DNA was identified in 10 out of the 12 blood specimens. One goat's milk sample was Anaplasma bovis DNA-positive, as was the corresponding blood sample. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in a milk sample and blood sample from one goat. One milk sample from Xinmi in Henan province was simultaneously positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum; however, the corresponding blood was negative for both species. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences from the milk samples matched those of the corresponding blood samples. This is the first report to detect the Anaplasma DNA in milk samples under natural condition, and represents the first evidence of the presence of A. ovis, A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA in milk from sheep and goats.

  6. Chitotriosidase activity in goat blood and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Argüello, A; Castro, N; Batista, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sanchez-Macias, D; Quesada, E; Capote, J

    2008-05-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investigated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this activity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking at partum and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Goat kid blood was collected at birth and every 7 d thereafter until goats kids were 56 d old. The ChT activity ranged from 2,368 to 3,350 nmol/ mL per hour in goat blood serum, and no statistical differences were detected through time. However, activity tended to decrease from 3 d prepartum to 2 d post-partum. Colostrum ChT activity was 3,912 nmol/mL per hour and 465 nmol/mL per hour on the day of delivery and 4 d postpartum, respectively. Colostrum ChT activity was significantly higher at partum than at any other time. The ChT activity in colostrum was significantly greater at 1 d postpartum than at 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity did not differ in colostrum collected on d 2, 3, and 4 postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity in goat kid blood serum ranged from 2,664 to 9,231 nmol/mL per hour at birth and 49 d of life, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in the blood serum increased with age: at birth, activity was significantly less than at 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 d postpartum. The maximum ChT activity in blood serum was observed at 49 d postpartum. Activity in 49-d-old kids was significantly greater than that observed in kids at 0, 7, and 14 d postpartum.

  7. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  8. 6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  9. Large-scale production of functional human lysozyme in transgenic cloned goats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Aimin; Xu, Xujun; Wang, Xuebin; Lu, Ping; Cheng, Guoxiang

    2013-12-01

    Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, that express large amounts of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in milk. Specifically, two optimized lysozyme expression cassettes (β-casein/hLZ and β-lactoglobulin/hLZ) were designed and introduced into goat somatic cells by cell transfection. Using transgenic cell colonies, which were screened by 0.8 mg/mL G418, as a nuclear donor, we obtained 10 transgenic cloned goats containing one copy of hLZ hybrid gene. An ELISA assay indicated that the transgenic goats secreted up to 6.2 g/L of rhLZ in their milk during the natural lactation period, which is approximately 5-10 times higher than human milk. The average rhLZ expression levels in β-casein/hLZ and β-lactoglobulin/hLZ transgenic goats were 2.3 g/L and 3.6 g/L, respectively. Therefore, both rhLZ expression cassettes could induce high levels of expression of the rhLZ in goat mammary glands. In addition, the rhLZ purified from goat milk has similar physicochemical properties as the natural human lysozyme, including the molecular mass, N-terminal sequence, lytic activity, and thermal and pH stability. An antibacterial analysis revealed that rhLZ and hLZ were equally effective in two bacterial inhibition experiments using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Taken together, our experiments not only underlined that the large-scale production of biologically active rhLZ in animal mammary gland is realistic, but also demonstrated that rhLZ purified from goat milk will be potentially useful in biopharmaceuticals.

  10. Effect of melatonin implants on sexual activity in Mediterranean goat females without separation from males.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Gatica, M C; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2009-10-15

    This work was designed to determine whether melatonin treatment at the spring equinox can induce reproductive activity in goats without separation from males (separation being the normal practice in Spanish farming systems) and whether this treatment modifies the onset of the natural breeding season. Twenty-nine entire does were distributed into two groups (Group M, n=14; Group C, n=15). A third group of ovariectomized, estradiol-treated goats (OVX group, n=5) was used to study the effect of melatonin on reproductive activity. On March 18, Groups M and OVX received a subcutaneous melatonin implant. In entire females, estrus was tested daily using entire aproned males, and ovulation rate was assessed after identification of estrus. Plasma progesterone in entire goats, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in the OVX group, and live weight and body condition score for all animals were recorded once a week. In entire goats, a clear treatment by time interaction was observed for progesterone concentrations (P<0.001), with a period of high progesterone concentrations during the natural seasonal anestrus in Group M. A similar period of high LH concentrations was observed in the OVX group. Whereas all females of Group M presented ovarian activity during this period, no female of Group C did. The resumption of the natural breeding season was retarded in Group M in comparison with that in Group C (P<0.05). We can conclude that in Mediterranean goats, melatonin implants can induce reproductive activity without separation from males, and it causes a small retardation in the reactivation of reproductive activity in the natural breeding season. PMID:19631371

  11. Reproductive cycles and pregnancy in interspecific sheep<==>goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Edmondson, A J

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine whether interspecific sheep<==>goat chimaeras exhibited reproductive cycles of their component species and were capable of maintaining ovine and caprine pregnancies to term. All chimaeras had oestrous cycles and several exhibited characteristics of both ewes and does, including short, 6-7-day cycles. Sixteen caprine pregnancies were confirmed in eight sheep<==>goat and one hybrid<==>sheep chimaera from 21 embryo transfers; of these, six appeared normal by ultrasonographic examination during Weeks 5 or 6, but none progressed beyond Week 8. Three apparent pseudopregnancies developed in two animals. In contrast, eight of 11 pregnancies in chimaeras resulted in term ovine offspring after transfer of ovine embryos or natural matings with rams. By comparison, interspecific (caprine or hybrid) pregnancies in ewes were lost in Week 4 (n = 8) or Weeks 5-6 (n = 2). First interspecific (ovine or hybrid) pregnancies in does were maintained longer (Weeks 6-12, n = 7) than second interspecific pregnancies (Weeks 4-5, n = 5) (P < 0.05) or interspecific pregnancies in ewes (P < 0.05). The results suggest that abnormal fetomaternal interactions during the early stages of implantation are responsible for termination of caprine pregnancies in the ovine or chimaeric uterus, whereas ovine conceptuses are able to implant successfully in the chimaeric uterus. All chimaeras were fertile, since each carried at least one ovine pregnancy to term following natural matings with rams. PMID:8272530

  12. Timing of herbage allocation in strip grazing: Effects on grazing pattern and performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Eirin, M; Refi, R; Ursino, M; Ansin, O E; Gunter, S A

    2006-07-01

    The timing of grazing bouts (GB) determines how cattle allot time to meet their nutritional needs. Net photosynthesis and evapotranspirational losses increase herbage nonstructural carbohydrate and DM concentrations, which may lead to longer and more intense GB at dusk. Hence, linking the grazing pattern, plant phenology, and herbage allocation time emerges as an option to manipulate the GB and nutrient intake. The objectives of this work were to analyze grazing behavior and performance of beef heifers when herbage allocation was at 0700 each morning (MHA) or at 1500 each afternoon (AHA). Two pairs of experiments were conducted during the winter and spring examining behavior and performance. Measurements were grazing, rumination, and idling times during daylight hours, and their patterns, as well as bite rate, ADG, change in BCS, and daily herbage DMI. In the behavioral experiments, 8 heifers strip-grazed annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The grazing, rumination, and idling times as well as bite rate were measured and also analyzed per time of day. In the performance experiments, 48 beef heifers strip-grazed annual ryegrass in 2 groups according to treatments. Daily DMI, ADG, and changes in BCS were analyzed. The AHA increased daily idling time (P < 0.01) and decreased grazing time (P < 0.01). The AHA concentrated grazing time in the evening, when bite rate was greater (P < 0.01). The daylight rumination time varied by time of day (P < 0.01), but total daylight rumination time did not differ (P = 0.11). With AHA, rumination time and idling time were concentrated in the morning and afternoon. In the performance experiment during the winter, there was a treatment x week effect (P < 0.01) for ADG and change in BCS. Beginning in wk 4, heifers in AHA gained 150 g of BW and 0.0145 points of BCS more than those in MHA (P < 0.05) per day. In the spring, AHA increased ADG by 549 g and 0.0145 points of BCS more than those in MHA (P < 0.05) per day during the entire

  13. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls.

  14. Definition of prepartum hyperketonemia in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Doré, V; Dubuc, J; Bélanger, A M; Buczinski, S

    2015-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,081 dairy goats from 10 commercial herds in Québec (Canada) to define prepartum hyperketonemia based on optimal blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid threshold values for the early prediction of pregnancy toxemia (PT) and mortality in late-gestation dairy goats. All pregnant goats had blood sampled weekly during the last 5wk of pregnancy. The blood was analyzed directly on the farm for β-hydroxybutyrate acid quantification using a Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Diabetes Care, Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada). Body condition scores on the lumbar region and sternum were noted. Each goat was classified as being at low (n=973) or high risk (n=108) of having PT by producers based on a standardized definition. The optimal threshold for predicting a PT diagnosis or mortality for each week before kidding was determined based on the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The association between hyperketonemia and subsequent PT was tested using a multivariable logistic regression model considering hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum, litter size, and body condition score at wk 4 prepartum as covariates, and herd and parturition cohort as random effects. The association between mortality and hyperketonemia was also tested using a logistic regression model accounting for the presence or absence of treatment during the last month of pregnancy. The hyperketonemia definition based on PT varied between ≥0.4 and ≥0.9mmol/L during the last 5wk prepartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum and with a large litter size (≥3 fetuses) had 2.1 and 40.5 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent PT than other goats. Hyperketonemia definitions based on mortality varied between ≥0.6 and ≥1.4mmol/L during the last 4wk prepartum, and was ≥1.7mmol/L during the first week postpartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia and treated by producers had 3.4 and 11.8 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent mortality than did other goats

  15. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  16. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  17. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  18. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  19. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  20. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  1. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  2. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  3. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  4. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  5. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  6. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  7. Montane Meadow Plant Community Response to Livestock Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Matthew R.; Roche, Leslie M.; Weixelman, Dave; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2014-08-01

    We examined long-term (10 years) meadow plant community responses to (1) livestock grazing under riparian grazing utilization limits; (2) suspension of livestock grazing; and (3) meadow site wetness and precipitation on the Inyo National Forest, California. Observed trends in meadow plant species richness, diversity, and frequency of soil stabilizing species were not significantly different between grazed ( N = 16) and non-grazed ( N = 9) study sites ( P > 0.12 in all cases). Modest increases in richness and diversity were observed over the study period, but frequency of soil stabilizing species was constant. These results suggest that riparian conservation grazing strategies implemented during the study period neither degraded nor hampered recovery of meadow plant community conditions relative to non-grazed conditions. Meadow site wetness was negatively correlated to richness ( P < 0.01) and diversity ( P < 0.01), but was positively correlated to soil stabilization ( P = 0.02). Precipitation was not a significant predictor for plant community responses.

  8. Extended grazing: a detailed analysis of Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Läpple, D; Hennessy, T; O'Donovan, M

    2012-01-01

    Profitability and factors affecting grazing season length were econometrically analyzed using a representative sample of Irish dairy farms. The objective of this study was to explore what potential exists on Irish dairy farms to extend the grazing season and to quantify the possible economic benefits that result from lengthening the grazing season. Regression results indicate that location factors affect the length of the grazing season, but even when physical factors are controlled, farmer characteristics, such as education, also affect the grazing season length. The results of a panel data analysis show that significant cost reductions can be achieved by extending the grazing season. Overall, the findings indicate that lengthening the grazing season offers a cost-saving alternative on many Irish dairy farms, which could contribute to strengthening the competitiveness of the Irish dairy sector.

  9. The Effect of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Level on Grazing Distance from Dung

    PubMed Central

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130–160); and Low (FEC = 40–70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05) but had lower levels (P < 0.0001) of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01) for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  10. Biodiversity management of fens and fen meadows by grazing, cutting and burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; Holsten, B.; Van Diggelen, R.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Can the biodiversity of fens in Europe and North America be maintained through the use of grazing (especially cattle grazing), fire, and/or cutting? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper is a review of the literature on the effects of grazing, fire and cutting on fens, to explore the relationship between management and biodiversity in fens. Results: A reduction of cattle grazing, mowing and burning in fens has led to a reduction in biodiversity in fens. The vegetation of abandoned fens shifts to trees and shrubs after 10-15 years, which shade the smaller and rarer species of these wetlands. While careful use of fire is used to manage fens in North America, it is not widely used in European fens, perhaps because the peat of drained fens may catch fire. Cattle grazing cannot be considered a natural disturbance in North America, since cattle did not evolve on that continent. In Europe, cattle do not generally graze in unaltered fens, but they do use slightly drained fen meadows. Conclusions: Three approaches have been used to control the dominance of tall woody and herbaceous species in abandoned fens, including the re-introduction of cattle, mowing, and burning. Overgrazing results in a permanent reduction in biodiversity, therefore cattle re-introduction must be approached cautiously. In Europe, but not in North America, mowing has been an important management tool, and mowing has been successful in maintaining species richness, particularly in fens that have been mowed annually for centuries. Fire has been the most common and successful management tool in North America although it is not effective in removing shrubs that have become large. Because the problems and solutions are similar, the literature of both European and North American fen management can be analyzed to better assess the management of fens on both continents. Many management questions require further study and these are listed in the paper. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  11. The effect of gastrointestinal nematode infection level on grazing distance from dung.

    PubMed

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130-160); and Low (FEC = 40-70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05) but had lower levels (P < 0.0001) of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01) for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  12. Persistence of carotenoid pigments in the blood of concentrate-finished grazing sheep: its significance for the traceability of grass-feeding.

    PubMed

    Prache, S; Priolo, A; Grolier, P

    2003-02-01

    Carotenoid pigments are good biomarkers of grass feeding in sheep. However, grazing lambs are often stall-finished because of grass shortage. We investigated the nature of the carotenoids present in sheep blood and their persistence in this tissue. Four treatments were compared: 1) feeding a concentrate-based diet (n = 10 lambs), 2) grazing followed by a long stall-finishing period (n = 10), 3) grazing followed by a short stall-finishing period (n = 10), and 4) grazing to slaughter weight (n = 10). The concentrate supply was regulated to have similar average daily gain for all treatments. The 40 lambs were allocated to either the grazing or the stall treatments on the basis of their birth date, birth weight, and body weight. The 30 grazing lambs were further allocated to long-stall, short-stall, or grass treatment on the basis of their body weight and plasma carotenoid content. Plasma content of total carotenoids was measured by spectrophotometry during the grazing and the stall periods for all lambs and at slaughter weight for the eight heaviest lambs of each treatment. Analysis of the nature and the concentration of individual carotenoids was performed by HPLC on pasture and stall diets and on blood of grazing lambs. The carotenoid content of the stall diet was 2 to 3% that of the pasture diet. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene accounted for 43 to 58%, 3 to 17%, and 0 to 7% of total plasma carotenoids in grazing lambs, respectively. Two unknown polar carotenoids, expressed in lutein equivalent, accounted for 10 to 22% and 0 to 9% of total carotenoids. Plasma carotenoid content during the grazing and the finishing periods varied among animals (P < 0.001). At slaughter weight, plasma carotenoid content was higher for grass-fed than for stall-fed, long-stall finished, or short-stall finished lambs (P < 0.001), and reliably distinguished grass-fed lambs from all the others. Plasma carotenoid content decreased exponentially with the interval from starting on the

  13. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  14. Failure of sheep-goat hybrid conceptuses to develop to term in sheep-goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Sasser, G R

    1993-09-01

    Six hybrid pregnancies were established: three in sheep-goat chimaeras, one in a sheep-(sheep-goat)hybrid chimaera and two in does. Pregnancies were monitored weekly by ultrasonography and peripheral concentrations of pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) were measured. Placental development as detected by ultrasonography appeared to be slower in hybrid-in-goat pregnancies than in hybrid-in-chimaera pregnancies, although this difference was not reflected in PSPB concentrations. Time of fetal death could not be predicted from PSPB concentrations. Chimaeras appeared to carry hybrid pregnancies longer than ewes and does usually carry hybrid pregnancies, but none was carried to term. PMID:7506792

  15. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    PubMed

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  16. Characterization of Korean native goat lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Nam, M S; Shimazaki, K; Kumura, H; Lee, K K; Yu, D Y

    1999-06-01

    We purified lactoferrin from the colostrum of the Korean native goat (Capra hircus) by ion-exchange chromatography using CM-Toyopearl 650M followed by affinity chromatography on AF-Heparin Toyopearl 650M. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis suggested the molecular mass of Korean native goat lactoferrin is 82 kDa with an iron saturation of 30% as estimated by spectroscopic analysis. Circular dichroism analysis shows goat lactoferrin molecule contains 24.5%, alpha-helix; 36.0%, beta-structure; 13.5%, beta-turn and 26.0%, unordered structure. Heparin binding affinity is the same as that of bovine lactoferrin, but lower than that of human lactoferrin. An analysis using synthetic peptides shows that the peptide from residue 22 to 31--WQRRMRKLGA--exerts a positive heparin-binding ability.

  17. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in an adult goat.

    PubMed

    Seva, Juan I; Gómez, Serafin; Pallarés, Francisco J; Sánchez, Pedro; Bernabé, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    An occipitoatlantoaxial malformation was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Murciano-Granadina goat. At clinical examination, the head and cranial part of the neck were deviated to the right. Clinical signs of spinal cord or brain disease were not observed. At necropsy, morphological abnormalities were seen in the craniovertebral junction and cervical vertebrae, characterized by a firm attachment and incomplete articulation between the occipital bone and the atlas, and scoliosis in the cervical regions. The definitive diagnosis was bilateral asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial fusion with rotation of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the second occipitoatlantoaxial malformation described in a goat and the first description in an adult goat.

  18. Coma Chemistry of Sun-grazing Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Gicquel, Adeline

    2014-11-01

    The recent apparition of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), and its disruption during perihelion passage, has motivated numerous observations of the associated variations in the gas and dust composition. More generally, comet ISON has regenerated interest in the physics and chemistry of Sun-grazing comets. Chemical models of cometary comae have typically always been developed to model comets at about 1 AU and beyond [1]. Apart from one early coma chemistry model [2], which calculated the coma chemistry of a comet at 0.125 AU with assumed single-fluid physics, there have been no detailed studies of coma chemistry at the small heliocentric distances experienced by comet ISON and other Sun-grazing comets.In this contribution we will discuss the various physical and chemical processes that have to be considered when modeling the comae of Sun-grazing comets. We will present comet models in which the physical and chemical structures of the multi-fluid flow are calculated self-consistently [3] as a function of decreasing heliocentric distance.[1] Rodgers, S.D., Charnley S.B., Boice, D.C. & Huebner, W.F. (2004) In COMETS II, Eds. Festou, M., Keller, H.U. & Weaver, H.A., University of Arizona Press, 505-522 [2] Swift, M.B. & Mitchell, G.F. (1978) Icarus, 47, 412 [3] Rodgers, S.D. & Charnley, S.B. (2002) MNRAS, 330, 660This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Astronomy Programs.

  19. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  20. Disposition of fenbendazole in the goat.

    PubMed

    Short, C R; Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; Ou, S P; Davis, L E; Koritz, G; Neff-Davis, C A; Bevill, R F; Munsiff, I J; Sharma, G C

    1987-05-01

    The disposition of fenbendazole was studied in goats after oral or IV administration. Plasma concentration vs time profiles were determined for fenbendazole and all of its metabolites. The total excretion of the drug and its metabolites in urine and feces was also measured for 6 days. A biliary cannula was inserted in 1 goat to study the excretion of fenbendazole and its metabolites into the bile. Fenbendazole was converted to its sulfoxide (oxfendazole), and the sulfone, primary amine, and p-hydroxylated metabolites. The active metabolite, oxfendazole, appeared in plasma, but only trace amounts were found in feces or urine. The major excretory metabolite was p-hydroxyfenbendazole.

  1. Interspecific chimaerism between sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Fehilly, C B; Willadsen, S M; Tucker, E M

    In rodents, chimaeric blastocysts produced by combining embryonic cells of two different species have been used in investigations of cell lineage and interaction during development (Mus musculus-Rattus norvegicus, M. musculus-Clethrionomys glareolus, M. musculus-Mus caroli). However, interspecific chimaerism also offers new approaches to the study of reproductive incompatibilities between species and may even allow such incompatibilities to be neutralized, thus improving the chances of successful hybridization and interspecific embryo transplantation. We report here the production of sheep-goat chimaeras by embryo manipulation and the use of interspecific chimaerism to allow successful interspecific embryo transplantation in sheep and goats. PMID:6694751

  2. Manufacturing and testing of a grazing incidence mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindel, Manfred W.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    Fabrication and testing of aspheric surfaces has always been a challenge for the optical industry. A mirror that is part of an ellipsoid is particularly difficult to manufacture when the axis of rotation does not intersect the surface and the radii change in two directions. Another difficulty in fabrication is the stringent specifications imposed by the nature of the application of the mirror. The physical requirements are for a 50 mm thick piece of fused silica with a 400 x 100 mm surface area platinum coated for use at grazing incidence. The mirror is used to image energy from a synchroton radiation source at one focus. The tolerances require a high figure accuracy, small slope deviations, and a minimum of surface roughness. The purpose of this paper is to present the methods used to fabricate and test such an elliptical mirror as described.

  3. Reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest - influences on the soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Egle; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems , which have many effects on plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil C dynamics. Earlier, the role of reindeer grazing in ground vegetation dynamics and in soil carbon (C) dynamics has been mostly investigated in open tundra heaths. The objectives of this study were to examine if and how the reindeer grazing (and the possible temperature changes in soil caused by heavy grazing) is affecting the soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux from the soil, C storage in soil, microbial biomass in the soil). In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we have assessed the changes occurring in above- and belowground biomasses, and soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux, soil C content, soil microbial biomass C) among areas grazed and ungrazed by reindeer. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. The sample plots located in the Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) are situated along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. To characterize the stands we have established circular sample plots on areas with a radius of 11.28 m, where different tree characteristics were measured (diameter at 1.3 m, height, height of a tree, crown height, crown diameter, stand age, etc.). On every sample plot

  4. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  5. Genetic diversity in Swiss goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Saitbekova, N; Gaillard, C; Obexer-Ruff, G; Dolf, G

    1999-02-01

    Genetic diversity in eight Swiss goat breeds was estimated using PCR amplification of 20 bovine microsatellites on 20-40 unrelated animals per breed. In addition, the Creole breed from the Caribbean and samples of Ibex and Bezoar goat were included. A total of 352 animals were tested. The bovine microsatellites chosen amplified well in goat. The average heterozygosity within population was higher in domestic goat (0.51-0.58) than in Ibex (0.17) and Bezoar goat (0.19). Twenty-seven per cent of the genetic diversity in the total population could be attributed to differences between the populations. However, with the exclusion of Ibex from the total population, this proportion dropped to 17%. Principal component analysis showed that all Swiss goat breeds are closely related, whereas the Creole breed, Ibex and Bezoar goat are clearly distinct from all eight Swiss breeds.

  6. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks. PMID:18328644

  7. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.

  8. The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

    2012-10-15

    This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could

  9. Continuous feral horse grazing and grazing exclusion in mountain pampean grasslands in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villalobos, A. E.; Zalba, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper evaluates changes in the composition and structure of plant communities and plant functional groups associated with the continuous presence of feral horses in mountain pampean grasslands in Argentina in order to explore the potential effects of horse removal on vegetation restoration. Specific and functional richness, diversity, evenness, spatial heterogeneity and above-ground biomass were compared between areas subjected to ten years of intensive grazing by horses and exclosures of the same age. Forbs, shrubs and rosettes were more abundant after ten years of grazing, while the spatial heterogeneity of perennial grasses was higher in long-term grazed areas. Nevertheless, grasslands showed good recovery after horse removal, with greater species diversity and evenness, higher abundance of perennial grasses, greater above-ground biomass and lower percentages of exotic species. An understanding of the effect of feral animals on plant communities will lead to the design of a strategy of adaptive management and monitoring tools for measuring the condition of grasslands.

  10. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Peters, Sunday O.; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats’ populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima’s D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat

  11. Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-06-18

    The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.

  12. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  13. Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, P.; Fensholt, R.

    2015-07-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurements. From a long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the influence of extensive grazing (and changes in grazing pressure) on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses the time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI metrics by comparing it with data from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. Field data include grazing intensity, end of season standing biomass (ESSB) and species composition from sizeable areas suitable for comparison with moderate - coarse resolution satellite imagery. It is shown that sampling plots excluded from grazing have a different species composition characterized by a longer growth cycle as compared to plots under controlled grazing or communal grazing. Also substantially higher ESSB is observed for grazing exclosures as compared to grazed areas, substantially exceeding the amount of biomass expected to be ingested by livestock for this area. The seasonal integrated NDVI (NDVI small integral; capturing only the signal inherent to the growing season recurrent vegetation), derived using absolute thresholds to estimate start and end of growing seasons, is identified as the metric most strongly related to ESSB for all grazing regimes. However plot-pixel comparisons demonstrate how the NDVI/ESSB relationship changes due to grazing-induced variation in annual plant species composition and the NDVI values for grazed plots are only slightly lower than the values observed for the ungrazed plots. Hence, average ESSB in ungrazed plots since 2000 was 0.93 t ha-1, compared to 0.51 t ha-1 for

  14. In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

    2014-02-01

    The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos. PMID:24210966

  15. In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

    2014-02-01

    The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos.

  16. Optimized diffusion of buck semen for saving genetic variability in selected dairy goat populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current research on quantitative genetics has provided efficient guidelines for the sustainable management of selected populations: genetic gain is maximized while the loss of genetic diversity is maintained at a reasonable rate. However, actual selection schemes are complex, especially for large domestic species, and they have to take into account many operational constraints. This paper deals with the actual selection of dairy goats where the challenge is to optimize diffusion of buck semen on the field. Three objectives are considered simultaneously: i) natural service buck replacement (NSR); ii) goat replacement (GR); iii) semen distribution of young bucks to be progeny-tested. An appropriate optimization method is developed, which involves five analytical steps. Solutions are obtained by simulated annealing and the corresponding algorithms are presented in detail. Results The whole procedure was tested on two French goat populations (Alpine and Saanen breeds) and the results presented in the abstract were based on the average of the two breeds. The procedure induced an immediate acceleration of genetic gain in comparison with the current annual genetic gain (0.15 genetic standard deviation unit), as shown by two facts. First, the genetic level of replacement natural service (NS) bucks was predicted, 1.5 years ahead at the moment of reproduction, to be equivalent to that of the progeny-tested bucks in service, born from the current breeding scheme. Second, the genetic level of replacement goats was much higher than that of their dams (0.86 unit), which represented 6 years of selection, although dams were only 3 years older than their replacement daughters. This improved genetic gain could be achieved while decreasing inbreeding coefficients substantially. Inbreeding coefficients (%) of NS bucks was lower than that of the progeny-tested bucks (-0.17). Goats were also less inbred than their dams (-0.67). Conclusions It was possible to account for

  17. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  18. The important role of scattered trees on the herbaceous diversity of a grazed Mediterranean dehesa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; San Miguel, Alfonso; López-Carrasco, Celia; Huntsinger, Lynn; Roig, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    Scattered trees are considered keystone structures and play an important role in Mediterranean sylvopastoral systems. Such systems are associated with high biodiversity and provide important natural resources and ecosystem services. In this study, we measured the contribution of scattered trees and different grazing management (cattle, sheep and wildlife only) to the diversity of the grassland sward in a dehesa (open holm oak woodland) located in Central Spain. We analyzed alpha and beta diversity through measurement of species richness, Shannon-Wiener, and Whittaker indices, respectively; and the floristic composition of the herb layer using subplots within two adjacent plots (trees present vs. trees absent) under three different grazing management regimes, including wildlife only, during a year. We found a 20-30% increment in the alpha diversity of wooded plots, compared to those without trees, regardless of grazing management. All beta indices calculated showed more than 60% species turnover. Wooded plots were occupied by different herbaceous species in different heterogeneous microsites (under the canopy, in the ecotone or on open land) created by the trees. Livestock grazing modified species composition (e.g. more nitrophilous species) compared to wildlife only plots. In addition to all their other benefits, trees are important to maintaining grassland diversity in Mediterranean dehesas.

  19. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  20. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  1. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  2. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  3. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  4. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  5. Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

    2004-06-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line.

  6. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogugua, A.J.; Akinseye, V.O.; Ayoola, M.C.; Oyesola, O.O.; Shima, F.K.; Tijjani, A.O.; Musa, Aderemi N. A.; Adesokan, H.K.; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A.; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S.I.B.

    2015-01-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p < 0.0001); are probable risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat. PMID:26689681

  8. Zooplankton grazing in the Atlantic Ocean: A latitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, Albert; Atienza, Dacha; Henriksen, Casper I.; Saiz, Enric; Adey, Timothy R.

    2009-07-01

    Mesozooplankton and 63-200 μm net-collected microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton and protozoans was evaluated by 24-h incubations on a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean, from 35°N to 38°S (AMT-15; September-October 2004). The sampling area comprised contrasting ecosystems, including upwelling zones and oligotrophic subtropical gyres. Grazing impacts of mesozooplankton and 63-200 μm microzooplankton on total chlorophyll a (Chl a), >5 μm Chl a, ciliates, and dinoflagellates were low for both zooplankton size fractions, always removing<1.5% of the standing stocks of these groups. Grazing had a slightly greater impact upon primary production (up to 10% of primary production consumed daily), although on most occasions grazing removed<1% of primary production per day. To account for the reduction of micrograzers by predators in the experimental bottles and the consequent reduction of grazing pressure, the data were corrected with knowledge on the decrease of microzooplankton during incubations and global estimates of microzooplankton grazing. The corrected grazing rates for mesozooplankton ranged from 4% to 28% of the primary production consumed daily, and from 1% to 2% of the standing stock of Chl a removed every day. The 63-200 μm microzooplankton corrected grazing impact was always<5% of the primary production and standing stock consumed per day. The corrected grazing activity of 63-200 μm microzooplankton and mesozooplankton rendered daily rations ranging from 3% to 38% of the body carbon consumed daily, not sufficient for basal metabolism in most of the areas studied. Finally, the data on mesozooplankton grazing on primary production confirm the recent hypothesis of a decline of the relative importance of mesozooplankton grazing on primary producers with increasing primary production [Calbet, A., 2001. Mesozooplankton grazing effect on primary production: a global comparative analysis in marine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 46, 1824-1830].

  9. Cloning and functional analysis of goat SWEET1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Bao, Z K; Hu, W W; Lin, J; Yang, Q; Yu, Q H

    2015-12-16

    SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the biological function of goat SWEET1, we also generated goat SWEET1-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells using the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-gSWEET1. Goat SWEET1 overexpression can reduce glucose absorption in mammary gland epithelial cells with increasing expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and GLUT12, which may be attributed to glucose efflux arising from the leading role played by goat SWEET1. This study will improve our understanding of the glucose balance in mammary glands and the level of glucose in milk.

  10. Use of microsatellite markers to assign goats to their breeds.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, R S; Alobre, M M; Al-Atiyat, R M

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the potential of 17 microsatellite markers for assigning Saudi goat individuals to their breeds. Three local breeds, Bishi, Jabali, and Tohami were genotyped using these markers, and Somali goats were used as a reference breed. The majority of alleles were shared between the breeds, except for some that were specific to each breed. The Garza-Williamson index was lowest in the Bishi breed, indicating that a recent bottleneck event occurred. The overall results assigned the goat individuals (based on their genotypes) to the same breeds from which they were sampled, except in a few cases. The individuals' genotypes were sufficient to provide a clear distinction between the Somali goat breed and the others. In three factorial dimensions, the results of a correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation for the first and second factors was 48.85 and 31.43%, respectively. Consequently, Jabali, Bishi, and Tohami goats were in separate groups. The Jabali goat was closely related to the Bishi goat. Somali goats were distinguished from each other and from individuals of the other three goat breeds. The markers were successful in assigning individual goats to their breeds, based on the likelihood of a given individual's genotype.

  11. SLOPE PROFILOMETRY OF GRAZING INCIDENCE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS,P.Z.

    2003-01-14

    Profiling instruments are well-suited to the measurement of grazing incidence optics, such as those found in synchrotron radiation beam lines. Slope measuring profilers, based upon the principle of the pencil beam interferometer, have proven to be especially useful in measuring the figure and slope errors on cylindrical aspheres. The Long Trace Profiler, in various configurations, is the most widely used of this class of profiler. Current performance provides slope measurement accuracy at the microradian level and height measurements accurate to 25 nm over 1 meter trace lengths.

  12. Internal parasite management in grazing livestock.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niranjan; Rao, Thakur Krishan Shankar; Varghese, Anju; Rathor, Veer Singh

    2013-10-01

    It is a challenging task to control internal parasites in grazing livestock even by applying multi label and multi directional approach. It is impossible to draw general recommendations to control parasitic diseases due to varied geo-climatic conditions and methods adopted for rearing the livestock in the country like India. In view of increasing incidence of anti-parasitic drug resistance in animals, there is an urgent need to design sustainable parasite control strategy which must include on the host as well as off the host control measures to harvest the maximum productivity from the animal for an indefinite period.

  13. Grazing Stategy To Decrease Dietary Crude Protien Wastage In Stocker Calves Grazing Winter Wheat Pasture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cool-season grasses, primarily winter wheat, provide high quality forage for stocker calves during the fall, winter and spring grazing seasons for stocker enterprises in the southern Great Plains. The crude protein (CP) content of winter wheat pasture exceeds the stocker calf’s daily CP requi...

  14. Grazing simulation in a high arctic mire decreases CH4 emission, CO2 fluxes and substrate availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, J. M.; Ström, L.; Schmidt, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    emission, mean of all three years. They also had the same low acetic acid concentration as 'grazed' plots, although not significant. Our study reveals that a simulated muskox grazing experiment in a high arctic mire leads to a significantly change in carbon balance and lower CH4 emission. Pointing towards the potentially large effect that herbivory has on the carbon balance of natural ecosystems in the Arctic and emphasizing the importance of increased knowledge regarding these effects.

  15. Mitigation of Ergot Vasoconstriction by Clover Isoflavones in Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.; Kagan, Isabelle A.; Ji, Huihua; Bush, Lowell P.

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in ruminants that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen-fistulated goats (Capra hircus) to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can (1) promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and (2) relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)–timothy (Phleum pratense) hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline) and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Experiment 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day on treatment (DOT) in Experiment 1, and on all imaging sessions during Experiment 2. For Experiment 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Experiment 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Experiment 1. During Experiment 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1) from baselines over 1, 2

  16. Mitigation of Ergot Vasoconstriction by Clover Isoflavones in Goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D; Kagan, Isabelle A; Ji, Huihua; Bush, Lowell P

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in ruminants that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen-fistulated goats (Capra hircus) to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can (1) promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and (2) relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)-timothy (Phleum pratense) hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline) and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Experiment 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day on treatment (DOT) in Experiment 1, and on all imaging sessions during Experiment 2. For Experiment 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Experiment 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Experiment 1. During Experiment 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1) from baselines over 1, 2, 3

  17. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country.

  18. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-07-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country. PMID:27660865

  19. Performance, blood parameters, and fecal egg count when meat goats were finished on red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, or chicory pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most farms use forage-based systems for goat production, but control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in small ruminants is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may have natural anthelmintic compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage...

  20. Cell surface expression of PrP-c and the presence of scrapie prions in the blood of goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal brain disease of goats and sheep which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent, and is accompanied by the accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Although collection of a blood...

  1. Polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection immunoassay for diagnosis of Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Jas, R; Ghosh, J D; Das, K

    2010-06-24

    A polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cAg-ELISA) for diagnosis of experimental and natural Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats was developed and evaluated. Adult O. columbianum worms, collected from the caecum and colon of slaughtered goats, were triturated and cultured for obtaining infective third stage larvae (L(3)) and also used for preparation of excretory-secretory antigen (ESAg). Experimental goats were orally infected each with 600 L(3)/kg of the body weight. Filter sterilized faecal supernatant, i.e. the coproantigen (cAg) was harvested from the rectal faeces of all the infected goats, on alternate days from day-5 till day-31 after the infection. Hyperimmune serum (HIS) against ESAg of O. columbianum was raised in rabbits. Molecular and antigenic characterization of ES products of O. columbianum by HIS revealed that 50 and 39kDa polypeptides were immuno-dominant. Coproantigen detection ELISA was standardized by using the cAg as coating antigen and its subsequent binding with the HIS against ESAg of O. columbianum. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the standardized assay were determined by evaluating the assay on the faecal supernatant of 96 slaughtered goats taking into consideration their recorded parasitological status in respect of the abomasal and the intestinal parasites. The cAg-ELISA detected the prepatent oesophagostomosis on 20-24-day-post-infection with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 88, 89.13 and 88.54%, respectively. The assay is relatively easy to perform and would serve as a reliable tool for detection of caprine nodular oesophagostomosis.

  2. Comparison of cleft palate induction by Nicotiana glauca in goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Weinzweig, J; Gardner, D R; Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F

    2000-03-01

    The induction of cleft palate by Nicotiana glauca (wild tree tobacco) during the first trimester of pregnancy was compared between Spanish-type goats and crossbred western-type sheep. Cleft palate was induced in 100% of the embryonic/fetal goats when their pregnant mothers were gavaged with N. glauca plant material or with anabasine-rich extracts from the latter, during gestation days 32-41. Seventy-five percent of newborn goats had cleft palate after maternal dosing with N. glauca during gestation days 35-41, while no cleft palates were induced when dosing periods included days 36-40, 37-39, or day 38 only. The induced cleft palates were bilateral, involving the entire secondary palates with complete detachment of the vomer. Eleven percent of the newborn goats from does gavaged during gestation days 32-41 had extracranial abnormalities, most often contractures of the metacarpal joints. Most of these contractures resolved spontaneously by 4-6 weeks postpartum. One newborn kid also had an asymmetric skull due to apparent fetal positioning. No cleft palates were induced in lambs whose mothers were gavaged with N. glauca plant or anabasine-rich extracts during gestation days 34-41, 35-40, 35-41, 36-41, 35-51, or 37-50. Only one of five lambs born to three ewes gavaged with N. glauca plant material during gestation days 34-55 had a cleft palate, but all five of these lambs had moderate to severe contractures in the metacarpal joints. The slight to moderate contracture defects resolved spontaneously by 4-6 weeks postpartum, but the severe contractures resolved only partially. Embryonic/fetal death and resorption (determined by ultrasound) occurred in 25% of pregnant goats fed N. glauca compared to only 4% of pregnant sheep. Nicotiana glauca plant material contained the teratogenic alkaloid anabasine at 0.175% to 0.23%, dry weight, demonstrating that Spanish-type goats are susceptible to cleft palate induction by the natural toxin anabasine, while crossbred western

  3. Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Binod; Ishwar, Ajay Kumar; Choudhary, Pankaj Kumar; Akhatar, Tanveer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of risingtemperature on the metabolic as well as the reproductive performance of the black Bengal goat. Materials and Methods: A total 27 numbers of non-pregnant black Bengal goats of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (average 14-18 kg). Goats in Group-I were kept between the temperature ranges of 35-40°C, in Group-II between 20°Cand 27°C, and Group-III were kept under loose housing system and serve as a control. Goats in all the groups were bred naturally. Blood was collected prior to feeding in the morning on the day 1 (estrus), 20, 45, 90, and 135, expected day of parturition and also 2 days after parturition from goats of all the three groups. Results: It was observed that the level of plasma estrogen decreased (p<0.05) up to day 45 of gestation, then after increased up to 135 days of gestation and was maximum on expected day of parturition which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than all the values. Plasma progesterone level increased from day 20 and was the highest on day 90 and then decreased significantly (p<0.05) on expected date of parturition. The luteinizing hormone value decreased significantly (p<0.05) on expected day of parturition and day 2 after parturition in all the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone concentration showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease from day 1 to 2 days after parturition in all the groups. The plasma triiodothyronine (T3) level did not vary between and within the treatment groups at any stage of the experiment. The plasma thyroxine (T4) level varied significantly (p<0.01) within and (p<0.05) between groups at all stages of reproduction. A significant (p<0.05) variation in plasma cortisol concentration in all the groups increased significantly until the day of parturition and dropped significantly (p<0.01) in 2 days after parturition in all the

  4. Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R. ); Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A. ); Barber, R.T. ); Jacobson, A.C.

    1991-12-01

    Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO{sub 3} are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. Growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be {approximately}0.7 d{sup {minus}1} or 1 biomass doubling d{sup {minus}1} and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss rates approximate observed growth rates. Grazing rates, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated growth rates of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The growth rates of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations.

  5. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P < 0.05), and then its levels in housed and grazing cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P < 0.05). In contrast, the miR-451 level was up-regulated in the grazing cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  6. MHD models for Sun-grazing comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying-Dong; Shou, Yin-Si; Russell, Christopher T.; Combi, Michael R.; Hansen, Kenneth C.

    2014-05-01

    Sun-grazing comets have high orbital eccentricities and low perihelia. They travel between the outer solar system and the lower corona. Recent advances in spacecraft imaging capabilities have enabled us to observe these comets with high resolution both in time and space. These comets exhibit rich tail activity in the lower corona, even multiple tails. Sun-grazing comets interact with the coronal plasma in a very different way, than in the conventional models of comet-solar wind interactions. The parameters, scales, and chemistry are very different. In this study, we have simplified the interaction into two different baseline models. In the first model we show the comet appearance in sub-Alfvenic solar wind. A single-fluid MHD model is applied to comet C2012 S1 (ISON) conditions. In the second model we adopt the chemical reactions with extreme ionization rates around the perihelion of comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). We use our multi-fluid model to track all charge states of oxygen, from O+ to O6+. These steady-state models can be used to explain the chronicle of comet tail appearance as it approaches perihelion.

  7. 25 CFR 166.418 - When is a grazing rental payment late?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 166.418 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Payments § 166.418 When is a grazing.... Late Rental Payment Collections...

  8. 25 CFR 166.418 - When is a grazing rental payment late?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 166.418 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Payments § 166.418 When is a grazing.... Late Rental Payment Collections...

  9. 25 CFR 166.418 - When is a grazing rental payment late?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....418 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Payments § 166.418 When is a grazing.... Late Rental Payment Collections...

  10. 25 CFR 166.418 - When is a grazing rental payment late?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 166.418 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Payments § 166.418 When is a grazing.... Late Rental Payment Collections...

  11. 25 CFR 166.418 - When is a grazing rental payment late?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 166.418 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Payments § 166.418 When is a grazing.... Late Rental Payment Collections...

  12. Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

  13. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  14. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia.

  15. Video tracking analysis of behavioral patterns during estrus in goats

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Natsumi; RAHAYU, Larasati Puji; ARAKAWA, Toshiya; TANAKA, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a new method for measuring behavioral patterns during estrus in goats based on video tracking analysis. Data were collected from cycling goats, which were in estrus (n = 8) or not in estrus (n = 8). An observation pen (2.5 m × 2.5 m) was set up in the corner of the female paddock with one side adjacent to a male paddock. The positions and movements of goats were tracked every 0.5 sec for 10 min by using a video tracking software, and the trajectory data were used for the analysis. There were no significant differences in the durations of standing and walking or the total length of movement. However, the number of approaches to a male and the duration of staying near the male were higher in goats in estrus than in goats not in estrus. The proposed evaluation method may be suitable for detailed monitoring of behavioral changes during estrus in goats. PMID:26560676

  16. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.

  17. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871

  18. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America.

  19. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871

  20. Large herbivore grazing affects the vegetation structure and greenhouse gas balance in a high arctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie Maria; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Herbivory is an important part of most ecosystems and affects the ecosystems’ carbon balance both directly and indirectly. Little is known about herbivory and its impact on the carbon balance in high arctic mire ecosystems. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influences the vegetation density and composition and thereby also the carbon balance. In 2010, we established fenced exclosures in high arctic Greenland to prevent muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from grazing. During the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in these ungrazed blocks and compared them to blocks subjected to natural grazing. Additionally, we measured depth of the water table and active layer, soil temperature, and in 2011 and 2013 an inventory of the vegetation density and composition were made. In 2013 a significant decrease in total number of vascular plant (33-44%) and Eriophorum scheuchzeri (51-53%) tillers were found in ungrazed plots, the moss-layer and amount of litter had also increased substantially in these plots. This resulted in a significant decrease in net ecosystem uptake of CO2 (47%) and likewise a decrease in CH4 emission (44%) in ungrazed plots in 2013. While the future of the muskoxen in a changing arctic is unknown, this experiment points to a potentially large effect of large herbivores on the carbon balance in natural Arctic ecosystems. It thus sheds light on the importance of grazing mammals, and hence adds to our understanding of natural ecosystem greenhouse gas balance in the past and in the future.

  1. Pasture growth and decomposition under continuous and rotational grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research has shown that grazing management can affect both pasture growth and litter decomposition. The objective of this study was to compare forage appearance (growth) and forage disappearance (decomposition) on both continuous and rotational grazed beef cattle pasture in Ohio. Data was colle...

  2. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in...

  3. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in...

  4. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in...

  5. From the lab bench: A systematic approach to grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss the use of grazing systems to overcome challenges of managing grazed pastures. Kentucky cattlemen must manage around summer slumps in growth of cool-season perennial grasses, periodic drought, and cattle markets that do not always cooperate with pasture growth patter...

  6. Dairy farmers using mob grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proponents of ultra-high stocking density grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 500,000 lb per acre of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 180 days. However, it is unclear if this management tec...

  7. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ungulates often concentrate grazing at small hotspots in the larger landscape, and dispersing livestock away from these intensively grazed areas is one of the central challenges in range management. We evaluated a technique based on shifting the stocking date to prevent overgrazing of small areas co...

  8. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  9. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  10. Cattle grazing and vegetation succession on burned sagebrush steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on the effects of cattle grazing to longer-term plant community composition and productivity following fire in big sagebrush steppe. This study evaluated vegetation response to cattle grazing over seven years (2007-2013) on burned Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia triden...

  11. Using packrat middens to assess grazing effects on vegetation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, J.; Cole, K.L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research on grazing effects usually compares the same sites through time or grazed and ungrazed sites over the same time period. Both approaches are complicated in arid environments where grazing can have a long undocumented history and landscapes can be spatially heterogenous. This work employs both approaches simultaneously by comparing grazed and ungrazed samples through both time and space using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. A series of 27 middens, spanning from 995 yr BP to the present, were collected from Glen Canyon in southeastern Utah, USA. These middens detail vegetation change just prior to, and following, the historical introduction of domesticated grazers and also compares assemblages from nearby ungrazable mesas. Pre-grazing middens, and modern middens from ungrazed areas, record more native grasses, native herbs, and native shrubs such as Rhus trilobata, Amelanchier utahensis, and Shepherdia rotundifolia than modern middens from grazed areas. Ordinations demonstrate that site-to-site variability is more important than any temporal changes, making selection of comparable grazed versus ungrazed study treatments difficult. But within similar sites, the changes through time show that grazing lowered the number of taxa recorded, and lessened the pre-existing site differences, homogenizing the resultant plant associations in this desert grassland.

  12. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge.

  13. Single-domain antibody-based ligands for immunoaffinity separation of recombinant human lactoferrin from the goat lactoferrin of transgenic goat milk.

    PubMed

    Tillib, S V; Privezentseva, M E; Ivanova, T I; Vasilev, L F; Efimov, G A; Gursky, Y G; Georgiev, G P; Goldman, I L; Sadchikova, E R

    2014-02-15

    Single-domain antibody generation technology was applied to make new Sepharose-bound ligands for affinity separation of closely related proteins, such as human and goat lactoferrin. We generated recombinant antibodies that can selectively bind/recognize only lactoferrins having amino acid sequences identical to that of human natural lactoferrin (anti-hLF Ab). Selected and purified histidine-tagged single-domain antibodies were used as ligands, and different lactoferrins were used as analytes in the kinetics analysis of lactoferrin binding to captured anti-hLF Abs using the Bio-Rad ProteOn XPR36 protein interaction array system. The data obtained were consistent with a 1:1 binding model with very high affinity, practically equal in the case of hLF and rec-hLF (calculated KD varied from 0.43nM to 3.7nM). Interaction of captured fsdAbs with goat LF was significantly weaker and not detectable under the same analysis conditions. We demonstrated the high efficiency of the recombinant human lactoferrin purification from goat lactoferrin and other proteins using the obtained single domain antibody-based affinity ligands. We believe this approach can be used for the generation of single-domain antibody-based affinity media for the efficient separation/purification of a wide spectrum of other highly homologous proteins.

  14. Reducing the impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W; Goldman, Charles R; Connor, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountain range serves as an important source of drinking water for the State of California. However, summer cattle grazing on federal lands affects the overall water quality yield from this essential watershed as cattle manure is washed into the lakes and streams or directly deposited into these bodies of water. This organic pollution introduces harmful microorganisms and also provides nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which increase algae growth causing eutrophication of otherwise naturally oligotrophic mountain lakes and streams. Disinfection and filtration of this water by municipal water districts after it flows downstream will become increasingly costly. This will be compounded by increasing surface water temperatures and the potential for toxins release by cyanobacteria blooms. With increasing demands for clean water for a state population approaching 40 million, steps need to be implemented to mitigate the impact of cattle on the Sierra Nevada watershed. Compared to lower elevations, high elevation grazing has the greatest impact on the watershed because of fragile unforgiving ecosystems. The societal costs from non-point pollution exceed the benefit achieved through grazing of relatively few cattle at the higher elevations. We propose limiting summer cattle grazing on public lands to lower elevations, with a final goal of allowing summer grazing on public lands only below 1,500 m elevation in the Central and Northern Sierra and 2,000 m elevation in the Southern Sierra.

  15. Reindeer grazing has contrasting effect on species traits in Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bistorta vivipara (L.) Gray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindwall, Frida; Vowles, Tage; Ekblad, Alf; Björk, Robert G.

    2013-11-01

    That reindeer grazing can have large effects on plant communities is well known, but how reindeer grazing affects plant traits and plant carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) allocation has not been studied to the same extent. This study was conducted in a sub-arctic dry heath in northern Sweden. 17-year-old reindeer exclosures were used to test whether reindeer grazing affects the C:N ratio (a plant quality index), and the δ13C and δ15N (indicators of changes in C and N dynamics) as well as the C and N content of above- and below ground parts of the evergreen dwarf shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and the perennial forb Bistorta vivipara (L.) Gray. A lower C:N ratio was found in B. vivipara compared to V. vitis-idaea suggesting a higher grazing pressure on that species. We found that grazing reduced the total C content, by 26%, and increased the δ15N, by 1‰, in the leaves of B. vivipara, while no changes were observed in V. vitis-idaea. Fine roots of B. vivipara had higher δ13C (1‰) and δ15N (2.5‰) than the leaves, while such differences were not found in V. vitis-idaea. The results also highlight the importance of analysing both above- and belowground plant parts when interpreting natural variations in δ13C and δ15N.

  16. The role of quorum sensing mediated developmental traits in the resistance of Serratia marcescens biofilms against protozoan grazing.

    PubMed

    Queck, Shu-Yeong; Weitere, Markus; Moreno, Ana María; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2006-06-01

    Resistance against protozoan grazers is a crucial factor that is important for the survival of many bacteria in their natural environment. However, the basis of resistance to protozoans and how resistance factors are regulated is poorly understood. In part, resistance may be due to biofilm formation, which is known to protect bacteria from environmental stress conditions. The ubiquitous organism Serratia marcescens uses quorum sensing (QS) control to regulate virulence factor expression and biofilm formation. We hypothesized that the QS system of S. marcescens also regulates mechanisms that protect biofilms against protozoan grazing. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the interactions of wild-type and QS mutant strains of S. marcescens biofilms with two protozoans having different feeding types under batch and flow conditions. Under batch conditions, S. marcescens forms microcolony biofilms, and filamentous biofilms are formed under flow conditions. The microcolony-type biofilms were protected from grazing by the suspension feeder, flagellate Bodo saltans, but were not protected from the surface feeder, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. In contrast, the filamentous biofilm provided protection against A. polyphaga. The main findings presented in this study suggest that (i) the QS system is not involved in grazing resistance of S. marcescens microcolony-type biofilms; (ii) QS in S. marcescens regulates antiprotozoan factor(s) that do not interfere with the grazing efficiency of the protozoans; and (iii) QS-controlled, biofilm-specific differentiation of filaments and cell chains in biofilms of S. marcescens provides an efficient mechanism against protozoan grazing.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

    2014-12-01

    Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds.

  18. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Male Goat Genome

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, D.; Schibler, L.; Bourgeois, F.; Oustry, A.; Amigues, Y.; Cribiu, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a first genetic linkage map of the goat genome. Primers derived from the flanking sequences of 612 bovine, ovine and goat microsatellite markers were gathered and tested for amplification with goat DNA under standardized PCR conditions. This screen made it possible to choose a set of 55 polymorphic markers that can be used in the three species and to define a panel of 223 microsatellites suitable for the goat. Twelve half-sib paternal goat families were then used to build a linkage map of the goat genome. The linkage analysis made it possible to construct a meiotic map covering 2300 cM, i.e., >80% of the total estimated length of the goat genome. Moreover, eight cosmids containing microsatellites were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization in goat and sheep. Together with 11 microsatellite-containing cosmids previously mapped in cattle (and supposing conservation of the banding pattern between this species and the goat) and data from the sheep map, these results made the orientation of 15 linkage groups possible. Furthermore, 12 coding sequences were mapped either genetically or physically, providing useful data for comparative mapping. PMID:8878693

  19. Simulated grazing responses on the proposed prairies National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parton, William J.; Wright, R. Gerald; Risser, Paul G.

    1980-03-01

    The tallgrass prairie version of the ELM Grassland Model was used to evaluate the potential impact of establishing a tallgrass prairie National Park in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. This total ecosystem model simulates ( a) the flow of water, heat, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the ecosystem and( b) the biomass dynamics of plants and consumers. It was specifically developed to study the effects of levels and types of herbivory, climatic variation, and fertilization upon grassland ecosystems. The model was used to simulate the impact of building up herds of bison, elk, antelope, and wolves on a tallgrass prairie. The results show that the grazing levels in the park should not be decreased below the prepark grazing levels (moderate grazing with cattle) and that the final grazing levels in the park could be maintained at a slightly higher level than the prepark grazing levels.

  20. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  1. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  2. Carbon flux assessment in cow-calf grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Powers, W J

    2015-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in grassland ecosystems are intimately linked to grazing management. This study assessed the carbon equivalent flux (Ceq) from 1) an irrigated, heavily stocked, low-density grazing system, 2) a nonirrigated, lightly stocked, high-density grazing system, and 3) a grazing-exclusion pasture site on the basis of the GHG emissions from pasture soils and enteric methane emissions from cows grazing different pasture treatments. Soil organic carbon and total soil nitrogen stocks were measured but not included in Ceq determination because of study duration and time needed to observe a change in soil composition. Light- and heavy-stocking systems had 36% and 43% greater Ceq than nongrazed pasture sites, respectively ( < 0.01). The largest contributor to increased Ceq from grazing systems was enteric CH emissions, which represented 15% and 32% of the overall emissions for lightly and heavily stocked grazing systems, respectively. Across years, grazing systems also had increased nitrous oxide (N2O; < 0.01) and CH emissions from pasture soils ( < 0.01) compared with nongrazed pasture sites but, overall, minimally contributed to total emissions. Results indicate no clear difference in Ceqflux between the grazing systems studied when SOC change is not incorporated ( = 0.11). A greater stocking rate potentially increased total SOC stock ( = 0.02), the addition of SOC deeper into the soil horizon ( = 0.01), and soil OM content to 30 cm ( < 0.01). The incorporation of long-term annual carbon sequestration into the determination of Ceq could change results and possibly differentiate the grazing systems studied. PMID:26440199

  3. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  4. The influence of grazing and browsing on soil and runoff in revegetated erosion-areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markart, G.; Kohl, B.; Starnberger, R.; Gallmetzer, W.

    2009-04-01

    Intensive land use by grazing over centuries led to severe erosion at the steep slopes of the Tanaser Berg, in the community of Eyrs (South Tyrol - Italy). At the end of the 1970ies grazing was abandoned in the clearly eroded parts of the catchment above the actual timberline and an intensive program for revegetation of the slopes was started by the Department of Hydraulic Engineering, from the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, and the area covered by greening measures divided form the surrounding pastures by a solid fence. In 1999 partial opening for agricultural use by cattle for short term grazing (14 days a year) was planned in the interest of the land owners. Consequentially impact by cattle on the greened areas and alpine lawns still under long term grazing was investigated by use of a transportable spray irrigation for large plots (50 m² size) supplemented by additional investigations (documentation of soil physical properties, characterization of vegetation, changes in plant biomass, etc.). Each plot was irrigated twice: One time before opening the fenced site for short time grazing by cattle again at the End of June and the beginning of July 1999 and a second time five years later, after restart of short time grazing at the beginning of August 2004. In total seven plots were irrigated. 5 plots within the revegetated area, four of them greened, the fifth a carex sempervirens stand, formerly not eroded. 2 of the greened plots were fenced and kept free from grazing over the next five years. In addition 2 carex sempervirens stands with calluna outside which had been grazed at leat for several decades, one of them partially eroded, were investigated as reference plots. The four revegetated plots did not show significant changes in surface runoff development. High content of skeleton (stones and blocs) reduced runoff and erosion potential. In addition high slope-inclination made these plots unloved by cattle. On the contrary the natural carex sempervirens

  5. Stimulation of soil nitrification and denitrification by grazing in grasslands: do changes in plant species composition matter?

    PubMed

    Le Roux, X; Bardy, M; Loiseau, P; Louault, F

    2003-11-01

    Stimulation of nitrification and denitrification by long term (from years to decades) grazing has commonly been reported in different grassland ecosystems. However, grazing generally induces important changes in plant species composition, and whether changes in nitrification and denitrification are primarily due to changes in vegetation composition has never been tested. We compared soil nitrification- and denitrification-enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively) between semi-natural grassland sites experiencing intensive (IG) and light (LG) grazing/mowing regimes for 13 years. Mean NEA and DEA (i.e. observed from random soil sampling) were higher in IG than LG sites. The NEA/DEA ratio was higher in IG than LG sites, indicating a higher stimulation of nitrification. Marked changes in plant species composition were observed in response to the grazing/mowing regime. In particular, the specific phytomass volume of Elymus repens was lower in IG than LG sites, whereas the specific volume of Lolium perenne was higher in IG than LG sites. In contrast, the specific volume of Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Arrhenatherum elatius were not significantly different between treatments. Soils sampled beneath grass tussocks of the last three species exhibited higher DEA, NEA and NEA/DEA ratio in IG than LG sites. For a given grazing regime, plant species did not affect significantly soil DEA, NEA and NEA/DEA ratio. The modification of plant species composition is thus not the primary factor driving changes in nitrification and denitrification in semi-natural grassland ecosystems experiencing long term intensive grazing. Factors such as trampling, N returned in animal excreta, and/or modification of N uptake and C exudation by frequently defoliated plants could be responsible for the enhanced microbial activities.

  6. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  7. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  8. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.

  9. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese. PMID:27407294

  10. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  11. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  12. Mollusc grazing limits growth and early development of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in broadleaved deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2008-02-01

    THIS STUDY AIMS: (1) to quantify mollusc grazing on juvenile and mature thalli of the foliose epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, and (2) to test the hypothesis inferring a herbivore defensive role of lichen depsidones in forests with indigenous populations of lichen-feeding molluscs. Lichens were transplanted in shaded and less shaded positions in each of two calcareous broadleaved deciduous forests, one poor in lichens, one with a rich Lobarion community. Preventing the access of molluscs significantly reduced the loss of juvenile L. pulmonaria, particularly in the naturally lichen-poor forest. Molluscs also severely grazed mature thalli in the lichen-poor forest, especially thalli placed under the more shading canopies. Furthermore, reducing the natural concentration of depsidones by pre-rinsing with acetone increased subsequent grazing significantly, showing that lichen depsidones function as herbivore defence in natural habitats. Our results suggest that mollusc grazing may play important roles in shaping the epiphytic vegetation in calcareous deciduous forests, and that recently established juvenile L. pulmonaria thalli seem to be particularly vulnerable.

  13. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Nutritional management of grazing beef cows.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Clay P; Sawyer, Jason E

    2007-03-01

    In grazing operations, forage quality and availability are sometimes limited, and cattle are unable to consume enough nutrients from pasture forage to fulfill requirements. During such situations, supplemental or replacement feeding is necessary to meet production goals. A fundamental understanding of ruminant nutrition and forage management is helpful in deciding which feed or supplement type (ie, energy versus protein) best fits the goals of a specific beef production system. It is important to choose a delivery method and supplement form that provide the targeted amount of desired nutrients to each animal in the herd and that minimize input costs. The objective of this article is to serve as a resource for veterinarians as they provide nutritional management support to beef cow producers. PMID:17382837

  15. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model.

  16. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. PMID:22436287

  17. Pathogenesis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Cellular localization of viral transcripts in tissues of infected goats.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, M. C.; Yager, J. A.; Myers, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Pathologic specimens of 18 goats with classical lesions of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection were examined morphologically and by in situ hybridization using molecularly cloned CAEV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to determine which tissues and cells of naturally infected goats supported virus replication. Large numbers of cells with viral transcripts were detected in inflamed brain, spinal cord, lung, joints, and mammary gland. These cells were morphologically compatible with macrophages. Fewer cells with viral transcripts were seen in noninflamed tissues. Viral RNA was identified in macrophagelike cells in lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, in cells lining the vessels of brain and synovium, and in epithelial cells of intestinal crypts, renal tubules, and thyroid follicles. These data suggest that the cell tropism of lentiviruses may extend beyond the narrow boundaries of lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2327471

  18. Coxiella burnetii in central Italy: novel genotypes are circulating in cattle and goats.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Marco; Curini, Valentina; De Massis, Fabrizio; Di Provvido, Andrea; Scacchia, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare

    2014-10-01

    Genotyping of bacteria is critical for diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological surveillance. Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, has been recognized to have a potential for bioterrorism purposes. Because few serosurveys have been conducted in Italy, there is still limited information about the distribution of this pathogen in natural conditions. In this paper, we describe the genotyping of C. burnetii strains by multispacer sequence typing (MST) detected in cattle and goat farms in the Abruzzi region of Italy. Biological samples (milk, aborted fetus) positive for C. burnetii DNA were sequenced in the spacer regions and compared with those already publicly available ( http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_Coxiella/mst/group_detail ). The MST profile of C. burnetii detected in milk samples demonstrated the presence of a new allele, whereas the C. burnetii spacer sequences from fetus and milk goat samples displayed a new allelic combination. The results suggest the circulation of novel genotypes of C. burnetii in Italy.

  19. Experimental pestivirus infections in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Bjerkås, I

    1991-08-01

    Fifty pregnant goats, inoculated intramuscularly at different gestational stages with a non-cytopathic ovine pestivirus or a cytopathic bovine pestivirus, all developed pestivirus-neutralizing antibodies within 5 weeks of inoculation. The incidence of reproductive failure was similar for the two agents. Parturition at term with only healthy kids occurred in 13 (26 per cent) of the goats. Viable kids were not born to any of the 17 goats inoculated at about day 40 of gestation. Three of the 17 delivered dead or weak kids, seven aborted and three of seven which were necropsied during pregnancy had markedly underdeveloped and autolysed or mummified fetuses in utero, while four were barren. When inoculated at around the 60th day of gestation, two of 18 animals gave birth to only healthy kids, 12 to dead and/or weak kids, two aborted and, at necropsy, a small, decomposed fetus was found in one goat while one other was barren. In this group, one kid was ataxic and seven others had body tremors characteristic of border disease. One of the latter kids was viable. Of 15 goats inoculated at around day 100 of gestation, 11 gave birth to healthy kids only, three to dead and/or weak kids and one aborted. In 23 progeny, histological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) consisted mainly of cerebral white matter necrosis, cerebellar dysplasia, hypercellular areas in white matter and lymphocytic perivascular cuffings. All seven weak-born kids with signs of border disease had CNS lesions, particularly cerebellar dysplasia and/or hypercellular areas. Non-cytopathic pestivirus was isolated from tissues from all eight progeny examined in the 40-day inoculation group, from tissues and/or serum from 10 of 23 progeny in the 60-day group, and from four of 24 in the 100-day group. Persistent infection was demonstrated in a healthy kid, in a viable shaker and in two other kids which appeared normal at birth. Examination of offspring before ingestion of colostrum revealed pestivirus

  20. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    Middle Eastern Mediterranean grasslands have evolved 8000-9000 years before present (BP). These grasslands were prehistorically subject to persistent pressure from grazing domesticated animals. Grazing and competition are the central factors affecting grassland communities, linking their maintenance, productivity, and management to biodiversity and livestock production. Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean grassland is a rich source of valuable forages for grazing livestock production systems in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. Competition treatments (absence/presence of neighbors) were combined with three defoliation ( as surrogate to grazing) intensities (0%, 30% and 60%) in a factorial design. Relative interaction index (RII) was used to measure competition intensity. RII standardizes the reduction in growth of one species due to presence of neighbor species. Competition reduced grass biomass by approximately 10-15% for final and cumulative biomass. Competition role was eliminated under heavy defoliation or under harsh environmental conditions. Defoliation showed variable results on final and cumulative biomass. While heavy defoliation (60% clipping intensity) greatly reduced final grass biomass, light-moderate defoliation (30%) has increased cumulative biomass. Results showed that competition may limit the direct effect of defoliation on dominant grass species. Further, competition effect on dominant annual grasses showed positive and negative effects in relation to site productivity and best explained by a sinusoidal model. This hypothesized sinusoidal model suggests that facilitation and competition are alternatively affecting grassland communities along productivity gradient. The nature of interaction changes with changing community productivity revealing a cyclic pattern. The reflection points where interaction switches from facilitation to competition may explain the mechanism of maintaining high species diversity at intermediate level of

  1. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  2. Does Vegetation Parameterization from EO NDVI Data Capture Grazing induced Variations in Species Composition and Biomass in Semi-Arid Grassland Savanna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, P.; Fensholt, R.

    2014-11-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery, due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurement. From long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. The greening appears highly related to a general increase in rainfall following the severe droughts of the 1970s and 80s. In the same time period the region has experienced a drastic population boom and a resulting increase in numbers of livestock. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the extensive influence of grazing on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses time series of parameterized Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data by comparison with data from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. Field data include grazing intensity, vegetation productivity, and species composition from sizeable areas suitable for comparison with moderate - coarse resolution satellite imagery. It is established that sampling plots excluded from grazing have higher Net Primary Production (NPP) and different species composition as compared to plots under controlled grazing or communal grazing. The seasonal small integrated NDVI, derived using absolute thresholds to estimate start and end of growing seasons, is identified as the parameter most strongly related to vegetation productivity for all grazing regimes. However plot-pixel comparisons demonstrates how the NDVI/biomass relationship changes due to grazing induced variation in annual plant species composition and the NDVI values for grazed plots are only slightly lower than the values observed for the ungrazed plots. Hence, average biomass in ungrazed plots since 2000 was 0.93 t ha-1, compared to 0.51 t ha-1 for plots subjected to controlled grazing and 0.49 t

  3. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hemato-biochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shrimali, R. G.; Patel, M. D.; Patel, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes) characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment. Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1), triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2), and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3) was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats. PMID:27284231

  4. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  5. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  6. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Brussard, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Although feral horses have inhabited western North America since the end of the 16th century, relatively little synecological research has been conducted to quantitatively characterize how they interact with ecosystem components. Because feral horses exhibit watering behavior markedly different from that of domestic cattle, it is particularly important to evaluate response of ecosystem elements near water sources to horse use. To assess this response, we performed live-trapping of small mammals and 2-tiered vegetative sampling in 2 mountain ranges in central Nevada in the interior Great Basin, USA. At low elevations, plots around horse-excluded springs exhibited notably greater plant species richness, percent cover, and abundance of grasses and shrubs, as well as more small mammal burrow entrances than plots at horse-grazed springs. At high elevations, meadows protected from grazing exhibited maximum vegetation heights 2.8 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses only and 4.5 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses and cattle. Species richness in quadrats was most different between the horse-and-cattle-grazed meadow and its ungrazed counterpart, suggesting the possibility of synergistic effects of horse and cattle grazing in the same location. This study, the first in the Great Basin to investigate quantitatively ecosystem consequences of feral horse use with exclosures, represents a preliminary step in identifying factors that determine the magnitude of horse grazing impacts. 

  7. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

  8. ADAPTmap: International coordinated data resource for improving goat production effiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...

  9. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats.

  10. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  11. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26732975

  12. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production.

  13. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  14. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  15. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  16. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-09-15

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A.

  17. Interactions between global and grazing bifurcations in an impacting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joanna F.; Piiroinen, Petri T.

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that the locus of boundary crises in smooth systems contains gaps that give rise to periodic windows. We show that this phenomenon can also be observed in an impacting system, and that the mechanism by which these gaps are created is different. Namely, here gaps are created and disappear at points along the branches of boundary crises where they are intersected by branches of grazing bifurcations. We locate a novel type of double-crisis vertex which we call a grazing-crisis vertex. Additionally, we illustrate several types of basin-boundary metamorphosis that are intricately related with grazing bifurcations.

  18. Impact of integrated gastrointestinal nematode management training for U.S. goat and sheep producers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, N C; Oh, S-H; Lee, S J; Schoenian, S; Kaplan, R M; Storey, B; Terrill, T H; Mobini, S; Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Perdue, M A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of integrated parasite management (IPM) training, including FAMACHA(©) eyelid color scoring, on the ability of U.S. sheep and goat producers to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) on their farms. A survey was developed and provided to over 2000 producers trained from 2004 to 2008 in IPM with questions involving farm size (number of sheep/goats), location (U.S. state), impact of training on parasite control efforts and parasite problems on farm, and IPM practices used. Responses were divided into U.S. Census regions of the U.S. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe results. Most of the 729 respondents were from the southern region of the U.S. (54.3%) and were small-scale producers (50 or less animals; 64.8%). Nearly all of the respondents (95.1%) agreed that IPM workshop attendance made a difference in their ability to control and monitor parasitism in their herd or flock and employed IPM practices to control GIN (96.3%). The most popular practices respondents used were rotational grazing (71.2%), genetic selection (choosing a parasite resistant breed and/or culling susceptible animals; 52.7%), grain supplementation on pasture to improve nutrition (44.0%), and increased height of plants being grazed (41.8%). Although reporting using a practice decreased (P<0.05) the likelihood of reporting fewer problems, for each 1-point increase in the number of practices which producers employed to control internal parasitism in their herd or flock, they were 16% more likely to report fewer GIN problems (P<0.05). Approximately 75% of respondents indicated an economic benefit of IPM on their farm (P<0.05), and those reporting savings of over $80 were more likely to report fewer problems (P<0.05) with parasites after the training while those reporting no economic benefit were less likely to report fewer problems with GIN (P<0.001). Overall, IPM training resulted in positive impacts for

  19. Inter- and intraspecific placentae in sheep, goats and sheep-goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Edmondson, A J

    1992-04-01

    These studies compared inter- and intraspecific placentae during implantation and at full-term in sheep, goats and interspecific sheep-goat chimaeras. Histological sections prepared from intra- and interspecific day-26, 32 and 36 placentae in ewes and does indicated an altered ability of the trophoblast to invade the maternal caruncle in interspecific pregnancies. Two sheep-in-goat pregnancies were less, and two goat-in-sheep pregnancies were more, invasive than homologous pregnancies. Caprine pregnancies in chimaeras generally terminated before timed samples could be obtained, but biopsy samples collected at laparotomy between days 42 and 48 demonstrated both normal and abnormal placentation in chimaeras after breedings to rams. In six of 11 full-term fetal placentae from ovine pregnancies in chimaeras, there was abnormal retention of maternal caruncular tissue to the extent that macroscopic lesions were visible on the surface of the fetal cotyledons. Histological observations indicated that proliferation of maternal septa and hyalinization of maternal vessels had occurred at the expense of the fetal villi. Overall, the results suggested that the physiological events that regulate implantation are different in the two species, despite anatomical similarities between the ovine and caprine placenta. The caprine conceptus is likely to be rejected in the ovine or chimaeric uterus because of its over-invasiveness in the early stages of implantation, whereas the ovine conceptus can survive in the potentially chimaeric uterus. PMID:1602061

  20. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats. PMID:22524237

  1. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  2. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats.

  3. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of experimental interspecies goat-sheep chimera.

    PubMed

    Jaszczak, K; Członkowska, M; Guszkiewicz, A; Parada, R

    1991-01-01

    Chromosomal analysis was carried out on blood lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and germinal cells of an interspecies goat-sheep chimera. This chimera was produced by aggregation of blastomeres of goat and sheep embryos. A cell chimerism 54,XX/60,XY was found in blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. At birth the percentage of lymphocytes with karyotype 54,XX (sheep) amounted to 80% and with karyotype 60,XY (goat) to 20%. With age the percentage of lymphocytes with chromosome complement 54,XX increased, so that at 18 months it was 94% sheep and 6% goat. At the same age, in skin fibroblasts the percentage of cells with goat karyotype reached 25%. Analysis of germinal cells showed in spermatogonia the presence of only karyotype 60,XY and in primary spermatocytes of 29 autosomal bivalents and the sex bivalent XY. PMID:2061596

  5. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  6. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  7. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

  8. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep or goat that is required to be individually identified or premises identified by § 79.3 may be...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  11. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep or goat that is required to be individually identified or premises identified by § 79.3 may be...

  12. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  13. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  14. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  15. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  16. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  17. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  18. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  19. The effects of protein supplement on leptin concentrations in lambs and meat goat kids grazing Bermudagrass pastures in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...

  20. Major proteins of the goat milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Cebo, C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P

    2010-03-01

    Fat is present in milk as droplets of triglycerides surrounded by a complex membrane derived from the mammary epithelial cell called milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Although numerous studies have been published on human or bovine MFGM proteins, to date few studies exist on MFGM proteins from goat milk. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of the goat MFGM. Milk fat globule membrane proteins from goat milk were separated by 6% and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and were Coomassie or periodic acid-Schiff stained. Most of MFGM proteins [mucin-1, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin (MFG EGF-8, MFG-E8), and adipophilin] already described in cow milk were identified in goat milk using peptide mass fingerprinting. In addition, lectin staining provided a preliminary characterization of carbohydrate structures occurring on MFGM proteins from goat milk depending on alpha(S1)-casein genotype and lactation stage. We provide here first evidence of the presence of O-glycans on fatty acid synthase and xanthine oxidase from goat milk. A prominent difference between the cow and the goat species was demonstrated for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 2 polypeptide chains were easily identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis within bovine MFGM proteins, lactadherin from goat milk consisted of a single polypeptide chain. Another striking observation was the presence of caseins associated with MFGM preparations from goat milk, whereas virtually no caseins were found in MFGM extracts from bovine milk. Taken together, these observations strongly support the existence of a singular secretion mode previously hypothesized in the goat.