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Sample records for gobiocypris rarus gills

  1. Developmental Toxicity of Carbon Quantum Dots to the Embryos/Larvae of Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Zeng, Yu-Lian

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects of CDs on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated. The results showed that rare minnow embryos had decreased spontaneous movements, body length, increased heart rate, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, tail/spinal curvature, various morphological malformations, and decreased hatching rate. Biochemical analysis showed the CDs exposure significantly inhibited the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and increased the MDA contents and the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPX. Further examination suggested that the CDs exposure induced serious embryonic cellular DNA damage. Moreover, the CDs exposure induced upregulation of development related genes (Wnt8a and Mstn) along with the downregulation of Vezf1. Overall, the present study revealed that the CDs exposure has significant development toxicity on rare minnow embryos/larvae. Mechanistically, this toxicity might result from the pressure of induced oxidative stress coordinate with the dysregulated development related gene expression mediated by the CDs exposure. PMID:27872851

  2. Temperature affects Hg-induced antioxidant responses in Chinese rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Chen, Lu

    2014-12-01

    The effect of temperature on HgCl2 (Hg(2+))-induced oxidative stress to Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was evaluated in vitro. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in whole body homogenates incubated with 0.1 mg/L Hg(2+) at 15, 25 and 35°C for 60 min. The result showed that oxidative stress was at a normal level in the Hg(2+) + NT (0.1 mg/L Hg(2+) and normal temperature, 25°C) and Hg(2+) + LT (0.1 mg/L Hg(2+) and low temperature, 15°C) groups, but a significant induction in oxidative stress occurred in the Hg(2+) + HT (35°C) group. This was reflected by an increased level of MDA and decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that higher temperature enhances heavy metal toxicity in aquatic systems, which should be given more attention in the future.

  3. Histopathological and estrogen effect of pentachlorophenol on the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaozheng; Xiong, Li; Liu, Yan; Deng, Chuan; Mao, Siyu

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a typical organic pollutant and environmental endocrine disruptor, has been extensively used as a pesticide and biocide worldwide. In this study, the effects of PCP on the histological and hepatic system of the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were evaluated. Vitellogenin (VTG) was used as a biomarker to evaluate the estrogen effect of PCP. The results revealed that VTG was highly expressed and PCP exposure had histopathological effects on the rare minnow. Plasma and hepatic VTG concentrations increased when female rare minnows were exposed to ≥80 μg/L PCP and male rare minnows were exposed to 40 μg/L PCP (p < 0.05), which suggested that the VTG expression was evoked by PCP exposure. The results indicated that both plasma and liver tissue were suitable for VTG quantification. A significant decrease in the mRNA level of hepatic estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in male or juvenile was observed after exposure to ≥80 or ≥8 μg/L PCP, respectively; in contrast, increased mRNA levels of ERβ1, ERβ2, VTGI, and VTGII in male or juvenile were detected after exposure to ≥80 or ≥8 μg/L PCP, respectively. These results suggested that PCP has an estrogen effect and exists within different endocrine-disrupting pathways from other environmental contaminants. As such, VTG mRNA expression in the rare minnow may require transcription of the ERβ1 and ERβ2 genes.

  4. Effect of low-dose malathion on the gonadal development of adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Guo; Guan, Yongjing; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-03-01

    Malathion is an organophosphorus pesticide that extensively used in agriculture and veterinary practices. To investigate the effects of low dose malathion on rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus gonadal development, we exposed adult rare minnow to environmentally relevant concentration malathion (2 and 20μg/L) for 21 days. Gonadal histology, sex hormone levels and mRNA expressions of steroidogenic genes were investigated. Malathion at both 2 and 20μg/L significantly up-regulated rare minnow testicular weight and promoted the progression of spermatogenesis. Neither ovarian weight nor process of ovary development was markedly changed. In testis, 2μg/L malathion significantly down-regulated testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels, and up-regulated mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes. In ovaries, 2 and 20μg/L malathion significantly inhibited estradiol17β levels and induced testosterone levels, both in concentration dependent manners; mRNA expressions of almost all the detected ovarian steroidogenic genes were up-regulated. The present result suggested that malathion even at low dose could pose a potential threat to adult rare minnow gonadal development.

  5. Toxicogenomic analysis of the hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus)

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yanhong; Liu Yang; Wang Jianshe; Tao Yi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. To assess the effects of PFOA in fish and predict its potential mode of action, a toxicogenomic approach was applied to hepatic gene expression profile analysis in male and female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) using a custom cDNA microarray containing 1773 unique genes. Rare minnows were treated with continuous flow-through exposure to PFOA at concentrations of 3, 10, and 30 mg/L for 28 days. Based on the observed histopathological changes, the livers from fish exposed to 10 mg/L PFOA were selected for further hepatic gene expression analysis. While 124 and 171 genes were significantly altered by PFOA in males and females, respectively, of which 43 genes were commonly regulated in both sexes. The affected genes are involved in multiple biological processes, including lipid metabolism and transport, hormone action, immune responses, and mitochondrial functions. PFOA exposure significantly suppressed genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and transport but induced genes associated with intracellular trafficking of cholesterol. Alterations in expression of genes associated with mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation were only observed in female rare minnows. In addition, PFOA inhibited genes responsible for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and significantly induced estrogen-responsive genes. These findings implicate PFOA in endocrine disruption. This work contributes not only to the elucidation of the potential mode of toxicity of PFOA to aquatic organisms but also to the use of toxicogenomic approaches to address issues in environmental toxicology.

  6. Tributyltin affects shoaling and anxiety behavior in female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Sun, Ping; Shao, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on reproduction are well established in many fish species. However, few studies report the effects of TBT on non-reproductive behaviors, which is a novel aspect of endocrine disruption in fish. Thus, the present study used rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100ng/L, on shoaling and anxiety behaviors. The results showed that fish exposed to TBT had less group cohesion during the course of the 10-min observation period as compared with the control fish. Further, TBT altered the shoaling in the Novel tank test, where shoaling is determined as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. Fish exposed to TBT had shorter latency before leaving shoal mates and spent more time away from shoal than control fish. In addition, we also used Novel tanks to study the anxiety behavior as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The fish exposed to TBT showed increased anxiety, manifested as increased latency to enter the upper half and decreased time in upper half when compared with the control fish. TBT exposure increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and decreased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid in the brain. Thus, the hypofunction of the dopaminergic system or of the serotoninergic system or the combination of the two may underlie the observed behavioral change, which might affect the fitness of fish in their natural environment.

  7. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  8. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic.

  9. Single and joint action toxicity of heavy metals on early developmental stages of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Wu, Zong-Fan; Li, Jun; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2011-11-01

    In this work, acute toxicities of heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cd) were evaluated singly or in mixtures on Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) in its early stages of development (embryos, larvae). Normal embryos not later than 3 h post-fertilization and newly hatched larvae were selected for the tests. The embryos were exposed to the metal solutions studied until developing to the stages of somite formation (15 h), tail detachment (25 h 10 min), heart-beat visible (34 h 10 min), pectoral fin bud appearance (47 h 40 min) and hatching (75 h), respectively. Exposures of the larvae were continued for 24 h. Results from the single toxicity tests revealed that the mortality of embryos increases obviously with increasing exposure duration. G. rarus appears to be more sensitive to heavy metal exposures at larval stage than at embryonic stage. The toxicity order of the tested metals was Cu>Cd>Zn for the embryos and Cu>Zn>Cd for the larvae with LC₅₀ as the toxicity criterion. These data suggest that the sensitivity of G. rarus to heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cd) is different and it depends on the exposition duration and the stages of fish development. Among the metals tested, Cu is the one most toxic to G. rarus at its early development stages. In addition, results of the mixture experiments showed that binary combinations of Cu-Zn and Cu-Cd had strictly synergistic lethal effects on the larvae. The enhanced toxicity suggested inclusion of mixture considerations in the risk assessment of heavy metals might be recommended.

  10. Effects of Total Hardness and Calcium:Magnesium Ratio of Water during Early Stages of Rare Minnows (Gobiocypris rarus)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si; Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The ionic composition of water is important for all fish. In the present study, the effects of total hardness and Ca2+:Mg2+ ratio on early life stages of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus), a promising laboratory fish in China, were evaluated. Paired parent fish were transferred to spawning aquaria (16 L) containing water at different total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, and their offspring were further cultured at 25 ± 1 °C and 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod. Fertilization rates were not affected by total hardness to 480 mg L−1 CaCO3, but egg size decreased with increasing total hardness. Ca:Mg ratios less than 1:20 or greater than 8:1 had adverse influences on hatching, feeding, development, larval growth, and survival. Embryos and larvae incubated in Mg2+- and Ca2+-deficient waters exhibited high malformation rates and high mortality. Our results demonstrate that rare minnows can adapt to a wide range of total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, although an imbalance between Ca2+ and Mg2+ in water is toxic to this species. To increase the comparability and usefulness of test results, we recommend the use of reconstituted or drinking water of defined total hardness and Ca:Mg ratio for the culture and toxicity testing of rare minnows. PMID:27298242

  11. Non-monotonic dose-response effect of bisphenol A on rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Tao, Shiyu; Yuan, Cong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely spread in the environment, and can cause various reproductive disrupting effects on different organisms, including fish. Our previous published study showed that BPA has non-monotonic (inverted U-shaped) dose-response effect on rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus ovarian weight at different concentrations. To investigate the potential mechanism, we exposed female rare minnow to 1, 15 and 225 µg L(-1) BPA for 7 days in the present study. The levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), sex hormones, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione (GSH) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. RNA-seq of ovary tissues was also performed. Result showed that Vtg, sex hormone and TG levels showed an inverted U-shaped increased response, while H2O2 and GSH levels showed a U-shaped inhibited response. RNA-seq data showed that many genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and proteolysis processes were altered. The change of Vtg, H2O2, GSH and TG levels was possibly related to the altered sex hormone levels. Sex hormone's direct effect, Vtg accumulation, TG accumulation and oxidative stress induced proteolysis may contribute to the change of ovary weight.

  12. Effects of Total Hardness and Calcium:Magnesium Ratio of Water during Early Stages of Rare Minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Luo, Si; Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The ionic composition of water is important for all fish. In the present study, the effects of total hardness and Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratio on early life stages of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus), a promising laboratory fish in China, were evaluated. Paired parent fish were transferred to spawning aquaria (16 L) containing water at different total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, and their offspring were further cultured at 25 ± 1 °C and 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod. Fertilization rates were not affected by total hardness to 480 mg L(-1) CaCO3, but egg size decreased with increasing total hardness. Ca:Mg ratios less than 1:20 or greater than 8:1 had adverse influences on hatching, feeding, development, larval growth, and survival. Embryos and larvae incubated in Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-deficient waters exhibited high malformation rates and high mortality. Our results demonstrate that rare minnows can adapt to a wide range of total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, although an imbalance between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in water is toxic to this species. To increase the comparability and usefulness of test results, we recommend the use of reconstituted or drinking water of defined total hardness and Ca:Mg ratio for the culture and toxicity testing of rare minnows.

  13. Histological alternation and vitellogenin induction in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after exposure to ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zha, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.

    2007-01-01

    Adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 ng/l (nominal concentrations) of 17??-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 3, 10, and 30 ??g/l (nominal concentrations) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) under flow-through conditions for a period of 28 d. Low mortality was observed at 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 and the growth of fish reduced significantly at 25 ng/l EE2 compared to controls. However, the gonadosomatic indices (GSI) of male fish were significantly higher in 1 ng/l EE2 treatments and in 10 and 30 ??g/l NP treatments (p < 0.05). Renal somatic indices (RSI) of male fish in EE2 treatments were significantly higher than those in controls (p < 0.05). In contrast, significantly decreased GSI and RSI of female fish could only be observed in 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 treatments (p < 0.05). Hepatosomatic indices (HSI) of male fish were significantly higher in 25 ng/l EE2 treatments. However, significantly increased of HSI of female fish could only be observed in 1 ng/l EE2 treatments. Plasma vitellogenin (VTG) induction could be observed in males after exposed to different concentrations of EE2 and NP, and plasma VTG concentrations in females exposed to 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 were also significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.05). At level higher than 5 ng/l EE2 or 30 ??g/l NP, hepatic tissue and renal tissue impairment of males could be observed. The pathological male liver was associated with a hypertrophy of hepatocytes and damages to cellar structure and accumulated eosinophilic material. Renal tissue showed different pathological effects which was reflected by accumulated eosinophilic material, hemorrhages within the kidney tubules and hypertrophy of the tubular epithelia. Also at these levels of exposure, feminization of male fish could be noticed and parts of males manifested the testis-ova phenomenon. Ovaries of female rare minnow in 25 ng/l EE2 treatment group were degenerated. Therefore when exposed to EE2 and NP even at environmental observed concentrations, adverse

  14. [Cloning of full-length cDNA of HMGR from Gobiocypris rarus and analysis of its expression profiles in male exposed to pentachlorophenol].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chuan; Mao, Si-Yu; Xiong, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qiu-Ping; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The full-length cDNA of HMGR was cloned from Gobiocypris rarus, and HMGR expression profiles in different tissues and in response to different treatments of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were analyzed by real-time PCR, to investigate the endocrine disruption mechanism of PCP, which altered steroid hormone precursors (cholesterol) levels by modulating gene transcription profiles of HMGR. Based on the homologous clone strategy and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, the full-length 3 101-base-pair (bp) cDNA of HMGR was isolated from the livers of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) for the first time, and was designated as GrHMGR (GenBank accession number KF885724). GrHMGR encoded a protein of 884 amino acids and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the deduced protein GrHMGR had extensive sequence similarities to other fish HMGRs. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that GrHMGR mRNA expression was tightly controlled in a tissue-specific fashion, with the sites of expression being brain, gonads and liver, and the highest site of expression being gonads. After male rare minnows were exposed to different concentrations of PCP, significant decrease in GrHMGR gene expression with increased PCP concentration in the brain and gonads were observed, together with the differential gene expression trend in the liver. Furthermore, it was found that the decrease of HMGR could reduce the synthesis of cholesterol. This proved that PCP might disrupt the pathway of cholesterol synthesis and then influenced the endocrine system of rare minnow.

  15. The secretion, synthesis, and metabolism of cortisol and its downstream genes in the H-P-I axis of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) are disrupted by acute waterborne cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xie, Bi-Wen; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis plays a critical role in the fish stress response and is regulated by several factors. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the world, but its effects on the H-P-I axis of teleosts are largely unknown. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as an experimental animal, we found that Cd only disrupted the secretion and synthesis of cortisol. Neither hormones at the H or P level nor the expressions of their receptor genes (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) and melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)) were affected. Steroidogenic acute regulator (StAR), CYP11A1 and CYP11B1, which encode the key enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the kidney (including the head kidney). The level of 11β-HSD2, which is required for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, was increased in the kidney, intestine, brain, and hepatopancreas, whereas the expression of 11β-HSD1, which encodes the reverse conversion enzyme, was increased in the gill, kidney and almost unchanged in other tissues. The enzyme activity concentration of 11β-HSD2 was increased in the kidney as well. The level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased in the intestine, gill and muscle, and the key GR regulator FK506 binding protein5 (FKBP5) was up-regulated in the GR-decreased tissues, whereas the level of nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1), another GR regulator remained almost unchanged. Thus, GR, FKBP5 and 11β-HSD2 may be involved in Cd-induced cortisol disruption.

  16. Gonadal development and transcript profiling of steroidogenic enzymes in response to 17α-methyltestosterone in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaozhen; Wang, Lihong; Qin, Fang; Zheng, Yao; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that natural and anthropogenic chemicals interfere with the hormonal system of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. How these chemicals regulate gonadal steroidogenesis remains to be determined. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic model androgen, on gene expression profiles of six key steroidogenic genes in adult rare minnow. The full-length cDNA encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) was firstly isolated and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE methods. The gonadal transcript changes of StAR, cyp11a1, 3β-HSD, cyp17a1, 11β-HSD2 and cyp19a1a in 6-month adult Gobiocypris rarus exposed to MT and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 7, 14 and 21 days were detected by qRT-PCR. To make an effort to connect the transcriptional changes of steroidogenic enzymes with effects on higher levels of biological organization and on VTG, one remarkable sensitive target of steroids, body and gonad weights, histology of gonads, and hepatic vtg mRNA level were measured. MT caused varying degree of abnormalities in ovaries and testes. The hepatic vtg mRNA level was highly inhibited in females and slightly altered in males by MT. Transcripts of several steroidogenic genes including StAR, cyp17a1, and cyp11a1 showed high responsiveness to MT exposure in G. rarus. The gene expression profiles of these steroidogenic genes in MT-treated groups were much distinct with the EE2-treated group.

  17. 2, 4-Dichloro-6-nitrophenol, a photonitration product of 2, 4-dichlorophenol, caused anti-androgenic potency in Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Cao; Yuan, Lilai; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2016-09-01

    2,4-Dichloro-6-nitrophenol (DCNP) is an environmental transformation product of 2,4-dichlorophenol that has been identified as widespread in effluent wastewater, but little is known about its toxicity because this compound is not regulated. Therefore, to investigate the endocrine disruption potency of DCNP in Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus), adult and juvenile fish were exposed to various concentrations of DCNP (2, 20, and 200 μg/L) for 28 d. After 28 d exposure, the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were reduced in females while increased in males and juvenile fish considerably, as compared with the control. These results suggested that DCNP affects the HPG-axis in a sex-dependent way. Testosterone (T) levels in the plasma were significantly lower in adult and juvenile fish and were accompanied by an increased estradiol (E2)/T ratio. Histopathological observation revealed hypertrophy of the hepatocytes and nuclear pyknosis in the liver, the inhibition of spermatogenesis in the testes, and the degeneration of oocytes in the ovaries after DCNP exposure. The expression pattern of selected genes indicated that the nuclear receptor, steroidogenesis and gonadotropin regulation pathways were perturbed after DCNP exposure. Above all, our results demonstrated that DCNP clearly had anti-androgenic activity in both adult and juvenile fish and can therefore be considered as an endocrine-disrupting chemical.

  18. Developmental toxicity and thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of 2,4-dichloro-6-nitrophenol in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Yuan, Lilai; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, to evaluate embryonic toxicity and the thyroid-disrupting effects of 2,4-dichloro-6-nitrophenol (DCNP), embryos and adults of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 2, 20, and 200μg/L DCNP. In the embryo-larval assay, increased percentages of mortality and occurrence of malformations, decreased percentage of hatching, and decreased body length and body weight were observed after DCNP treatment. Moreover, the whole-body T3 levels were significantly increased at 20 and 200μg/L treatments, whereas the T4 levels were markedly decreased significantly (p<0.05) for all DCNP concentrations. In the adult fish assay, plasma T3 levels were significantly increased whereas plasma T4 levels were significantly reduced in the fish treated with 20 and 200μg/L (p<0.05). In addition, DCNP exposure significantly changed the transcription levels of thyroid system related genes, including dio1, dio2, me, nis, tr, and ttr. The increased responsiveness of thyroid hormone and mRNA expression levels of thyroid system related genes suggested that DCNP could disrupt the thyroid hormone synthesis and transport pathways. Therefore, our findings provide new insights of DCNP as a thyroid hormone-disrupting chemical.

  19. Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on mRNA transcription of thyroid hormone pathway and spermatogenesis associated genes in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Lifei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants, which are ubiquitous environmental contaminant found in both abiotic and biotic environmental samples. Deca-BDE (BDE-209) is the principal component, which is currently used worldwide. In this study, the effect of BDE-209 on the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone (TH) related genes and spermatogenesis associated genes were determined from larvae and adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to concentrations 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L for 21 days. The results showed that the type II deiodinase (dio2) and sodium iodide symporter (nis) mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae at 10 μg/L treatment. In adult, histopathological observations showed that liver of female fish were degenerated at 10 μg/L treatment, and inhibition of spermatogenesis were observed in testis of male fish. In addition, the thyroid hormone receptor α (trα), dio2, and nis mRNA levels in the liver of male and female fish were significantly up-regulated, whereas dio2 and nis mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in the brain. These results indicate that exposure to BDE-209 could result in tissue-specific alternations of TH-related genes expression in adults. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the testis-specific apoptosis genes, the spermatogenesis-associated 4 (spata4) and spermatogenesis-associated 17 (spata17), were down-regulated at 10 μg/L treatment in testis of male fish. Our results suggest that BDE-209 may pose threat to normal thyroid and reproductive function in fish.

  20. Assessment of 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol effects and underlying mechanisms in a continuous, multigeneration exposure of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    SciTech Connect

    Zha Jinmiao; Sun Liwei; Zhou Yiqi; Spear, Philip A.; Ma, Mei; Wang Zijian

    2008-02-01

    17{alpha}-Ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) is a synthetic estrogen used primarily in birth control pills and in hormone replacement therapy. Owing to its occurrence in surface waters at concentrations frequently greater than 1 ng/l and its projected future use, EE{sub 2} is expected to pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to obtain long-term exposure data necessary for the establishment of water quality criteria and to investigate mechanisms associated with toxic effects. In a multigeneration experiment, Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were constantly exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the synthetic estrogen EE{sub 2}. Mortality, deformities, reproductive parameters, plasma vitellogenin and histopathology were assessed. The results showed that, in the F{sub 0} generation, all endpoints were significantly affected at concentrations higher than 0.2 ng/l EE{sub 2}. No F{sub 1} phenotypic males developed to maturity at 0.2 ng/l and, when adult females of this exposure group were crossed with unexposed males, no F{sub 2} fertile eggs were produced. Kidney histopathology and ultrastructure suggest anomalies possibly associated with increased vitellogenin accumulation. We concluded that the reproduction of the F{sub 1} minnows was completely inhibited at the lowest concentration tested, 0.2 ng/l EE{sub 2}, a concentration frequently detected in surface waters. Growth effects may be related to increased energy requirements including the energy used in VTG synthesis. Reproductive effects are presumably associated with male feminization and the occurrence of testis-ova in males; however, ovarian degeneration observed in females may also have contributed to reproductive failure.

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene induced p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis pathways in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lilai; Lv, Biping; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2017-03-01

    The p53 pathways play an important role in carcinogenesis. In mammals, p53 and p53 target genes have been extensively studied, but little is known about their functions and regulation in fish. In this study, the cDNA fragments of p53 network genes, including p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, gadd45β, igfbp-3, and bax, were cloned from Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). These genes displayed high amino acid sequence identities with their zebrafish orthologs. The mRNA levels of p53 network genes and pathological changes in the liver were determined after adult rare minnow were exposed to 0.4, 2, and 10 µg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for 28 days. The results showed that p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, and bax mRNA expressions in the livers from males and females were significantly upregulated compared with those of the controls (p < 0.05), but gadd45β and igfbp-3 expression was not significantly changed. Microphotographs revealed enlargement of the cell nuclei and cellular degeneration in males, while atrophy and vacuolization of hepatocytes were observed in females (10 µg/L). These results suggested that BaP induced liver DNA repair and apoptosis pathways and caused adverse pathological changes in rare minnow. The strongly responsive p53 network genes in the livers suggest that rare minnow is suitable as an experimental fish to screen environmental carcinogens. In addition, the p53 network genes in rare minnow could feasibly be used to identify the mechanism of environmental carcinogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 979-988, 2017.

  2. Hepatic expression patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, two cytochrome P450s and five phase II metabolism genes responsive to 17alpha-methyltestosterone in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-05-01

    17Alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is widely used in aquaculture. Aquatic organisms can receive continuous exposure to residual MT throughout their lives. Aiming to evaluate the effects of MT on genes involved in biotransformation pathway, meanwhile attempting to unravel the MT metabolic pathway at the transcriptional level in fish, here we isolated the cDNAs of previously unreported AHR2, Sult1 st1, Ugt2a1 and Ugt2b6 in rare minnow, and predominantly investigated the hepatic transcriptional patterns of AHR2, PXR and five biotransformation genes after MT exposure in both genders adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The present findings suggest that AHR2 and PXR should play important roles in regulating biotransformation enzymes related to MT catabolism, moreover, CYP1A, CYP3A, SULT1 ST4, SULT1 ST6 and UGT2A1 may play certain roles in catabolism of MT in adult G. rarus. Additionally, UGT2A1 may make greater contribution than SULT1 ST4 and SULT1 ST6 in MT catabolism in males.

  3. Expression of two cytochrome P450 aromatase genes is regulated by endocrine disrupting chemicals in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Houpeng; Wu, Tingting; Hu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Fang; Wang, Zaizhao

    2010-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on aromatase, the rare minnow ovarian and brain P450 aromatase (cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b) cDNA and their 5'-flanking regions were isolated and characterized. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the rare minnow cyp19a1a mRNA was predominantly expressed in ovary while cyp19a1b was predominantly expressed in brain. Sequences for binding sites of steroidogenic factor-1, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, estrogen responsive element, glucocorticoid responsive element, and retinoic acid receptor were identified on promoter regions of cyp19a1 genes. The influence of several EDCs on the transcript abundance of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b was investigated in rare minnow juveniles. Clofibrate did not influence the expression of either cyp19a1 genes. Exposure to 1nM ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 3days significantly downregulated the expression of cyp19a1a gene, however 0.1 and 1 nM EE2 significantly increased the gene expression of cyp19a1b. Exposure to 100 and 1000 nM 4-nonylphenol (NP) significantly suppressed the cyp19a1a expression, but it had no effect on the expression of cyp19a1b gene. Bisphenol A (BPA) strongly suppressed the cyp19a1b gene expression from 0.1 to 10 nM and significantly suppressed the gene expression of cyp19a1a only at 10 nM. These results indicate that EDCs may influence the expression of cyp19a1 genes through differential transcriptional modulation in rare minnow juveniles.

  4. The impact of long term exposure to phthalic acid esters on reproduction in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongyong; Yang, Yuanjin; Gao, Yong; Wang, Xianfeng; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-08-01

    The environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern. We investigated the reproductive impairment of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) on Chinese rare minnow, an endemic fish inhabiting the upper streams of the Yangtze River. Chinese rare minnow larvae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP (0, 4.2, 13.3, and 40.8 μg/L) for 6 months. Plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels decreased in females, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a and cyp17 gene transcription in ovary. Increases in plasma testosterone concentration were observed in males, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a gene transcription in testes. Hepatic VTG gene transcription was upregulated in males and females. Exposure to DEHP reduced egg production and inhibited oocyte maturation in females and retarded spermiation in males. Decreased egg protein content was measured in F1 embryos. These results indicate that long-term exposure to low concentrations of DEHP (13.3 μg/L) causes endocrine disruption and impairs fish reproduction.

  5. Gills of antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, J C; Tuurala, H

    1998-01-01

    We review the literature on the way the structure of icefish gills relates the physiology of these haemoglobin-less fishes. Vascular casting confirmed earlier reports that the only special feature of the gills is the large size of the blood vessels, especially the prominent and continuous marginal channels Isolated perfused gill arches were used to study the effects of changes in afferent and efferent pressure on gill resistance and tritiated water influx in Chionobathyscus dewitti. Increasing perfusion rate did not change gill resistance, but there were moderate proportional increases in water influx. Reducing efferent pressure increased gill resistance but did not affect water influx. In both C. dewitti and Cryodraco antarcticus gills perfused at constant flow rate, noradrenaline produced concentration-dependent decreases in gill resistance and, with high concentrations, increases in water influx. Fixation while perfusion continued was used to compare blood space dimensions in control, noradrenaline-treated and unperfused gills. Noradrenaline caused large increases in the thickness of the lamellar blood space and increased lamellar height, despite a greatly reduced afferent pressure. This suggests that modulation of pillar cell active tension might be involved in control of lamellar perfusion. The possible relationship between gill water fluxes and lamellar recruitment is discussed.

  6. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  7. Halobellus rarus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from an inland salt lake of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Han, Dong; Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Mou, Yun-Zhuang; Cui, Heng-Lin; Li, Zheng-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC21(T) and YC77, were isolated from an inland salt lake of China. Both have pleomorphic rod-shaped cells that lyse in distilled water, stain Gram-negative and form red-pigmented colonies. They are neutrophilic, require at least 2.1 M NaCl for growth under the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS), two major glycolipids (GL1 and GL2) chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified lipids (GL0-1 and GL0-2) were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains are 99.9 % identical, show 94.0-98.9 % similarity to the closest relative members of Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene similarity between strains YC21(T) and YC77 is 99.8 % and show 90.3-95.3 % similarity to the closest relative members of Halobellus. The DNA G+C content of strains YC21(T) and YC77 were 66.1 and 66.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain YC77 was 89 %, and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halobellus limi TBN53(T), the most related member of Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC21(T) and YC77 represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus rarus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC21(T) (=CGMCC 1.12121(T) = JCM 18362(T)).

  8. A western type of bacterial gill disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    The first reference to a pathological condition of the gill tissues of salmonid fishes was made by Osburn in 1910. This author in describing a progressive infolding of the opercula of trout, commonly known to hatcherymen as "short gill covers," mentioned a marked proliferation on the gill epithelium as accompanying this condition. Osburn assumed that the club-like appearance of the gill filaments due to the proliferated epithelium was the result of continual irritation of the delicate gill tissue in the absence of the usual protection offered by the normal opercula. Although such a conclusion seems quite logical, it is also possible that Osburn was dealing with "short gill covers" complicated by the unknown bacterial gill disease which was subsequently described by Davis.

  9. Lignasan for bacterial gill disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, Robert R.; B.J., Earp; Burrows, Roger E.

    1956-01-01

    Bacterial gill disease plagues salmon and trout in many hatcheries: some infections are sporadic, but others are continual. An inexpensive, easily applied, stable, safe chemical would be highly advantageous for treatment. The use of Roccal as a 1-hour treatment for bacterial gill disease (Fish 1947) was developed at the Leavenworth (Washington) Station of the Fish and Wildlife Service in 1942 and was quite successful. Since then, Roccal has been used extensively; but because of variability in composition, its efficacy is not consistent (Rucker et al. 1949). The objection to the variability of Roccal was overcome by using another compound, pyridylmercuric acetate, which was suggested by Van Horn and Katz (1946) as having some therapeutic therapy. Pyridylmercuric acetate was tested experimentally at the Leavenworth Station and was found to be very effective for bacterial gill disease. This compound had highly differential toxicities for bacteria and fish but was quite expensive (Rucker 1948, Burrows and Palmer 1949, Snieszko 1949). Another objection to pyridylmercuric acedate was its toxicity to rainbow trout—not to other species of trout or to salmon—at the concentration necessary to control the bacteria (Seaman 1950, Rodgers et al. 1951, Bryant 1951, Foster and Olson 1951).

  10. Optimal lamellar arrangement in fish gills

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-01-01

    Fish respire through gills, which have evolved to extract aqueous oxygen. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures, which play a role in maximizing oxygen diffusion. It is interesting that when we anatomically observe the gills of various fish species, gill interlamellar distances (d) vary little among them, despite large variations in body mass (Mb). Noting that the small channels formed by densely packed lamellae cause significant viscous resistance to water flow, we construct and test a model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the lamellar dimensions and pumping pressure, which allows us to predict the optimal interlamellar distance that maximizes the oxygen transfer rate in the gill. Comparing our theory with biological data supports the hypothesis that fish gills have evolved to form the optimal interlamellar distances for maximizing oxygen transfer. This explains the weak scaling dependence of d on Mb: d ∼ Mb1/6. PMID:24847065

  11. An interim report on gill disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Johnson, H.E.; Kaydas, G.M.

    1952-01-01

    GILL DISEASE among fish, a disease which is characterized by a proliferation of the gill epithelium, has been attributed to a number of different causes. Generally, there are two recognized types: the eastern or bacterial type, in which long filamentous bacteria can always be demonstrated; and the western type, in which, by definition, bacteria cannot be demonstrated.

  12. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of free-standing lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model.

  13. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mary M; Eapen, Valsamma; Singer, Harvey S; Martino, Davide; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Paschou, Peristera; Roessner, Veit; Woods, Douglas W; Hariz, Marwan; Mathews, Carol A; Črnčec, Rudi; Leckman, James F

    2017-02-02

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder. The aetiology is complex and multifactorial. GTS is considered to be polygenic, involving multiple common risk variants combined with rare, inherited or de novo mutations. These as well as non-genetic factors (such as perinatal events and immunological factors) are likely to contribute to the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype, the structural and functional brain anomalies and the neural circuitry involvement. Management usually includes psychoeducation and reassurance, behavioural methods, pharmacotherapy and, rarely, functional neurosurgery. Future research that integrates clinical and neurobiological data, including neuroimaging and genetics, is expected to reveal the pathogenesis of GTS at the neural circuit level, which may lead to targeted interventions.

  14. David Gill: clock maker to global astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    Reduction in the uncertainty of physical measurements underpinned many advances in solar and stellar parallax, the determination of longitude, geodesy, and the accurate mapping of the heavens using celestial photography in the late nineteenth century. A pioneer in these areas, who successfully made the transition from clock maker in Aberdeen to H.M. Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope was David Gill (1843-1914); Sir David Gill, K.C.B. from 1900. This paper celebrates the first third of Gill's career in astronomy and geodesy up to the time he was made redundant from Dun Echt Observatory at the end of 1875. It highlights how his horological skills were applied to telescope design and also how his aspirations to become a global astronomer started. The paper is timed to coincide with Gill's centenary anniversary year - he died 24 January 1914.

  15. Histopathology of fish. V. Gill disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1957-01-01

    Possibly no single disease accounts for greater annual mortality than gill disease. Apparently endemic in many hatcheries, the disease is characterized by periodic sharp upsurges which are sometimes correlated with rising water temperatures, excessive foreign matter in the water (Wales and Evins 1937), or borderline nutritional conditions.

  16. Influence of surfactants on gill physiology and cadmium uptake in perfused rainbow trout gills

    SciTech Connect

    Paert, P.S.; Svanberg, O.; Bergstroem, E.

    1985-04-01

    Cadmium transfer through and the retention of metal in perfused gills from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) has been studied in the presence of two detergents, LAS (linear alkylaryl sulphonate) and NP-10EO (nonylphenol ethoxylate). Accordingly, the effects of the metal and the surfactants on gill viability (vascular resistance, oxygen diffusion capacity, sodium net flux) was measured. Cd had no effect on gill viability either at 0.008 or at 9.0 mumol/liter during a 60-min perfusion period. The viability of the gills deteriorated markedly during 60 min of exposure to 100 mumol/liter LAS and to NP-10EO, or to a mixture of 100 mumol/liter surfactant + 8.1-8.3 mumol/liter Cd. LAS, 100 mumol/liter, reduced Cd transfer, whereas NP-10EO had no effect. NP-10EO increased Cd retention in gill tissue. LAS more than doubled Cd transfer through the gills when tested in concentrations expected to be found in a polluted recipient (0.9 micrograms/liter Cd + 0.05 mg/liter LAS). NP-10EO had no effect on the transfer when tested under these environmentally relevant conditions.

  17. The McGill-Costa Rica Project

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M. William L.; Haggerty, Jeannie; Filion-Laporte, Liliane

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, health authorities in Costa Rica started a training program in family and community medicine and requested assistance from the Department of Family Medicine at McGill University. The authors outline the health care system in Costa Rica and the background of the project. The design, implementation, and progress of the project to date are discussed. The problems associated with this kind of project and its future are also discussed. Imagesp1152-a PMID:21221332

  18. Vascular anatomy of the fish gill.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2002-08-01

    The fish gill is the most physiologically diversified vertebrate organ, and its vasculature the most intricate. Application of vascular corrosion techniques that couple high-fidelity resins, such as methyl methacrylate, with scanning electron microscopy yields three-dimensional replicas of the microcirculation that have fostered a better appreciate gill perfusion pathways. This is the focus of the present review. Three vascular networks can be identified within the gill filament. The arterioarterial (respiratory) pathway consists of the lamellae and afferent and efferent segments of the branchial and filamental arteries and lamellar arterioles. The body of the filament contains two post-lamellar pathways: the interlamellar and nutrient. The interlamellar system is an extensive ladder-like network of thin-walled, highly distensible vessels that traverses the filament between, and parallel to, the lamellae and continues around the afferent and efferent borders of the filament. Interlamellar vessels are supplied by short, narrow-bore feeder vessels from the medial wall of the efferent filamental artery. A myriad of narrow-bore, tortuous arterioles arise from the basal efferent filamental artery and efferent branchial artery and anastomose to form the nutrient circulation of the arch and filament. In the filament body, nutrient capillaries and interlamellar vessels are often closely associated, and the former may ultimately drain into the latter. Many of the anatomical characteristics of interlamellar vessels are strikingly similar to those of mammalian lymphatic capillaries, with the exception that interlamellar vessels are directly fed by arteriovenous-like anastomoses. It is likely that gill interlamellar and mammalian lymphatics are physiologically, if not embryologically, equivalent.

  19. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Waserman, Jack; Lal, Samarthji; Gauthier, Serge

    1983-01-01

    Concordance is reported of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a male twin pair in whom phenotyping revealed a >98·7% probability that they were monozygotic. The development and extent of the illness differed markedly in the two subjects. Our findings are compatible with the view that there is a genetic form of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. PMID:6573436

  20. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Gill morphometrics of the thresher sharks (Genus Alopias): Correlation of gill dimensions with aerobic demand and environmental oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Thomas P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2015-05-01

    Gill morphometrics of the three thresher shark species (genus Alopias) were determined to examine how metabolism and habitat correlate with respiratory specialization for increased gas exchange. Thresher sharks have large gill surface areas, short water-blood barrier distances, and thin lamellae. Their large gill areas are derived from long total filament lengths and large lamellae, a morphometric configuration documented for other active elasmobranchs (i.e., lamnid sharks, Lamnidae) that augments respiratory surface area while limiting increases in branchial resistance to ventilatory flow. The bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, which can experience prolonged exposure to hypoxia during diel vertical migrations, has the largest gill surface area documented for any elasmobranch species studied to date. The pelagic thresher shark, A. pelagicus, a warm-water epi-pelagic species, has a gill surface area comparable to that of the common thresher shark, A. vulpinus, despite the latter's expected higher aerobic requirements associated with regional endothermy. In addition, A. vulpinus has a significantly longer water-blood barrier distance than A. pelagicus and A. superciliosus, which likely reflects its cold, well-oxygenated habitat relative to the two other Alopias species. In fast-swimming fishes (such as A. vulpinus and A. pelagicus) cranial streamlining may impose morphological constraints on gill size. However, such constraints may be relaxed in hypoxia-dwelling species (such as A. superciliosus) that are likely less dependent on streamlining and can therefore accommodate larger branchial chambers and gills.

  2. Gill morphometry of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Don Stevens, E

    1992-08-01

    The structure and morphometry of the gills of the marine teleost, red drum, have been studied. The present analysis of gas exchange area of fish gills is one of the most intensive and the results are compared to less intense averaging methods. Based on the gill area estimates, red drum falls into the category of a fish of intermediate activity. Its gill clearly has an exchange area less than that of the tunas, but is slightly greater than that of trout or bass. The three components that contribute to total exchange area (filament length, lamellar density, and area of individual lamellae) are not all greater in species with a greater total exchange area. The best correlate is total filament length.

  3. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  4. Differentially expressed proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affected by amoebic gill disease.

    PubMed

    Valdenegro-Vega, Victoria A; Crosbie, Phil; Bridle, Andrew; Leef, Melanie; Wilson, Richard; Nowak, Barbara F

    2014-09-01

    The external surfaces of fish, such as gill and skin, are covered by mucus, which forms a thin interface between the organism and water. Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a parasitic condition caused by Neoparamoeba perurans that affects salmonids worldwide. This disease induces excessive mucus production in the gills. The host immune response to AGD is not fully understood, and research tools such as genomics and proteomics could be useful in providing further insight. Gill and skin mucus samples were obtained from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which were infected with N. perurans on four successive occasions. NanoLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to identify proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon affected by AGD. A total of 186 and 322 non-redundant proteins were identified in gill and skin mucus respectively, based on stringent filtration criteria, and statistics demonstrated that 52 gill and 42 skin mucus proteins were differentially expressed in mucus samples from AGD-affected fish. By generating protein-protein interaction networks, some of these proteins formed part of cell to cell signalling and inflammation pathways, such as C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein 1, granulin, cathepsin, angiogenin-1. In addition to proteins that were entirely novel in the context in the host response to N. perurans, our results have confirmed the presence of protein markers in mucus that have been previously predicted on the basis of modified mRNA expression, such as anterior gradient-2 protein, annexin A-1 and complement C3 factor. This first proteomic analysis of AGD-affected salmon provides new information on the effect of AGD on protein composition of gill and skin mucus. Future research should focus on better understanding of the role these components play in the response against infection with N. perurans.

  5. Parallel developmental genetic features underlie stickleback gill raker evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergent evolution, the repeated evolution of similar phenotypes in independent lineages, provides natural replicates to study mechanisms of evolution. Cases of convergent evolution might have the same underlying developmental and genetic bases, implying that some evolutionary trajectories might be predictable. In a classic example of convergent evolution, most freshwater populations of threespine stickleback fish have independently evolved a reduction of gill raker number to adapt to novel diets. Gill rakers are a segmentally reiterated set of dermal bones important for fish feeding. A previous large quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study using a marine × freshwater F2 cross identified QTL on chromosomes 4 and 20 with large effects on evolved gill raker reduction. Results By examining skeletal morphology in adult and developing sticklebacks, we find heritable marine/freshwater differences in gill raker number and spacing that are specified early in development. Using the expression of the Ectodysplasin receptor (Edar) gene as a marker of raker primordia, we find that the differences are present before the budding of gill rakers occurs, suggesting an early change to a lateral inhibition process controlling raker primordia spacing. Through linkage mapping in F2 fish from crosses with three independently derived freshwater populations, we find in all three crosses QTL overlapping both previously identified QTL on chromosomes 4 and 20 that control raker number. These two QTL affect the early spacing of gill raker buds. Conclusions Collectively, these data demonstrate that parallel developmental genetic features underlie the convergent evolution of gill raker reduction in freshwater sticklebacks, suggesting that even highly polygenic adaptive traits can have a predictable developmental genetic basis. PMID:24851181

  6. Gill histopathologies following exposure to nanosilver or silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Adam D; Thornton, Cammi; Kennedy, Alan J; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James; Jones, Bradley W; Steevens, Jeffery A; Willett, Kristine L

    2015-01-01

    Fish gill is the site for many crucial physiological functions. It is among the first sites of xenobiotic exposure, and gill histopathological alterations may be detected soon after toxicant exposure. Silver (Ag) is one of the most toxic metals to aquatic organisms mainly due to its ability to disrupt ionic regulation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of ionic and nanoscale Ag on fathead minnow gills by examining gill histology and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. Fathead minnows were exposed to two measured concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3: 1.3 or 3.7 μg/L as Ag(+)), citrate silver nanoparticles (citrate-AgNP: 15 or 39 μg/L), and polyvinylpyrrolidone-AgNP (PVP-AgNP) (AgNP: 11 or 50 μg/L). Circulatory disturbances were the most prevalent gill alterations detected and were significantly increased in all Ag treatment groups compared to control. AgNO3 (1.3 μg/L) was the only treatment that significantly elevated the number of total mucous goblet cells present. In all other Ag treatments, the percent of degenerated goblet cells was significantly increased compared to control. When the sum of all histopathological abnormalities (weighted index) was calculated, all Ag groups displayed a significantly higher index, with citrate-AgNP having the highest toxicity (index of 10 ± 0.32 versus 2.4 ± 0.6 in controls). Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was decreased by Ag. These results indicated that both AgNO3 and AgNP created similar disruptions in gill structure and ionic regulation, possibly due to the ionic Ag portion of each treatment.

  7. The nephridial hypothesis of the gill slit origin.

    PubMed

    Ezhova, Olga V; Malakhov, Vladimir V

    2015-12-01

    Metameric gill slits are mysterious structures, unique for Chordata and Hemichordata, and also, perhaps, for the extinct Cambrian Calcichordata. There is a discussed hypothesis of the gill slits origin from the metameric nephridia. According to the hypothesis, the hypothetical metameric deuterostome ancestor had in each segment a pair of coelomoducts and a pair of intestinal pockets. In the anterior segments, the coelomoducts have fused with the intestinal pockets. As a result, each nephridium opened both into the gut and into the environment. Then the dissepiments and funnels reduced in all segments except the collar one. Thus, in recent enteropneusts, only the first pair of gill slits keeps the ancestral arrangement communicating at the same time with the gut, with the environment, and with the coelom of the preceding (collar) segment. In the anterior part of the branchio-genital trunk region of enteropneusts, the metameric intestinal pockets remained, as well as the metameric coelomoducts functioning as the ducts of the metameric gonads, i.e., as the gonoducts. The consequence of the hypothesis is that the metameric gill pores originate from the metameric excreting pores, and the metameric branchial sacs originate from the metameric endodermal pockets of the gut fused with the coelomoducts. The metameric gill slits by themselves correspond with metameric openings connecting the gut with metameric intestinal pockets. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 647-652, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  9. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  10. Identifying the Child with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donna J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviors). It describes the nature of the disorder, treatment, and service provision (evaluation and assessment and the Individual Education Plan). (DB)

  11. Matter in Motion: The Educational Materialism of Gilles Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In "Difference and Repetition", he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in "Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II" that were co-written with Felix Guattari (1984, 1988)…

  12. Gilles Lecture: Ocular Motility in a Time of Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding of the structure and function of extraocular muscles, and our ability to image them clinically, allows prediction of revolutionary progress in diagnosis and treatment of strabismus in the coming decades. This perspective memorializes a lecture given in honor of Dr. William Gilles, who has for decades been the paternal leader of strabismology in southern Australia. PMID:17181611

  13. Structural adaptations for ram ventilation: gill fusions in scombrids and billfishes.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Aalbers, Scott A; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    For ram-gill ventilators such as tunas and mackerels (family Scombridae) and billfishes (families Istiophoridae, Xiphiidae), fusions binding the gill lamellae and filaments prevent gill deformation by a fast and continuous ventilatory stream. This study examines the gills from 28 scombrid and seven billfish species in order to determine how factors such as body size, swimming speed, and the degree of dependence upon ram ventilation influence the site of occurrence and type of fusions. In the family Scombridae there is a progressive increase in the reliance on ram ventilation that correlates with the elaboration of gill fusions. This ranges from mackerels (tribe Scombrini), which only utilize ram ventilation at fast cruising speeds and lack gill fusions, to tunas (tribe Thunnini) of the genus Thunnus, which are obligate ram ventilators and have two distinct fusion types (one binding the gill lamellae and a second connecting the gill filaments). The billfishes appear to have independently evolved gill fusions that rival those of tunas in terms of structural complexity. Examination of a wide range of body sizes for some scombrids and billfishes shows that gill fusions begin to develop at lengths as small as 2.0 cm fork length. In addition to securing the spatial configuration of the gill sieve, gill fusions also appear to increase branchial resistance to slow the high-speed current produced by ram ventilation to distribute flow evenly and optimally to the respiratory exchange surfaces.

  14. Aluminum bioconcentration at the gill surface of juvenile Atlantic salmon in acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, K.J.; Campbell, P.G.C. . INRS-Eau)

    1993-11-01

    Aluminum uptake by Atlantic salmon was examined in the laboratory at pH 4.5, under conditions similar to those found in running waters on the Canadian Precambrian Shield during spring snowmelt. Gill uptake of Al was slow, approaching steady state only after 3 d of exposure. The greatest fraction of gill-associated Al was sorbed not to the gill surface itself, but to the gill mucus. Mucus appears to retard Al transport from solution to the membrane surface, thus delaying the acute biological response of the fish. Strongly associated gill [Al] was never greater than 10% of total gill Al in the early stages of the experiment indicated that this Al fraction could eventually exceed 50% of the total gill Al. In contrast to uptake, depuration of Al was extremely rapid; total gill [Al] of fish exposed to Al (pH 4.5) for 2 d decreased by 60% after only 2 h in an Al-free medium. The effect of fluoride complexation on Al bioconcentration was also examined. For equivalent Al[sup 3]+ concentrations, sorption of Al to the gill surface was higher in the presence of fluoride than in its absence, which suggests the formation of mixed ligand [F-Al-L-gill] complexes at the gill surface.

  15. Tight junctions, tight junction proteins and paracellular permeability across the gill epithelium of fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-12-01

    Paracellular permeability characteristics of the fish gill epithelium are broadly accepted to play a key role in piscine salt and water balance. This is typically associated with differences between gill epithelia of teleost fishes residing in seawater versus those in freshwater. In the former, the gill is 'leaky' to facilitate Na(+) secretion and in the latter, the gill is 'tight' to limit passive ion loss. However, studies in freshwater fishes also suggest that varying epithelial 'tightness' can impact ionoregulatory homeostasis. Paracellular permeability of vertebrate epithelia is largely controlled by the tight junction (TJ) complex, and the fish gill is no exception. In turn, the TJ complex is composed of TJ proteins, the abundance and properties of which determine the magnitude of paracellular solute movement. This review provides consolidated information on TJs in fish gills and summarizes recent progress in research that seeks to understand the molecular composition of fish gill TJ complexes and what environmental and systemic factors influence those components.

  16. Famous people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?

    PubMed

    Monaco, Francesco; Servo, Serena; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    Virtually no neurologist nor psychiatrist today can be unaware of the diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Although the eponymous description by Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette was published in 1885, familiarity with this syndrome has been achieved only recently. In this article, the two most renown accounts of exceptional individuals retrospectively diagnosed with GTS are critically analyzed: British lexicographer Samuel Johnson and Austrian musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In both cases, clinical descriptions have been retrieved from written documents predating Gilles de la Tourette's original publication. The case for Samuel Johnson having GTS is strong, mainly based on Boswell's extensive biographical account. Johnson was reported to have a great range of tics and compulsions, including involuntary utterances, repetitive ejaculations, and echo-phenomena. On the other hand, there is circumstantial evidence that Mozart may have had hyperactivity, restlessness, sudden impulses, odd motor behaviors, echo/palilalia, love of nonsense words, and scatology, the latter being documented in autograph letters ("coprographia"). However, the evidence supporting the core features of GTS, i.e., motor and vocal tics, is rather inconsistent. Thus, GTS seems to be an implausible diagnosis in Mozart's medical history and completely unrelated to his undisputed musical genius.

  17. Specific localization of scallop gill epithelial calmodulin in cilia.

    PubMed

    Stommel, E W; Stephens, R E; Masure, H R; Head, J F

    1982-03-01

    Calmodulin has been isolated and characterized from the gill of the bay scallop aequipecten irradians. Quantitative electrophoretic analysis of epithelial cell fractions show most of the calmodulin to be localized in the cilia, specifically in the detergent- solubilized membrane-matrix fraction. Calmodulin represents 2.2 +/- 0.3 percent of the membrane-matrix protein or 0.41 +/- 0.5 percent of the total ciliary protein. Its concentration is at least 10(-4) M if distributed uniformly within the matrix. Extraction in the presence of calcium suggests that the calmodulin is not bound to the axoneme proper. The ciliary protein is identified as a calmodulin on the basis of its calcium- dependent binding to a fluphenazine-sepharose affinity column and its comigration with bovine brain calmodulin on alkaline-urea and SDS polyacrylamide gels in both the presence and absence of calcium. Scallop ciliary calmodulin activates bovine brain phosphodiesterase to the same extent as bovine brain and chicken gizzard calmodulins. Containing trimethyllysine and lacking cysteine and tryptophan, the amino acid composition of gill calmodulin is typical of known calmodulins, except that it is relatively high in serine and low in methionine. Its composition is less acidic than other calmodulins, in agreement with an observed isoelectric point approximately 0.2 units higher than that of bovine brain. Comparative tryptic peptide mapping of scallop gill ciliary and bovine brain calmodulins indicates coincidence of over 75 percent of the major peptides, but at least two major peptides in each show no near-equivalency. Preliminary results using ATP-reactivated gill cell models show no effect of calcium at micromolar levels on ciliary beat or directionality of the lateral cilia, the cilia which constitute the vast majority of those isolated. However, ciliary arrest will occur at calcium levels more than 150 muM. Because calmodulin usually functions in the micromolar range, its role in this system

  18. Pathological glutamatergic neurotransmission in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Gerasch, Sarah; García-García, Isabel; Lampe, Leonie; Pampel, André; Anwander, Alfred; Near, Jamie; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, neuropsychiatric movement disorder with reported abnormalities in the neurotransmission of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Spatially focalized alterations in excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurochemical ratios within specific functional subdivisions of the basal ganglia, may lead to the expression of diverse motor and non-motor features as manifested in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Current treatment strategies are often unsatisfactory thus provoking the need for further elucidation of the underlying pathophysiology. In view of (i) the close spatio-temporal synergy exhibited between excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitter systems; (ii) the crucial role played by glutamate (Glu) in tonic/phasic dopaminergic signalling; and (iii) the interdependent metabolic relationship exhibited between Glu and GABA via glutamine (Gln); we postulated that glutamatergic signalling is related to the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. As such, we examined the neurochemical profile of three cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions in 37 well-characterized, drug-free adult patients and 36 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects via magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. To interrogate the influence of treatment on metabolite concentrations, spectral data were acquired from 15 patients undergoing a 4-week treatment with aripiprazole. Test-retest reliability measurements in 23 controls indicated high repeatability of voxel localization and metabolite quantitation. We report significant reductions in striatal concentrations of Gln, Glu + Gln (Glx) and the Gln:Glu ratio, and thalamic concentrations of Glx in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in comparison to controls. ON-treatment patients exhibited no significant metabolite differences when compared to controls but significant increases in striatal Glu and Glx, and trends for increases in striatal Gln and thalamic Glx compared to baseline

  19. Energy cost of NaCl transport in isolated gills of cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J D; Iwama, G K

    1999-09-01

    Few studies have made direct estimates of the energy required for ion transport in gills of freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) fish. Oxygen consumption was measured in excised gill tissue of FW-adapted cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) to estimate the energy cost of NaCl transport in that osmoregulatory organ. Ouabain (0.5 mM) and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) were used to inhibit the Na+-K+ and H+ pumps, respectively. Both inhibitors significantly decreased gill tissue oxygen consumption, accounting for 37% of total tissue respiration. On a whole mass basis, the cost of NaCl uptake in the FW trout gill was estimated to be 1.8% of whole animal oxygen uptake. An isolated, saline-perfused gill arch preparation was also used to compare gill energetics in FW- and SW-adapted trout. The oxygen consumption of FW gills was significantly (33%) higher than SW gills. On a whole animal basis, total gill oxygen consumption in FW and SW trout accounted for 3.9 and 2.4% of resting metabolic rate, respectively. The results of both experiments suggest that the energy cost of NaCl transport in FW and SW trout gills represents a relatively small (<4%) portion of the animal's total energy budget.

  20. Morphology and ventilatory function of gills in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes).

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shiba, Yojiro; Shibagaki, Kazuhiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    We examined gill morphology and ventilatory function in the carpet shark family Parascylliidae using 14 preserved specimens of Parascyllium ferrugineum, P. variolatum, P. collare and Cirrhoscyllium japonicum, and two live specimens of P. ferrugineum and P. variolatum. Morphological examinations revealed eight morphological characteristics related to the fifth gill, based on comparisons with other elasmobranchs, viz. large fifth gill slit without gill filaments, anatomical modifications in the fourth ceratobranchial cartilage and coraco-branchialis muscle, and the hypaxialis muscle associated with the fifth gill arch. Ventilation examinations using dyed seawater and prey items showed different water flows through the gill slits for respiration and prey-capture actions. For respiration, water sucked into the mouth was expelled equally through the first to fourth gill slits via a "double-pump" action, there being no involvement of the fifth gill slit. In prey-capture, however, water sucked into the mouth was discharged only via the widely opened fifth gill slit. This form of water flow is similar to that in other benthic suction-feeding sharks (e.g., Chiloscyllium plagiosum), except for the active water discharge by wide expansion and contraction of the fifth parabranchial cavity. The latter is dependent upon the morphological modifications of the fourth and fifth gill arches, derived phylogenetically as a mechanistic suction specialization in Parascylliidae.

  1. Gill Development and its functional and evolutionary implications in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Cannuel, Rozenn; Beninger, Peter G; McCombie, Helen; Boudry, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Study of gill development in bivalve larvae and postlarvae provides information on the evolution of this organ and feeding mechanisms of early stages. Scanning electron microscopy was used to document the development of the filibranch homorhabdic gill in hatchery-reared larval, postlarval, and juvenile Mytilus edulis. Four key stages were identified during gill development: (1) transfer of the particle collection function from velum to gill at metamorphosis, with subsequent elongation of the gill filaments to form a gill basket, with complete frontal ciliation; (2) reflection of the inner demibranchs, and transition to a V-shaped gill; (3) delayed development of the outer demibranchs, occuring simultaneously along the gill axis, with transition to the adult final W-shape; and (4) formation of the ventral particle grooves and concomitant acquisition of dense abfrontal ciliation. These key stages signal shifts in the mechanisms of particle processing during the early development of M. edulis. Gill development in the homorhabdic filibranch M. edulis was similar to that of the early homorhabdic stages of the heterorhabdic filibranchs studied to date (Pectinidae), but different from that of the pseudolamellibranchs (Ostreidae), suggesting divergent evolution of this character. Similarly, the systems responsible for gill cohesion and structural integrity are common to both the homorhabdic and heterorhabdic filibranchs, suggesting evolutionary proximity, but they are patently different from those of the eulamellibranchs and pseudolamellibranchs, suggesting evolutionary divergence.

  2. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Six cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernando, S J

    1976-05-01

    Six cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are discussed in the light of conflicting views on the aetiology of the condition. It is hypothesized that the onset of coprolalia in patients with persistent childhood tics indicates a disturbances of the normal balance between a need for tension relief by swearing and a capacity to control such vocal activity. Some conclusions are drawn on the management of the syndrome by the use of butyrophenones, massed practice of tics, and the promotion of personality development. A flexible approach geared to the individual patient's particular needs is recommended.

  4. Gill disease in marine farmed Atlantic salmon at four farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Rodger, H D; Murphy, K; Mitchell, S O; Henry, L

    2011-06-25

    A study of four marine salmon farms was undertaken in Ireland in 2008, with a focus on gill health and disease. All four farms suffered severe gill disease resulting in mortalities and, in some cases, failure to thrive. The aetiology of the gill pathologies in some cases was associated with small gelatinous zooplankton and bacteria, but also involved epitheliocystis and parasites such as marine costia (Ichthyobodo species) and amoebae (Neoparamoeba species). Treatments with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics and/or freshwater baths had equivocal benefits. There was a strong association of susceptibility to gill disease with one genetic strain of salmon.

  5. Structure and function of ionocytes in the freshwater fish gill.

    PubMed

    Dymowska, Agnieszka K; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Goss, Greg G

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater fishes lose ions to the external medium owing to the steep concentration gradients between the body fluids and the water. To maintain homeostasis, they use ionocytes to actively extract Na(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+) from the dilute external medium and excrete acidic (H(+)) or basic (HCO(3)(-)) equivalents by specialized cells termed ionocytes that are responsible for transport of ions. Freshwater fishes have evolved diverse approaches to solving these similar ionic and acid-base problems. In the few well-studied species, there are clearly different patterns in the physiology and morphology for ionocytes in the gill. In this review, we describe the varying nomenclature of ionocytes that have been used in the past 80 years to allow direct comparison of ionocytes and their common functions in different species. We focus on the recent advancement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ion and acid-base regulation as represented by ionocyte subtypes found in rainbow trout, killifish, tilapia and zebrafish gill.

  6. Transciptome Analysis of the Gill and Swimbladder of Takifugu rubripes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hongdi; Sun, Hongjuan; Song, Shuhui; Qiu, Xuemei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiuli; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    The fish gill, as one of the mucosal barriers, plays an important role in mucosal immune response. The fish swimbladder functions for regulating buoyancy. The fish swimbladder has long been postulated as a homologous organ of the tetrapod lung, but the molecular evidence is scarce. In order to provide new information that is complementary to gill immune genes, initiate new research directions concerning the genetic basis of the gill immune response and understand the molecular function of swimbladder as well as its relationship with lungs, transcriptome analysis of the fugu Takifugu rubripes gill and swimbladder was carried out by RNA-Seq. Approximately 55,061,524 and 44,736,850 raw sequence reads from gill and swimbladder were generated, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis revealed diverse biological functions and processes. Transcriptome comparison between gill and swimbladder resulted in 3,790 differentially expressed genes, of which 1,520 were up-regulated in the swimbladder while 2,270 were down-regulated. In addition, 406 up regulated isoforms and 296 down regulated isoforms were observed in swimbladder in comparison to gill. By the gene enrichment analysis, the three immune-related pathways and 32 immune-related genes in gill were identified. In swimbladder, five pathways including 43 swimbladder-enriched genes were identified. This work should set the foundation for studying immune-related genes for the mucosal immunity and provide genomic resources to study the relatedness of the fish swimbladder and mammalian lung. PMID:24454879

  7. Effects of environmental salinity on gill endothelin receptor expression in the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Kelly A; Evans, David H

    2009-01-01

    We recently determined that rapid changes in environmental salinity alter endothelin-1 (EDN1) mRNA levels in the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, so we hypothesized that EDN1 may be a local regulator of gill ion transport in teleost fishes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of changes in environmental salinity on the gill endothelin receptors: EDNRA, EDNRB, and EDNRC. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we determined that after a fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW) transfer, there is a two to threefold increase in gill EDNRA and EDNRB mRNA levels. Likewise, we found a two to three fold increase in gill EDNRA and EDNRB protein concentration. In addition, killifish that have acclimated to FW for 30 days had significantly lower EDNRA mRNA and protein levels than SW killifish. ENDRA were immunolocalized to the mitochondrion-rich cells of the killifish gill, suggesting that EDN1 signaling cascades may affect MRC function. EDNRB were found throughout the gill vasculature and on lamellar pillar cells. We previously immunolocalized EDN1 to the pillar cell suggesting that EDN1 acts as an autocrine signaling molecule and potentially regulates pillar cell tone and lamellar perfusion. We conclude that EDN1 is physiologically active in the teleost gill, and regulated by environmental salinity. Future functional studies examining the physiological role of this system are necessary to completely understand EDN1 in the fish gill.

  8. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENYLGLUCURONIDE IN RAINBOW TROUT GILL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phenylglucuronide (PG), a primary phase II metabolite of phenol, can be excreted by fish through urine and feces, similar to mammals. In addition, it may also be possible to eliminate it through a fish's gills. In order to assess the significance of gill water elimination, analyt...

  9. A shared role for sonic hedgehog signalling in patterning chondrichthyan gill arch appendages and tetrapod limbs.

    PubMed

    Gillis, J Andrew; Hall, Brian K

    2016-04-15

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, skates, rays and holocephalans) possess paired appendages that project laterally from their gill arches, known as branchial rays. This led Carl Gegenbaur to propose that paired fins (and hence tetrapod limbs) originally evolved via transformation of gill arches. Tetrapod limbs are patterned by asonic hedgehog(Shh)-expressing signalling centre known as the zone of polarising activity, which establishes the anteroposterior axis of the limb bud and maintains proliferative expansion of limb endoskeletal progenitors. Here, we use loss-of-function, label-retention and fate-mapping approaches in the little skate to demonstrate that Shh secretion from a signalling centre in the developing gill arches establishes gill arch anteroposterior polarity and maintains the proliferative expansion of branchial ray endoskeletal progenitor cells. These findings highlight striking parallels in the axial patterning mechanisms employed by chondrichthyan branchial rays and paired fins/limbs, and provide mechanistic insight into the anatomical foundation of Gegenbaur's gill arch hypothesis.

  10. Effects of sublethal copper concentrations on gills of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone 1931).

    PubMed

    Soegianto, Agoes; Irawan, Bambang; Usman, Nuhman

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the copper (Cu) concentration in gills of juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei after exposure to Cu at sublethal concentrations, and to evaluate its effect upon the structure of gill tissue. The Cu concentration in gills of control shrimp was 0.075 mg/kg. Copper concentrations increased significantly by 147 %, 180 % and 205 % in gills of shrimp exposed to 0.675, 1.325 and 2.010 mg Cu/L, respectively. After exposure to 0.675 mg Cu/L for 15 days, gill tissue hyperplasia was observed, with a narrowing of the hemolymphatic lacunae. Necrosis and loss of hemolymphatic lacunae were observed at exposures of 1.325 and 2.010 mg Cu/L.

  11. Glycoproteins histochemistry of the gills of Odontesthes bonariensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, A O; García, A M; Escalante, A H; Goldemberg, A L

    2010-11-01

    The histochemistry of glycoproteins (GP) in the mucous cells of the gills of the silverside Odontesthes bonariensis was identified with: (1) oxidizable vicinal diols; (2) sialic acid and some of their chain variants, carbon 7 ((7) C), carbon 8 ((8) C) or carbon 9 ((9) C); (3) sialic acid residues without O-acyl substitution and with O-acyl substitution at (7) C, (8) C or (9) C; (4) carboxyl groups and (5) sulphate groups. A battery of seven biotinylated lectins allowed GPs sugar residues to be distinguished. Mucous cells showed the presence of neutral, sulphated and sialylated GPs. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Glycine max agglutinin (SBA) showed strong positive staining; Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA) showed moderate staining, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) was completely negative.

  12. The systematic relevance of conidiogenesis modes in the gilled Agaricales.

    PubMed

    Walther, Grit; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Weiss, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Dikaryotic and haploid mycelia of more than 150 gilled species of euagarics were studied morphologically and by molecular phylogenetic methods. The morphological investigations revealed anamorphs in more than 90 species that were often specific at the genus or family level. Thallic conidiogenesis dominated and varied from fragmentation of normally branched hyphae to the formation of differentiated sympodially branched conidiophores. Secession modes, coiling of the conidiogenous hyphae or the swelling of the conidia were additional distinguishing features. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear gene for the ribosomal large subunit using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach resulted in several well-supported groups that are consistent with anamorph morphology. These results indicate that the anamorphs provide valuable characters for a natural classification of the Agaricales.

  13. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.

  14. Effects of nicotine on zebrafish: A comparative response between a newly established gill cell line and whole gills.

    PubMed

    Nathiga Nambi, K S; Abdul Majeed, S; Taju, G; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Sarath Babu, V; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-05-01

    A novel cell line, Danio rerio gill (DrG), derived from the gill tissue of zebrafish, was established and characterized. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 25°C to 32°C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium. The DrG cell line consists of epithelial-like cells with a diameter of 18-22μm. The cell line was characterized by mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on D. rerio by exposing them to nicotine for 96h under static conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity of nicotine was assessed in DrG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro cytotoxicity assay and the in vivo mortality data were highly significant. Nicotine induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in DrG cell line in a concentration dependent manner. DrG cell line and zebrafish exposed to nicotine significantly increased the elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) while depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidise(GPx1a) was observed. In nicotine treated fish and cells a negative correlation between reduced glutathione and LPO was observed. In addition, the production of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress resulted in increased expression of apoptosis related genes p53 and cas3.Collectively, our result suggests that nicotine has the potential to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress and apoptosis in DrG cell line and zebrafish.

  15. External gill motility and striated muscle presence in the embryos of anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Nokhbatolfoghahai, M; Downie, J R; Atherton, L

    2013-02-01

    Anuran external gills were assessed for motility and striated muscle content in 16 species from seven families. Motility of three kinds was observed. Pulsatory movements related to heart beat rhythm were common. In embryos developing to a late stage before hatching, movements of the whole embryo were frequent, with gills rearranging as a consequence. The only clearly active movement, presumably muscle driven, was 'gill flicking', a posterior movement of the entire gill into the body either on one side only, or both together, followed by a return to the normal spread-out position. Some species may actively spread their gills when hanging from the water surface film, but we did not observe this. In some species, active gill movement developed over time, but we were not able to follow all species over such a developmental sequence. The relationship between active motility and muscle content was good in most cases. Observations on late stage embryos of the aromobatid Mannophryne trinitatis are presented for the first time. In one species, we noted spread external gills being used to adhere hatchlings to a surface.

  16. Intraspecific variation in gill morphology of juvenile Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paterson, Jaclyn A.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated intraspecific variation in fish gill size that relates to variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) availability across habitats. In Lake Nabugabo, East Africa, ecological change over the past 12 years has coincided with a shift in the distribution of introduced Nile perch such that a larger proportion of the population now inhabits waters in or near wetland ecotones where DO is lower than in open waters of the lake. In this study, we compared gill size of juvenile Nile perch between wetland and exposed (open-water) habitats of Lake Nabugabo in 2007, as well as between Nile perch collected in 1996 and 2007. For Nile perch of Lake Nabugabo [<20 cm total length (TL)], there was a significant habitat effect on some gill traits. In general, fish from wetland habitats were characterized by a longer total gill filament length and average gill filament length than conspecifics from exposed habitats. Nile perch collected from wetland areas in 2007 had significantly larger gills (total gill filament length) than Nile perch collected in 1996, but there was no difference detected between Nile perch collected from exposed sites in 2007 and conspecifics collected in 1996.

  17. Structural changes in gill DNA reveal the effects of contaminants on Puget Sound fish.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Donald C; Stegeman, John J; Anderson, Jack W; Johnson, Paul M; Gold, Jordan; Anderson, Katie M

    2004-01-01

    Structural differences were identified in gill DNA from two groups of English sole collected from Puget Sound, Washington, in October 2000. One group was from the industrialized Duwamish River (DR) in Seattle and the other from relatively clean Quartermaster Harbor (QMH). Chemical markers of sediment contamination [e.g., polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] established that the DR was substantially more contaminated than QMH. The levels of these chemicals in the sediments of both sites were consistent with levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression in the gills of English sole from the same sites. Structural differences in gill DNA between the groups were evinced via statistical models of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Marked structural damage was found in the gill DNA of the DR fish as reflected in differences in base functional groups (e.g., C-O and NH2) and conformational properties (e.g., arising from perturbations in vertical base stacking interactions). These DNA differences were used to discriminate between the two fish groups through principal components analysis of mean FT-IR spectra. In addition, logistic regression analysis allowed for the development of a "DNA damage index" to assess the effects of contaminants on the gill. The evidence implies that environmental chemicals contribute to the DNA changes in the gill. The damaged DNA is a promising marker for identifying, through gill biopsies, contaminant effects on fish. PMID:15064153

  18. Cortisol differentially alters claudin isoforms in cultured puffer fish gill epithelia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Kelly, Scott P

    2010-04-12

    A primary cultured gill epithelium from the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis was developed to examine the corticosteroid regulation of claudin isoform mRNA abundance in fish gills. Preparations were composed of polygonal epithelial cells exhibiting concentric apical microridges and zonula occludens-1 immunoreactivity along cell margins. No evidence was found to indicate the presence of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive or mitochondria-rich cells in cultured preparations. Therefore, epithelia appear to be composed of gill pavement cells (PVCs) only. An RT-PCR profile of 12 salinity responsive gill claudin tight junction (TJ) proteins (Tncldn3a, -3c, -6, -8d, -10d, -10e, -11a, -23b, -27a, -27c, -32a, and -33b) revealed the absence of Tncldn6, -10d and -10e in cultured epithelia, suggesting that these isoforms are not associated with gill PVCs. Cortisol treatment of cultured epithelia dose-dependently increased or decreased mRNA abundance of select claudin isoforms. Transcript abundance of several claudin isoforms was unaffected by cortisol treatment. These data provide evidence for the cell specific distribution of claudins in fish gills and suggest that heterogeneous alterations in the abundance of select claudin isoforms contribute to the corticosteroid regulation of gill permeability.

  19. Claudins in a primary cultured puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    A primary cultured gill epithelium from the model organism Tetraodon nigroviridis (spotted green puffer fish) has been developed for the study of claudin tight junction (TJ) proteins and their potential role in the regulation of paracellular permeability across the gills of fishes. The cultured preparation is composed of polygonal epithelial cells that exhibit TJ protein immunoreactivity around the periphery and develop a surface morphology of concentric apical microridges. There is an absence of cells exhibiting intense Na+-K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and taken together, these characteristics indicate that the epithelium is composed of gill pavement cells only. In Tetraodon, 52 genes encoding for claudin isoforms (Tncldn) have been identified and 32 of these genes are expressed in whole gill tissue. Of these genes, 12 are responsive to alterations in environmental salinity in vivo (Tncldn3a, -3c, -6, -8d, -10d, -10e, -11a, -23b, -27a, -27c, -32a, and -33b). All claudin isoforms found in whole gill tissue can be found in cultured pavement cell gill epithelia with the exception of Tncldn6, -10d, and -10e. The cultured preparation is suitable for studying the "molecular machinery" of TJ proteins in fish gill pavement cells.

  20. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J Denry; Shaw, Joseph R; Stanton, Bruce A

    2012-03-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity.

  1. Microbial proliferation on gill structures of juvenile European lobster ( Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlemiss, Karen L.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of gill-cleaning structures is not well described in European lobster ( Homarus gammarus). Furthermore, the magnitude and time scale of microbial proliferation on gill structures is unknown to date. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate development of setae in zoea, megalopa and juvenile stages (I-V). Microbes were classified and quantified on gill structures throughout a moult cycle from megalopa (stage IV) to juvenile (stage V). Epipodial serrulate setae, consisting of a naked proximal setal shaft with the distal portion possessing scale-like outgrowths (setules), occur only after zoea stage III. After moulting to megalopa (stage IV), gill structures were completely clean and no microbes were visible on days 1 or 5 postmoult. Microbial proliferation was first evident on day 10 postmoult, with a significant 16-fold increase from day 10 to 15. Rod-shaped bacteria were initially predominant (by day 10); however, by day 15 the microbial community was dominated by cocci-shaped bacteria. This research provides new insights into the morphology of gill-grooming structures, the timing of their development, and the magnitude, timescale and characteristics of gill microbial proliferation during a moult cycle. To some degree, the exponential growth of epibionts on gills found during a moult cycle will likely impair respiratory (gas exchange) and ion regulatory function, yet further research is needed to evaluate the physiological effects of the exponential bacterial proliferation documented here.

  2. Ultramorphological changes in gill rakers of Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae) kept in contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F P; Pereira, B F; Alves, R M S; Valim, J R T; Figueiredo, F A T; Pitol, D L; Caetano, F H

    2017-02-14

    Most water bodies in Brazil, and in the world, are contaminated by some types of pollutants, ranging from sewage to metal/chemicals, carcinogenic products, and biodegradable detergents. Despite the extensive knowledge on their effects on fish biology and especially on gill morphology, research that concerns their impacts on gill rakers and implications in parameters such as food consumption cannot be found in the literature. Gill rakers are vital because, together with gills, they are responsible for the defense and protection of the organism and for selecting appropriate food for survival. When detergents, which can act as toxic chemical agents, get in contact with the body of the fish, they can cause severe effects that must be understood. Therefore, our study investigated ultramorphological changes in gill rakers of Astyanax altiparanae (Lambeth) caused by the exposure to biodegradable detergents. Fish were exposed to a 1 mg/L dilution of a mixture of detergents and pure water from an artesian well for 5 months. Results revealed that the first month of exposure to detergent caused dilation of chemical receptors in taste buds and the rise of a large number of orifices for mucus release among pavement cells in gill rakers, although only a small amount of mucus was found in fish exposed both to pure water and the detergent dilution. After 5 months, there was an increase in the dilation of these chemoreceptors, excess mucus on gill rakers of detergent groups, and the emergence of microbridges between microridges in pavement cells.

  3. Gill erosion and herpesvirus in Crassostrea gigas cultured in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; García-Ortega, Mauricio; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2010-03-09

    Recurrent episodes of mortality of Crassostrea gigas cultured in northwestern Mexico have been occurring since 1997. Previous studies on bacteria, protozoans, and metazoans as presumptive causal agents have been inconclusive. However, erosions in the marginal indentation of gills have been frequently observed in oysters from areas affected by mortality events, and in 2000 those lesions were associated with the detection of a herpes-like virus. The present study aimed to describe the histological alterations of eroded gills and to determine whether ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) or a related virus was associated with them using in situ hybridization (ISH). Histology showed that gill filaments were fused. In severe cases, deformation of the interlamellar junctions, swelling, and the loss of water channels was observed. ISH analysis revealed the presence of OsHV-1 DNA or a related virus in cells of the gills. Some labeled cells were large with dark granules inside their cytoplasm. These cells were surrounded by infiltrating hemocytes. Some cells interpreted as hemocytes were labeled and observed in eroded and non-eroded areas of the gill. Large cells detected by ISH were also observed by conventional histology with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Whether the virus produces the erosions in the gills, or the erosions in the gills are produced by an unknown condition and favor the presence of the virus, remains unresolved. It is also not clear whether the lesions contribute to mortality.

  4. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

    PubMed

    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  5. Gill ectoparasites of Barbus martorelli (Teleostean: Cyprinidae) from a tropical watercourse (Cameroon, Africa): conflict or coexistence?

    PubMed

    Tombi, J; Bilong Bilong, C F; Morand, S

    2011-02-01

    The structure and stability of parasite communities have been mainly explained by high diversity and strong interactions among parasite species. During 16 months, 558 Barbus martorelli gill infracommunities were studied in a tropical zone to determine whether parasite infrapopulations interact. Three levels were retained: the infracommunity level, the gill filament level, and the filament fraction level. Single species infections in Barbus martorelli were very rare and only concerned the core species: Dactylogyrus bopeleti, D. insolitus, D. simplex and Myxobolus barbi. Mixed infections appeared as a general rule in this fish species. Interspecific interactions at all three levels were statistically non significant. Our results suggest that Barbus martorelli gill parasites are non interactive (isolationist).

  6. Artificial gills for robots: MFC behaviour in water.

    PubMed

    Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Melhuish, Chris; Greenman, John

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports on the first stage in developing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) which can operate underwater by utilizing dissolved oxygen. In this context, the cathodic half-cell is likened to an artificial gill. Such an underwater power generator has obvious potential for autonomous underwater robots. The electrical power from these devices increased proportionately with water flow rate, temperature and salinity. The current output at ambient temperature (null condition) was 32 microA and this increased by 200% (approximately 100 microA) as a result of a corresponding temperature increase (DeltaT) of 52 degrees C. Similarly, the effect of increasing the water flow rate resulted in an increase in the MFC output ranging from 135% to 150%. Furthermore, the same positive effect was recorded when artificial seawater was used instead, in which case the increase in the MFC current output was >100% (from 32 to 65 microA). There was a distinct difference in the MFC performance when operated under low turbulent as opposed to high turbulent flow rates. These findings can be advantageous in the design of underwater autonomous robots.

  7. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Review and Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Laurie A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a disorder characterized by multiple involuntary motor and verbal tics. This review covers the history, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, past and present treatments, associated disorders, and various educational techniques. (Author/DB)

  8. The Gills Creek Watershed Association of Columbia, SC awarded $30,000 Environmental Justice Small Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - An Environmental Justice Small Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been awarded to the Gills Creek Watershed Association. for their project titled: Exposure to mercury through subsistence fishing: Assessment and o

  9. Mesodesma mactroides Gill Cells Exposed to Copper: Does Hyposmotic Saline Increase Cytotoxicity or Cellular Defenses?

    PubMed

    Anjos, V A; Galvão, J S; Santos, V R S; Souza, M M

    2016-11-01

    Gill cells of filter feeding mollusks have cellular defense mechanisms, such as multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), that allow them to extrude possible contaminants. To analyze the cytotoxicity and cellular defenses of gills in the clam Mesodesma mactroides, gill cells were exposed to copper in both iso- and hyposmotic solutions. Analysis of MXR activity by fluorescence microscopy showed that hyposmotic saline activated defenses, whereas the presence of copper in isosmotic solution inhibited the activation of defenses. Cell viability was decreased in cells exposed to copper in isosmotic saline, but not in cells exposed to hyposmotic saline. We conclude that when cells cannot defend themselves due to decreased MXR, cell death occurs. In addition, gill cells under hyposmotic conditions have a greater capacity for defense and a lower rate of cellular mortality than when they are maintained under isosmotic conditions.

  10. The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D H

    1987-01-01

    The gill epithelium is the site of gas exchange, ionic regulation, acid-base balance, and nitrogenous waste excretion by fishes. The last three processes are controlled by passive and active transport of various solutes across the epithelium. Various environmental pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, acid rain, and organic xenobiotics) have been found to affect the morphology of the gill epithelium. Associated with these morphological pathologies, one finds alterations in blood ionic levels, as well as gill Na,K-activated ATPase activity and ionic fluxes. Such physiological disturbances may underly the toxicities of these pollutants. In addition, the epithelial transport steps which are affected in the fish gill model resemble those described in the human gut and kidney, sites of action of a variety of environmental toxins. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 3. PMID:3297663

  11. Three Cases of Palatal Tics and Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle; Pavone, Piero; Tijssen, Marina; Robertson, Mary M

    2015-08-01

    Five patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have been previously reported. Little is known about the characteristics of palatal tics given that there are so few reports. On one hand, palatal tics may be rare. Alternatively, they may be less well recognized than repetitive eye blinking or sniffing, which are both obvious and, therefore, more often reported. We describe 3 patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We also review the 5 patients reported in the literature and explore whether there are characteristic features among this group of 8 cases. The 8 patients had the following features: (1) Personal history of other multiple motor/vocal tics, (2) the presence of typical Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (3) positive family history of tics and/or Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (4) the presence of audible "ear clicks," (5) younger age at onset (2 years). We suggest that palatal tics are underreported.

  12. Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.

  13. A second glutamine synthetase gene with expression in the gills of the gulf toadfish (opsanus beta)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Patrick J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Medina, Monica; Bernstein, Matthew L.; Barimo, John F.; Mommsen, Thomas P.

    2003-05-08

    Enzyme and molecular biology approaches were used to more completely characterize the expression of the nitrogen metabolism enzyme glutamine synthetase [GSase; L-glutamate: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), E.C. 6.3.1.2] in a variety of tissues of the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) subjected to unconfined (ammonotelic) and confined (ureotelic) conditions. Enzymological results demonstrate that while weight-specific GSase activities rank in the order of brain > liver > stomach {approx} kidney > intestine > gill> heart/spleen > muscle, when tissue mass is used to calculate a glutamine synthetic potential, the liver has the greatest, followed by muscle > stomach and intestine with minor contributions from the remaining tissues. Additionally, during confinement stress, GSase activity only increases significantly in liver (5-fold) and muscle (2-fold), tissues which previously showed significant expression of the other enzymes of urea synthesis. RT PCR and RACE PCR revealed the presence of a second GSas e cDNA from gill tissue that appears to share relatively low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity ({approx}73 percent) with the original GSase cloned from liver, and furthermore lacks a mitochondrial leader targeting sequence. RT PCR and restriction digestion experiments demonstrated that mRNA from the original ''liver'' GSase is expressed in all tissues examined (liver, gill, stomach, intestine, kidney, brain and muscle), whereas the new ''gill'' form shows expression primarily in the gill. Enzyme activities of gill GSase also exhibit a different subcellular compartmentation with apparent exclusive expression in the soluble compartment, whereas other tissues expressing the ''liver'' form show both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial activities. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of a number of GSases demonstrates that the toadfish gill GSase has a greater affinity for a clade that includes the Xenopus GSase genes and one of two Fugu GSase genes, than it has for a clade

  14. Trophic ecology and gill raker morphology of seven catostomid species in Iowa rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, J.R.; Quist, M.C.; Morris, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the trophic ecology of closely-related species is important for providing insight on inter-specific competition and resource partitioning. Although catostomids often dominate fish assemblages in lotic systems, little research has been conducted on their ecology. This study was developed to provide information on the trophic ecology of catostomids in several Iowa rivers. Food habits, diet overlap, and gill raker morphology were examined for highfin carpsucker Carpiodes velifer, quillback C.??cyprinus, river carpsucker C.??carpio, golden redhorse Moxostoma erythrurum, shorthead redhorse M.??macrolepidotum, silver redhorse M.??anisurum, and northern hogsucker Hypentelium nigricans sampled from four Iowa rivers (2009). Diet overlap among all species was calculated with Morista's index (C). Food habit niche width was quantified with Levin's index (B) and similarity in gill raker morphology was compared with analysis of covariance. Values from Morista's index suggested significant overlap in the diets of highfin carpsucker and river carpsucker (C=0.81), quillback and river carpsucker (C=0.66), and shorthead redhorse and silver redhorse (C=0.67). Levin's index indicated that golden redhorse (B=0.32), quillback (B=0.53), and river carpsucker (B=0.41) had the most generalized feeding strategies as their food niche widths were substantially wider than the other species. Gill raker length and spacing were positively correlated with the standard length of the fish for all species (gill raker length: r2=0.67-0.88, P???0.01; gill raker spacing: r2=0.63-0.73, P???0.01). Slopes of regression of gill raker length and spacing to standard lengths were significantly (P???0.05) different among species, indicating that rates of change in gill raker morphology with body length varied among species. Differences in gill raker morphology likely allow catostomids to partition resources and reduce competitive interactions. ?? 2011.

  15. Identification of Methanotrophic Biomarker Lipids in the Symbiont-Containing Gills of Seep Mussels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Zahiralis, K. D.; Klein, H. P.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Mussels collected from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico grow with methane as sole carbon and energy source due to a symbiotic association with methane-oxidizing bacteria. Transmission electron micrographs of mussel gills show cells with stacked intracytoplasmic membranes similar to type I methanotrophic bacteria. Methanotrophs are known to synthesize several types of cyclic triterpenes, hopanoids and methyl sterols, as well as unique monounsaturated fatty acid, double bond positional isomers that serve as biomarkers for this group. Lipid analysis of dissected mussels demonstrated the presence of these biomarkers predominantly in the gill tissue with much smaller amounts in mantle and remaining body tissues. Gill tissue contained 1150 micrograms/g dry wt. of hopanepolyol derivatives and diplopterol while the mantle tissue contained only 17 micrograms/g. The C16 monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1) characteristic of type I methanotrophic membranes dominated the gill tissue making up 53% of the total while only 5% 16:1 was present in the mantle tissue. The methyl sterol distribution was more dispersed. The predominant sterol in all tissues was cholesterol with lesser amounts of other desmethyl and 4-methyl sterols. The gill and mantle tissues contained 3461 micrograms (17% methyl) and 2750 micrograms (5% methyl) sterol per gm dry wt., respectively. Methyl sterol accounted for 44% of the sterol esters isolated from the gill, suggesting active demethylation of the methanotrophic sterols in this tissue. The use of lipid biomarkers could provide an effective means for identifying host-symbiont relationships.

  16. Ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum with reference to ionic transport.

    PubMed

    Jarial, M S; Wilkins, J H

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been examined using conventional transmission electron microscopy to elucidate its role in ionic transport. Four cell types are identified in the gill filament and primary gill bar epithelium. These are granular, ciliated, Leydig and basal cells. A fifth cell type, the flat mitochondria-rich cell is only found in the gill bar epithelium. The predominant granular cells display microvilli at their surface and their cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, vesicles and PAS+ secretory granules that are extruded at the surface, which along with secretions from the Leydig cells form a mucous coat. The granular cells are joined apically by junctional complexes consisting of zonulae occludens, zonulae adherens and desmosomes. The lateral membranes of granular cells enclose large intercellular spaces that are closed at the apical ends but remain open at the basal ends adjoining capillaries. In AgNO3-treated axolotl, the gills become darkly stained, the silver grains penetrate apical membranes and appear in the cytoplasm, accumulating near the lateral membranes and also enter the intercellular spaces. These findings are consistent with the dual role of the gill epithelium in mucus production and active ionic transport.

  17. Impact of environmental DDT concentrations on gill adaptation to increased salinity in the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron.

    PubMed

    Riou, Virginie; Ndiaye, Awa; Budzinski, Hélène; Dugué, Rémi; Le Ménach, Karyn; Combes, Yan; Bossus, Maryline; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries of tropical developing countries suffering from severe droughts induced by climate change are habitats to fish, which face drastic salinity variations and the contact with pollutants. The Western Africa tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is highly resistant to hypersalinity, but the effect of human-released xenobiotics on its adaptation is barely known. Controlled experiments were conducted to observe S. melanotheron gill adaptation to abrupt salinity variations in the presence of waterborne DDT, at concentrations detected in their natural habitat. The gills appeared as an important site of DDT conversion to DDD and/or depuration. A 12-days DDT exposure resulted in decreased gill epithelium thickness at all salinities (from fresh- to hypersaline-water), and the structure of gills from freshwater fish was particularly altered, relative to controls. No unbalance in tilapia blood osmolality was observed following DDT exposure, which however caused a decrease in branchial Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity. Gill cellular NKA expression was reduced in salt-water, together with the expression of the CFTR chloride channel in hypersaline water. Although S. melanotheron seems very resistant (especially in seawater) to short-term waterborne DDT contamination, the resulting alterations of the gill tissue, cells and enzymes might affect longer term respiration, toxicant depuration and/or osmoregulation in highly fluctuating salinities.

  18. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-10-30

    We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO2, CdCl2, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO2 in sea water media.

  19. Gilles Deleuze: psychiatry, subjectivity, and the passive synthesis of time.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc

    2006-10-01

    Abstract Although 'modern' mental health care comprises a variety of theoretical approaches and practices, the supposed identification of 'mental illness' can be understood as being made on the basis of a specific conception of subjectivity that is characteristic of 'modernity'. This is to say that any perceived 'deviation' from this characteristically 'modern self' is seen as a possible 'sign' of 'mental illness', given a 'negative determination', and conceptualized in terms of a 'deficiency' or a 'lack'; accordingly, the 'ideal''therapeutic' aim of 'modern' mental health care can be understood as the 'rectification' of that 'deficiency' through a 're-instatement' of the 'modern self'. Although contemporary mental health care is increasingly becoming influenced by the so-called 'death' of the 'modern self', this paper will suggest that it is the work of the 20th century French philosopher, Gilles Deleuze, that is able to provide mental health care with a coherent determination of a 'post-modern self'. However, a Deleuzian account of subjectivity stands in stark contrast to 'modernity's' conception of subjectivity and, as such, this paper will attempt to show how this 'post-modern' subjectivity challenges many of the assumptions of 'modern' mental health care. Moreover, acknowledging the complexity and the perceived difficulty of Deleuze's work, this paper will provide an account of subjectivity that can be understood as 'Deleuzian' in its orientation, rather than 'Deleuze's theory of subjectivity', and therefore, this paper also seeks to stimulate further research and discussion of Deleuze's work on subjectivity, and how that work may be able to inform, and possibly even reform, the theoretical foundations and associated diagnostic and therapeutic practices of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing.

  20. Genome scan for linkage to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, C.L.; Livingston, J.; Williamson, R.

    1994-09-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a familial, neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic, intermittent motor and vocal tics. In addition to tics, affected individuals frequently display symptoms such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or obsessive compulsive disorder. Genetic analyses of family data have suggested that susceptibility to the disorder is most likely due to a single genetic locus with a dominant mode of transmission and reduced penetrance. In the search for genetic linkage for TS, we have collected well-characterized pedigrees with multiple affected individuals on whom extensive diagnostic evaluations have been done. The first stage of our study is to scan the genome systematically using a panel of uniformly spaced (10 to 20 cM), highly polymorphic, microsatellite markers on 5 families segregating TS. To date, 290 markers have been typed and 3,660 non-overlapping cM of the genome have been excluded for possible linkage under the assumption of genetic homogeneity. Because of the possibility of locus heterogeneity overall summed exclusion is not considered tantamount to absolute exclusion of a disease locus in that region. The results from each family are carefully evaluated and a positive lod score in a single family is followed up by typing closely linked markers. Linkage to TS was examined by two-point analysis using the following genetic model: single autosomal dominant gene with gene frequency .003 and maximum penetrance of .99. An age-of-onset correction is included using a linear function increasing from age 2 years to 21 years. A small rate of phenocopies is also incorporated into the model. Only individuals with TS or CMT according to DSM III-R criteria were regarded as affected for the purposes of this summary. Additional markers are being tested to provide coverage at 5 cM intervals. Moreover, we are currently analyzing the data non-parametrically using the Affected-Pedigree-Member Method of linkage analysis.

  1. Oxidative stress response in gill and liver of Liza saliens, from the Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Ferreira, M; Salgado, M A

    2008-08-01

    Tissue-specific responses against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were analyzed in wild adult mullet (Liza saliens) caught in the Portuguese coastal lagoon Esmoriz-Paramos. Parameters measured were catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in liver and gill tissues and lipid peroxidation. The enzyme activities were related to gill histopathological alterations, as well as to heavy metals (Cu and Zn) concentrations in these tissues. Gill epithelium of L. saliens showed histological alterations, such as epithelial hyperplasia resulting in lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting, vasodilatation, and lamellar aneurisms, with a prevalence ranging from 62% to 92%. The highest Cu content was found in liver (379 mg x kg(-1)), while the highest Zn content was observed in gill (119 mg x kg(-1)). SOD and CAT activities showed differences between gill and liver. The highest activities found were SOD in gill (10.1 U/mg protein) and CAT in liver (39.2 mmol/min/mg protein). In gill, CAT activity was negatively related to both Cu levels and gill lifting, while a positive relationship was found between SOD activity and fish age. The positive relationship between Cu and CAT activity in liver suggests that an increase in metabolic level is related to Cu-induced oxidative stress. The decrease in gill CAT activity can be due to osmotic stress caused by damaged gill epithelium. CAT activity in liver is an appropriate biomarker of oxidative stress in the Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon.

  2. Alterations in gill structure in tropical reef fishes as a result of elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, A.J.; Gardiner, N.M.; Couturier, C.S.; Stecyk, J.A.W.; Nilsson, G.E.; Munday, P.L.; Rummer, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical regions are expected to be some of the most affected by rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) because seasonal temperature variations are minimal. As temperatures rise, less oxygen dissolves in water, but metabolic requirements of fish and thus, the demand for effective oxygen uptake, increases. Gill remodelling is an acclimation strategy well documented in freshwater cyprinids experiencing large seasonal variations in temperature and oxygen as well as an amphibious killifish upon air exposure. However, no study has investigated whether tropical reef fishes remodel their gills to allow for increased oxygen demands at elevated temperatures. We tested for gill remodelling in five coral reef species (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Chromis atripectoralis, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) from populations in northern Papua New Guinea (2° 35.765′ S; 150° 46.193′ E). Fishes were acclimated for 12-14 days to 29 and 31 °C, encompassing their seasonal range (29-31 °C), and 33 and 34 °C to account for end-of-century predicted temperatures. We measured lamellar perimeter, cross-sectional area, base thickness, and length for five filaments on the 2nd gill arches and qualitatively assessed 3rd gill arches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All species exhibited significant differences in the quantitative measurements made on the lamellae, but no consistent trends with temperature were observed. SEM only revealed alterations in gill morphology in P. moluccensis. The overall lack of changes in gill morphology with increasing temperature suggests that these near-equatorial reef fishes may fail to maintain adequate O2 uptake under future climate scenarios unless other adaptive mechanisms are employed. PMID:24862962

  3. Gill Morphology and Oxygen Diffusion Distance in Juvenile Striped Killifish, Fundulus majalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, M.; Rivera, L.; La Fortune, B.; Miller, A.

    2010-12-01

    Striped killifish (Fundulus majalis) are an important estuarine forage fish. Larvae and juveniles utilize shallow marsh pools which become warm (>30 C) and hypoxic (DO < 2mg/l) in summer. To investigate potential morphological adaptations to this environment we studied gill morphology. Gill surface area (GSA) and oxygen diffusion distance are important parameters for oxygen uptake, as expressed by Fick's Equation for diffusion. To measure these parameters fish (N=20, 20-50 mm TL) were collected from marsh pools and adjacent Long Island Sound in late summer, weighed, and measured. The gills were fixed in Karnovsky’s solution. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they were rinsed, dehydrated in a graded ETOH series, and critically point dried, sputter-coated and were observed with ISR-SR-50 SEM. Gill morphology (number of filaments, filament length, lamellar density, and lamellar size) were quantified using SEM. Total gill surface area (GSA) was calculated using the method of Hughes (1984); GSA = L* n* bl where L = sum of filament lengths, n = number of lamellae/mm, and bl = bilateral lamellar surface area. To measure oxygen diffusion distance from water to blood, samples were embedded in Araldite 502/Embed 812 TM plastic medium for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stained (uranyl acetate and calcinated lead citrate) thin sections were examined using a FEI/Philips Morgagni 268 transmission electron microscope (TEM). Gill lamellar diffusion distance was measured using the technique of Matey et al., 2008 and found to be low (1.0 µm ± 0.4; mean ± SD; N= 17). Gill structure and oxygen diffusion distance will be compared to other fishes from normoxic and hypoxic environments.

  4. Quantitative molecular phenotyping of gill remodeling in a cichlid fish responding to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar; Li, Johnathon; Gardell, Alison; Sacchi, Romina

    2013-12-01

    A two-tiered label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics workflow was used to elucidate how salinity affects the molecular phenotype, i.e. proteome, of gills from a cichlid fish, the euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). The workflow consists of initial global profiling of relative tryptic peptide abundances in treated versus control samples followed by targeted identification (by MS/MS) and quantitation (by chromatographic peak area integration) of validated peptides for each protein of interest. Fresh water acclimated tilapia were independently exposed in separate experiments to acute short-term (34 ppt) and gradual long-term (70 ppt, 90 ppt) salinity stress followed by molecular phenotyping of the gill proteome. The severity of salinity stress can be deduced with high technical reproducibility from the initial global label-free quantitative profiling step alone at both peptide and protein levels. However, an accurate regulation ratio can only be determined by targeted label-free quantitative profiling because not all peptides used for protein identification are also valid for quantitation. Of the three salinity challenges, gradual acclimation to 90 ppt has the most pronounced effect on gill molecular phenotype. Known salinity effects on tilapia gills, including an increase in the size and number of mitochondria-rich ionocytes, activities of specific ion transporters, and induction of specific molecular chaperones are reflected in the regulation of abundances of the corresponding proteins. Moreover, specific protein isoforms that are responsive to environmental salinity change are resolved and it is revealed that salinity effects on the mitochondrial proteome are nonuniform. Furthermore, protein NDRG1 has been identified as a novel key component of molecular phenotype restructuring during salinity-induced gill remodeling. In conclusion, besides confirming known effects of salinity on gills of euryhaline fish, molecular phenotyping reveals novel insight into

  5. Immunohistological classification of ionocytes in the external gills of larval Japanese black salamander, Hynobius nigrescens Stejneger.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Kumano, Tomoko; Komiyama, Makiko; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2011-08-01

    In this cytological and immunohistological study, we clarified the localization of the membrane transporters Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (NKA), vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA), and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and distinguished ionocyte subtypes in the gill of the Japanese salamander (Hynobius nigrescens). In larvae (IY stages 43-65), NKA immunoreactivity was observed on the basolateral plasma membrane in more than 60% cells and less than 20% cells in the primary filaments and secondary lamellae of the external gills, respectively. VHA immunoreactivity was observed on the apical membrane of some epithelial cells in the secondary lamellae of the external gills. High ENaCα immunoreactivity was widely observed on the apical cell membrane of a population of squamous cells, presumably pavement cells (PVCs), and mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), in the primary filaments and secondary lamellae of the external gills. Using double immunofluorescence microscopy, epithelial cell types involved in ionic regulation were characterized and divided into three ionocyte types: NKA-, NKA- and ENaC-, and VHA-positive cells. VHA-immunoreactive cells as well as NKA-positive cells were observed during IY stages 43-65 of the salamander larvae. During late stages of metamorphosis, NKA, VHA, and ENaCα immunoreactivities in the external gills decreased and finally disappeared during the completion of metamorphosis (IY stage 68). PVCs and MRCs in the external gills are probably involved in acid-base balance regulation and osmoregulation in urodele amphibian larvae. The results are discussed in relation to the ionocytes previously reported in fish gills and the frog skin epithelium.

  6. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  7. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  8. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breves, Jason P.; Serizier, Sandy B.; Goffin, Vincent; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of ion and water transport within osmoregulatory tissues across vertebrate species, yet how PRL acts on some of its target tissues remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that ionocytes in the gill directly respond to systemic PRL to regulate mechanisms of ion uptake. Ion-poor conditions led to increases in the expression of PRL receptor (prlra), Na+/Cl− cotransporter (ncc; slc12a10.2), Na+/H+ exchanger (nhe3b; slc9a3.2), and epithelial Ca2+ channel (ecac; trpv6) transcripts within the gill. Intraperitoneal injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) increased ncc and prlra transcripts, but did not affect nhe3b or ecac. Consistent with direct PRL action in the gill, addition of oPRL to cultured gill filaments stimulated ncc in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect blocked by a pure human PRL receptor antagonist (Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL). These results suggest that PRL signaling through PRL receptors in the gill regulates the expression of ncc, thereby linking this pituitary hormone with an effector of Cl− uptake in zebrafish for the first time.

  9. Ammonia secretion from fish gill depends on a set of Rh glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tsutomu; Westhoff, Connie M; Kato, Akira; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2007-04-01

    Ammonia excretion from the gill in teleost fish is essential for nitrogen elimination. Although numerous physiological studies have measured ammonia excretion, the mechanism of ammonia movement through the membranes of gill epithelial cells is still unknown. Mammalian Rh glycoproteins are members of a family of proteins that mediate ammonia transport in bacteria, yeast, and plants. We identified the Rh glycoprotein homologs, fRhag, fRhbg, fRhcg1, and fRhcg2, of the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes. Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry revealed that the pufferfish erythroid Rh glycoprotein homologue fRhag was present in red blood cells and the hematological organs (spleen and kidney) in fish. All four pufferfish Rh glycoproteins are specifically localized in the gill and line the pillar cells, pavement cells, and the mitochondrion-rich cells. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that they mediate methylammonium (an analog of ammonium) transport. These results suggest that pufferfish Rh glycoproteins are involved in ammonia excretion from the gill. These findings challenge the classic view that ammonia excretion in the fish gill occurs by passive diffusion.

  10. Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Wu, Xiangtian; Li, Yundong; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-04-15

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are susceptible to fluoride contamination of their environment. In this study, we examined the tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Carp were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoride (35-124 mg/L) and sampled at 30, 60 and 90 days. The accumulation of fluoride in the tissues increased with the level and duration of exposure. Steady state was not achieved under the experimental conditions. The gills accumulated the highest levels of fluoride followed by the liver>brain>kidney>muscle>intestine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed for the enzyme activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the gills after the fish were exposed for 90 days. Also, accumulation of fluoride was associated with the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the gill tissues, suggesting that fluoride promoted oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations revealed injuries to gill tissues and chloride cells, with the severity of injury increasing with exposure concentration. These results suggest that chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride may induce toxicity in the common carp.

  11. New insights into the many functions of carbonic anhydrase in fish gills.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible reactions of carbon dioxide and water: CO(2) + H(2)O ↔ H(+) + HCO(3)(-). It has long been recognized that CA is abundant in the fish gill, with attention focused on the role of CA in catalyzing the hydration of CO(2) to provide H(+) and HCO(3)(-) for the branchial ion transport processes that underlie systemic ionic and acid-base regulation. Recent work has explored the diversity of CA isoforms in the fish gill. By linking these isoforms to different cell types in the gill, and by exploiting the diversity of fish species available for study, this work is increasing our understanding of the many roles that CA plays in the fish gill. In particular, recent work has revealed that fish utilize more than one model of CO(2) excretion, that to understand the role of CA and the gill in ionic regulation and acid-base balance means characterizing the transporter and CA complement of individual cell types, and that CA plays roles in branchial sensory mechanisms. The goal of this brief review is to summarize these new developments, while at the same time highlighting key areas in which further research is needed.

  12. Hagfish: Champions of CO2 tolerance question the origins of vertebrate gill function

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel W.; Sardella, Brian; Rummer, Jodie L.; Sackville, Michael; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The gill is widely accepted to have played a key role in the adaptive radiation of early vertebrates by supplanting the skin as the dominant site of gas exchange. However, in the most basal extant craniates, the hagfishes, gills play only a minor role in gas exchange. In contrast, we found hagfish gills to be associated with a tremendous capacity for acid-base regulation. Indeed, Pacific hagfish exposed acutely to severe sustained hypercarbia tolerated among the most severe blood acidoses ever reported (1.2 pH unit reduction) and subsequently exhibited the greatest degree of acid-base compensation ever observed in an aquatic chordate. This was accomplished through an unprecedented increase in plasma [HCO3−] (>75 mM) in exchange for [Cl−]. We thus propose that the first physiological function of the ancestral gill was acid-base regulation, and that the gill was later co-opted for its central role in gas exchange in more derived aquatic vertebrates. PMID:26057989

  13. A Novel Betaproteobacterial Agent of Gill Epitheliocystis in Seawater Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R.; Kvellestad, Agnar; Mitchell, Susan O.; Steinum, Terje; Falk, Knut; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Epitheliocystis, a disease characterised by cytoplasmic bacterial inclusions (cysts) in the gill and less commonly skin epithelial cells, has been reported in many marine and freshwater fish species and may be associated with mortality. Previously, molecular and ultrastructural analyses have exclusively associated members of the Chlamydiae with such inclusions. Here we investigated a population of farmed Atlantic salmon from the west coast of Norway displaying gill epitheliocystis. Although ‘Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis’, previously reported to be present in such cysts, was detected by PCR in most of the gill samples analysed, this bacterium was found to be a rare member of the gill microbiota, and not associated with the observed cysts as demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. The application of a broad range 16 S rRNA targeted PCR assay instead identified a novel betaproteobacterium as an abundant member of the gill microbiota. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that this bacterium, tentatively classified as ‘Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola’, was the cyst-forming agent in these samples. While histology and ultrastructure of ‘Ca. B. cysticola’ cysts revealed forms similar to the reticulate and intermediate bodies described in earlier reports from salmon in seawater, no elementary bodies typical of the chlamydial developmental cycle were observed. In conclusion, this study identified a novel agent of epitheliocystis in sea-farmed Atlantic salmon and demonstrated that these cysts can be caused by bacteria phylogenetically distinct from the Chlamydiae. PMID:22427865

  14. Functional morphology of the gill in amazonian freshwater stingrays (chondrichthyes: potamotrygonidae): implications for adaptation to freshwater.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wallice Paxiúba; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Sakuragui, Marise Margareth; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2010-01-01

    The gill morphologies of six species of potamotrygonid freshwater stingrays from the Amazon basin were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Some unique features were found in the potamotrygonid gill: (1) fingerlike protuberances on the gill filament, (2) an Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff-positive histochemical reaction for several cell layers in the gill epithelium (except the basal ones), (3) pavement cells with numerous subapical mucous vesicles, (4) very large mucous cells, and (5) follicular Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich (NKA-rich) mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in Potamotrygon sp. (known as the cururu ray). The fingerlike protuberances may constitute an additional resistance to water flow, helping to drive water through the lamellae. The secretion of a mucous substance by the pavement cells and mucous cells may help to protect the gills against mechanical injury and pathogens and aid in osmoregulation in the dilute water of the Amazon basin. All MRCs possess enfolded basolateral membranes and have poorly developed or absent tubular systems. NKA-rich MRCs are located high in the basolateral membrane. The cururu ray, which is endemic to the Rio Negro, has follicular NKA-rich MRCs (8-12 cells in cross section) that share the same apical pit in the filament; this may be considered to be an autapomorphy. The combination of these branchial characteristics may have favored tolerance to the freshwater environment during the evolution and diversification of potamotrygonids throughout the Amazon basin.

  15. A structure-function analysis of ion transport in crustacean gills and excretory organs.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Onken, Horst; McNamara, John C

    2008-11-01

    Osmotic and ionic regulation in the Crustacea is mostly accomplished by the multifunctional gills, together with the excretory organs. In addition to their role in gas exchange, the gills constitute organs of active, transepithelial, ion transport, an activity of major importance that underlies many essential physiological functions like osmoregulation, calcium homeostasis, ammonium excretion and extracellular pH regulation. This review focuses on structure-function relationships in crustacean gills and excretory effectors, from the organ to molecular levels of organization. We address the diversity of structural architectures encountered in different crustacean gill types, and in constituent cell types, before examining the physiological mechanisms of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and NH(4)(+) transport, and of acid-base equivalents, based on findings obtained over the last two decades employing advanced techniques. The antennal and maxillary glands constitute the principal crustacean excretory organs, which have received less attention in functional studies. We examine the diversity present in antennal and maxillary gland architecture, highlighting the structural similarities between both organ types, and we analyze the functions ascribed to each glandular segment. Emphasis is given to volume and osmoregulatory functions, capacity to produce dilute urine in freshwater crustaceans, and the effect of acclimation salinity on urine volume and composition. The microanatomy and diversity of function ascribed to gills and excretory organs are appraised from an evolutionary perspective, and suggestions made as to future avenues of investigation that may elucidate evolutionary and adaptive trends underpinning the invasion and exploitation of novel habitats.

  16. Sulphur-oxidizing extracellular bacteria in the gills of Mytilidae associated with wood falls.

    PubMed

    Duperron, Sébastien; Laurent, Mélina C Z; Gaill, Françoise; Gros, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Six morphotypes of small mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) were found attached to naturally sunken wood collected in the Bohol Sea (Philippines). These specimens are related to the large Bathymodiolus mussels that are found worldwide at cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. In these habitats, the mytilids harbour sulphur- and methane-oxidizing endosymbionts in their gills and depend on the energy and carbon provided by the symbionts. In this study, bacteria associated with the gills of wood-associated mussels are characterized using molecular and microscopic techniques. The existence of bacteria in the lateral zone of gill filaments in all specimens is demonstrated. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene and adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase gene sequences indicate that the bacteria are closely related to sulphur-oxidizing endosymbionts of Bathymodiolus. FISHs using specific probes confirm that sulphur oxidizers are by far the most abundant, if not the only bacteria present. Electron micrographs displayed mostly extracellular bacteria located between microvilli at the apical surface of host gill epithelial cells all along the lateral zone of each gill filament. In some specimens, occasional occurrence of intracellular bacteria with similar morphology was noted. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of possible thiotrophic symbiosis in sunken wood ecosystems. With their epibiotic bacteria, wood-associated mussels display a less integrated type of interaction than described in their seep, vent and whale fall relatives.

  17. Effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep release on postrelease mortality of Lake Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10–12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release–and deep-release–treated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured.

  18. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I. )

    1988-09-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with {sup 35}s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins.

  19. Ultrastructural observations on feeding appendages and gills of Alvinella pompejana (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, V.; Gaill, F.

    1986-09-01

    The feeding appendages of Alvinella pompejana obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment are described. They are characterized by a ciliated groove, the cells of which have a very distinctive ultrastructure, by groups of bipolar receptor cells and by several kinds of gland cells. Among these, one cell type is in an upside down position suggesting a function completely different from other epidermal secretory cells. The gills differ considerably from the feeding appendages on the basis of their ultrastructure. Their epidermis is very irregular in height; basal infoldings give the blood access to a space coming very near to the external medium. The blood vascular system is open. On the other hand, the gills of Amphicteis gunneri are not effective sites of gas exchange, since their columnar epithelium is underlain with muscle cells. The cells composing the feeding appendages and gills of Alvinella pompejana are characterized by ultrastructurally very different mitochondria.

  20. Non-electrolyte permeability of trout gills: effect of temperature and adrenaline

    PubMed Central

    Isaia, J.

    1979-01-01

    1. The gill permeability to various non-electrolytes (Ps) was measured in fresh-water and sea-water adapted trout (Salmo gairdneri). This study was performed in vitro using a `head-perfused' preparation. The influence of temperature and adrenaline (10-6 M) on permeability to non-electrolytes was also investigated. 2. During salt adaptation Pbutanol and Pwater decrease, Pmannitol rises and Pdextran stays constant. In view of recently acquired morphological data these results back up the hypothesis of different pathways across the gill epithelium (transcellular, vesicular and paracellular) according to the physico-chemical characteristics of the molecules. The low selectivity of the gill epithelium as a function of the liposolubility of the molecules used testifies to the hydrophilic nature of diffusion across this epithelium, a feature becoming more pronounced during salt adaptation. 3. The activation energies are about 4 kcal/mol, an energy comparable to diffusion in water for most of the substances tested, exceptions being butanol for fresh-water adapted gills and water for fresh-water and sea-water adapted gills. Arrhenius plots for butanol in fresh water gills show a transition temperature at 15 °C, suggesting an increased membrane lipid fluidity above this temperature. 4. Adrenaline has no effect on Pmannitol and Pdextran, but increases Pbutanol and Pwater selectively according to the adaptation medium (+ 160% and + 100% in fresh water and + 25% and + 20% in sea water respectively). These results point to an effect of this catecholamine on the membrane lipid fluidity. PMID:439031

  1. Effects of salinity on the accumulation of hemocyte aggregates and bacteria in the gills of Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab, injected with Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Ikerd, Jennifer L; Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-05-01

    In addition to respiration and ion regulation, crustacean gills accumulate and eliminate injected particles, along with hemocyte aggregates that form in response to those particles. Here we report that the dose of Vibrio campbellii previously shown to induce a decrease in respiration and hemolymph flow across the gill in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, also triggered the formation of aggregates containing four or more hemocytes in the gills, compared with saline-injected controls. More bacteria were trapped and rendered non-culturable per unit weight by anterior respiratory gills than posterior gills specialized for ion regulation. Further, more bacteria accumulated in the anterior gills of animals held at 30 ppt than those at 10 ppt. Thus, the role of the gills in immune defense comes at an energetic cost to this and likely to other crustaceans; this cost is influenced by acclimation salinity and the position and specialized function of individual gills.

  2. Structural Changes in the Somatosensory System Correlate with Tic Severity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomalla, Gotz; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Jonas, Melanie; Baumer, Tobias; Biermann-Ruben, Katja; Hummel, Friedhelm; Gerloff, Christian; Muller-Vahl, Kirsten; Schnitzler, Alfons; Orth, Michael; Munchau, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Previous structural MRI studies have identified regional abnormalities in grey matter, especially in the basal ganglia. These findings are consistent with the assumption of alterations in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and…

  3. Electronic Thesis Initiative: Pilot Project of McGill University, Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun G.; Zou, Qing; McKnight, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To set up a protocol for electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) submission for the electronic thesis initiative pilot project at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: An electronic thesis and dissertation submission protocol was implemented and tested. To test authoring tools, we had 50 students submit…

  4. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND XENOBIOTIC GILL FLUX IN THE LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain respiratory-cardiovascular physiology under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and xenobiotic gill absorption (flux) data on adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) over a 48-h exposure period at 11? 1?C.

  5. Ion regulation in fish gills: recent progress in the cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lee, Tsung-Han; Lin, Li-Yih

    2011-07-01

    Fish encounter harsh ionic/osmotic gradients on their aquatic environments, and the mechanisms through which they maintain internal homeostasis are more challenging compared with those of terrestrial vertebrates. Gills are one of the major organs conducting the internal ionic and acid-base regulation, with specialized ionocytes as the major cells carrying out active transport of ions. Exploring the iono/osmoregulatory mechanisms in fish gills, extensive literature proposed several models, with many conflicting or unsolved issues. Recent studies emerged, shedding light on these issues with new opened windows on other aspects, on account of available advanced molecular/cellular physiological approaches and animal models. Respective types of ionocytes and ion transporters, and the relevant regulators for the mechanisms of NaCl secretion, Na(+) uptake/acid secretion/NH(4)(+) excretion, Ca(2+) uptake, and Cl(-) uptake/base secretion, were identified and functionally characterized. These new ideas broadened our understanding of the molecular/cellular mechanisms behind the functional modification/regulation of fish gill ion transport during acute and long-term acclimation to environmental challenges. Moreover, a model for the systematic and local carbohydrate energy supply to gill ionocytes during these acclimation processes was also proposed. These provide powerful platforms to precisely study transport pathways and functional regulation of specific ions, transporters, and ionocytes; however, very few model species were established so far, whereas more efforts are needed in other species.

  6. Theohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of Koi cyprinus carpio in the Eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a single pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring 16....

  7. Thelohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of koi Cyprinus carpio in the eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a singly pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring, 1...

  8. Aquatic gilled mushrooms: Psathyrella fruiting in the Rogue River in southern Oregon.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jonathan L; Coffan, Robert A; Southworth, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    A species of Psathyrella (Basidiomycota) with true gills has been observed fruiting underwater in the clear, cold, flowing waters of the upper Rogue River in Oregon. Fruiting bodies develop and mature in the main channel, where they are constantly submerged, and were observed fruiting over 11 wk. These mushrooms develop underwater, not on wood recently washed into the river. Substrates include water-logged wood, gravel and the silty riverbed. DNA sequences of the ITS region and a portion of the ribosomal large subunit gene place this fungus in Psathyrella sensu stricto near P. atomata, P. fontinalis and P. superiorensis. Morphological characters distinguish the underwater mushroom from previously described species. Fruiting bodies have long fibrillose stipes with small diameter caps. Immature stages have a thin veil that is soon lost. Gills lack reddish edges. Cystidia are ventricose with subacute apices. Spores were observed as wedge-shape rafts released into gas pockets below the caps. Underwater gills and ballistospores indicate a recent adaptation to the stream environment. This particular river habitat combines the characteristics of spring-fed flows and cold, aerated water with woody debris in shallow depths on a fine volcanic substrate. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we conclude that the underwater mushrooms are a new species, Psathyrella aquatica. This report adds to the biodiversity of stream fungi that degrade woody substrates. The underwater environment is a new habitat for gilled mushrooms.

  9. Nonlethal gill biopsy does not affect juvenile chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.; Shively, R.S.; Holmberg, G.S.; Sheer, M.B.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using gastric and surgical transmitter implantation, we compared radio-tagged juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (T(O)) with tagged fish also having a gill biopsy (T(B)) to determine biopsy effects on fish implanted with radio transmitters. We found no evidence during the 21-d period to suggest that a gill biopsy reduced survival, growth, or gross condition of the tagged-biopsy group, regardless of transmitter implantation technique. We recorded 100% survival of all treatment groups. Relative growth rates of T(O) and T(B) fish did not differ significantly. Leukocrit and lysozyme levels were not significantly different among groups, suggesting that no signs of infection were present. Our findings suggest that small chinook salmon can tolerate the combination of transmitter implantation and gill biopsy without compromising condition relative to fish receiving only the transmitter. We believe a gill biopsy can be used in field telemetry studies, especially when physiological data are needed in addition to behavioral data.

  10. The Problematics of Human Subjectivity: Gilles Deleuze and the Deweyan Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semetsky, Inna

    2003-01-01

    Explores continuity between the philosophical positions: French poststructuralist Gilles Deleuze and John Dewey. Aims to open up consideration of Deleuze's philosophy to educational theory and practice in the context of current debates and in line with Dewey's legacy. Concludes the paper by affirming Deleuze's place in the contemporary scholarship…

  11. Increased daylength stimulates plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+ and -ATPase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Sheridan, M.; Eilertson, C.; Carey, J.B.; O'Dea, M.

    1995-01-01

    Atlantic salmon juveniles reared at constant temperature (9–10°C) were exposed to four photoperiod treatment and sampled every 2 weeks from January through May. Fish reared under normal photoperiod exhibited eight-and three fold increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity, respectively, between January and April. Fish exposed to abrupt increases in daylength (LD 15:9) in February or March responded with earlier increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and earlier decreases in condition factor relative to fish in the normal photoperiod group. Fish maintained under short daylength (LD 9:15) from January to May exhibited delayed and muted increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Plasma thyroxine exhibited a 2.5-fold increase from February to late March in the normal photoperiod group, was generally lower in the LD 9:15 group, but exhibited no obvious response to abrupt increases in daylength. There was an increase in plasma 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine with time in all groups (43–80%) but no significant response to photoperiod. Plasma levels of somatostatin-25 were highest in the LD 9:15 group, but there was no detectable response to increased daylength in any of the photoperiod treatments. The results indicate that plasma growth hormone is responsive to increased daylength and may be causally related to subsequent increases in gill Na+, K+-ATPase.

  12. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  13. Isolation and characterization of bioactive fungi from shark Carcharodon carcharias' gill with biopharmaceutical prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Jinyuan; Feng, Yan; Mu, Jun; Bao, Haiyan; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about the fungi found in shark gills and their biomedicinal potential. In this article, we described the isolation, bioactivity, diversity, and secondary metabolites of bioactive fungi from the gill of a shark ( Carcharodon carcharias). A total of 115 isolates were obtained and grown in 12 culture media. Fifty-eight of these isolates demonstrated significant activity in four antimicrobial, pesticidal, and cytotoxic bioassay models. Four randomly selected bioactive isolates inhibited human cancer cell proliferation during re-screening. These active isolates were segregated into 6 genera using the internal transcribed spacer-large subunit (ITS-LSU) rDNA-sequence BLAST comparison. Four genera, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Chaetomium were the dominant taxa. A phylogenic tree illustrated their intergenera and intragenera genetic diversity. HPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis and subsequent database searching revealed that nine representative strains produced diverse bioactive compound profiles. These results detail the broad range of bioactive fungi found in a shark's gills, revealing their biopharmaceutical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing shark gill fungi and their bioactivity.

  14. Gill remodelling and growth rate of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus under impacts of hypoxia and temperature.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Bayley, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27°C and future 33°C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level. Thus initial values for 27°C normoxic fish (12.4±0.8g) were 211.8±21.6mm(2)g(-1) and 1.67±0.12μm for SA and HM respectively. After 5weeks in same conditions or in the combinations of 33°C and/or PO2 of 55mmHg, this initial surface area scaled allometrically with size for the 33°C hypoxic group, whereas branchial SA was almost eliminated in the 27°C normoxic group, with other groups intermediate. In addition, elevated temperature had an astounding effect on growth with the 33°C group growing nearly 8-fold faster than the 27°C fish.

  15. We Walked Very Warily. A History of Women at McGill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Margaret

    Nineteenth-century assumptions about the nature of women, her educability, her role in society, and debates about coeducation are examined in this record of the efforts of the first women students to gain entrance in McGill University in Canada. The introduction offers historical background, ideas of women, and the opening of higher education to…

  16. Student Guide Bibliographies for the McLennan Library, McGill University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    The McLennan Library of McGill University has created these student guide bibliographies as library orientation tools. They cover reference materials in specific subject areas in the social science and humanities, with special reference to their locations in McLennan Library. The guides are intended for the master's level student and have proved…

  17. Jacqueline Baxter Talks to Gill Howland, Newly Appointed Chair of BELMAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Gill is currently Chair of the British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society. Her personal experiences are central to her belief that education is the key to unlocking potential, both for individuals and for society as a whole. Throughout her career she has championed the right to good quality, inspirational education for…

  18. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Food Waste from Residential & Food Service Digestion Fats, Oil, and Grease...FOG) from Food Service Anaerobic Methane Wastewater Treatment Bi lid Digestion Fuel Cells oso s Think Holistically! Your Take Away Points...Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells

  19. Transcriptomic responses in rainbow trout gills upon infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Aquilino, Carolina; Castro, Rosario; Fischer, Uwe; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that even though the fin bases constitute the main portal of entry of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an important number of chemokine genes are up-regulated in the gills upon bath exposure to the virus. Because chemokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes through the action of specific chemokine receptors, in the current study, we have studied the transcription of several immune genes in response to a VHSV bath infection in the gills, focusing both on chemokine receptor genes and on genes characteristic of distinct leukocyte populations such as IgM, IgD, IgT, CD4, CD8, perforin and MHC-II. We have studied the response to the virus in naïve fish as well as in fish that had been previously intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. Additionally, we have sorted both IgM(+) and CD8(+) cells from the gills of naïve and infected animals to study some of these up-regulated genes in specific leukocyte populations. Our results indicate that despite the low replication level, VHSV provokes an up-regulation of IgM, IgT, CD3 and perforin transcription together with the up-regulation of CCR7, CCR9, CXCR3B and CXCR4 mRNA levels. Interestingly, MHC-II mRNA was up-regulated and CCR7 was down-modulated in IgM(+) cells from infected gills, whereas perforin, CCR7 and CXCR4 mRNA levels were higher in sorted CD8(+) cells from infected animals. Surprisingly, when fish had been previously injected with either the empty plasmid or the VHSV DNA vaccine, these up-regulations in immune gene transcription were no longer observed. Our results point to the gills as an important site for innate and acquired viral defense.

  20. Identification of Methanotrophic Lipid Biomarkers in Cold-Seep Mussel Gills: Chemical and Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Dowling, Lesley M.; Zahiralis, Karen D.

    1995-01-01

    A lipid analysis of the tissues of a cold-seep mytilid mussel collected from the Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico was used in conjunction with a compound-specific isotope analysis to demonstrate the presence of methanotrophic symbionts in the mussel gill tissue and to demonstrate the host's dependence on bacterially synthesized metabolic intermediates. The gill tissue contained large amounts of group-specific methanotrophic biomarkers, bacteriohopanoids, 4-methylsterols, lipopolysaccharide-associated hydroxy fatty acids, and type I-specific 16:1 fatty acid isomers with bond positions at delta-8, delta-10, and delta-ll. Only small amounts of these compounds were detected in the mantle or other tissues of the host animal. A variety of cholesterol and 4-methylsterol isomers were identified as both free and steryl esters, and the sterol double bond positions suggested that the major bacterially derived gill sterol(11.0% 4(alpha)-methyl-cholesta-8(14), 24-dien-3(beta)-ol) was converted to host cholesterol (64.2% of the gill sterol was cholest-5-en-3(beta)-ol). The stable carbon isotope values for gill and mantle preparations were, respectively, -59.0 and -60.4 per thousand for total tissue, -60.6 and -62.4 per thousand for total lipids, -60.2 and -63.9 per thousand for phospholipid fatty acids, and -71.8 and -73.8 per thousand for sterols. These stable carbon isotope values revealed that the relative fractionation pattern was similar to the patterns obtained in pure culture experiments with methanotrophic bacteria further supporting the conversion of the bacterial methyl-sterol pool.

  1. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  2. Differential freshwater adaptation in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax: involvement of gills and urinary system.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Catherine; Romestand, Bernard; Nègre-Sadargues, Geneviève; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Bacal, Julien; Bonhomme, François; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-10-01

    The effects of long-term freshwater acclimatization were investigated in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax to determine whether all sea-bass juveniles are able to live in freshwater and to investigate the physiological basis of a successful adaptation to freshwater. This study particularly focused on the ability of sea-bass to maintain their hydromineral balance in freshwater and on their ion (re)absorbing abilities through the gills and kidneys. Two different responses were recorded after a long-term freshwater acclimatization. (1) Successfully adapted sea-bass displayed standard behavior; their blood osmolality was maintained almost constant after the freshwater challenge, attesting to their efficient hyperosmoregulation. Their branchial and renal Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity were high compared to seawater fish due to a high number of branchial ionocytes and to the involvement of the urinary system in active ion reabsorption, producing hypotonic urine. (2) Sea-bass that had not successfully adapted to freshwater were recognized by abnormal schooling behavior. Their blood osmolality was low (30% lower than in the successfully adapted sea-bass), which is a sign of acute osmoregulatory failure. High branchial Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity compared to successfully adapted fish were coupled to a proliferation of gill chloride cells, whose ultrastructure did not display pathological signs. The large surface used by the gill chloride cells might negatively interfere with respiratory gas exchanges. In their urinary system, enzyme abundance and activity were low, in accordance with the observed lower density of the kidney tubules. Urine was isotonic to blood in unsuccessfully adapted fish, ruling out any participation of the kidney in hyperosmoregulation. The kidney failure seems to generate a compensatory ion absorption through increased gill activity, but net ion loss through urine seems higher than ion absorption by the gills, leading to lower hyper

  3. Functional characterization and localization of a gill-specific claudin isoform in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yu, A. S. L.; Li, J.; Madsen, S. S.; Færgeman, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Claudins are the major determinants of paracellular epithelial permeability in multicellular organisms. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), we previously found that mRNA expression of the abundant gill-specific claudin 30 decreases during seawater (SW) acclimation, suggesting that this claudin is associated with remodeling of the epithelium during salinity change. This study investigated localization, protein expression, and function of claudin 30. Confocal microscopy showed that claudin 30 protein was located at cell-cell interfaces in the gill filament in SW- and fresh water (FW)-acclimated salmon, with the same distribution, overall, as the tight junction protein ZO-1. Claudin 30 was located at the apical tight junction interface and in cell membranes deeper in the epithelia. Colocalization with the α-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase was negligible, suggesting limited association with mitochondria-rich cells. Immunoblotting of gill samples showed lower claudin 30 protein expression in SW than FW fish. Retroviral transduction of claudin 30 into Madin-Darby canine kidney cells resulted in a decreased conductance of 19%. The decreased conductance correlated with a decreased permeability of the cell monolayer to monovalent cations, whereas permeability to chloride was unaffected. Confocal microscopy revealed that claudin 30 was expressed in the lateral membrane, as well as in tight junctions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, thereby paralleling the findings in the native gill. This study suggests that claudin 30 functions as a cation barrier between pavement cells in the gill and also has a general role in cell-cell adhesion in deeper layers of the epithelium. PMID:21975646

  4. Copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: Implications for assessing bioavailable metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, R.K.; Smith, D.E.; Swoboda-Colberg, N.; Meyer, J.S.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    In this study, the authors determined the conditional stability constant (log K[prime]) of copper for the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; BT). Using toxicity-based complexation bioassays, which measure the effect of competing organic ligands on copper toxicity, the RBT gill copper log K[prime] range was 6.4 to 7.2. Using a Scatchard analysis of gill Cu accumulation, the RBT log K[prime] was 7.50 and the BT log K[prime] was 7.25. The close agreement in RBT log K[prime] values between these two methods suggests that measurement of gill copper accumulation is an acceptable alternative for determining a toxicity-based gill copper binding affinity. The results also suggest that there is either a single gill copper binding component or, more realistically, multiple components with similar binding properties that function collectively to define a single toxicologically relevant copper conditional stability constant. These results suggest analytical approaches to measuring bioavailable metal concentrations, such as geochemical modeling where biological ligands are included in speciation calculations, may adequately simulate complex biological ligands. A method to convert gill copper accumulation to a bioavailable water criterion is also discussed.

  5. Mitochondrion-rich cells distribution, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and gill morphometry of the Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wallice P; Silva, Naara F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2011-09-01

    Detailed measurements of gill area and constituent variables (total filament number, total filament length and mean filament length), and immunolocalization of the α-subunit of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were performed on both hemibranchs of all five arches of freshwater potamotrygonid stingrays (Paratrygon aiereba and Potamotrygon sp.). Both species exhibit similar mass-specific gill area, 89.8 ± 6.6 and 91.5 ± 4.3 mm² g⁻¹ for P. aiereba and Potamotrygon sp., respectively. The density of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich MRCs and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was higher in the 4th gill arch in both species. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was positively correlated to the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase rich) mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) distribution among the gill arches of P. aiereba but not in Potamotrygon sp. The levels Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were not correlated to the gill surface area among the arches for both rays' species. Considering that the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich MRC is the main site for active ion transport in the gill epithelia and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity plays a crucial role in osmoionoregulatory function, we suggesting that 4th gill arch is more relevant for osmoregulation and ion balance in these potamotrygonids.

  6. EROD activity in gill filaments of anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Maria; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunström, Björn; Brandt, Ingvar; Ingebrigtsen, Kristian; Jørgensen, Even H

    2003-11-01

    The applicability of a gill filament-based ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay, originally developed in rainbow trout, was examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens) and spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor). All species but spotted wolffish showed strong EROD induction in tip pieces of gill filaments following 48 h of exposure to waterborne beta-naphthoflavone. Atlantic salmon parr, smolts held in freshwater and smolts transferred to seawater showed EROD induction of similar magnitude. Arctic charr, differing 11-fold in body weight, showed similar EROD activities as expressed per gill filament tip. Laboratory exposure of saithe to water and sediments collected at polluted sites, resulted in strong EROD induction. In conclusion, the gill filament assay seems useful for monitoring exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in various species. Furthermore, smoltification status, water salinity and body size proved to have minor influence on gill filament EROD activity. However, the results in spotted wolffish show that some species may be less suitable for monitoring using the gill assay. Assessment of gill filament EROD activity in fish exposed to polluted water and sediments in the laboratory proved to be an easy and cost-effective way to survey pollution with dioxin-like chemicals.

  7. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis.

  8. Bacterial microbiota profile in gills of modified atmosphere-packaged oysters stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huibin; Wang, Meiying; Lin, Xiangzhi; Shi, Caihua; Liu, Zhiyu

    2017-02-01

    As filter-feeding bivalves, oysters can accumulate microorganisms into their gills, causing spoilage and potential safety issues. This study aims to investigate the changes in the gill microbiota of oysters packed under air and modified atmospheres (MAs, 50% CO2: 50% N2, 70% CO2: 30% O2, and 50% CO2: 50% O2) during storage at 4 °C. The diversity of bacterial microbiota in oyster gills was profiled through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to describe the variation during the entire storage period. The DGGE profile revealed high bacterial diversity in the air- and MA-packaged oyster gills, and the spoilage bacterial microbiota varied in the MA-packaged oyster gills. Results indicated that CO2:O2 (70%:30%) was suitable for oyster MA packaging and that high bacterial loads in oyster gills need to be considered during storage. In addition, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species were found to grow dominantly in fresh oyster gills under MA packaging, which supports the potential application of MA packaging for oyster storage.

  9. Copper accumulation and toxicity in isolated cells from gills and hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Paganini, Christianne L; Bianchini, Adalto

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we used fresh preparations of mixed-cell populations to evaluate accumulation and toxicity of dissolved copper (1-100 microM) in isolated cells from posterior gills and hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). For both gill and hepatopancreatic cells, significant increases in copper accumulation were observed after exposure to 50 or 100 microM copper. In gill cells, a linear increase in copper accumulation was observed over time. In hepatopancreatic cells, a maximum level of copper accumulation was achieved after 1 h of exposure, remaining unchanged up to 6 h. After 6 h of exposure, copper content in gill cells was 6.6-fold higher than that in hepatopancreatic cells. In both cell types, copper accumulation always followed a linear relationship with copper concentration in the incubation medium. Significant decreases in cell viability were observed after exposure to either 10 microM copper (gill cells) or 100 microM copper (gill and hepatopancreatic cells). Furthermore, an exponential rise to maximum-type relationship was observed between copper accumulation and toxicity in gill cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that the premise behind the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is verified in isolated cells from posterior gills of the blue crab (i.e., toxicity is driven by copper accumulation in the biotic ligand, the gill cell). Therefore, these cells can be used as a model for the development of an in vitro BLM version for marine conditions. Isolated cells from the hepatopancreas, however, could be used as a model to better understand the mechanism of copper tolerance at a cellular level in crustaceans.

  10. Claudins in a primary cultured puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gill epithelium model alter in response to acute seawater exposure.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2015-11-01

    Gill epithelium permeability and qualitative/quantitative aspects of gill claudin (cldn) tight junction (TJ) protein transcriptomics were examined with a primary cultured model gill epithelium developed using euryhaline puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gills. The model was prepared using seawater-acclimated fish gills and was cultured on permeable cell culture filter supports. The model is composed of 1-2 confluent layers of gill pavement cells (PVCs), with the outer layer exhibiting prominent apical surface microridges and TJs between adjacent cells. During development of electrophysiological characteristics, the model exhibits a sigmoidal increase in transpithelial resistance (TER) and plateaus around 30 kΩcm(2). At this point paracellular movement of [(3)H]polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was low at ~1.75 cm s(-1)×10(-7). When exposed to apical seawater (SW) epithelia exhibit a marked decrease in TER while PEG flux remained unchanged for at least 6 h. In association with this, transcript encoding cldn TJ proteins cldn3c, -23b, -27a, -27c, -32a and -33b increased during the first 6 h while cldn11a decreased. This suggests that these proteins are involved in maintaining barrier properties between gill PVCs of SW fishes. Gill cldn mRNA abundance also altered 6 and 12 h following abrupt SW exposure of puffer fish, but in a manner that differed qualitatively and quantitatively from the cultured model. This most likely reflects the cellular heterogeneity of whole tissue and/or the contribution of the endocrine system in intact fish. The current study provides insight into the physiological and transcriptomic response of euryhaline fish gill cells to a hyperosmotic environment.

  11. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the

  12. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  13. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  14. Absence of histophatological response to cadmium in gill and digestive diverticula of the mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, A.S.; Webster, L.K.; Fabris, J.G.; Collett, L.C.; Yeomans, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has been proposed for use as a sentinel organism to monitor the effects of marine pollution (Goldberg et al., 1978). Recently, there has been interest in quantifying histopathological changes in mussel tissues, as one indicator of pollution-induced stress. Cadmium is a common and toxic aquatic pollutant. Gill and digestive diverticula have been shown to be major sites of cadmium detoxification. In these same tissues, histopathological changes have been demonstrated after exposure to crude oil and to an oil dispersant. However, whether similar morphological changes are induced by heavy metals, such as cadmium, is not known. In this study, the authors have assessed the cellular effects of sublethal concentrations of cadmium on the gill and digestive diverticula of Mytilus.

  15. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  16. Effects of bacteria on the growth of an amoeba infecting the gills of turbot.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, E; Paramá, A; Iglesias, R; Sanmartín, M L; Leiro, J

    2001-05-04

    We analysed the influence of various bacteria on the in vitro growth of trophozoites of a Platyamoeba strain isolated from diseased gill tissues of cultured turbot. Little or no growth was shown by amoebae cultured in the presence of (1) the turbot-pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida or Streptococcus sp., (2) Pasteurella piscicida or Vibrio vulnificus (pathogenic for some fishes but not turbot), or (3) the non-pathogenic 'environmental' bacteria Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio fluvialis or Pseudomonas dondorofii. The only bacteria which were successfully utilized as food sources were Aeromonas hydrophila (pathogenic for some fishes but not turbot) and the non-pathogens Vibrio natriegens, Pseudomonas nautica and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the colonization of the gills of cultured turbot by the epizoic amoeba Platyamoeba may be an indicator of faecal contamination.

  17. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan; Guo, Huarong

    2007-04-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR. MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  18. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  19. The metabolic effects of limbic leucotomy in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sawle, G V; Lees, A J; Hymas, N F; Brooks, D J; Frackowiak, R S

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen metabolism was measured before and after limbic leucotomy in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, and obsessional slowness. The preoperative scan showed hypermetabolism in the caudate nuclei, which normalised after operation. It is proposed that the beneficial effects of this operation on both tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour are mediated by disruption of abnormal neural activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops. Images PMID:8410025

  20. Effects of Potential Therapeutic Agents on Copper Accumulations in Gill of Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Luxama, Juan D.; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for organisms, but when in excess, copper’s redox potential enhances oxyradical formation and increases cellular oxidative stress. Copper is a major pollutant in Jamaica Bay and other aquatic areas. Bivalves are filter feeders that accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants from their environment. Previously it was determined that seed from the bivalve Crassostrea virginica, transplanted from an oyster farm to Jamaica Bay readily accumulated copper and other pollutants into their tissues. In the present study we utilized Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to measure the uptake of copper into C. virginica gill in the presence and absence of three potential copper -blocking agents: diltiazem, lanthanum, and p-aminosalicyclic acid. Diltiazem and lanthanum are known calcium-channel blockers and p-aminosalicylic acid is an anti-infammarory agent with possible metal chelating properties. We also used the DMAB-Rhodanine histochemistry staining technique to confirm that copper was entering gill cells. Our result showed that diltiazem and p-aminosalicyclic acid reduced copper accumulations in the gill, while lanthanum did not. DMAB-Rhodanine histochemistry showed enhanced cellular copper staining in copper-treated samples and further demonstrated that diltiazem was able to reduce copper uptake. The accumulation of copper into oyster gill and its potential toxic effects could be of physiological significance to the growth and long term health of oysters and other marine animals living in a copper polluted environment. Identifying agents that block cellular copper uptake will further the understanding of metal transport mechanisms and may be beneficial in the therapeutic treatment of copper toxicity in humans. PMID:21841975

  1. Surviving submerged--Setal tracheal gills for gas exchange in adult rheophilic diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    The gas exchange in adult diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) relies on a subelytral air store, which has to be renewed in regular intervals at the water surface. The dive duration varies from a few minutes to 24 h depending on the species, activity, and temperature. However, some species remain submerged for several weeks. Stygobiont species do not ascend to the surface and gas exchange of these species remains unclear, but it is assumed that they require air filled voids for respiration or they use cutaneous respiration. In this study, we investigate the gas exchange in the running water diving beetle Deronectes aubei, which survive submerged for over 6 weeks. The diffusion distance through the cuticle is too great for cutaneous respiration. Therefore, the dissolved oxygen uptake of submerged beetles was determined and an oxygen uptake via the rich tracheated elytra was observed. Fine structure analyses (SEM and TEM) of the beetles showed tracheated setae mainly on the elytral surface, which acts as tracheal gills. Prevention of the air bubble formation at the tip of the abdomen, which normally act as physical gill in Dytiscidae, resulted in no effect in oxygen uptake in D. aubei, but this was the sole way for a submerged Hydroporus palustris to get oxygen. The setal gas exchange technique explains the restriction of D. aubei to rivers and brooks with high oxygen concentration and it may also be used by subterran living diving beetles, which lack access to atmospheric oxygen. The existence of setal tracheal gills in species in running water which are often found in the hyporheic zone and in stygobiont species supports the known evolution of stygobiont Dytiscidae from species of the hyporheic zone. For species in running water, setal tracheal gills could be seen as an adaptation to avoid drifting downstream by the current.

  2. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  3. Mortality, accumulation, and distribution of zinc in the gill system of the dogfish following zinc treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, S.; Blasch, J.

    1980-06-01

    Besides being an essential element, Zn has been shown to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute lethalities of Zn salts to teleosts have been reported, but few data regarding Zn toxicity to elasmobranchs can be found. To evaluate the effect of Zn on elasmobranchs and to compare the data with those on teleosts this paper studies Zn toxicity and the accumulation of the metal in the gills of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula exposed to 180 and 80 ppM of zinc.

  4. Design and fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices inspired from secondary lamellae of fish gills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prasoon; Gandhi, Prasanna S.; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-04-01

    Gills are one of the most primitive gas, solute exchange organs available in fishes. They facilitate exchange of gases, solutes and ions with a surrounding water medium through their functional unit called secondary lamella. These lamellae through their extraordinary morphometric features and peculiar arrangement in gills, achieve remarkable mass transport properties. Therefore, in the current study, modeling and simulation of convection-diffusion transport through a two dimensional model of secondary lamella and theoretical analysis of morphometric features of fish gills were carried out. Such study suggested an evolutionary conservation of parametric ratios across fishes of different weights. Further, we have also fabricated a thin microvascularised PDMS matrices mimicking secondary lamella by use of micro-technologies like electrospinning. In addition, we have also demonstrated the fluid flow by capillary action through these thin microvascularised PDMS matrices. Eventually, we also illustrated the application of these thin microvascularied PDMS matrices in solute exchange process under capillary flow conditions. Thus, our study suggested that fish gills have optimized parameteric ratios, at multiple length scale, throughout an evolution to achieve an organ with enhanced mass transport capabilities. Thus, these defined parametric ratios could be exploited to design and develop efficient, scaled-up gas/solute exchange microdevices. We also proposed an inexpensive and scalable method of fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices and demonstrated its solute exchange capabilities under capillary flow conditions. Thus, mimicking the microstructures of secondary lamella will enable fabrication of microvascularised thin polymer systems through micro manufacturing technologies for potential applications in filtration, self-healing/cooling materials and bioengineering.

  5. Calcium transport in gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a mangrove crab living in variable salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Leite, V P; Zanotto, F P

    2013-10-01

    Crustaceans show discontinuous growth and have been used as a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of calcium transport, which is the main mineral found in their exoskeleton. Ucides cordatus, a mangrove crab, is naturally exposed to fluctuations in calcium and salinity. To study calcium transport in this species during isosmotic conditions, dissociated gill cells were marked with fluo-3 and intracellular Ca(2+) change was followed by adding extracellular Ca(2+) as CaCl2 (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 5mM), together with different inhibitors. For control gill cells, Ca(2+) transport followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Vmax=0.137±0.001 ∆Ca(2+)i (μM×22.10(4)cells(-1)×180s(-1); N=4; r(2)=0.99); Km=0.989±0.027mM. The use of different inhibitors for gill cells showed that amiloride (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) inhibited 80% of Ca(2+) transport in gill cells (Vmax). KB-R, an inhibitor of Ca influx in vertebrates, similarly caused a decrease in Ca(2+) transport and verapamil (Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) had no effect on Ca(2+) transport, while nifedipine (another Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) caused a 20% decrease in Ca(2+) affinity compared to control values. Ouabain, on the other hand, caused no change in Ca(2+) transport, while vanadate increased the concentration of intracellular calcium through inhibition of Ca(2+) efflux probably through the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase. Results show that transport kinetics for Ca(2+) in these crabs under isosmotic conditions is lower compared to a hyper-regulator freshwater crab Dilocarcinus pagei studied earlier using fluorescent Ca(2+) probes. These kinds of studies will help understanding the comparative mechanisms underlying the evolution of Ca transport in crabs living in different environments.

  6. Cortisol stimulates calcium transport across cultured gill epithelia from freshwater rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott P; Wood, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cortisol on calcium (Ca(2+)) transport across cultured rainbow trout gill epithelia composed of both pavement cells (PVCs) and mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) was examined. Under symmetrical culture conditions (L15 media apical/L15 media basolateral), cortisol had subtle effects on gill epithelial preparations. Both control and cortisol treated epithelia exhibited Ca(2+) influx and efflux rates (measured radioisotopically using (45)Ca) that were approximately balanced, with a slight inwardly directed net Ca(2+) flux. Ussing flux ratio analysis indicated active Ca(2+) transport in the inward direction across epithelia bathed symmetrically regardless of hormone treatment. In contrast, under asymmetrical conditions (freshwater apical/L15 media basolateral) control epithelia exhibited active Ca(2+) transport in the outward direction (basolateral to apical) throughout experiments conducted over a 24-h period, whereas cortisol-treated preparations exhibited active transport in the inward direction (apical to basolateral) during the early stages of an asymmetrical culture period (e.g., T0-6 h) and passive transport during the later stages (e.g., T18-24 h). When soft freshwater (with tenfold lower [Ca(2+)]) was used for asymmetrical culture instead of freshwater, control epithelia developed outwardly directed active Ca(2+) transport properties, whereas cortisol-treated preparations did not. The results of this study support a hypercalcemic role for cortisol in rainbow trout and demonstrate that treating cultured gill epithelia composed of both PVCs and MRCs with cortisol can stimulate active Ca(2+) uptake under circumstances that more closely resemble natural conditions for fish gills (i.e., freshwater bathing the apical side of the epithelium).

  7. Marine sediment and interstitial water: Effects on bioavailability of cadmium to gills of the clam Protothaca staminea

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Schmidt, R.L.; Apts, C.W.

    1981-12-01

    A study was made to determine first, the kinetics of cadmium sorption on a natural marine sediment and second, the degree to which this sorption as well as interstitial water might effect bioavailability of cadmium to gills of the clam Protothaca staminea. Surface sediment from Sequim Bay, Washington was labelled with Cd 109 and total cadmium concentration determined by radioassay. Gills were added to three types of exposures: 1) control (0.45 um filtered seawater, 2) sediment interstitial water and 3) washed sediment. Prepared samples of gills were counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Results show that addition of a small quantity of washed sediment to the exposure system reduced cadmium accumulation by gills to only 17% of the control. Interstitial water had no significant effect. 1 table, 3 figures (JMT)

  8. Polyamines regulate phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics in a crustacean gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Malson Neilson; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Fontes, Carlos Frederico Leite; McNamara, John Campbell; Leone, Francisco Assis

    2017-05-01

    Aiming to clarify the mechanism of inhibition of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity by polyamines, we examined the effects of exogenous putrescine, spermidine, and spermine on the kinetic behavior of phosphoenzyme-linked partial reactions using a microsomal gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult M. amazonicum, a freshwater palaemonid shrimp. The time course of phosphointermediate formation is greater (0.089 ± 0.006 s(-1)) in adults than in juveniles (0.053 ± 0.003 s(-1)) for spermidine, but similar to juveniles (0.059 ± 0.004 s(-1)) for putrescine. Maximum phosphointermediate formation for the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from juveniles decreased by 46% and 32% with spermidine and putrescine, respectively. In adults, maximum phosphointermediate levels decreased by 50% and 8%, respectively. For both spermidine and putrescine, dephosphorylation rates were higher for adults than for juveniles, and were higher than in controls without polyamines. Spermine had a negligible effect (<10%) on phosphorylation/dephosphorylation rates of both juvenile and adult enzymes. This is the first report on the effects of polyamines on phosphoenzyme-linked partial reactions in juvenile and adult M. amazonicum gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPases. Our findings suggest that the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation steps of this gill enzyme may be regulated by polyamines during ontogenetic development.

  9. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B; Irwin, E R; Grizzle, J M; Brumbaugh, W G; Wildhaber, M L

    2001-06-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  10. A microassay for gill sodium, potassium-activated ATPase in juvenile Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrock, Robin M.; Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Haner, Philip V.

    1994-01-01

    A microassay well-plate method is described for determining Na+,K+-ATPase activities of small gill sections from juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. The method differs from the established macromethod by detecting inorganic phosphate in nanomole rather than micromole concentrations. This permits the use of much smaller tissue samples, which makes it possible to release fish after sampling. Use of sonication during enzyme extraction and elimination of the need to deproteinize samples before ATPase analysis further simplify the assay. Application of the microwell-plate technique for both Na+,K+-ATPase activity and protein analysis permits rapid processing of many samples. It also produces results equivalent to those of the macroassay; no significant differences occurred between sample duplicates run by the two methods with the same enzyme extract (P > 0.05). The coefficient of variation (100·SD/mean) for microassay samples containing enzyme activities of at least 10 umol inorganic phosphate per milligram protein per hour was 12% or less for between-plate comparisons and 5% or less for same-plate comparisons. Monitoring of gill-clipped fish during migration indicated that small gill clips did not cause mortality or alter migration behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged with passive integrated transponders. These are important considerations in programs for monitoring species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

  11. Relationship of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) gill raker characteristics to retention probabilities of zooplankton prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Jason; Hoff, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We measured morphometric and meristic parameters of gill rakers from the first gill arch of 36 adult lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior that ranged in length from 283–504 mm. These data, coupled with the mean of the smallest two body dimensions (length, width, or breadth) of various zooplankton prey, allowed us to calculate retention probabilities for zooplankton taxa that are common in Lake Superior. The mean of the smallest two body dimensions was positively correlated with body length for cladocerans and copepods. The large cladoceran, Daphnia g. mendotae, is estimated to be retained at a greater probability (74%) than smaller cladocerans (18%-38%). The same is true for the large copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus (60%), when compared to smaller copepods (6–38%). Copepods have a lower probability of being retained than cladocerans of similar length. Lake herring gill rakers and total filtering area are also positively correlated with fish total length. These data provide further evidence that lake herring are primarily planktivores in Lake Superior, and our data show that lake herring can retain a broad range of prey sizes.

  12. Cadmium kinetics in freshwater clams. Uptake of cadmium by the excised gill of Anodonta anatina

    SciTech Connect

    Holwerda, D.A.; de Knecht, J.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.

    1989-03-01

    There are several, and sometimes conflicting, reports on metal interaction during bioaccumulation from a mixture of heavy metals by marine or estuarine organisms. Concerning the influence of zinc on Cd uptake, it was found in a previous study with the freshwater clam Anodonta cygnea that zinc retarded the accumulation of cadmium when present in a hundred-fold excess over the latter metal. In the only in vitro investigation known, it was shown that the uptake of cadmium by the excised gills of the seal mussel Mytilus edulis was not affected by co-exposure with other metal ions or by the presence of metabolic inhibitors. By contrast, bioaccumulation of cadmium in M. edulis was strongly reduced by co-exposure to zinc in a hundred-fold excess over cadmium. The clear effect of zinc on Cd accumulation in A. cygnea prompted the authors to investigate this phenomenon in an in vitro model. The primary aim was to detect whether the in vivo effect of zinc is caused by a direct influence on the gill epithelium or is sustained by a behavioral response of the animal. At the same time, the possible effect of some other exogenous factors on Cd uptake was examined. In addition, it was investigated whether the rate of in vitro uptake is a function of gill size.

  13. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei gills after vaccination with two WSSV structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hao; Lin, Shi-Wei; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chang, Chin-I; Hseu, Jinn-Rong; Tsai, Jyh-Ming

    2016-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of cultured shrimp worldwide. Recently published papers show the ability of WSSV structural protein VP28 to vaccinate shrimp and raise protection against the virus. This study attempted to identify the joining proteins of the aforementioned shrimp quasi-immune response by proteomic analysis. The other envelope protein, VP36B, was used as the non-protective subunit vaccine control. Shrimp were intramuscularly injected with rVPs or PBS on day 1 and day 4 and then on day 7 their gill tissues were sampled. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) patterns of gill proteins between vaccinated and PBS groups were compared and 20 differentially expressed proteins identified by mass spectrometry, some of which were validated in gill and hemocyte tissues using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Many of identified proteins and their expression levels also linked with the shrimp response during WSSV infection. The list of up-regulated protein spots found exclusively in rVP28-vaccinated shrimp include calreticulin and heat shock protein 70 with chaperone properties, ubiquitin, and others. The two serine proteases, chymotrypsin and trypsin, were significantly increased in shrimp of both vaccinated groups compared to PBS controls. The information presented here should be useful for gaining insight into invertebrate immunity.

  15. Pharmacological control of mucociliary activity in the gill of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.F.S.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies has been carried out, which include the development of a radiolabelling technique for mucous secretion studies, the pharmacological mediation of mucous secretion and ciliary activity, and the identification and localization of cAMP activity in different cell types in the gill filament. A radiolabelling technique was developed using ({sup 14}C)glucosamine as a precursor for the biosynthesis of mucous glycoproteins by the gill tissues. Selective incorporation of the radiolabel into mucous glycoproteins was evident from autoradiographic studies. The mucous secretion was significantly stimulated by serotonin, forskolin, and acetylcholine, and these effects were enhanced or blocked, respectively, by their agonists or antagonists. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of serotonin on mucous secretion was inhibited by 10{sup {minus}4}M atropine, a cholinergic antagonist, suggesting that the mucous secretion is directly mediated through acetylcholine-induced action rather than the cAMP second messenger system. To further substantiate this hypothesis, a histochemical localization of cAMP in the gill tissue sections was carried out using a horseradish peroxidase conjugated antibody method.

  16. Effect of Microplastic on the Gills of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Watts, Andrew J R; Urbina, Mauricio A; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Lewis, Ceri; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-05-17

    Microscopic plastic debris (microplastics, <5 mm in diameter) is ubiquitous in the marine environment. Previous work has shown that microplastics may be ingested and inhaled by the shore crab Carcinus maenas, although the biological consequences are unknown. Here, we show that acute aqueous exposure to polystyrene microspheres (8 μm) with different surface coatings had significant but transient effects on branchial function. Microspheres inhaled into the gill chamber had a small but significant dose-dependent effect on oxygen consumption after 1 h of exposure, returning to normal levels after 16 h. Ion exchange was also affected, with a small but significant decrease in hemolymph sodium ions and an increase in calcium ions after 24 h post-exposure. To further asses the effects on osmoregulation, we challenged crabs with reduced salinity after microplastic exposure. Neither microspheres nor natural sediments altered the crab's response to osmotic stress regardless of plastic concentration added. Carboxylated (COOH) and aminated (NH2) polystyrene microspheres were distributed differently across the gill surface, although neither had a significant adverse impact on gill function. These results illustrate the extent of the physiological effects of microplastics compared to the physiological resilience of shore crabs in maintaining osmoregulatory and respiratory function after acute exposure to both anthropogenic plastics and natural particles.

  17. Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. )

    1989-06-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates have been extensively studied. Some metabolic disturbances and histologic damages have been reported, as well as osmoregulation alterations. However, little work has been done about the effect of heavy metals on Na,K and Mg-ATPases of freshwater invertebrate gills. Na,K-ATPase is the prime mediator of ion transport across cellular membranes and plays a central role in whole body ion regulation in marine and estuarine animals. Na,K-ATPase has been reviewed and assessed as a potentially useful indicator of pollution stress in aquatic animals. The purpose of this study is look for the relation, if any, between crayfish gill ATP-ase activity changes and metal exposure in laboratory. This find would allow the authors to assay this potential indicator in the field.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase, a respiratory enzyme in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, K.; Siebers, D.; Sender, S.

    1995-03-01

    This paper summarizes investigations on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the gills of the osmoregulating shore crab Carcinus maenas. Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3 - and H+, is localized with highest activities in the posterior salt-transporting gills of the shore crab- and here CA activity is strongly dependent on salinity. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis established for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus that cytoplasmic branchial CA provides the counter ions HCO3 - and H+ for apical exchange against Na+ and Cl-, the involvement of CA in NaCl uptake mechanisms can be excluded in Carcinus. Differential and density gradient centrifugations indicate that branchial CA is a predominantly membrane-associated protein. Branchial CA was greatly inhibited by the sulfonamide acetazolamide (AZ) Ki=2.4·10-8 mol/l). Using the preparation of the isolated perfused gill, application of 10-4 mol/l AZ resulted in an 80% decrease of CO2/HCO3 - excretion. Thus we conclude that CA is localized in plasma membranes, maintaining the CO2 gradient by accelerating adjustment of the pH-dependent CO2/HCO3 - equilibrium.

  19. Characterization and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase from gill of Russian Sturgeon Fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Barbaros; Ekinci, Arife Pınar; Akyüz, Gülay; Kurtoğlu, İlker Zeki

    2016-12-01

    An α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was purified and characterized kinetically from gill of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii as an endangered sturgeon species. The carbonic anhydrase was purified 66-folds with yield 20.7% by Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity column and the specific activity was determined as 222.2 EU/mg protein. Km and Vmax kinetic values for gill carbonic anhydrase were calculated by a Lineweaver-Burk graph using p-nitrophenol acetate (p-NPA) as a substrate, and was defined as 2.5 mM and 5 × 10(6 )μM/min, respectively. It was observed that CA from the sturgeon gill in the presence of the sulfanilamide and acetazolamide as an inhibitor had very low IC50 values such as 13.0 and 0.1 μM, respectively. In addition, it was determined that the enzyme was inhibited by Fe(2+,) Co(2+,) Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)-Ba(2+) with the IC50 values of 0.2, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.1 mM, respectively.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  1. Gill paracellular permeability and the osmorespiratory compromise during exercise in the hypoxia-tolerant Amazonian oscar (Astronotus ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lisa M; Kochhann, Daiani; Bianchini, Adalto; Matey, Victoria; Almeida-Val, Vera F; Val, Adalberto Luis; Wood, Chris M

    2015-10-01

    In the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, fish increase their effective gill permeability to O2 during exercise or hypoxia, and in consequence suffer unfavorable ionic and osmotic fluxes. However oscars, which live in the frequently hypoxic ion-poor waters of the Amazon, actually decrease ionic fluxes across the gills during acute hypoxia without changing gill paracellular permeability, and exhibit rapid paving over of the mitochondrial-rich cells (MRCs). But what happens during prolonged exercise? Gill paracellular permeability, ionic fluxes, and gill morphology were examined in juvenile oscars at rest and during aerobic swimming. Initial validation tests with urinary catheterized fish quantified drinking, glomerular filtration, and urinary flow rates, and confirmed that measurements of gill paracellular permeability as [(3)H]PEG-4000 clearances were the same in efflux and influx directions, but far lower than previously measured in comparably sized trout. Although the oscars achieved a very similar proportional increase (90%) in oxygen consumption (MO2) to trout during steady-state swimming at 1.2 body lengths sec(-1), there was no increase in gill paracellular permeability, in contrast to trout. However, oscars did exhibit increased unidirectional Na(+) efflux and net K(+) rates during exercise, but no change in drinking rate. There were no changes in MRC numbers or exposure, or other alterations in gill morphology during exercise. A substantial interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) that covered the lamellae to a depth of 30% was unchanged by 4 h of swimming activity. We conclude that a low branchial paracellular permeability which can be dissociated from changes in O2 flux, as well as the presence of the ILCM, may be adaptive in limiting ionoregulatory costs for a species endemic to ion-poor, frequently hypoxic waters.

  2. Does melatonin have a time-dependent effect on brain and gill ionic metabolism in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch)?

    PubMed

    Divya, L; Vijayasree, A S; Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Smita, M; Oommen, O V

    2006-08-01

    Exogenous administration of 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 microg/g body weight melatonin over a 24 hr cycle caused an inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase activity in both brain and gills of A. testudineus. However, Ca2+ ATPase activity in the brain was significantly inhibited by the highest dose, and that in the gill at all the doses of melatonin. Evening injection of melatonin had an inhibitory effect on both brain and gill Na+ K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity. Melatonin treatment in the morning for 12 hrs did not have an effect on brain Na+, K+ ATPase, while Ca2+ ATPase was inhibited. Similar treatment stimulated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity in the gills. Sodium, potassium and calcium ions in the gill were significantly reduced in the evening treated group while no change was observed in the morning melatonin injected group. The results suggest that melatonin elicits a time-dependent effect on the enzymes and ionic content in the brain and gills of A. testudineus.

  3. T cell transcripts and T cell activities in the gills of the teleost fish sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Nuñez Ortiz, N; Gerdol, M; Stocchi, V; Marozzi, C; Randelli, E; Bernini, C; Buonocore, F; Picchietti, S; Papeschi, C; Sood, N; Pallavicini, A; Scapigliati, G

    2014-12-01

    The gills of fish are a mucosal tissue that contains T cells involved in the recognition of non-self and pathogens, and in this work we describe some features of gill-associated T cells of European sea bass, a marine model species. A whole transcriptome was obtained by deep sequencing of RNA from unstimulated gills that has been analyzed for the presence of T cell-related transcripts. Of the putative expressed sequences identified in the transcriptome, around 30 were related to main functions related to T cells including Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cell subpopulations, thus suggesting their possible presence in the branchial epithelium. The number of T cells in the gills of sea bass, measured with the specific T cell mAb DLT15 range from 10% to 20%, and IHC analysis shows their abundance and distribution in the epithelium. Leukocytes from gills are able to proliferate in the presence of lectins ConA and PHA, as measured by flow cytometry using CFSE fluorescence incorporation, and during proliferation the number of T cells counted by immunofluorescence increased. In lectin-proliferating cells the expression of T cell-related genes TRβ, TRγ, CD4, CD8α, CD45 and IL-10 increased dramatically. Our data represent a first analysis on T cell genes and on basic T cell activities of fish gills, and suggest the presence of functionally active subpopulations of T lymphocytes in this tissue.

  4. A combination of NADHP and hispidin is not essential for bioluminescence in luminous fungal living gills of Mycena chlorophos.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori

    2017-01-05

    The chemical mechanisms underlying visible bioluminescence in the fungus Mycena chlorophos are not clear. A combination of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and hispidin, which has been reported to increase the intensity of in vitro luminescence in crude cold-water extracts prepared from the bioluminescent fruiting bodies of M. chlorophos, exhibited potential bioluminescence activation in the early bioluminescence stages, in which the bioluminescence was ultra-weak, for living gills and luminescence activation for non-bioluminescent gills, which was collapsed by freezing and subsequent thawing, at all bioluminescence stages. These abilities were not evident in considerably bioluminescent gills. These abilities were blocked by trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which were identified as in vivo bioluminescence-activating components. Original bioluminescence and bioluminescence produced from the addition of trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid in living gills were almost completely inhibited by 10 mM NaN3 , whereas the luminescence produced form the combination of NADPH and hispidin in thawed non-bioluminescent and living gills at the early weak bioluminescence stages was not inhibited by 10 mM NaN3 . Thus, the combination of NADPH and hispidin plays different roles in luminescence systems compared with essential bioluminescence systems, and the combination of NADPH and hispidin was not essential for visible bioluminescence in living gills.

  5. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on the Oxidative State and Cell Death in the Gill of Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Pingping; Shen, Qingqing; Wang, Qian; Liu, Dongmei; Li, Jing; Wang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    We studied here the short-term toxicity effects of Cd on the oxidative state and cell death in the gill of freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to Cd that resulted in Cd accumulation and a significant increase in the metallothionein (MT) level in the gill, but MT level increased disproportionally compared to the Cd accumulation with an extension of exposure time. Significant changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed. An increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was detected that will cause oxidative stress. Histological abnormalities of the gills were discovered, including the expansion of gill cavity, a decrease in the numbers of connection of the upper and the lower of the gill lamellae and epithelial cells, and an increase in the number of hemocytes. The results of a TUNEL test and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that more gill cells had apoptotic characteristics after 48 h of Cd treatment compared to the control, but epithelial cell necrosis and inflammatory response appeared only after 72 h. It was concluded that (1) Cd induced the ROS production and accumulation through inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activities and exceeding the saturation values of MT binging; (2) Cd led to lipid peroxidation and histopathological alternations; and (3) Cd induced apoptotic response at short time exposure, followed by necrotic features and inflammatory reaction after longer time exposure. PMID:23737962

  6. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  7. Exposure of clownfish larvae to suspended sediment levels found on the Great Barrier Reef: Impacts on gill structure and microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sybille; Wenger, Amelia S; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-06-22

    Worldwide, increasing coastal development has played a major role in shaping coral reef species assemblages, but the mechanisms underpinning distribution patterns remain poorly understood. Recent research demonstrated delayed development in larval fishes exposed to suspended sediment, highlighting the need to further understand the interaction between suspended sediment as a stressor and energetically costly activities such as growth and development that are essential to support biological fitness. We examined the gill morphology and the gill microbiome in clownfish larvae (Amphiprion percula) exposed to suspended sediment concentrations (using Australian bentonite) commonly found on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. The gills of larvae exposed to 45 mg L(-1) of suspended sediment had excessive mucous discharge and growth of protective cell layers, resulting in a 56% thicker gill epithelium compared to fish from the control group. Further, we found a shift from 'healthy' to pathogenic bacterial communities on the gills, which could increase the disease susceptibility of larvae. The impact of suspended sediments on larval gills may represent an underlying mechanism behind the distribution patterns of fish assemblages. Our findings underscore the necessity for future coastal development to consider adverse effects of suspended sediments on fish recruitment, and consequently fish populations and ecosystem health.

  8. Parallel processing in an identified neural circuit: the Aplysia californica gill-withdrawal response model system.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Janet L; Edstrom, John P

    2004-02-01

    The response of the gill of Aplysia calfornica Cooper to weak to moderate tactile stimulation of the siphon, the gill-withdrawal response or GWR, has been an important model system for work aimed at understanding the relationship between neural plasticity and simple forms of non-associative and associative learning. Interest in the GWR has been based largely on the hypothesis that the response could be explained adequately by parallel monosynaptic reflex arcs between six parietovisceral ganglion (PVG) gill motor neurons (GMNs) and a cluster of sensory neurons termed the LE cluster. This hypothesis, the Kupfermann-Kandel model, made clear, falsifiable predictions that have stimulated experimental work for many years. Here, we review tests of three predictions of the Kupfermann-Kandel model: (1) that the GWR is a simple, reflexive behaviour graded with stimulus intensity; (2) that central nervous system (CNS) pathways are necessary and sufficient for the GWR; and (3) that activity in six identified GMNs is sufficient to account for the GWR. The available data suggest that (1) a variety of action patterns occur in the context of the GWR; (2) the PVG is not necessary and the diffuse peripheral nervous system (PNS) is sufficient to mediate these action patterns; and (3) the role of any individual GMN in the behaviour varies. Both the control of gill-withdrawal responses, and plasticity in these responses, are broadly distributed across both PNS and CNS pathways. The Kupfermann-Kandel model is inconsistent with the available data and therefore stands rejected. There is, no known causal connection or correlation between the observed plasticity at the identified synapses in this system and behavioural changes during non-associative and associative learning paradigms. Critical examination of these well-studied central pathways suggests that they represent a 'wetware' neural network, architecturally similar to the neural network models of the widely used 'Perceptron' and

  9. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae.

  10. Experimental evidence for trait utility of gill raker number in adaptive radiation of a north temperate fish.

    PubMed

    Roesch, C; Lundsgaard-Hansen, B; Vonlanthen, P; Taverna, A; Seehausen, O

    2013-07-01

    North temperate fish in post-glacial lakes are textbook examples for rapid parallel adaptive radiation into multiple trophic specialists within individual lakes. Speciation repeatedly proceeded along the benthic-limnetic habitat axis, and benthic-limnetic sister species diverge in the number of gill rakers. Yet, the utility of different numbers of gill rakers for consuming benthic vs. limnetic food has only very rarely been experimentally demonstrated. We bred and raised families of a benthic-limnetic species pair of whitefish under common garden conditions to test whether these species (i) show heritable differentiation in feeding efficiency on zooplankton, and (ii) whether variation in feeding efficiency is predicted by variation in gill raker numbers. We used zooplankton of three different size classes to investigate prey size dependency of divergence in feeding efficiency and to investigate the effect strength of variation in the number of gill rakers. Our results show strong interspecific differences in feeding efficiency. These differences are largest when fish were tested with the smallest zooplankton. Importantly, feeding efficiency is significantly positively correlated with the number of gill rakers when using small zooplankton, also when species identity is statistically controlled for. Our results support the hypothesis that a larger number of gill rakers are of adaptive significance for feeding on zooplankton and provide one of the first experimental demonstrations of trait utility of gill raker number when fish feed on zooplankton. These results are consistent with the suggested importance of divergent selection driven feeding adaptation during adaptive radiation of fish in post-glacial lakes.

  11. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na(+)/H(+)-exchange and HCO3 (-) transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na(+) and/or Cl(-) concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification.

  12. Folic acid deficiency impairs the gill health status associated with the NF-κB, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling pathways in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary folic acid on fish growth, the immune and barrier functions of fish gills, and the potential mechanisms of these effects. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10 (basal diet), 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results showed that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities and the complement component 3 content in fish gills decreased with folic acid deficiency (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency up-regulated liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1, interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression. Folic acid deficiency down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in fish gills (P < 0.05). These results showed that limited folic acid decreased fish gill immune status. Furthermore, folic acid deficiency down-regulated claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-3, occludin and zonula occludens 1 gene expression, whereas folic acid deficiency up-regulated claudin-12, claudin-15, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase gene expression in fish gills (P < 0.05). These results suggested that folic acid deficiency disrupted tight junction-mediated fish gill barrier function. Additionally, folic acid deficiency increased the content of reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde (MDA); Mn superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression; and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression (P < 0.05). Conversely, folic acid deficiency decreased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase activities and gene expression as well as NF-E2-related factor 2 gene expression in fish gills (P < 0.05). All of these results indicated that folic acid

  13. Selectivity evaluation for two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample Lake Erie walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Brenden, Travis O.; Liu, Weihai

    2011-01-01

    We used length frequencies of captured walleyes Sander vitreus to indirectly estimate and compare selectivity between two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample fish in Lake Erie: (1) a multifilament configuration currently used by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) with stretched-measure mesh sizes ranging from 51 to 127 mm and a constant filament diameter (0.37 mm); and (2) a monofilament configuration with mesh sizes ranging from 38 to 178 mm and varying filament diameter (range = 0.20–0.33 mm). Paired sampling with the two configurations revealed that the catch of walleyes smaller than 250 mm and larger than 600 mm was greater in the monofilament configuration than in the multifilament configuration, but the catch of 250–600-mm fish was greater in the multifilament configuration. Binormal selectivity functions yielded the best fit to observed walleye catches for both gill-net configurations based on model deviances. Incorporation of deviation terms in the binormal selectivity functions (i.e., to relax the assumption of geometric similarity) further improved the fit to observed catches. The final fitted selectivity functions produced results similar to those from the length-based catch comparisons: the monofilament configuration had greater selectivity for small and large walleyes and the multifilament configuration had greater selectivity for mid-sized walleyes. Computer simulations that incorporated the fitted binormal selectivity functions indicated that both nets were likely to result in some bias in age composition estimates and that the degree of bias would ultimately be determined by the underlying condition, mortality rate, and growth rate of the Lake Erie walleye population. Before the ODNR switches its survey gear, additional comparisons of the different gill-net configurations, such as fishing the net pairs across a greater range of depths and at more locations in the lake, should be conducted to maintain congruence in

  14. Histopathological effects of silver and copper nanoparticles on the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska, Teresa; Chojnacki, Maciej; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Sawosz-Chwalibóg, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is still poorly documented. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of silver (AgNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles on larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) after 21 days of exposure. Acute toxicity of AgNPs on Siberian sturgeon was investigated in a 96-h static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of CuNPs. The AgNPs and CuNPs 96 h mean lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) were 15.03 ± 2.91 and 1.41 ± 0.24 mg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity tests were done in triplicates for each concentration of AgNPs 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 mg L(-1) and CuNPs 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 mg L(-1). The control group was exposed in freshwater. The results indicate that AgNPs and CuNPs exposure negatively influenced survival; body length and mass; and morphology and physiology of the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon larvae. Fish exposed to AgNPs and CuNPs showed similar pathological changes: irregular structure and pyknotic nuclei of epidermis, aplasia and/or fusion of lamellae, telangiectasis, epithelial necrosis and lifting of the gills, dilation of sinusoidal space, overfilled blood vessels, and pyknotic nuclei of the liver. Fish exposed to CuNPs only demonstrated hyaline degeneration in the gills epithelium and liver. The study shows that CuNPs were more toxic to Siberian sturgeon larvae than AgNPs.

  15. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  16. Gill remodeling in three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Matey, Victoria; Giblen, Terri; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether gill macro- and microstructure show compensatory responses in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (HEA). The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were used as test species and were exposed for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 24h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h to 1mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9). In cyprinids, dramatic alterations were initiated quickly evident by thickening of filaments and lamellae, retraction of lamellae, enlargement of interlamellar cell mass (ILCM), and increase in the water-blood diffusion distance; while in trout, these modifications were absent or developed very slowly. These reorganizations may attempt to reduce the surface area presumably protecting against the water borne ammonia; and were more pronounced in goldfish marked by momentous enlargement of ILCM volume and the presence of rudimental and almost fused lamellae. Extensive mucus production in the gills of goldfish and carp and to a limited extent in trout may have been part of general stress response and/or may have played a protective role. While goldfish and carp showed shrinkage of apical crypts of mitochondrion rich cells (MRCs), probably aiding to regulate ion status, trout showed enlarged apical crypts of MRCs. All species displayed changes in the pattern of the microridges on the surface of pavement cells (PVCs). Overall, the present results connote that the goldfish with its minimal respiratory surface area and a large population of the MRCs with small apical crypts located on the edge of ILCM is better prepared for survival in ammonia polluted water compared to carp which maintain larger lamellae and especially the trout that did not show gill remodeling.

  17. Dopamine-dependent reinforcement of motor skill learning: evidence from Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Lebreton, Maël; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Vidailhet, Marie; Grabli, David; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2011-08-01

    Reinforcement learning theory has been extensively used to understand the neural underpinnings of instrumental behaviour. A central assumption surrounds dopamine signalling reward prediction errors, so as to update action values and ensure better choices in the future. However, educators may share the intuitive idea that reinforcements not only affect choices but also motor skills such as typing. Here, we employed a novel paradigm to demonstrate that monetary rewards can improve motor skill learning in humans. Indeed, healthy participants progressively got faster in executing sequences of key presses that were repeatedly rewarded with 10 euro compared with 1 cent. Control tests revealed that the effect of reinforcement on motor skill learning was independent of subjects being aware of sequence-reward associations. To account for this implicit effect, we developed an actor-critic model, in which reward prediction errors are used by the critic to update state values and by the actor to facilitate action execution. To assess the role of dopamine in such computations, we applied the same paradigm in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, who were either unmedicated or treated with neuroleptics. We also included patients with focal dystonia, as an example of hyperkinetic motor disorder unrelated to dopamine. Model fit showed the following dissociation: while motor skills were affected in all patient groups, reinforcement learning was selectively enhanced in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and impaired by neuroleptics. These results support the hypothesis that overactive dopamine transmission leads to excessive reinforcement of motor sequences, which might explain the formation of tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

  18. Tralopyril bioconcentration and effects on the gill proteome of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel B; Groh, Ksenia J; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Schönenberger, René; Beiras, Ricardo; Barroso, Carlos M; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V; Suter, Marc J-F

    2016-08-01

    Antifouling (AF) systems are used worldwide as one of the most cost-effective ways of protecting submerged structures against heavy biofouling. The emergence of environmentally friendly AF biocides requires knowledge on their environmental fate and toxicity. In this study we measured the bioconcentration of the emerging AF biocide tralopyril (TP) in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and investigated the effects of TP on the mussel gill proteome following acute (2days) and chronic (30days) exposure, as well as after a 10-day depuration period. The experiments were carried out with 1μg/L TP; blank and solvent (5×10(-5)% DMSO) controls were also included. Proteomics analysis was performed by mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Differentially expressed proteins were identified using a label-free approach based on spectral counts and G-test. Our results show that TP is rapidly accumulated by mussels at concentrations up to 362ng/g dw (whole tissues), reaching steady-state condition within 13days. Ten days of depuration resulted in 80% elimination of accumulated TP from the organism, suggesting that a complete elimination could be reached with longer depuration times. In total, 46 proteins were found to be regulated in the different exposure scenarios. Interestingly, not only TP but also DMSO alone significantly modulated the protein expression in mussel gills following acute and chronic exposure. Both compounds regulated proteins involved in bioenergetics, immune system, active efflux and oxidative stress, often in the opposite way. Alterations of several proteins, notably several cytoskeletal ones, were still observed after the depuration period. These may reflect either the continuing chemical effect due to incomplete elimination or an onset of recovery processes in the mussel gills. Our study shows that exposure of adult mussels to sublethal TP concentration results in the bioconcentration of this

  19. Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra (Nuevo Gulf, Northern Patagonia).

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed in gills of native ribbed mussels Aulacomya atra atra from three sites within Nuevo Gulf (Northern Patagonia) several biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid radicals (LR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and metallothionein (MT). Furthermore, concentrations of main trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were quantified in mussel tissue. Results showed significant induction of SOD, GST, MT and MDA, as well as, higher concentration of Fe, Al and Cd in winter than in summer. The high MDA content measured in mussels from Folías Wreck seemed to be caused by the very high levels of Fe that would come from the corrosion of the vessel. Mussels from the control site Punta Cuevas presented the lowest levels of Cd and the highest of Al in winter. Despite positive correlations were found between Al and GST and MT, no spatial differentiation was detected in those biomarkers. On the other hand, MT was only related to Al been most likely influenced by environmental variables than by the trace metals. It has to be highlighted that the relationship detected among water temperature, nutrients and antioxidant responses in gills is probably related to the fact that this tissue is in direct contact with water and it is sensitive to its fluctuations. Taking into account that mussel gill is a tissue actively proliferating and the first target of contaminants present in water, so that changes in its antioxidant system can provide an earlier warning signal than in other tissues.

  20. Effects of Increased CO2 on Fish Gill and Plasma Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin de Souza, Karine; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Kling, Peter; Förlin, Lars; Sturve, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) exposed to temperatures of 12°C (control) and 18°C (impaired growth) in combination with control (400 µatm) or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm) for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18°C) group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase), possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27). This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health. PMID:25058324

  1. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-12-15

    The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish.

  2. The pathophysiology of echopraxia/echolalia: relevance to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ganos, Christos; Ogrzal, Timo; Schnitzler, Alfons; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Echopraxia and echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior. They are essential developmental elements in social learning. Their persistence or reemergence after a certain age, though, can be a sign of underlying brain dysfunction. Although echophenomena have been acknowledged as a typical sign in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) since its first description, their clinical significance and neural correlates are largely unknown. Here, we review the course of their scientific historical development and focus on their clinical phenomenology and differential diagnosis with a particular view to GTS. The neural basis of echophenomena will also be addressed. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Ibuprofen metabolism in the liver and gill of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Gomez, C F; Constantine, L; Moen, M; Vaz, A; Wang, W; Huggett, Duane B

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has become an important topic of discussion with respect to pharmaceutical absorption, metabolism and elimination in fish. This study investigates the metabolism of ibuprofen by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In vitro metabolic loss of parent compound was measured in gill and liver S9 and microsomal fractions. Metabolite analysis found 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen as the major metabolite in uninduced S9 fractions. Supplementing S9 fractions with UDPGA did not significantly enhance metabolism. Additionally, assays involving the induction and inhibition of specific CYP isozymes support CYP1A2 as a possible metabolic pathway in fish.

  4. Toward a Symptom-Guided Neurostimulation for Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; Ruge, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Therapy resistance of approximately one-third of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) requires consideration of alternative therapeutic interventions. This article provides a condensed review of the invasive and non-invasive stimulation techniques that have been applied, to date, for treatment and investigation of GTS. Through this perspective and short review, the article discusses potential novel applications for neurostimulation techniques based on a symptom-guided approach. The concept of considering the physiological basis of specific symptoms when using stimulation techniques will provide a platform for more effective non-pharmacological neuromodulation of symptoms in GTS. PMID:28289393

  5. Tracing lines of flight: implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze for narrative practice.

    PubMed

    Winslade, John

    2009-09-01

    The philosophical groundwork of Gilles Deleuze is examined for its relevance for narrative practice in therapy and conflict resolution. Deleuze builds particularly on Foucault's analytics of power as "actions upon actions" and represents power relations diagrammatically in terms of lines of power. He also conceptualizes lines of flight through which people become other. These concepts are explored in relation to a conversation with a couple about a crisis in their relationship. Tracing lines of power and lines of flight are promoted as fresh descriptions of professional practice that fit well with the goals of narrative practice.

  6. Vascular anatomy of the gills in a high energy demand teleost, the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R; Dewar, Heidi; Graham, Jeffrey B; Brill, Richard W

    2003-05-01

    Tunas (family: Scombridae, Tribe: Thunnini) exhibit anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations that dramatically increase the ability of their cardiorespiratory systems to transfer oxygen from the water to the tissues. In the present study the vascular anatomy of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, gill was examined by light and scanning electron microscopic analysis of methyl methacrylate vascular corrosion replicas prepared under physiological pressure. The gill filament contains three distinct blood pathways, respiratory, interlamellar, and nutrient. The respiratory, or arterio-arterial (AA) pathway, is the site of gas exchange and consists of the afferent and efferent filamental arteries (AFA and EFA) and arterioles (ALA and ELA) and the lamellae. Each ALA in the basal filament supplies ten or more lamellae and they anastomose with their neighbor to form a continuous vascular arcade. Four modifications in the lamellar circulation appear to enhance gas exchange efficiency. 1) The ALA deliver blood directly to the outer margin of the lamellae where unstirred boundary layer effects are predicted to be minimal and water PO2 highest. 2) Pillar cells are closely aligned along the outer boundary of the inlet side and the inner boundary of the outlet side of the lamellae to form multiple distributing and receiving blood channels. 3) Elsewhere in the lamella, pillar cells are aligned to form diagonal channels that direct blood from the outer to the inner lamellar margins, thereby reducing vascular resistance. 4) The lamellar sinusoid is especially widened near the efferent end to augment oxygen saturation of blood flowing through the inner margin. These adaptations, plus the presence of a bow-shaped interlamellar septum, and a thinned filament core appear to decrease gill vascular resistance and maximize gas-exchange efficiency. The interlamellar (IL) and nutrient systems originate from post-lamellar vessels and are arterio-venous (AV) pathways. IL

  7. Perfused Gills Reveal Fundamental Principles of pH Regulation and Ammonia Homeostasis in the Cephalopod Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Sung, Po-Hsuan; Guh, Ying-Jey; Lee, Jay-Ron; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Weihrauch, Dirk; Tseng, Yung-Che

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood [Formula: see text] concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete [Formula: see text] via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/[Formula: see text] homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species. The octopus gill is capable of regulating ammonia (NH3/[Formula: see text]) homeostasis by the accumulation of ammonia at low blood levels (<260 μM) and secretion at blood ammonia concentrations exceeding in vivo levels of 300 μM. [Formula: see text] transport is sensitive to the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor KH7 indicating that this process is mediated through cAMP-dependent pathways. The perfused octopus gill has substantial pH regulatory abilities during an acidosis, accompanied by an increased secretion of [Formula: see text]. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses revealed tissue specific expression and localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, V-type H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3, and Rhesus protein in the gill. Using the octopus gill as a molluscan model, our results highlight the coupling of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion, which may represent a conserved pH regulatory mechanism across many marine taxa.

  8. The Neurotoxic Effects of Manganese on the Dopaminergic Innervation of the Gill of the Bivalve Mollusc, Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kesha; Huggins, Turkesha; King, Candice; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of manganese on the nervous system and innervation of lateral cilia of Crassostrea virginica. While essential in trace amounts, tissue manganese accumulation is neurotoxic, inducing Manganism, a Parkinson’s-like disease in humans. Lateral cilia of the gill of C. virginica are controlled by a reciprocal serotonergic-dopaminergic innervation from their ganglia. Oysters were incubated 3 days in the presence of up to 1 mM manganese, followed by superfusion of the cerebral ganglia, visceral ganglia or gill with dopamine or serotonin. Beating rates of cilia were measured by stroboscopic microscopy of isolated gill preparations or gill preparations with the ipsilateral cerebral and/or visceral ganglia attached. Acute manganese treatments impaired the dopaminergic, cilio-inhibitory system, while having no effect on the serotonergic, cilio-excitatory system, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of manganese toxicity in humans. Manganese treatments also decreased endogenous dopamine levels in the cerebral and visceral ganglia, and gills, but not serotonin levels. We demonstrated that manganese disrupts the animal’s dopaminergic system, and also that this preparation can be used to investigate mechanisms that underlie manganese neurotoxcity. It also may serve as a model in pharmacological studies of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism and other dopaminergic cell disorders. PMID:18547869

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K.; Gallagher, Evan P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Federico M.; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver plays a role in energetics, and olfactory rosettes are involved in behavior. Between all salinity treatments, liver had the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 1616, gills had 1074, and olfactory rosettes had 924, using a 1.5-fold cutoff and a false discovery rate of 0.5. Higher responsiveness of liver to metabolic changes after salinity acclimation to provide energy for other osmoregulatory tissues such as the gills may explain the differences in number of differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes were tissue- and salinity-dependent. There were no known genes differentially expressed that were common to all salinity treatments and all tissues. Gene ontology term analysis revealed biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components that were significantly affected by salinity, a majority of which were tissue-dependent. For liver, oxygen binding and transport terms were highlighted. For gills, muscle, and cytoskeleton-related terms predominated and for olfactory rosettes, immune response-related genes were accentuated. Interaction networks were examined in combination with GO terms and determined similarities between tissues for potential osmosensors, signal transduction cascades, and transcription factors. PMID:26260986

  10. Perfused Gills Reveal Fundamental Principles of pH Regulation and Ammonia Homeostasis in the Cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y.; Sung, Po-Hsuan; Guh, Ying-Jey; Lee, Jay-Ron; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood NH4+ concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete NH4+ via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/NH4+ homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species. The octopus gill is capable of regulating ammonia (NH3/NH4+) homeostasis by the accumulation of ammonia at low blood levels (<260 μM) and secretion at blood ammonia concentrations exceeding in vivo levels of 300 μM. NH4+ transport is sensitive to the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor KH7 indicating that this process is mediated through cAMP-dependent pathways. The perfused octopus gill has substantial pH regulatory abilities during an acidosis, accompanied by an increased secretion of NH4+. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses revealed tissue specific expression and localization of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase, Na+/H+-exchanger 3, and Rhesus protein in the gill. Using the octopus gill as a molluscan model, our results highlight the coupling of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion, which may represent a conserved pH regulatory mechanism across many marine taxa. PMID:28373845

  11. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location in Atlantic salmon: Effects of seawater and smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; Zydlewski, J.; McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance and location was examined in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during seawater acclimation and smolting. Western blots revealed three bands centered at 285, 160, and 120 kDa. The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter was colocalized with Na+-K+-ATPase to chloride cells on both the primary filament and secondary lamellae. Parr acclimated to 30 parts per thousand seawater had increased gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance, large and numerous Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament, and reduced numbers on the secondary lamellae. Gill Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter levels were low in presmolts (February) and increased 3.3-fold in smolts (May), coincident with elevated seawater tolerance. Cotransporter levels decreased below presmolt values in postsmolts in freshwater (June). The size and number of immunoreactive chloride cells on the primary filament increased threefold during smolting and decreased in postsmolts. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter abundance increased in parallel during both seawater acclimation and smolting. These data indicate a direct role of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in salt secretion by gill chloride cells of teleost fish.

  12. [Joint effects of water temperature and salinity on the expression of gill Hsp70 gene in Pinctada martensii (Dunker)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Luo, Ming-Ming; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Du, Xiao-Dong

    2012-12-01

    By using central composite experimental design and response surface method, the joint effects of water temperature (16-40 degrees C) and salinity (10-50) on the expression of gill Hsp70 gene in Pinctada martensii (Dunker) were studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of temperature on the expression of gill Hsp70 gene were significant, the linear effect of salinity was not significant, while the quadratic effect of salinity was significant. The interactive effect of temperature and salinity was not significant, and the effect of temperature was greater than that of salinity. The model equation of the gill Hsp70 gene expression was established, with the R2, Adj. R2, and Pred. R2 as high as 98.7%, 97.4%, and 89.2%, respectively, suggesting that the overarching predictive capability of the model was very satisfactory, and could be practicably applied for prediction. Through the optimization of the model, the expression of the gill Hsp70 gene reached its minimum (0.5276) when the temperature was 26.78 degrees C and the salinity was 29.33, with the desirability value being 98%. These experimental results could offer theoretical reference for the high expression of gill Hsp70 gene in P. martensii, the maintenance of cell internal environment stability, and the enhancement of P. martensii stress resistance.

  13. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; M'Rabet, Charaf; Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

  14. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses. PMID:27100175

  15. Gill pathology in Scottish farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., associated with the microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C G G; Richards, R H; Shinn, A P; Cox, D I

    2013-10-01

    Gill disorders have emerged in recent years as a significant problem in the production of marine-stage Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The multi-aetiological condition 'proliferative gill inflammation' (PGI) has been reported to cause heavy losses in western Norway, yet reports of Scottish cases of the disease have remained anecdotal. In the present study, histopathological material from a marine production site in the Scottish Highlands experiencing mortalities due to a seasonal gill disease with proliferative-type pathology was examined using light microscopy, special staining techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009 (syn. Paranucleospora theridion) was identified by staining using a Gram Twort method and TEM associated with distinctive proliferative and necrotic pathology confined to the interlamellar Malpighian cell areas of the primary filaments. Epitheliocystis was not a feature of the gill pathology observed. It is believed this is the first report of D. lepeophtherii being identified associated with pathology in a Scottish gill disease case, and supports anecdotal reports that a disease at least partly synonymous with PGI as described by Norwegian researchers is present in Scottish aquaculture.

  16. DNA barcoding of Mobulid Ray Gill Rakers for Implementing CITES on Elasmobranch in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Wu, Zhongze; Zhang, Chunguang; Meng, Zhibin; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-23

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been counted on for conserving threatened marine fish since it regulates the commercial international trade of these species. Implementation of the international treaty for Mantas included on CITES Appendix II is challenging due to insufficient information on species identification and markets management. To fill the gap in such aspects, we identified five species of Mobulid rays (Mobula spps. and Manta spp) by using COI and NADH2 mtDNA markers in dried ray gill rakers from Chinese markets, namely, Mobula japonica (representing 54.8% of the sample set), M. tarapacana (14.4%), M. kuhlii (13.3%), M. thurstoni (6.4%), along with Manta birostris (11.2%; CITES Appendix II). The utilization and conservation statuses of these species were discussed. Based on combination of DNA barcodes and key morphological characters, we developed a three-step process for identifying the gill rakers of Mobulid rays which has been adopted by frontline enforcement in China. We hope that our work can serve as a foundation and basis to reinforce objectives of international treaties, regulation of consumer-driven markets, regional cooperation, and national fishery management on endangered elasmobranchs in China as well as related countries.

  17. Gill cellular changes induced by copper exposure in the South American tropical freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Mazon, A F; Cerqueira, C C C; Fernandes, M N

    2002-01-01

    The cellular changes in gill tissue induced by exposure to copper were studied in the tropical freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa, with emphasis on chloride and pavement cells. Damage to gills included epithelial changes such as lifting, rupture, peeling of lamellar epithelium, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, and cellular hypertrophy. Cell degeneration by necrosis and apoptosis was intense in fish exposed to 25 and 29 microg Cu L-1. Pavement cells showed microridge reduction on their surface. Chloride cells proliferated in the lamellar epithelia close to the onset of the lamellae. However, no changes in total chloride cell density in contact with the water were observed. The chloride cell apical area of fish exposed to copper increased, but only fish exposed to 25 microg Cu L-1 showed significant increase in the chloride cell fractional area. At this water copper concentration, almost 60% of the chloride cells were apoptotic. Necrotic chloride cells increased with copper in water, reaching 70% in fish exposed to 29 microg Cu L-1 (=LC50 calculated for this species). Pavement and chloride cell proliferation and hypertrophy on lamellar epithelia increased the thickness of the water-blood barrier. Our findings suggest severe impairment of ion regulation and gas transfer of fish exposed to copper.

  18. Isolation and primary culture of gill and digestive gland cells from the common mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Faucet, Jérôme; Maurice, Manuelle; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Renault, Tristan; Burgeot, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    As the marine mussel Mytilus edulis is commonly used as a sentinel species, it would be useful to develop a primary culture of the target organs most often in contact with the marine environment. This study reports an improved method for dissociating the digestive gland and gills of M. edulis and considers the effect of mussel storage on cell viability and functionality before culture initiation. Viability and enzymatic activities such as those of esterase and peroxidase were monitored by flow cytometry, a sensitive, objective technique allowing large volumes of cells to be counted within a short time. A primary culture of digestive gland showed more than 75% viability after 72 h. Mussels were maintained in an aquarium containing clean, oxygenated seawater at 12 degrees C for two days before culture initiation, and dissociation was performed mechanically and chemically with Ca-Mg-free saline to obtain digestive gland cells. Application of non-specific esterase activity, using fluorescein diacetate (FDA test) coupled with flow cytometry, characterised the functionality of digestive gland and gill cells in culture.

  19. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Roberta M; Fung, Jennifer M; Sharp, Koty H; Benner, Jack S; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R; Fomenkov, Alexey I; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y; Scholz, Matthew B; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Haygood, Margo G; Distel, Daniel L

    2014-11-25

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products.

  20. Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent.

  1. Effects of cadmium chloride on oxygen consumption and gill morphology of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Gupta, Abhik

    2012-11-01

    Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l(-1)) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride after 7,14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr(1) 100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr(1)100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

  2. Cellular mechanisms of Cl- transport in trout gill mitochondrion-rich cells.

    PubMed

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G

    2009-04-01

    We have studied Cl(-) transport mechanisms in freshwater rainbow trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells using intracellular pH (pH(i)) imaging. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated maintenance of cellular polarity in isolated MR cells. MR cell subtypes were identified by Na(+) introduction to the bath, and Cl(-) transport mechanisms were subsequently examined. Cl(-)-free exposure resulted in an alkalinization of pH(i) in both MR cell subtypes, which was dependent on HCO(3)(-) in the bath and inhibited by 1 mM DIDS. Recovery of pH(i) from an acidified state in Na(+)-free conditions was also DIDS sensitive. These results are the first functional evidence for Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers in fish gill MR cells. A direct switch from NaCl to Cl(-)-free conditions caused a pH(i) acidification in a subset of MR cells, which was enhanced in the absence of HCO(3)(-). The acidification was replaced by an alkalinization when Cl(-) removal was performed in the presence of NPPB (500 microM) or EIPA (500 microM). Finally, we found that the Na(+)-induced alkalinization of pH(i) found in a previous study is inhibited by EIPA. This inhibitor profile's results suggest the presence of a Cl(-)-dependent Na(+)/H(+) exchange mechanism.

  3. Cellular mechanisms of Cl− transport in trout gill mitochondrion-rich cells

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Scott K.; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied Cl− transport mechanisms in freshwater rainbow trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells using intracellular pH (pHi) imaging. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated maintenance of cellular polarity in isolated MR cells. MR cell subtypes were identified by Na+ introduction to the bath, and Cl− transport mechanisms were subsequently examined. Cl−-free exposure resulted in an alkalinization of pHi in both MR cell subtypes, which was dependent on HCO3− in the bath and inhibited by 1 mM DIDS. Recovery of pHi from an acidified state in Na+-free conditions was also DIDS sensitive. These results are the first functional evidence for Cl−/HCO3− exchangers in fish gill MR cells. A direct switch from NaCl to Cl−-free conditions caused a pHi acidification in a subset of MR cells, which was enhanced in the absence of HCO3−. The acidification was replaced by an alkalinization when Cl− removal was performed in the presence of NPPB (500 μM) or EIPA (500 μM). Finally, we found that the Na+-induced alkalinization of pHi found in a previous study is inhibited by EIPA. This inhibitor profile's results suggest the presence of a Cl−-dependent Na+/H+ exchange mechanism. PMID:19211727

  4. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, S. D.; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osório, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L. F. C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages. PMID:27703170

  5. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Roberta M.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Sharp, Koty H.; Benner, Jack S.; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R.; Fomenkov, Alexey I.; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A.; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Haygood, Margo G.; Distel, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products. PMID:25385629

  6. Molecular characterisation of Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV): A novel paramyxovirus associated with proliferative gill inflammation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, K.; Batts, W.N.; Kvellestad, A.; Kurath, G.; Wiik-Nielsen, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV) was isolated in 1995 from gills of farmed Atlantic salmon suffering from proliferative gill inflammation. The complete genome sequence of ASPV was determined, revealing a genome 16,968 nucleotides in length consisting of six non-overlapping genes coding for the nucleo- (N), phospho- (P), matrix- (M), fusion- (F), haemagglutinin-neuraminidase- (HN) and large polymerase (L) proteins in the order 3???-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5???. The various conserved features related to virus replication found in most paramyxoviruses were also found in ASPV. These include: conserved and complementary leader and trailer sequences, tri-nucleotide intergenic regions and highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences. The P gene expression strategy of ASPV was like that of the respiro-, morbilli- and henipaviruses, which express the P and C proteins from the primary transcript and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode V and W proteins. Sequence similarities among various features related to virus replication, pairwise comparisons of all deduced ASPV protein sequences with homologous regions from other members of the family Paramyxoviridae, and phylogenetic analyses of these amino acid sequences suggested that ASPV was a novel member of the sub-family Paramyxovirinae, most closely related to the respiroviruses. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides.

  8. Quality of life in adults with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have used standardized QOL instruments to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) patients. This work investigates the QOL of adult GTS patients and examines the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL. Methods Epidemiological investigation by anonymous national postal survey of QOL of patients of the French Association of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (AFGTS) aged 16 years or older. The clinical and QOL measures were collected by four questionnaires: a sociodemographic and GTS-related symptoms questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality Of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-26), the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), and a self-rating questionnaire on psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), all validated in French. We used stepwise regression analysis to explicitly investigate the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL domains in GTS. Results Questionnaires were posted to 303 patients, of whom 167 (55%) completed and returned them. Our results, adjusted for age and gender, show that patients with GTS have a worse QOL than the general healthy population. In particular, the “Depression” psychological variable was a significant predictor of impairment in all WHOQOL-26 domains, psychological but also physical and social. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between QOL in GTS and psychiatric symptoms, in particular those of depression. PMID:22888766

  9. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John David

    2010-11-18

    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in graphite and in

  10. DNA barcoding of Mobulid Ray Gill Rakers for Implementing CITES on Elasmobranch in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan; Wu, Zhongze; Zhang, Chunguang; Meng, Zhibin; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been counted on for conserving threatened marine fish since it regulates the commercial international trade of these species. Implementation of the international treaty for Mantas included on CITES Appendix II is challenging due to insufficient information on species identification and markets management. To fill the gap in such aspects, we identified five species of Mobulid rays (Mobula spps. and Manta spp) by using COI and NADH2 mtDNA markers in dried ray gill rakers from Chinese markets, namely, Mobula japonica (representing 54.8% of the sample set), M. tarapacana (14.4%), M. kuhlii (13.3%), M. thurstoni (6.4%), along with Manta birostris (11.2%; CITES Appendix II). The utilization and conservation statuses of these species were discussed. Based on combination of DNA barcodes and key morphological characters, we developed a three-step process for identifying the gill rakers of Mobulid rays which has been adopted by frontline enforcement in China. We hope that our work can serve as a foundation and basis to reinforce objectives of international treaties, regulation of consumer-driven markets, regional cooperation, and national fishery management on endangered elasmobranchs in China as well as related countries. PMID:27876850

  11. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate ({sup 14}C)glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with ({sup 14}C)glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline.

  12. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  13. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

  14. Host response to the chondracanthid copepod Chondracanthus goldsmidi, a gill parasite of the striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster), in Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M; Battaglene, S; Cobcroft, J; Adams, M; Noga, E; Nowak, B

    2010-03-01

    The chondracanthid copepod, Chondracanthus goldsmidi is an ectoparasite of gills, inner opercula and nasal cavities of cultured striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). Whilst often present in high numbers (up to 60 parasites per host), little is known about its effect on striped trumpeter. In this study C. goldsmidi was associated with extensive epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis. Pathological changes were most pronounced near the parasite's attachment site, with papilloma-like growths surrounding the entire parasite resulting in deformation of the filament. The number of mucous cells increased near the parasite attachment sites on both the opercula and gills. Mast cells were absent in healthy gills; in contrast numerous mast cells were identified in the papilloma-like growths. Immunostaining identified piscidin-positive mast cells in the papilloma-like growths, presenting the first evidence of piscidin in the family Latridae.

  15. Decreased gill ATPase activities in the freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch) exposed to a diluted paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Suhel; Sayeed, Iqbal; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2006-09-01

    Aquatic habitat is affected by paper mill effluent discharge in many ways. The effect of paper mill effluent on the gill ATPases was studied in freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch) exposed to 1%(v/v) of effluent for 15, 30, and 60 days. There was a time-dependent significant (P<0.05-0.001) decrease in all the ATPase activities measured, viz., total, Na(+), K(+)--and ouabain-insensitive ATPase in gill. ATPases play an important role in maintenance of functional integrity of plasma membrane and in several intracellular functions and are considered to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity. In addition to this, branchial ATPases are intimately involved in osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and respiration of fish. The inhibition of ATPases in gills by, e.g., paper mill effluent could cause disruption of these processes. It is suggested that measurement of ATPases could also be used as a surrogate biomarker of exposure to chemical pollutants.

  16. Perfusion of gills isolated from the hyper-hyporegulating crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea, Decapoda): adaptation of a method.

    PubMed

    Pierrot, C; Pequeux, A; Thuet, P

    1995-08-01

    This paper reports the adaptation of a branchial perfusion technique to the gills of the small hyper-hyporegulating crab, Pachygrapsus marmoratus. The physiological quality of the preparation has been established and preliminary measurements of the transepithelial potential difference (PD) and sodium fluxes were reported. A clear-cut distinction has to be made between anterior and posterior gills. With symmetrical bathing conditions (same saline on both sides of the epithelium), a significant transepithelial PD was measured only in posterior gills isolated from crabs acclimated to dilute sea water. This hemolymph-side negative PD is shown to require biological energy and to be sensitive to ouabain. Na+ influx was larger than efflux, indicating the occurrence of a net inward of Na+. The active nature of the Na+ influx was established.

  17. Histopathological changes in the gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus from the Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Ileana C; Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Bistoni, María de Los Angeles

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the histopathological changes in gills and liver of Prochilodus lineatus inhabiting the Salado River basin. Fish were collected in four different sampling stations. The histological lesions in the tissues were examined under light microscopy and evaluated with quantitative analyses. The morphometric analysis of the gills showed a significant shortening of secondary lamellae and a lower percentage of area for gas exchange in fish from station 1 (an urban area, located near the mouth of the Salado River) in comparison with fish gills from the reference site (station 4, a relatively pristine area). Moreover, a significantly higher area occupied with necrotic foci and the occurrence of an important inflammatory response were observed in fish liver of station 1 than the samples caught from other stations. Thus, histopathological evidences showed differences among sites, which could be related to different environmental conditions.

  18. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills. PMID:26217731

  19. Mass spectrometry data from a quantitative analysis of protein expression in gills of immuno-challenged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Mi, J; Hernroth, B; Bergquist, J; Lind, S Bergström

    2016-09-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, "Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)" [1]. Blue mussels were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and samples were collected at different time points post injection. Protein extracts were prepared from the gills, digested using trypsin and a full in-depth proteome investigation was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein identification and quantification was performed using the MaxQuant 1.5.1.2 software, "MaxQuant enables high peptide identification rates, individualized p.p.b.-range mass accuracies and proteome-wide protein quantification" [2].

  20. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-06-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills.

  1. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality.

  2. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, H.; Herbert, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:27766155

  3. A new species of Neoheterocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Pristis clavata Garman (Pristidae) from Darwin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, L A; Whittington, I D

    2000-06-01

    Neoheterocotyle darwinensis n. sp. is described from between the secondary gill lamellae of the dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata Garman (Pristidae) collected at the mouth of Buffalo Creek near Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. This is only the second monocotylid species to be described from northern Australia. N. darwinensis is distinguished from the other seven valid species in the genus by the morphology of the hamuli, the dorsal haptoral accessory sclerites and the male copulatory organ. The similarities between N. darwinensis and Nonacotyle pristis Ogawa, 1991 from the gills of the freshwater sawfish Pristis microdon Latham collected in Papua New Guinea are discussed.

  4. The potential role of polyamines in gill epithelial remodeling during extreme hypoosmotic challenges in the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Shujun; Domangue, Beau; Galvez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines are a family of low molecular weight organic cations produced in part by the coordinated actions of arginase II (Arg II) and ornithine decarboxylase (Odc). Although gill polyamine homeostasis is affected by acute transfer to fresh water, little is known of its function in fish osmoregulation. The current study investigated the role of polyamines in the compensatory response of hypoosmotic challenge in the euryhaline fish, Fundulus grandis. Adult F. grandis were acclimated to 5 ppt water, transferred abruptly to 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.1 ppt water, and assessed for osmoregulatory function, gill morphology, and polyamine homeostasis. The plasma osmolality, Na(+) concentration, and Cl(-) concentration were only significantly reduced during exposure to salinities at or below 0.5 ppt, although these effects were transient except in the 0.1 ppt treatment. The phenotype of mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) shifted from a seawater-type to a freshwater-type only at salinities that also produced a plasma osmotic disturbance. Hypoosmotic exposure increased the concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the gill over the entire 7 day period. Exposure to 0.1 ppt water also transiently increased gill caspase-3 activity and gill mRNA levels of the immediate-early response genes, c-fos and c-myc, thus tightly associating polyamines with gill remodeling during freshwater acclimation. Furthermore, arginase II and ornithine decarboxylase mRNA levels were most highly expressed in MRCs, and these levels were further increased only in the 0.1 ppt treatment. Reduction of gill polyamine levels following administration of the Odc inhibitor, alpha-dl-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), inhibited gill caspase-3 activity, but surprisingly reduced the magnitude of the plasma osmotic imbalance elicited by exposure to 0.1 ppt water. We used isolated opercular epithelia mounted on Ussing chambers to assess the influence of polyamines on the attenuating response of hypotonic shock

  5. Histopathological changes in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Crustacea-Decapoda) following acute exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Rebelo, M; Rodriguez, E M; Santos, E A; Ansaldo, M

    2000-02-01

    Histopathological effects of ammonia on the gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Dana, 1851) were evaluated after acute exposure to ammonia concentrations around LC(50) value (17.85 Mm). Disruption of pilaster cells and a subsequent collapse of gill lamellae were the main effects observed. Epithelial necrosis and hyperplasia were also detected. Significant (P<0.05) increases in pCO(2) and lactate, and significant decreases of pO(2) were detected in the haemolymph of ammonia-exposed crabs. These changes suggest that the observed histopathological damage affected gas exchange, possibly leading to death.

  6. Rules that Need to Be Broken? Canada's McGill University Announces MBA Tuition Fee Increase in Breach of Provincial Ministry of Education Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in Canada's province of Quebec is threatening to significantly reduce McGill University (McGill)'s operating grant in response to a proposed Master's of Business Administration (MBA) tuition fee increase. From September 2010, the university's Desautels Faculty of Management is aiming to substantially raise the current…

  7. The effectiveness of repeated tank treatments of copper sulfate and formalin on gill flukes and Ich in naturally infested white bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites infesting the gills of juvenile fish reared in tanks can cause serious fish losses. Multiple treatments of formalin and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were evaluated for effectiveness against a natural infestation of gill flukes Onchocleidus mimus (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyop...

  8. Accumulation of metals relevant for agricultural contamination in gills of European chub (Squalius cephalus).

    PubMed

    Dragun, Zrinka; Tepić, Nataša; Krasnići, Nesrete; Teskeredžić, Emin

    2016-08-01

    The study of metal bioaccumulation in the gills of European chub (Squalius cephalus) was conducted in September 2009 at the medium-sized rural river Sutla, characterized by agricultural and municipal type of water contamination. The concentration ranges were established for the first time in the soluble, metabolically available fractions of chub gills for 12 metals, which are environmentally extremely relevant and yet only seldom studied, as follows in a decreasing order: K, 225-895 mg L(-1); Na, 78-366 mg L(-1); Ca, 19-62 mg L(-1); Mg, 13-47 mg L(-1); Rb, 164-1762 μg L(-1); Sr, 24-81 μg L(-1); Ba, 13-67 μg L(-1); Mo, 1.3-16 μg L(-1); Co, 0.7-2.7 μg L(-1); Li, 0.4-2.2 μg L(-1); Cs, 0.2-1.9 μg L(-1); and V, 0.1-1.8 μg L(-1). The concentrations of Fe (1.6-6.4 mg L(-1)) and Mn (16-69 μg L(-1)) were also determined and were in agreement with previous reports. By application of general linear modelling, the influence of different abiotic (metal exposure level) and biotic parameters (fish sex, age, size and condition) on metal bioaccumulation was tested. It was established that bioaccumulation of many metals in fish depended on various physiological conditions, wherein Ba could be singled out as metal exhibiting the strongest association with one of biotic parameters, being significantly higher in smaller fish. However, it was also undoubtedly demonstrated that the concentrations of three metals can be applied as reliable indicators of metal exposure even in the conditions of low or moderate water contamination, such as observed in the Sutla River, and those were nonessential elements Li and Cs and essential element Fe. The results of our study present an important contribution to maintenance of high ecological status of European freshwaters, through enrichment of knowledge on the bioaccumulation of various metals in gills of European chub as frequently applied bioindicator species in monitoring of water pollution.

  9. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Henry, Raymond P; Lucu, Cedomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail.

  11. [Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, K R; Kolbe, H; Dengler, R

    1997-12-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder of unknown etiology. While several studies have provided evidence that nicotine causes an improvement, only anecdotal reports suggest that alcohol and marijuana influence the symptomatology. Using a structured interview, we questioned a larger group of patients with Tourette syndrome (n = 47) about the use of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana and their subjective experiences. Of 28 smoking patients only 2 (7%) reported a tic reduction when smoking. Of 35 patients drinking alcohol 24 (69%) noted an improvement. Thirteen patients reported the use of marijuana, of whom 11 (85%) noted a marked improvement. Our results provided strong evidence that the use of both alcohol and marijuana causes much more improvement in TS than nicotine smoking. We suggest that marijuana influences an assumed interaction between cannabinoid and dopamine receptors and, by this, influences the dopaminergic processes in basal ganglia and motor activity.

  12. Gill's model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, revisited: The role of latitudinal variations in wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.

  13. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas.

  14. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk

    DOE PAGES

    O’Connor, Roberta M.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Sharp, Koty H.; ...

    2014-11-10

    In animals, gut microbes are essential for digestion. Here in this paper, we show that bacteria outside the gut can also play a critical role in digestion. In shipworms, wood-eating marine bivalves, endosymbiotic bacteria are found within specialized cells in the gills. We show that these endosymbionts produce wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively transported to the shipworm’s bacteria-free gut, where wood digestion occurs. Because only selected wood-degrading enzymes are transported, the shipworm system naturally identifies those endosymbiont enzymes most relevant to lignocellulose deconstruction without interference from other microbial proteins. Furthermore, this work expands the known biological repertoire of bacterial endosymbiontsmore » to include digestion of food and identifies previously undescribed enzymes and enzyme combinations of potential value to biomass-based industries, such as cellulosic biofuel production.« less

  15. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk

    SciTech Connect

    O’Connor, Roberta M.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Sharp, Koty H.; Benner, Jack S.; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R.; Fomenkov, Alexey I.; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A.; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Haygood, Margo G.; Distel, Daniel L.

    2014-11-10

    In animals, gut microbes are essential for digestion. Here in this paper, we show that bacteria outside the gut can also play a critical role in digestion. In shipworms, wood-eating marine bivalves, endosymbiotic bacteria are found within specialized cells in the gills. We show that these endosymbionts produce wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively transported to the shipworm’s bacteria-free gut, where wood digestion occurs. Because only selected wood-degrading enzymes are transported, the shipworm system naturally identifies those endosymbiont enzymes most relevant to lignocellulose deconstruction without interference from other microbial proteins. Furthermore, this work expands the known biological repertoire of bacterial endosymbionts to include digestion of food and identifies previously undescribed enzymes and enzyme combinations of potential value to biomass-based industries, such as cellulosic biofuel production.

  16. Gill Harrop, Big Flats, New York solar-energy-system performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, B. D.

    The Gill Harrop site is a single family residence located in New York with a passive solar energy system designed to supply 75% of the heating load. The system is equipped with 403 square feet of windows, including 98 square feet of clerestory windows, an R-3.4 window quilt on all glazing, an 80,400 pound insulated concrete floor slab and two mass walls totalling 95,240 pounds, and electric baseboard auxiliary heaters of 9.5 kW total capacity. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, storage, and space heating subsystems and for the environment in the passive system, energy savings, and weather conditions. Graphs for each month of the auxiliary energy used, ambient, storage, and building temperatures, and insolation vs. day of the month are presented. These data are also graphed for a typical day.

  17. Transepithelial potential differences and Na(+) flux in isolated perfused gills of the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Grapsidae) acclimated to hyper- and hypo-salinity.

    PubMed

    Luquet, C M; Postel, U; Halperin, J; Urcola, M R; Marques, R; Siebers, D

    2002-01-01

    We studied the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) and (22)Na flux across isolated perfused gills (anterior pair 5 and posterior pairs 6-8) of the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus acclimated to either hypo- or hyper-osmotic conditions. The gills of crabs acclimated to low salinity, perfused and bathed with 10 per thousand saline solutions, produced the following TEPDs (hemolymph side with respect to bath side): 0.4+/-0.7, -10.2+/-1.6, -10.8+/-1.3 and -6.7+/-1.3 mV for gills 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. Gills 6, 7 and 8 did not differ significantly. Reducing the saline concentration of bath and perfusate from 30 per thousand to 20 per thousand or 10 per thousand increased significantly the TEPDs of these gills. TEPDs of gill 6 (representative of posterior gills) were reduced by 69+/-5 % and 60+/-5 % after perfusion with ouabain or BaCl(2) (5 mmol l(-1) each), respectively. The same gill showed a net ouabain-sensitive Na(+) influx of 1150+/-290 microequiv g(-1) h(-1). Gill 6 of crabs acclimated to high salinity produced TEPDs of -1.5+/-0.1 and -1.3+/-0.09 mV after perfusion with 30 per thousand or 40 per thousand salines, respectively. Perfusion with ouabain or BaCl(2) reduced TEPDs by 76+/-7 % and 86+/-4 %, respectively. A net ouabain-sensitive Na(+) efflux of 2282+/-337 microequiv g(-1) h(-1) was recorded in gill 6 perfused with 38 per thousand saline.

  18. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to a fish gill cell line: role of medium composition.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura; Fernández Freire, Paloma; Pillai, Smitha; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-02-01

    In aqueous solutions, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) behavior is affected by a variety of factors which lead to altered AgNP size and toxicity. Our research aims to explore the effect of media composition on citrate-coated AgNP (cit-AgNP) behavior and toxicity to the cell line from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill, RTgill-W1. Three different exposure media (L15/ex, L15/ex w/o Cl and d-L15/ex) were used. These were characterized by varying ionic strength and chloride content, both of which had a dominant effect on the behaviour of cit-AgNP. Comparing the behaviour and toxicity of cit-AgNP in the different media, stronger agglomeration of cit-AgNP correlated with higher toxicity. Deposition of cit-AgNP on cells might explain the higher toxicity of agglomerated cit-AgNP compared to that of suspended cit-AgNP. The cit-AgNP concentration-response curves as a function of dissolved silver ions, and the limited prevention of toxicity by silver ligands, indicated that cit-AgNP elicited a particle-specific effect on the cells. Furthermore, the lysosomal membrane integrity was significantly more sensitive to cit-AgNP exposure than cellular metabolic activity or cell membrane integrity and showed the weakest protection by silver ligands. This revealed that cit-AgNP toxicity seems to particularly act on RTgill-W1 cell lysosomes. The newly developed low ionic strength medium, d-L15/ex, which can stabilize cit-AgNP and better mimic the freshwater environment, offers an excellent exposure solution to study cellular and molecular effects of NP to gill cells.

  19. Histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia exposed to carbofuran and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Rezende, Karina Fernandes Oliveira; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Barbieri, Edison

    2016-11-01

    Carbofuran is a nematicide insecticide with a broad spectrum of action. Carbofuran has noxious effects in several species and has been banned in the USA and Europe; however, it is still used in Brazil. Aquatic organisms are not only exposed to pesticides but also to manufactured nanoparticles, and the potential interaction of these compounds therefore requires investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of exposure to carbofuran, nitric acid-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNTs) and the combination of carbofuran with nanotubes. Juvenile fish were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L), different concentrations of HNO3-MWCNTs (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L) or different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L) with 1.0mg/L of HNO3-MWCNTs. After 24h of exposure, the animals were removed from the aquarium, the spinal cord was transversely sectioned, and the second gill arch was removed for histological evaluation. Common histological changes included dislocation of the epithelial cells, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells along the secondary lamellae, aneurism, and dilation and disarrangement of the capillaries. All the groups exposed to carbofuran demonstrated a dose-dependent correlation in the Histological Alteration Index; the values found for carbofuran and carbon nanotubes were up to 25% greater than for carbofuran alone. This result indicates an interaction between these toxicants, with enhanced ecotoxic effects. This work contributes to the understanding of the environmental impacts of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms, which is necessary for the sustainable development of nanotechnologies.

  20. 2-DE Mapping of the Blue Mussel Gill Proteome: The Usual Suspects Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Béatrice; Bultelle, Florence; Chan, Philippe; Le Foll, Frank; Letendre, Julie; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Olivier, Stéphanie; Péden, Romain; Poret, Agnès; Vaudry, David; Knigge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis, L. 1758) is an ecologically important and commercially relevant bivalve. Because of its ability to bioconcentrate xenobiotics, it is also a widespread sentinel species for environmental pollution, which has been used in ecotoxicological studies for biomarker assessment. Consequently, numerous proteomics studies have been carried out in various research contexts using mussels of the genus Mytilus, which intended to improve our understanding of complex physiological processes related to reproduction, adaptation to physical stressors or shell formation and for biomarker discovery. Differential-display 2-DE proteomics relies on an extensive knowledge of the proteome with as many proteoforms identified as possible. To this end, extensive characterization of proteins was performed in order to increase our knowledge of the Mytilus gill proteome. On average, 700 spots were detected on 2-DE gels by colloidal blue staining, of which 122 different, non-redundant proteins comprising 203 proteoforms could be identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These proteins could be attributed to four major categories: (i) “metabolism”, including antioxidant defence and degradation of xenobiotics; (ii) “genetic information processing”, comprising transcription and translation as well as folding, sorting, repair and degradation; (iii) “cellular processes”, such as cell motility, transport and catabolism; (iv) “environmental information processing”, including signal transduction and signalling molecules and interaction. The role of cytoskeleton proteins, energetic metabolism, chaperones/stress proteins, protein trafficking and the proteasome are discussed in the light of the exigencies of the intertidal environment, leading to an enhanced stress response, as well as the structural and physiological particularities of the bivalve gill tissue. PMID:28248261

  1. Effects of Holothuroid Ichtyotoxic Saponins on the Gills of Free-Living Fishes and Symbiotic Pearlfishes.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Igor; Caulier, Guillaume; Brasseur, Lola; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal; Parmentier, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to predators. We compared the effects of exposure to saponins from the sea cucumber body wall and from the Cuvierian tubules on the behavior and gill ultrastructure of pearlfishes and free-living fishes. Saponins were extracted from the body wall of two holothuroids, the Mediterranean Holothuria forskali and the tropical Bohadschia atra, and from the water surrounding the Cuvierian tubules of B. atra. Five species of carapids that live in symbiosis with holothuroids and seven species of free-living fishes were exposed to these extracts. The free-living fishes exhibited a stress response and died about 45 times faster than pearlfishes when exposed to the same quantity of saponins. Cuvierian tubules and saponins extracted from the body wall were lethal to the free-living fishes, whereas the carapids were much less sensitive. The carapids did not exhibit a stress response. The high toxicity shown by Cuvierian tubules was not explained by the nature of the saponins that were identified by mass spectrometry, but it is likely due to the higher concentration of saponins in the tubules. Histology and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the gills of the free-living fishes and pearlfishes showed that saponins act at the level of the secondary lamellae where they induce the detachment of the epithelia, create edema at the level of the epithelia, and induce pores in the epithelial cells that lead to their destruction and the invasion of inner cells (pillar cells and red blood cells). This sequence of events happens 5 min after saponin exposure in free-living fishes and after 1 h in carapids.

  2. Cortisol-sensitive urea transport across the gill basolateral membrane of the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta).

    PubMed

    Rodela, Tamara M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Walsh, Patrick J; McDonald, M Danielle

    2009-08-01

    Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) use a unique pulsatile urea excretion mechanism that allows urea to be voided in large pulses via the periodic insertion or activation of a branchial urea transporter. The precise cellular and subcellular location of the facilitated diffusion mechanism(s) remains unclear. An in vitro basolateral membrane vesicle (BLMV) preparation was used to test the hypothesis that urea movement across the gill basolateral membrane occurs through a cortisol-sensitive carrier-mediated mechanism. Toadfish BLMVs demonstrated two components of urea uptake: a linear element at high external urea concentrations, and a phloretin-sensitive saturable constituent (K(m) = 0.24 mmol/l; V(max) = 6.95 micromol x mg protein(-1) x h(-1)) at low urea concentrations (<1 mmol/l). BLMV urea transport in toadfish was unaffected by in vitro treatment with ouabain, N-ethylmaleimide, or the absence of sodium, conditions that are known to inhibit sodium-coupled and proton-coupled urea transport in vertebrates. Transport kinetics were temperature sensitive with a Q(10) > 2, further suggestive of carrier-mediated processes. Our data provide evidence that a basolateral urea facilitated transporter accelerates the movement of urea between the plasma and gills to enable the pulsatile excretion of urea. Furthermore, in vivo infusion of cortisol caused a significant 4.3-fold reduction in BLMV urea transport capacity in lab-crowded fish, suggesting that cortisol inhibits the recruitment of urea transporters to the basolateral membrane, which may ultimately affect the size of the urea pulse event in gulf toadfish.

  3. The relative efficiency of nylon and cotton gill nets for taking lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1962-01-01

    The change from cotton to nylon twine for gill nets in 1949–52 resulted in a sharp increase in the efficiency of the most important gear used for taking lake trout in Lake Superior, and, consequently, biased estimates of fishing intensity and abundance severely.From early May to the end of September 1961, short gangs (2000 or 4000 linear feet) of cotton and nylon nets were fished in parallel sets for lake trout. A total of 343,000 feet of gill netting was lifted. Nylon nets were 2.25 times as efficient as cotton nets for taking legal-sized fish and 2.8 times as efficient for undersized lake trout. The average lengths of legal, undersized, and all lake trout taken in nets of the two materials did not differ greatly. The percentage of the catch which was undersized (less than 1.25 lb, dressed weight) was 20.8 in nylon nets and 17.7 in cotton. The relative efficiency of cotton and nylon nets showed no trend during the season. The efficiency ratio determined in this study was closely similar to that obtained by earlier workers.Correction of estimates of fishing intensity and abundance for the greater efficiency of the nylon nets used since 1951 has not been attempted. The drastic decline of the lake trout fishery has forced fishermen to make changes in fishing practices in the past few years that cause new bias of an unknown extent to estimates of fishing intensity.

  4. cDNA microarray analysis of disk abalone genes in gills and hemocytes after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2012-06-01

    A disk abalone Haliotis discus discus 4.2 K cDNA microarray was designed by selecting abalone expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Transcriptional profiles in gills and hemocytes were analyzed upon abalone challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in order to select candidates for screening of immune response genes. Among the 4188 genes analyzed, 280 (6.6%) transcripts were changed their expression level in gills and hemocytes against VHSV challenge compared to control animals. Total of 88 and 65 genes were up-regulated in gills and hemocytes, respectively. These genes can be grouped under various immune-functional categories such as transcription factors (Krüppell-like factor; ETS-family transcription factor), inflammatory and apoptosis related genes (TNF superfamily members, Fas ligand), IFN regulatory proteins (IFN-44 like, interferon gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase) and detoxification proteins (glutathione peroxidase). In contrast, 25 and 102 genes were shown down-regulation in gills and hemocytes, respectively. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, considerably higher numbers of ESTs were represented as either hypothetical (unknown) proteins or no GenBank match suggesting those may be novel genes associated with internal defense of abalone.

  5. Sodium Gill Potential as a Tool to Monitor Valve Closure Behavior in Freshwater Clam Corbicula fluminea in Response to Copper

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Min; Lin, Chieh-Ming; Jou, Li-John; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Valve closure behavior in freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea is a biologically sensitive endpoint. The purpose of this paper was to derive an electrophysiological response model of C. fluminea to assess copper (Cu)–sodium (Na) interactions in gill membrane, whereby valve closure behavior and Cu toxicity could be monitored. The proposed model was based on the integration of Cu bioavailability, Na and Cu internalizations, and electrochemically-based gill potentials. Based on Na active transport under non-equilibrium conditions, predicted gill potential of −8.2 mV agreed reasonably well with published the measured transepithelial potential of −7 mV in C. fluminea. Our proposed framework captured the general features observed in model applications including: (i) 50% inhibitory Cu2+ activities for Na membrane potential (ENa) and uptake rate (JNa) were estimated to be 0.072 and 0.043 μM, respectively, with a stoichiometry of 3Cu2+: 1ENa and 1JNa; (ii) the external Cu2+–dependent internal Na concentration could be parsimoniously estimated, and (iii) the site-specific clam gill potentials could be monitored. Here we provided a new approach to monitor waterborne metal toxicity to reduce the nationwide economic losses due to bans on harvesting of contaminated clam and the potential risks to the health of clams. PMID:27873813

  6. Analysis of Gill Structure from a Fresh Water Fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) Exposed to Bleached Sulfite Pulp Mill Effluents.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sudip; Rajguru, Utpal; Pathak, Dinesh Chandra; Goswami, Umesh C

    2015-04-01

    The present communication reports toxic effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents in fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) gills, with optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The general adverse effects include dilation of the primary lamellar wall, curling of secondary lamellar terminals, displacement of epithelial cell layers, degeneration of secondary lamella, deposition of mucous, and severe congestion in the gill arch. The significant shortening of secondary lamellae, widening of lamellar tips, and significant decrease in the number of mitochondria in chloride cells as compared to controls are some specific effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated tearing of tissues in gill lamellae and arches. Transmission electron microscopy revealed membrane distortion of mitochondria in chloride cells, loss of uniformity of microvilli in pavement cells, and abnormalities in nuclear shape in different cells of effluent-exposed fish gills. Toxicity of the bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents and its impact on fish are discussed in the light of existing literature. Further, the importance of microscopy in toxicological evaluation of environmental pollutants is emphasized in view of its specific application potential.

  7. Structural changes in gills of Lost River suckers exposed to elevated pH and ammonia concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lease, Hilary M; Hansen, James A; Bergman, Harold L; Meyer, Joseph S

    2003-04-01

    The Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) is a federally listed, endangered fish that occurs primarily in Upper Klamath Lake-a hypereutrophic lake in southern Oregon, USA. A decline of the sucker population in the lake over the past few decades has been partly attributed to adverse water quality conditions, including elevated pH and ammonia concentrations that occur during summer cyanobacterial blooms. We quantitatively analyzed structural changes in gills of larval Lost River suckers after they were exposed to elevated pH and ammonia concentrations for 30 d. Exposure to pH as high as 10 caused no observed structural changes. However, lamellar thickness and O(2) diffusion distance increased significantly (P<0.05) at ammonia concentrations that did not significantly decrease survival, growth, whole-body ion concentrations, or swimming performance. Additionally, we qualitatively observed increases in the frequency of hyperplasic and hypertrophic mucous cells, tissue damage, epithelial lifting, and infiltration of white blood cells into paracellular lymphatic spaces at the highest sublethal ammonia concentration. These observed gill changes typically indicate compromised respiratory and ionoregulatory capacity, although such effects were not manifested in the assays we performed. Regardless, these structural gill changes appear to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure to elevated ammonia concentrations than are more traditional sublethal indices. Therefore, gill histopathology might be a relevant early-warning monitoring tool of the health of Lost River suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, and other species in similar eutrophic systems.

  8. McGill Library Makes E-Books Portable: E-Reader Loan Service in a Canadian Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savova, Maria; Garsia, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    E-readers are increasingly popular personal devices, but can they be effectively used for the needs of academic libraries' clients? This paper employs an evidence-based approach that examines the role and efficacy of implementing an E-reader Loan Service at McGill University Library. Suggestions are offered as to what lending model and device…

  9. Planning, Enactment, and Reflection in Inquiry-Based Learning: Validating the McGill Strategic Demands of Inquiry Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce M.; Chichekian, Tanya; Syer, Cassidy A.; Aulls, Mark W.; Frederiksen, Carl H.

    2012-01-01

    Tools are needed to track the elements of students' successful engagement in inquiry. The "McGill Strategic Demands of Inquiry Questionnaire" (MSDIQ) is a 79-item, criterion-referenced, learner-focused questionnaire anchored in Schon's model and related models of self-regulated learning. The MSDIQ addresses three phases of inquiry…

  10. UPTAKE AND ELIMINATION OF IONIZABLE ORGANIC CHEMICALS AT FISH GILLS: PART I. MODEL FORMULATION, PARAMETERIZATION, AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of pH and alkalinity on uptake and elimination of ionizable organic chemicals at the gills of large rainbow trout were studied. Increased pH reduced uptake rates of weakly-acidic chlorinated phenols and increased that of weakly-basic 3,4-dichlorobenzylamine, indicating gr...

  11. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Sandya Chinna; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Dash, Gadadhar; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2014-01-01

    As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa) are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.) and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682) clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944) and M. orissae (KF448527) of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production. PMID:27843987

  12. Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum in juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): II. Gill histology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, M.E.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.; McDonald, D.G.; Rhem, R.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Gill samples from juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) acclimated to low-level aluminum at pH 5.2 showed severe damage by day 4, with necrosis and fusion of secondary lamellae and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Over the following 20 d, there was a continual process of repair with proliferation and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Qualitative analysis of gill samples plus physiology and mortality data collected in a companion study indicated progressive development (by day 10 onward) of increasing acclimation to Al. Quantitative analysis of gill samples on day 13 showed that mucous cell volume density had tripled and mucous cell area had doubled in Al-exposed fish compared with control fish. A lamellar fusion index showed evidence of fusion in Al-exposed fish by day 4 with recovery to nearly control levels by day 13. Physiological disturbances appear to be directly related to the histological changes observed in the gill epithelium. At the cellular level, changes in either mucous cell production and secretion or changes in mucus chemistry contribute, in part, to acclimation to Al.

  13. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: Evidence for passive and facilitated transport

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Lucy C.; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F.; Bury, Nic R.

    2015-01-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L−1), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. PMID:25544062

  14. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth.

  15. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  16. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  17. A 56-year-old medical calendar from McGill opens a fascinating window on medicine's past.

    PubMed Central

    Clarfield, A M; Paltiel, O

    1995-01-01

    McGill University's Faculty of Medicine has a long history of excellence. An examination of one of its more mundane documents, the student calendar from 1939-40, provides an instructive look at the roots of this excellence and indicates how much things have changed and how much remains unchanged after more than half a century. PMID:7497399

  18. The Coprinopsis cinerea Tup1 homologue Cag1 is required for gill formation during fruiting body morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Ryo; Iguchi, Naoki; Tukuta, Kooki; Nagoshi, Takahiro; Kemuriyama, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pileus (cap) of the fruiting body in homobasidiomycete fungi bears the hymenium, a layer of cells that includes the basidia where nuclear fusion, meiosis and sporulation occur. Coprinopsis cinerea is a model system for studying fruiting body development. The hymenium of C. cinerea forms at the surface of the gills in the pileus. In a previous study, we identified a mutation called cap-growthless1-1 (cag1-1) that blocks gill formation, which yields primordia that never mature. In this study, we found that the cag1 gene encodes a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tup1. The C. cinerea genome contains another Tup1 homologue gene called Cc.tupA. Reciprocal tagging of Cag1 and Cc.TupA with green and red fluorescent proteins revealed that the relative ratios of the amounts of the two Tup1 paralogues varied among tissues. Compared with Cc.TupA, Cag1 was preferentially expressed in the gill trama tissue cells, suggesting that the function of Cag1 is required for gill trama tissue differentiation and maintenance. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-localisation of Cag1 and Cc.TupA suggested that Cag1 interacts with Cc.TupA in the nuclei of certain cells. PMID:27815245

  19. Genotoxic Effects Induced by Cd(+2), Cr(+6), Cu(+2) in the Gill and Liver of Odontesthes bonariensis (Piscies, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Gasulla, J; Picco, S J; Carriquiriborde, P; Dulout, F N; Ronco, A E; de Luca, J C

    2016-05-01

    Genotoxic effects of Cd(+2), Cr(+6), and Cu(+2) on the gill and liver of the Argentinean Silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) were studied using the comet assay and in relation with the metal tissue accumulation. Fish were exposed to three waterborne concentrations of each metal for 2 and 16 days. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). After 2 days, significant increase of the genetic damage index (GDI) was only observed in the gill of fish exposed to Cr(+6) and Cu(+2), and the LOECs were 2160 nM and 921.1 nM, respectively. The gill LOEC for Cd(+2) by 16 days was 9.4 nM. In the liver, LOECs were obtained only for Cd(+2) and Cr(+6) and were 9.4 and 2160 nM, respectively. The three metals were able to induce genotoxic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and the gill was the most sensitive organ.

  20. The role of the Pax1/9 gene in the early development of amphioxus pharyngeal gill slits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The pharynx is a major characteristic of chordates. Compared with vertebrates, amphioxus has an advantage for the study of pharynx development, as embryos lack neural crest, and the pharynx is mainly derived from endoderm cells. The Pax1/9 subfamily genes have essential roles in vertebrate pharyngeal patterning, but it is not known if the Pax1/9 gene has similar functions in amphioxus pharynx development. To answer this question, we examined the Pax1/9 gene expression pattern in amphioxus embryos at different developmental stages, and observed morphological changes following Pax1/9 knockdown. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that Pax1/9 expression was initiated during early neurula stage and rapidly peaked during mid-neurula stage. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pax1/9 transcripts were localized exclusively in the most endodermal region of the developing pharynx in early neurula stage embryos; however, Pax1/9 expression was strikingly down-regulated in the region where gill slits would form from the fusion of endoderm and ectoderm in subsequent developmental stages and was maintained in the border regions between adjacent gill slits. Knockdown of Pax1/9 function using both morpholino and siRNA approaches led to embryonic defects in the first three gill slits, and fusion of the first two gill slits. Moreover, the expression levels of the pharyngeal marker genes Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 were reduced in Pax1/9 knockdown embryos. From these observations, we concluded that the Pax1/9 gene has an important role in the initial differentiation of amphioxus pharyngeal endoderm and in the formation of gill slits, most likely via modulation of Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 expression.

  1. Expression studies on NA+/K(+)-ATPase in gills of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) acclimated to different salinities.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh-Babu, P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sabnis, Supriya; Dhamotharan, K; Vardarajan, Remya; Kumari, Kavita; Dasgupta, Subrata; Rajendran, K V

    2015-05-01

    The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35 per thousand salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long-term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35 per thousand. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5 per thousand the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25 per thousand. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5 per thousand measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment.

  2. Anti-oxidative responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) gill, liver and brain tissues upon acute cold shock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su Mei; Liu, Jia-Hao; Shu, Li-Hsin; Chen, Ching Hsein

    2015-09-01

    The present study seeks to detect oxidative damage and to compare anti-oxidative responses among liver, gills and brain of adult zebrafish that were cooled from 28 °C (control) to 12 °C (treatment) for 0-24 h. The lipid peroxidation of liver, gill and brain tissues significantly increased at 1h after transfer, but reactive oxygen species in the treatment group increased significantly after 24 h as compared to the control. The fish were found to develop a cascading anti-oxidative mechanism beginning with an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD levels, followed by increased CAT and GPx mRNA expressions in the three tissue types. Both smtB and mt2 mRNAs increased in the hepatic and brain tissues following 1h of cold stress, but only smtB exhibited a significant increase in the gills at 1 h and 6 h after transfer to 12 °C. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis in the brain was not evident after cold shock, but liver and gills showed cellular apoptosis at 1-3 h, with another peak in the liver at 6 h after cold shock. The results suggest that the cold shock induced oxidative stress, and the enzymatic (SOD, GPx and CAT) and non-enzymatic (mt-2 and smt-B) mRNA expressions all play a role in the resulting anti-oxidation within 1-6 h of cold shock. A functional comparison showed that the brain had the most powerful antioxidant defense system of the three tissue types since it had the highest smtB mRNA expression and a lower level of cell apoptosis than the liver and gills after exposure to cold stress.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of Trout Gill Ionocytes in Fresh Water and Sea Water Using Laser Capture Microdissection Combined with Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leguen, Isabelle; Le Cam, Aurélie; Montfort, Jérôme; Peron, Sandrine; Fautrel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Fish gills represent a complex organ composed of several cell types that perform multiple physiological functions. Among these cells, ionocytes are implicated in the maintenance of ion homeostasis. However, because the ionocyte represents only a small percent of whole gill tissue, its specific transcriptome can be overlooked among the numerous cell types included in the gill. The objective of this study is to better understand ionocyte functions by comparing the RNA expression of this cell type in freshwater and seawater acclimated rainbow trout. To realize this objective, ionocytes were captured from gill cryosections using laser capture microdissection after immunohistochemistry. Then, transcriptome analyses were performed on an Agilent trout oligonucleotide microarray. Gene expression analysis identified 108 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between freshwater and seawater ionocytes, with a fold change higher than 3. Most of these genes were up-regulated in freshwater cells. Interestingly, several genes implicated in ion transport, extracellular matrix and structural cellular proteins appeared up-regulated in freshwater ionocytes. Among them, several ion transporters, such as CIC2, SLC26A6, and NBC, were validated by qPCR and/or in situ hybridization. The latter technique allowed us to localize the transcripts of these ion transporters in only ionocytes and more particularly in the freshwater cells. Genes involved in metabolism and also several genes implicated in transcriptional regulation, cell signaling and the cell cycle were also enhanced in freshwater ionocytes. In conclusion, laser capture microdissection combined with microarray analysis allowed for the determination of the transcriptional signature of scarce cells in fish gills, such as ionocytes, and aided characterization of the transcriptome of these cells in freshwater and seawater acclimated trout.

  4. Oxidative stress responses in blood and gills of Carassius auratus exposed to the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide Tattoo.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Drohomyretska, Ivanna Z; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-11-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, particularly dithiocarbamates, in agriculture often leads to contamination of freshwater ecosystems. To our knowledge, the mechanisms of toxicity to fish by the carbamate fungicide Tattoo that contains mancozeb [ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)] have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Tattoo on goldfish gills and blood, tissues that would have close early contact with the pollutant. Exposure of goldfish Carassius auratus to 3, 5 or 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo for 96h resulted in moderate lymphopenia (by 8 percent) with a concomitant increase in both stab (by 66-88 percent) and segmented (by 166 percent) neutrophils. An increase in the content of protein carbonyl groups in blood (by 137-184 percent) together with decreased levels of protein thiols (by 23 percent) and an enhancement of lipid peroxide concentrations (by 29 percent) in gills after exposure to 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo demonstrated the induction of mild oxidative stress in response to Tattoo exposure. At the same time, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes were enhanced in gills: superoxide dismutase by 18-25 percent and catalase by 27 percent. A 34 percent increment in low molecular mass thiol concentrations (mainly represented by glutathione) also occurred in gills and could be related to increased activity (by 13-30 percent) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that Tattoo exposure perturbs free radical processes, i.e. induces mild oxidative stress and enhances the activity of certain antioxidant and associated enzymes in goldfish gills. It is clear that goldfish respond to the presence of waterborne pesticide by adjusting antioxidant defenses through upregulation of activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes.

  5. CCR7 is mainly expressed in teleost gills, where it defines an IgD+IgM- B lymphocyte subset.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Bromage, Erin; Abós, Beatriz; Pignatelli, Jaime; González Granja, Aitor; Luque, Alfonso; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-02-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR7, the receptor for both CCL19 and CCL21 chemokines, regulates the recruitment and clustering of circulating leukocytes to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Even though teleost fish do not have either of these secondary lymphoid structures, we have recently reported a homolog to CCR7 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the present work, we have studied the distribution of leukocytes bearing extracellular CCR7 in naive adult tissues by flow cytometry, observing that among the different leukocyte populations, the highest numbers of cells with membrane (mem)CCR7 were recorded in the gill (7.5 ± 2% CCR7(+) cells). In comparison, head kidney, spleen, thymus, intestine, and peripheral blood possessed <5% CCR7(+) cells. When CCR7 was studied at early developmental stages, we detected a progressive increase in gene expression and protein CCR7 levels in the gills throughout development. Surprisingly, the majority of the CCR7(+) cells in the gills were not myeloid cells and did not express membrane CD8, IgM, nor IgT, but expressed IgD on the cell surface. In fact, most IgD(+) cells in the gills expressed CCR7. Intriguingly, the IgD(+)CCR7(+) population did not coexpress memIgM. Finally, when trout were bath challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, the number of CCR7(+) cells significantly decreased in the gills while significantly increased in head kidney. These results provide evidence of the presence of a novel memIgD(+)memIgM(-) B lymphocyte subset in trout that expresses memCCR7 and responds to viral infections. Similarities with IgD(+)IgM(-) subsets in mammals are discussed.

  6. Respiratory medicine and research at McGill University: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James G; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The history of respiratory medicine and research at McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) is tightly linked with the growth of academic medicine within its teaching hospitals. Dr Jonathan Meakins, a McGill medical graduate, was recruited to the Royal Victoria Hospital in 1924; as McGill’s first full-time clinical professor and Physician-in-Chief at the Royal Victoria Hospital. His focus on respiratory medicine led to the publication of his first book, Respiratory Function in Disease, in 1925. Meakins moved clinical laboratories from the Department of Pathology and placed them within the hospital. As such, he was responsible for the development of hospital-based research. Dr Ronald Christie was recruited as a postdoctoral fellow by Meakins in the early 1930s. After his fellowship, he returned to Britain but came back to McGill from St Bartholomew’s Hospital (London, United Kingdom) to become Chair of the Department of Medicine in 1955; he occupied the post for 10 years. He published extensively on the mechanical properties of the lung in common diseases such as emphysema and heart failure. Dr David Bates was among Dr Christie’s notable recruits; Bates in turn, recruited Drs Maurice McGregor, Margaret Becklake, William Thurlbeck, Joseph Milic-Emili, Nicholas Anthonisen, Charles Bryan and Peter Macklem. Bates published extensively in the area of respiratory physiology and, with Macklem and Christie, coauthored the book Respiratory Function in Disease, which integrated physiology into the analysis of disease. Dr JA Peter Paré joined the attending staff of the Royal Victoria Hospital and the Royal Edward Laurentian Hospital in 1949. A consummate clinician and teacher, he worked closely with Dr Robert Fraser, the Chair of Radiology, to write the reference text Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. This was a sentinel contribution in its focus on radiographic findings as the foundation for a systematic approach to diagnosis, and the correlation of these findings with

  7. Influence of natural organic matter source on copper speciation as demonstrated by Cu binding to fish gills, by ion selective electrode, and by DGT gel sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luider, C.D.; Crusius, J.; Playle, R.C.; Curtis, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 2 g) were exposed to 0-5 ??M total copper in ion-poor water for 3 h in the presence or absence of 10 mg C/L of qualitatively different natural organic matter (NOM) derived from water spanning a large gradient in hydrologic residence time. Accumulation of Cu by trout gills was compared to Cu speciation determined by ion selective electrode (ISE) and by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gel sampler technology. The presence of NOM decreased Cu uptake by trout gills as well as Cu concentrations determined by ISE and DGT. Furthermore, the source of NOM influenced Cu binding by trout gills with high-color, allochthonous NOM decreasing Cu accumulation by the gills more than low-color autochthonous NOM. The pattern of Cu binding to the NOM measured by Cu ISE and by Cu accumulation by DGT samplers was similar to the fish gill results. A simple Cu-gill binding model required an NOM Cu-binding factor (F) that depended on NOM quality to account for observed Cu accumulation by trout gills; values of Fvaried by a factor of 2. Thus, NOM metal-binding quality, as well as NOM quantity, are both important when assessing the bioavailability of metals such as Cu to aquatic organisms.

  8. Analysis of reactive oxygen species, Ca²+ , and Hsp70 in the gill and mantle of clams Ruditapes philippinarum exposed in cadmium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Zhenxing

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (H2 DCF-DA) and Fluo-3 AM were used to investigate the instantaneous change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) in the gill and mantle of clams Ruditapes philippinarum exposed in 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) with the laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The results indicated that Ca(2+) level was declined in the gill and slightly increased in the mantle. The level of ROS was declined in the gill, while the oscillation of ROS level was observed in the mantle. These data revealed that Ca(2+) could stimulate mitochondrial activity and enhance the respiratory chain in the gill and mantle. In addition, the expression of Hsp70 was increased in the gill and mantle of clams exposed in 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) . The change of Ca(2+) and ROS level affected the expression of Hsp70 in the gill and mantle. An appropriate method was established to analyze the effects of Cd(2+) on ROS, Ca(2+) , and Hsp70 in the gill and mantle of clams with confocal microscopy. Both confocal microscopy and chemical fluorescent are valuable tools for measurement of time-dependent intracellular ROS and Ca(2+) signals.

  9. Copper effects on key metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial membrane potential in gills of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mariana Machado; de Oliveira, Camila Bento; Yano, Natalia Lie Inocencio; Bianchini, Adalto

    2012-11-01

    The estuarine crab Neohelice granulata was exposed (96 h) to a sublethal copper concentration under two different physiological conditions (hyperosmoregulating crabs: 2 ppt salinity, 1 mg Cu/L; isosmotic crabs: 30 ppt salinity, 5 mg Cu/L). After exposure, gills (anterior and posterior) were dissected and activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase), Krebs cycle (citrate synthase), and mitochondrial electron transport chain (cytochrome c oxidase) were analyzed. Membrane potential of mitochondria isolated from anterior and posterior gill cells was also evaluated. In anterior gills of crabs acclimated to 2 ppt salinity, copper exposure inhibited hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and citrate synthase activity, increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In posterior gills, copper inhibited hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, and increased citrate synthase activity. In anterior gills of crabs acclimated to 30 ppt salinity, copper exposure inhibited phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase activity, and increased hexokinase activity. In posterior gills, copper inhibited phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, and increased hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Copper did not affect cytochrome c oxidase activity in either anterior or posterior gills of crabs acclimated to 2 and 30 ppt salinity. These findings indicate that exposure to a sublethal copper concentration affects the activity of enzymes involved in glycolysis and Krebs cycle, especially in anterior (respiratory) gills of hyperosmoregulating crabs. Changes observed indicate a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, characterizing a situation of functional hypoxia. In this case, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential would suggest a decrease in ATP production. Although gills of isosmotic crabs were also affected by copper exposure, changes

  10. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liza R. Walleser,; D.R. Howard,; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  11. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system.

    PubMed

    Walleser, L R; Howard, D R; Sandheinrich, M B; Gaikowski, M P; Amberg, J J

    2014-11-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  12. Natural Mineral Particles Are Cytotoxic to Rainbow Trout Gill Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Capitani, Christian; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Pietsch, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L−1) in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay), oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay), and metabolic activity (MTT assay) were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8–1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6–1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L−1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3–1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L−1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i.) natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii.) their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral species

  13. First observations of histopathological effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in gills of European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathological effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in gills of European eel.

    PubMed

    Sensini, Cristiana; Della Torre, Camilla; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects on gill morphology of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a model fish, the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) to assess potential detrimental effects in marine fish due to its presence in dumping areas. Juvenile specimens of A. anguilla were exposed in vivo for 6 and 24 h to 0.5, 1 and 2.5 mg/l nominal concentrations of TNT using dimethyl sulfoxide (0.1 per thousand) as solvent carrier. Histological analysis of gills indicated that TNT induced several structural lesions. After 6h of exposure at 0.5 and 1 mg/l TNT, oedema of some secondary lamellae was evident: this change at the highest dose of 2.5 mg/l led to epithelial lifting and detachment from the endothelium and rupture of the branchial membrane and vascular congestion. After 24 h at 0.5 mg/l, increased oedema in secondary lamellae, extensive epithelial detachment and vascular congestion and dilation of lamellar capillaries and pooling of blood at 1 mg/l were observed. At 2.5 mg/l, epithelial hyperplasia, fusion of adjacent lamellae, obliteration of interlamellar spaces by means of tight junctions were also observed. Moreover, chloride cells proliferated along secondary lamellae, and mucus hypersecretion was evident. The overall results clearly indicate that gills are sensitive targets of TNT.

  14. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait.

  15. Influence of water temperature on gill sodium, potassium-stimulated ATPase activity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, W.S.; McLain, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    1. Gill sodium, potassium-stimulated ATPase activity was determined from December to July in gills of yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) maintained at four temperatures, 6, 10, 15 and 20°C.2. Compared to fish held at 6°C, elevation in ATPase activity and the associated parr-smolt transformation were accelerated in fish at 10 and 15°C whereas animals at 20°C experienced at best only a transitory elevation in activity.3. Fish transferred from one temperature to another developed ATPase activities characteristic of fish residing at temperatures to which they were transferred.4. Cold water (6°C) tended to preserve the elevated ATPase activity while higher temperatures (10 and 15°C) caused decreases after an initial accelerated increase.

  16. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Teleost fishes are able to acclimatize to seawater by secreting excess NaCl by means of specialized “ionocytes” in the gill epithelium. Antibodies against Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have been used since 1996 as a marker for identifying branchial ionocytes. Immunohistochemistry of NKA by itself and in combination with Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter and CFTR Cl− channel provided convincing evidence that ionocytes are functional during seawater acclimation, and also revealed morphological variations in ionocytes among teleost species. Recent development of antibodies to freshwater- and seawater-specific isoforms of the NKA alpha-subunit has allowed functional distinction of ion absorptive and secretory ionocytes in Atlantic salmon. Cutaneous ionocytes of tilapia embryos serve as a model for branchial ionocytes, allowing identification of 4 types: two involved in ion uptake, one responsible for salt secretion and one with unknown function. Combining molecular genetics, advanced imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry will rapidly advance our understanding of both the unity and diversity of ionocyte function and regulation in fish osmoregulation.

  17. α-ENaC in bullfrog embryo: expression in cement gland, gills and skin.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Tanaka, Kayoko; Inomata, Reiko; Jensik, Philip J; Takada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in Na(+) responses such as Na(+) absorption and salt taste. The alpha ENaC subunit (α-ENaC) is expressed in the skin of both the adult and larval (tadpole) bullfrog. α-ENaC expression in the developing bullfrog embryo has not been previously investigated. In this study, the expression of α-ENaC at various stages (Sts.) of bullfrog embryonic development is assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Bullfrog α-ENaC (α-fENaC) protein was detected by western blot in embryos at Sts. (Gosner/Shumway) 19, 21 and 25. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that α-fENaC was localized to the embryonic cement glands at St. 18 (muscular response), St. 19 (heart beat) and St. 21 (mouth open and/or cornea transparent), to the external gills at St. 21 and to the outermost cell-layer of the skin at St. 25 (operculum complete). The function(s) of ENaC in these embryonic structures remain to be elucidated.

  18. Illusion of agency in patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Cécile; Salvador, Alexandre; Voon, Valerie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The sense of agency refers to the conscious experience of authorship and control over actions. The voluntary or involuntary nature of tics, which are the hallmark of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), is unclear. Here, we studied metacognitive processing of agency in an explicit agency task on non-medicated and medicated GTS patients compared to matched controls. In this task, the participants made judgements of control and performance after completion of a computerized game where they had to catch targets with a cursor by moving the computer mouse. The task included several conditions, where the objective control over the cursor could be normal, disrupted or artificially enhanced. We show that GTS patients, independently of medication status, based their judgments of agency predominantly on the matching between their intention and the outcome, i.e., had an illusion of agency in the task condition where their performance was artificially enhanced. Nevertheless, they recognized not to be fully in control in conditions of disrupted control. The propensity to illusions of agency was negatively correlated with global disease severity. Our findings suggest alterations of metacognition of agency in GTS patients. This illusion of agency could reflect a compensatory mechanism related to tic control, but is more likely to be related to deviant brain maturation in GTS.

  19. Deep brain stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: killing several birds with one stone?

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe, treatment-refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of various targets has been increasingly explored over the past 15 years. The multiplicity of surgical targets is intriguing and may be partly due to the complexity of GTS, specifically the various and frequent associated psychiatric comorbidities in this disorder. Thus, the target choice may not only be aimed at reducing tics but also comorbidities. While this approach is laudable, it also carries the risk to increase confounding factors in DBS trials and patient evaluation. Moreover, I question whether DBS should really be expected to alleviate multiple symptoms at a time. Rather, I argue that tic reduction should remain our primary objective in severe GTS patients and that this intervention may subsequently allow an improved psychotherapeutic and/or pharmacological treatment of comorbidities. Thus, I consider DBS in GTS not as a single solution for all our patients’ ailments but as a stepping stone to improved holistic care made possible by tic reduction. PMID:27746910

  20. Freshwater fish gill ion transport: August Krogh to morpholinos and microprobes.

    PubMed

    Evans, D H

    2011-07-01

    August Krogh proposed that freshwater fishes (and other freshwater animals) maintain body NaCl homoeostasis by extracting these ions from the environment via separate Na(+) /NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) /HCO(3)(-) exchangers in the gill epithelium. Subsequent data from other laboratories suggested that Na(+) uptake was more probably coupled to H(+) secretion via a vesicular proton pump (V-ATPase) electrically coupled to a Na(+) channel. However, despite uncertainty about electrochemical gradients, evidence has accrued that epithelial Na(+) /H(+) exchange indeed may be an alternative pathway for Na(+) uptake. The specific pathways for Na(+) uptake may be species and environment specific. An apical Cl(-) /HCO(3)(-) exchanger is generally accepted for most species (some species do not extract Cl(-) from freshwater), but the relative roles of anion exchanger-like (SLC4A1) vs. pendrin-like (SLC26Z4) exchangers are unknown, and also may be species specific. Most recently, data have supported the presence of an apical Na(+) + Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC-type), despite thermodynamic uncertainty. Ammonia extrusion may be via NH(3) diffusing through the paracellular junctions or NH(4) (+) substitution on both basolateral and apical ionic exchangers (Na(+) + K(+) -ATPase; Na(+) + K(+) + Cl(-) - cotransporter; and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger), but recent evidence suggests that Rhesus-glycoproteins mediate both basolateral and apical movement of ammonia.

  1. Health-related quality of life in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a decade of research.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; David, Kate; Bandera, Valentina; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto; Schrag, Anette; Selai, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by multiple motor and phonic tics and associated behavioural problems, carrying a significant burden on patients' lives. Although the term health related-quality of life (HR-QOL) has only been used in recent years, several studies have long addressed the impact of GTS on physical, psychological and social aspects of wellbeing of both children and adults with GTS. We set out to answer the question "Is HR-QOL affected by GTS and, if so, in what domains?" by conducting a systematic literature review of published original studies addressing HR-QOL in both children and adult patients with GTS. This review focuses on the current evidence on the impact of GTS on patients' lives, mainly informed by studies using generic functional impairment and HR-QOL measures from the last decade, and expands on the new opportunities introduced by the recently developed GTS-specific HR-QOL scales (GTS-QOL and GTS-QOL-C&A). Analysis of the first decade of studies specifically addressing HR-QOL in GTS suggests that co-morbid conditions are key factors in determining HR-QOL in young patients, whilst the picture is more complex in adults with GTS. These findings offer some general directions for both current clinical practice and future research.

  2. Continuing educational needs in computers and informatics. McGill survey of family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    McClaran, J.; Snell, L.; Duarte-Franco, E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe family physicians' perceived educational needs in computers and informatics. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: General or family practices in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Physicians (489 responded to a mailing sent to 2,500 physicians) who might attend sessions at the McGill Centre for CME. Two duplicate questionnaires were excluded from the analysis. METHOD: Four domains were addressed: practice profile, clinical CME needs, professional CME needs, and preferred learning formats. Data were entered on dBASE IV; analyses were performed on SPSS. MAIN FINDINGS: In the 487 questionnaires retained for analysis, "informatics and computers" was mentioned more than any other clinical diagnostic area, any other professional area, and all but three patient groups and service areas as a topic where improvement in knowledge and skills was needed in the coming year. Most physicians had no access to computer support for practice (62.6%); physicians caring for neonates, toddlers, or hospital inpatients were more likely to report some type of computer support. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians selected knowledge and skills for computers and informatics as an area for improvement in the coming year more frequently than they selected most traditional clinical CME topics. This educational need is particularly great in small towns and in settings where some computerized hospital data are already available. PMID:10790816

  3. Boronated tartrolon antibiotic produced by symbiotic cellulose-degrading bacteria in shipworm gills.

    PubMed

    Elshahawi, Sherif I; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Hanora, Amro; Han, Andrew W; Flores, Malem S; Vizzoni, Vinicius; Schrago, Carlos G; Soares, Carlos A; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Dan L; Schmidt, Eric W; Haygood, Margo G

    2013-01-22

    Shipworms are marine wood-boring bivalve mollusks (family Teredinidae) that harbor a community of closely related Gammaproteobacteria as intracellular endosymbionts in their gills. These symbionts have been proposed to assist the shipworm host in cellulose digestion and have been shown to play a role in nitrogen fixation. The genome of one strain of Teredinibacter turnerae, the first shipworm symbiont to be cultivated, was sequenced, revealing potential as a rich source of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two macrodioloide polyketides belonging to the tartrolon class. Both compounds were found to possess antibacterial properties, and the major compound was found to inhibit other shipworm symbiont strains and various pathogenic bacteria. The gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of these compounds was identified and characterized, and the ketosynthase domains were analyzed phylogenetically. Reverse-transcription PCR in addition to liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the transcription of these genes and the presence of the compounds in the shipworm, suggesting that the gene cluster is expressed in vivo and that the compounds may fulfill a specific function for the shipworm host. This study reports tartrolon polyketides from a shipworm symbiont and unveils the biosynthetic gene cluster of a member of this class of compounds, which might reveal the mechanism by which these bioactive metabolites are biosynthesized.

  4. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: what is the strategy of choice?

    PubMed

    Heutink, P; van de Wetering, B J; Pakstis, A J; Kurlan, R; Sandor, P; Oostra, B A; Sandkuijl, L A

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of a linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggest that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes.

  5. Narcissistic vulnerability is a common cause for depression in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trillini, Morounke O; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess for the first time different dimensions of narcissistic self-regulation in a large cohort of adult patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) (n=50). From preliminary studies it is suggested that narcissistic personality trait and disorder, respectively, are relatively uncommon and occur in only 6-10% of GTS patients. In this study we used the Narcissism Inventory (NI), a 163-items questionnaire that measures four different dimensions of narcissism. The main result was that the prevalence of narcissism strongly depends on the subtype of narcissism: while the vulnerable narcissism ("threatened self" and "hypochondriac self") was common, the "classic narcissistic self" (grandiose narcissism) was rare. From our data an association between comorbid depression and increased values of the "threatened self" and comorbid OCD with increased values of the "hypochondriac self" is suggested. Narcissism correlated positively with the personality domain neuroticism and had a significantly negative impact on patients' quality of life. Therefore it can be speculated that vulnerable narcissism is - among several others - one cause for depression in patients with GTS. These findings may open new psychotherapeutic perspectives in the treatment of depression in patients with GTS.

  6. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in special education schools: a United Kingdom study.

    PubMed

    Eapen, V; Robertson, M M; Zeitlin, H; Kurlan, R

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in children with severe school problems requiring a residential facility and comparison groups of children in regular day schools, we performed direct clinical examinations for the presence of tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) in 20 children from a residential school for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD); 25 children from a residential school for learning disabilities; 17 "problem" children (PC) (identified by teachers as having academic or behaviour problems) and 19 normal children (NC) selected at random (using random numbers) from a regular school. Of the EBD students, 65% were judged to have definite tics as compared with 24% of students with learning difficulties (P < 0.05), 6% of PC (P < 0.003) and none of the NC (P < 0.0006) group. Most of the affected students met diagnostic criteria for GTS. Our findings suggest that GTS is commonly associated with the need for special education and that this association is particularly robust for children with severe school problems. In these children, the presence of tics may be an indicator of an underlying dysfunction of neurological development.

  7. Characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme from anterior gills of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus.

    PubMed

    Bersanetti, Patrícia A; Nogueira, Regina F; Marcondes, Marcelo F; Paiva, Paulo B; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Carmona, Adriana K; Zanotto, Flavia P

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a well-known metallopeptidase that is found in vertebrates, invertebrates and bacteria. We isolated from the anterior gill of the crab Ucides cordatus an isoform of ACE, here named crab-ACE, which presented catalytic properties closely resembling to those of mammalian ACE. The enzyme was purified on Sepharose-lisinopril affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity and a band of about 72 kDa could be visualized after silver staining and Western blotting. Assays performed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) selective ACE substrates Abz-FRK(Dnp)P-OH, Abz-SDK(Dnp)P-OH and Abz-LFK(Dnp)-OH, allowed us to verify that crab-ACE has hydrolytic profile very similar to that of the ACE C-domain. In addition, we observed that crab-ACE can hydrolyze the ACE substrates, angiotensin I and bradykinin. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by the specific ACE inhibitor lisinopril (Ki of 1.26 nM). However, in contrast to other ACE isoforms, crab-ACE presented a very particular optimum pH, being the substrate Abz-FRK(Dnp)-P-OH hydrolyzed efficiently at pH 9.5. Other interesting characteristic of crab-ACE was that the maximum hydrolytic activity was reached at around 45°C. The description of an ACE isoform in Ucides cordatus is challenging and may contribute to a better understanding of the biochemical function of this enzyme in invertebrates.

  8. Arsenic inhibits SGK1 activation of CFTR Cl- channels in the gill of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph R; Bomberger, Jennifer M; VanderHeide, John; LaCasse, Taylor; Stanton, Sara; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Barnaby, Roxanna; Stanton, Bruce A

    2010-06-10

    Seawater acclimation in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, is mediated in part by a rapid (1h) translocation of CFTR Cl(-) channels from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane in gill and increased CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion. This effect is mediated by serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), which is stimulated by plasma hypertonicity rather than cortisol. Since arsenic exposure prevents acclimation to seawater by decreasing CFTR protein levels we tested the hypothesis that arsenic (as sodium arsenite) blocks acclimation to seawater by down regulating SGK1 expression. Freshwater adapted killifish were exposed to arsenic (48h) and transferred to seawater containing arsenic, and SGK and CFTR expression were measured. Arsenic reduced the seawater induced increase in SGK1 mRNA and protein abundance, and reduced both the total amount of CFTR and the amount of CFTR in the plasma membrane. The decrease in membrane CFTR reduced Cl(-) secretion. Arsenic also increased the amount of ubiquitinated CFTR and its degradation by the lysosome. Thus, we propose a model whereby arsenic reduces the ability of killifish to acclimate to seawater by blocking the seawater induced increase in SGK1, which results in increased ubiquitination and degradation of CFTR.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Decade of Research

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; David, Kate; Bandera, Valentina; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto; Schrag, Anette; Selai, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by multiple motor and phonic tics and associated behavioural problems, carrying a significant burden on patients' lives. Although the term health related-quality of life (HR-QOL) has only been used in recent years, several studies have long addressed the impact of GTS on physical, psychological and social aspects of wellbeing of both children and adults with GTS. We set out to answer the question "Is HR-QOL affected by GTS and, if so, in what domains?" by conducting a systematic literature review of published original studies addressing HR-QOL in both children and adult patients with GTS. This review focuses on the current evidence on the impact of GTS on patients' lives, mainly informed by studies using generic functional impairment and HR-QOL measures from the last decade, and expands on the new opportunities introduced by the recently developed GTS-specific HR-QOL scales (GTS-QOL and GTS-QOL-C&A). Analysis of the first decade of studies specifically addressing HR-QOL in GTS suggests that co-morbid conditions are key factors in determining HR-QOL in young patients, whilst the picture is more complex in adults with GTS. These findings offer some general directions for both current clinical practice and future research. PMID:23187148

  10. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  11. The neural correlates of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ganos, Christos; Kahl, Ursula; Brandt, Valerie; Schunke, Odette; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Roessner, Veit; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander; Kühn, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. First, tic severity and voluntary tic inhibitory capacity were evaluated outside the scanner. Second, patients were examined with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) in two states, free ticcing and voluntary tic inhibition. Local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI-signal was analysed with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and differences between both states (free ticcing

  12. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have widespread personality differences.

    PubMed

    Trillini, Morounke O; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2015-08-30

    Only little is known about pathological personality traits in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of personality traits in adults with GTS. We used a variety of rating scales to assess not only personality traits, but also severity of tics, quality of life, and comorbidities (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression), in a large group (n=50) of patients. Our major finding was that pathological personality traits are very common in patients with GTS encompassing a wide range of different personality traits, but most typically personality traits related to cluster C. Demand-anxious was the most common personality trait, while histrionic personality trait was absent. Patients' quality of life was more impaired by personality traits than comorbidities. Personality traits were more common in patients with comorbid OCD and depression, while comorbid ADHD had no influence. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that GTS plus OCD represents a more severe subtype of GTS, and support the assumption that OCD and depression, but not ADHD, are part of the GTS spectrum.

  13. Fish Gill Inspired Crossflow for Efficient and Continuous Collection of Spilled Oil.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yuhai; Tian, Dongliang; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Qiannan; Zhang, Na; Kim, Jung Ho; Jiang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue

    2017-03-28

    Developing an effective system to clean up large-scale oil spills is of great significance due to their contribution to severe environmental pollution and destruction. Superwetting membranes have been widely studied for oil/water separation. The separation, however, adopts a gravity-driven approach that is inefficient and discontinuous due to quick fouling of the membrane by oil. Herein, inspired by the crossflow filtration behavior in fish gills, we propose a crossflow approach via a hydrophilic, tilted gradient membrane for spilled oil collection. In crossflow collection, as the oil/water flows parallel to the hydrophilic membrane surface, water is gradually filtered through the pores, while oil is repelled, transported, and finally collected for storage. Owing to the selective gating behavior of the water-sealed gradient membrane, the large pores at the bottom with high water flux favor fast water filtration, while the small pores at the top with strong oil repellency allow easy oil transportation. In addition, the gradient membrane exhibits excellent antifouling properties due to the protection of the water layer. Therefore, this bioinspired crossflow approach enables highly efficient and continuous spilled oil collection, which is very promising for the cleanup of large-scale oil spills.

  14. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development.

  15. A personal 35 year perspective on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: assessment, investigations, and management.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    After having examined the definition, clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, psychopathology, and phenotypes in the first paper of this Series, here I discuss the assessment, including neuropsychology, and the effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with studies showing that the quality of life of patients with Tourette's syndrome is reduced and that there is a substantial burden on the family. In this paper, I review my local and collaborative studies investigating causal factors (including genetic vulnerability, prenatal and perinatal difficulties, and neuro-immunological factors). I also present my studies on neuro-imaging, electro-encephalograms, and other special investigations, which are helpful in their own right or to exclude other conditions. Finally, I also review our studies on treatment including medications, transcranial magnetic stimulation, biofeedback, target-specific botulinum toxin injections, biofeedback and, in severe refractory adults, psychosurgery and deep brain stimulation. This Review summarises and highlights selected main findings from my clinic (initially The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square and University College London, UK, and, subsequently, at St George's Hospital, London, UK), and several collaborations since 1980. As in Part 1 of this Series, I address the main controversies in the fields and the research of other groups, and I make suggestions for future research.

  16. Modeling survival: application of the Andersen-Gill model to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Boyce, Mark S.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

     Wildlife ecologists often use the Kaplan-Meier procedure or Cox proportional hazards model to estimate survival rates, distributions, and magnitude of risk factors. The Andersen-Gill formulation (A-G) of the Cox proportional hazards model has seen limited application to mark-resight data but has a number of advantages, including the ability to accommodate left-censored data, time-varying covariates, multiple events, and discontinuous intervals of risks. We introduce the A-G model including structure of data, interpretation of results, and assessment of assumptions. We then apply the model to 22 years of radiotelemetry data for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Greater Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, USA. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) and multi-model inference to assess a number of potentially useful predictive models relative to explanatory covariates for demography, human disturbance, and habitat. Using the most parsimonious models, we generated risk ratios, hypothetical survival curves, and a map of the spatial distribution of high-risk areas across the recovery zone. Our results were in agreement with past studies of mortality factors for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Holding other covariates constant, mortality was highest for bears that were subjected to repeated management actions and inhabited areas with high road densities outside Yellowstone National Park. Hazard models developed with covariates descriptive of foraging habitats were not the most parsimonious, but they suggested that high-elevation areas offered lower risks of mortality when compared to agricultural areas.

  17. Ultrastructural observations on the hamuli of the monogenean gill parasite Cichlidogyrus halli typicus.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, M M

    1993-09-01

    The ultrastructure of a monogenean hamulus is described for the first time. The ultrastructure of the dorsal and ventral hamuli of the monogenean gill parasite Cichlidogyrus halli typicus (Price & Kirk, 1967, 76: 137-144) Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines Paperna, 1979 (Annales du Musée Royal del'Afrique Centrale 226: 1-31) is similar but there are differences between different regions of a single hamulus. Each hamulus has three layers in the middle of the hook region, a thin outer layer, a middle layer forming the bulk of the hook and a central core made up of longitudinally oriented rods. The central core disappears in the distal region of the hook and the outer layer is absent in the proximal region of the hook. Both the shaft and the roots consist of two layers, the inner layer of the shaft is made up of longitudinally oriented parallel rods, and the corresponding layer of the roots being composed of long fibrils. The longitudinally orientated rods of the central core may provide inner strength to resist the physical strain on the hook and the outer, and possibly the middle layers, may provide chemical resistance to host's tissue secretion. The distal region of each root is covered with a fibrous hood, which appear to be a specialized region for binding muscle fibres to the sclerite.

  18. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764 bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei.

  19. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a cohort of deaf people.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M M; Roberts, S; Pillai, S; Eapen, V

    2015-10-01

    We present six patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) who are also deaf. TS has been observed previously, but rarely reported in deaf people, and to date, so called "unusual" phenomenology has been highlighted. TS occurs almost worldwide and in all cultures, and the clinical phenomenology is virtually identical. In our cohort of deaf patients (we suggest another culture) with TS, the phenomenology is the same as in hearing people, and as in all other cultures, with classic motor and vocal/phonic tics, as well as associated phenomena including echo-phenomena, pali-phenomena and rarer copro-phenomena. When "words" related to these phenomenon (e.g. echolalia, palilalia, coprolalia or mental coprolalia) are elicited in deaf people, they occur usually in British Sign Language (BSL): the more "basic" vocal/phonic tics such as throat clearing are the same phenomenologically as in hearing TS people. In our case series, there was a genetic predisposition to TS in all cases. We would argue that TS in deaf people is the same as TS in hearing people and in other cultures, highlighting the biological nature of the disorder.

  20. Insights into the nature of uranium target proteins within zebrafish gills after chronic and acute waterborne exposures.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Guillaume; Mounicou, Sandra; Simon, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Lobinski, Ryszard; Frelon, Sandrine

    2016-03-01

    New data on the nature of the protein targets of uranium (U) within zebrafish gills were collected after waterborne exposure, with the aim of a better understanding of U toxicity mechanisms. Some common characteristics of the U protein target binding properties were found, such as their role in the regulation of other essential metals and their phosphorus content. In total, 21 potential protein targets, including hemoglobin, are identified and discussed in terms of the literature.

  1. Organ-Specific and Size-Dependent Ag Nanoparticle Toxicity in Gills and Intestines of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xuechen; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Shuo; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-10-27

    We studied adult zebrafish to determine whether the size of 20 and 110 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgC NPs) differentially impact the gills and intestines, known target organs for Ag toxicity in fish. Following exposure for 4 h, 4 days, or 4 days plus a 7 day depuration period, we obtained different toxicokinetic profiles for different particle sizes, as determined by Ag content of the tissues. Ionic AgNO3 served as a positive control. The gills showed a significantly higher Ag content for the 20 nm particles at 4 h and 4 days than the 110 nm particles, while the values were more similar in the intestines. Both particle types were retained in the intestines even after depuration. These toxicokinetics were accompanied by striking size-dependent differences in the ultrastructural features and histopathology in the target organs in response to the particulates. Ag staining of the gills and intestines confirmed prominent Ag deposition in the basolateral membranes for the 20 nm but not for the 110 nm particles. Furthermore, it was possible to link the site of tissue deposition to disruption of the Na(+)/K(+) ion channel, which is also localized to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed by a reduction in ATPase activity and immunohistochemical detection of the α subunit of this channel in both target organs, with the 20 nm particles causing significantly higher inhibition and disruption than the larger size particles or AgNO3. These results demonstrate the importance of particle size in determining the hazardous impact of AgNPs in the gills and intestines of adult zebrafish.

  2. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  3. Subcellular fractionation and chemical speciation of uranium to elucidate its fate in gills and hepatopancreas of crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Frelon, S; Mounicou, S; Lobinski, R; Gilbin, R; Simon, O

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the organ and subcellular distribution of metals in organisms is fundamental for the understanding of their uptake, storage, elimination and toxicity. Detoxification via MTLP and MRG formation and chelation by some proteins are necessary to better assess the metal toxic fraction in aquatic organisms. This work focused on uranium, natural element mainly used in nuclear industry, and its subcellular fractionation and chemical speciation to elucidate its accumulation pattern in gills and hepatopancreas of crayfish Procambarus clarkii, key organs of uptake and detoxification, respectively. Crayfish waterborne exposure was performed during 4 and 10d at 0, 30, 600 and 4000 μg UL(-1). After tissue dissection, uranium subcellular fractionation was performed by successive ultracentrifugations. SEC-ICP MS was used to study uranium speciation in cytosolic fraction. The uranium subcellular partitioning patterns varied according to the target organ studied and its biological function in the organism. The cytosolic fraction accounted for 13-30% of the total uranium amount in gills and 35-75% in hepatopancreas. The uranium fraction coeluting with MTLPs in gills and hepatopancreas cytosols showed that roughly 55% of uranium remained non-detoxified and thus potentially toxic in the cytosol. Furthermore, the sum of uranium amount in organelle fractions and in the non-detoxified part of cytosol, possibly equivalent to available fraction, accounted for 20% (gills) and 57% (hepatopancreas) of the total uranium. Finally, the SEC-ICP MS analysis provided information on potential competition of U for biomolecules similar than the ones involved in endogenous essential metal (Fe, Cu) chelation.

  4. iTRAQ proteomic analysis of salinity acclimation proteins in the gill of tropical marbled eel (Anguilla marmorata).

    PubMed

    Jia, Yihe; Yin, Shaowu; Li, Li; Li, Peng; Liang, Fenfei; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Li; Su, Xinhua

    2016-06-01

    Osmoregulation plays an important role in the migration process of catadromous fish. The osmoregulatory mechanisms of tropical marbled eel (Anguilla marmorata), a typical catadromous fish, did not gain sufficient attention, especially at the molecular level. In order to enrich the protein database of A. marmorata, a proteomic analysis has been carried out by iTRAQ technique. Among 1937 identified proteins in gill of marbled eel, the expression of 1560 proteins (80 %) was quantified. Compared with the protein expression level in the gill of marbled eel in freshwater (salinity of 0 ‰), 336 proteins were up-regulated and 67 proteins were down-regulated in seawater (salinity of 25 ‰); 33 proteins were up-regulated and 32 proteins were down-regulated in brackish water (salinity of 10 ‰). These up-regulated proteins including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, V-type proton ATPase, sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter and heat shock protein 90 were enriched in many KEGG-annotated pathways, which are related to different functions of the gill. The up-regulated oxidative phosphorylation and seleno-compound metabolism pathways involve the synthesis and consumption of ATP, which represents extra energy consumption. Another identified pathway is the ribosome pathway in which a large number of up-regulated proteins are involved. It is also more notable that tight junction and cardiac muscle contraction pathways may have correlation with ion transport in gill cells. This is the first report describing the proteome of A. marmorata for acclimating to the change of salinity. These results provide a functional database for migratory fish and point out some possible new interactions on osmoregulation in A. marmorata.

  5. Pathogenicity of the gill artery worm Philometra obturans (Nematoda) in northern pike (Esox lucius) in southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Kåll, S; Fagerholm, H P; Sarvala, J

    2004-02-01

    The pathogenicity of female Philometra obturans (Prenant, 1886) was investigated. Fish samples were taken in May and June 2001 from Lake Littoistenjärvi, in southwest Finland. The intensity of infection varied between 1 and 4 worms, these being found in the afferent artery of the 2 outermost gill arches. The prevalence was 33.9% (n = 59). Host condition and tissue reactions were investigated through dissection and analysis of histopathology. The parasites obstructed the gill arteries, and the arterial wall was stretched around intact worms. Hypertrophy of the arterial wall was observed, especially when only disintegrating remains of the parasites were present. Infected pike were in a poorer condition after catch, transportation, and holding in aquaria and thus less tolerant to stress than uninfected pike. This was correlated with the number of infected gill arteries (P < 0.05). The results show that infection with this nematode has a detrimental effect on the host when combined with environmental or physiological stress and may result in host mortality.

  6. Histopathological gill changes in wild leaping grey mullet (Liza saliens) from the Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Conceição; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António; Monteiro, Sandra Mariza; Salgado, Maria Antónia

    2007-08-01

    The histopathological changes are among the most recognized responses to environmental stressors, namely heavy metals. Liza saliens were sampled, in the Portuguese Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon to assess their gill histopathological response to Cu and Zn contaminated sediments. A lesion prevalence index, severity, and extension scores of each lesion, as well as an assessment value (severity x extension), were determined to evaluate the effect of environmental heavy metal exposure. The main histopathological changes observed were aneurisms, hyperplasia, lifting, and vasodilation. A high prevalence for each lesion (65-85%) was found, in addition to a high number of simultaneous lesions. Vasodilation and hyperplasia were the lesions that showed higher prevalence indexes. Lifting, followed by hyperplasia, were the lesions with highest assessment value. The prevalence of the number of the lesions found in L. saliens collected from the Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon was high when compared with mullet caught in the sea. A previous work revealed that fish collected in the lagoon showed elevated Cu and Zn levels in their gills, in a positive correlation with age. However, no positive correlation was observed between assessment value and gill metal levels.

  7. Fatty acids from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with potent inhibitory effects on fish gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Bury, N R; Codd, G A; Wendelaaar Bonga, S E; Flik, G

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acids from two strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC 7820 (a strain that produces the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR, MC-LR) and CYA 43 (a strain that produces only small quantities of MC-LR), were extracted, partially characterised and tested for their inhibitory effect on the K+-dependent p-nitrophenol phosphatase (pNPPase) activity of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill basolateral membrane. Thin-layer chromatography of the lipids from dichloromethane:methanol extracts of M. aeruginosa PCC 7820 and CYA 43, using diethylether:isopropanol:formic acid (100:4.5:2.5) as solvent, yielded five inhibitory products from M. aeruginosa 7820 and six from M. aeruginosa CYA 43. None of these products could be related to MC-LR. The inhibitory behaviour of the products mimics that of a slow, tight-binding inhibitor. The inhibitory activity is removed by incubation of extracts with fatty-acid-free bovine serum albumin (FAF-BSA). However, FAF-BSA only partially reversed the inhibition of K+-dependent pNPPase on fish gills pre-exposed to the extracted products. We conclude that M. aeruginosa strains PCC 7820 and CYA 43 produce fatty acids with potent inhibitory effects on K+-dependent pNPPase. The release of these products following lysis of cyanobacterial blooms may help to explain fish kills through a disturbance of gill functioning.

  8. Infection by Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa) in the bone tissue of the gill filaments of the Amazonian catfish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Michele; Videira, Marcela; Sindeaux-Neto, José Ledamir; Santos, Patrícia Dos; Sanches, Osimar; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    This study describes aspects of the infection caused by the myxosporean genus Henneguya, which forms cysts in the bony portion of the gill filaments of Hypophthalmusmarginatus. Specimens of this catfish were acquired dead from artisanal fishermen near the town of Cametá, state of Pará, northern Brazil, between July 2011 and May 2012. They were transported in refrigerated containers to the Carlos Azevedo Research Laboratory at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia, in Belém, where analyses were performed. After confirmation of parasitism by the genus Henneguya, observation were made using optical and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The histological technique of embedment in paraffin was used. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was applied to the histological sections. Necropsy analyses on specimens of H. marginatus showed that 80% of them (40/50) had cysts of whitish coloration inside the bony portion of the gill filaments, filled with Henneguya spores. The present study found inflammatory infiltrate in the vicinity of the cysts. Furthermore, the special Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique made it possible to mark the Henneguya sp. cysts in the bone tissue and in spore isolates in the gill tissue structure. The descriptions of these histopathological findings show that this parasite is very invasive and causes damage to its host tissues.

  9. Coexistence of Multiple Proteobacterial Endosymbionts in the Gills of the Wood-Boring Bivalve Lyrodus pedicellatus (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Distel, Daniel L.; Beaudoin, David J.; Morrill, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Wood-boring bivalves of the family Teredinidae (commonly called shipworms) are known to harbor dense populations of gram-negative bacteria within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) in their gills. These symbionts are thought to provide enzymes, e.g., cellulase and dinitrogenase, which assist the host in utilizing wood as a primary food source. A cellulolytic, dinitrogen-fixing bacterium, Teredinibacter turnerae, has been isolated from the gill tissues of numerous teredinid bivalves and has been proposed to constitute the sole or predominant symbiont of this bivalve family. Here we demonstrate that one teredinid species, Lyrodus pedicellatus, contains at least four distinct bacterial 16S rRNA types within its gill bacteriocytes, one of which is identical to that of T. turnerae. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the three newly detected ribotypes are derived from gamma proteobacteria that are related to but distinct (>6.5% sequence divergence) from T. turnerae. In situ hybridizations with 16S rRNA-directed probes demonstrated that the pattern of occurrence of symbiont ribotypes within bacteriocytes was predictable and specific, with some bacteriocytes containing two symbiont ribotypes. However, only two of the six possible pairwise combinations of the four ribotypes were observed to cooccur within the same host cells. The results presented here are consistent with the existence of a complex multiple symbiosis in this shipworm species. PMID:12450854

  10. Chronic diclofenac exposure affects gill integrity and pituitary gene expression and displays estrogenic activity in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Gröner, Frederike; Höhne, Christin; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus has been exposed to diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prevalent in the aquatic environment, for 80 days post-hatch (dph). Concentrations ranged from environmentally relevant (0.1 μg L(-1) and 1 μg L(-1) DCF) up to 100-fold thereof. Population relevant endpoints (hatching, survival, growth) as well as gill histopathology were analyzed. On this level of examination only gills exhibited mild to moderate alterations. On the contrary, biomarkers associated with reproduction were affected due to DCF exposure, indicating the potential to affect sexual differentiation and gametogenesis by acting as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) in tilapia. Vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression was significantly induced at 1 μg L(-1) DCF. In order to find an explanation, gene expression patterns of key enzymes of the biotransformation phases I, II, and III have been analyzed. It seems very likely that the detoxification metabolism is induced in a dose dependent manner at higher concentrations of DCF leading to the expression pattern of VTG mRNA. Our results suggest that DCF at environmentally relevant concentrations adversely affects O. niloticus gill histopathology and pituitary gene expression, and has the potential to act as an estrogenic EDC. The sensitivity of various endpoints, however, differs and therefore these endpoints should be linked.

  11. Mucous cell responses in gill and skin of brown trout Salmo trutta fario in acidic, aluminium-containing stream water.

    PubMed

    Ledy, K; Giambérini, L; Pihan, J C

    2003-10-24

    Morphometric examination was carried out on the gills and skin of wild and caged hatchery brown trout Salmo trutta fario in an acidic (pH 4.9 to 5.4; Al 203 to 250 microg l(-1)) and in a non-acidic (pH 6.7 to 7.0; Al 27 to 67 microg l(-1)) stream in the Vosges Mountains (NE France) to assess the sublethal effects of acidic water on the mucous cell response. The caged fish were randomly collected after 2, 4, 7 and 11 d and the wild fish were obtained by electrofishing. After 2 d, a reduction of both mucous cell (MC) number and size was observed in the gills of fish held in the acidic stream, suggesting a massive mucus discharge. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cells immediately followed this mucus secretion. In the same fish population, skin examination showed a slight and delayed decrease of MC number but a significant increase of cell size. The number of mucous cells of gills and skin was similar in both wild trout populations, whereas a significant MC hypertrophy was observed in the wild fish of the acidic stream. The present field experiment indicates that caged fish could be useful as early indicators of acidification. In addition, the examination of wild populations suggested the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms, information that might be of importance in the context of river recovery programs.

  12. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-03-06

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish.

  13. Catch of channel catfish with tandem-set hoop nets and gill nets in lentic systems of Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richters, Lindsey K.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six Nebraska water bodies representing two ecosystem types (small standing waters and large standing waters) were surveyed during 2008 and 2009 with tandem-set hoop nets and experimental gill nets to determine if similar trends existed in catch rates and size structures of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus captured with these gears. Gear efficiency was assessed as the number of sets (nets) that would be required to capture 100 channel catfish given observed catch per unit effort (CPUE). Efficiency of gill nets was not correlated with efficiency of hoop nets for capturing channel catfish. Small sample sizes prohibited estimation of proportional size distributions in most surveys; in the four surveys for which sample size was sufficient to quantify length-frequency distributions of captured channel catfish, distributions differed between gears. The CPUE of channel catfish did not differ between small and large water bodies for either gear. While catch rates of hoop nets were lower than rates recorded in previous studies, this gear was more efficient than gill nets at capturing channel catfish. However, comparisons of size structure between gears may be problematic.

  14. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA α-subunit and V-ATPase β-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA α-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA α-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA α-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  15. Oxidative damage induced by copper and beta-cypermethrin in gill of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Wei, Keqiang; Yang, Junxian

    2015-03-01

    Copper (Cu) and pyrethroid are common contaminants found in the aquatic environment, and their potential toxicological effects on aquatic organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on crayfish species of exposure to the two chemicals are still largely unknown. The current study assessed the sublethal toxicities induced by Cu and commercial formulation of beta-cypermethrin in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The static test method of acute toxicity test was used. Five biomarkers of oxidative effects, i.e. reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls, and pathologic changes were determined. The results demonstrated that there was a significant increase in the contents of ROS, MDA and protein carbonyls accompanied by markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities in a concentration-dependent manner. The linear relationship between protein carbonyls induction and MDA formation was observed evidently in crayfish gills at 96h. Higher contents of ROS enhanced the risk of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, thus impacting vital physiological functions of gills. The results indicated that protein oxidation may be one of the main mechanisms of pollution-induced toxicity to crayfish gills. Protein carbonyl levels could be considered as a potential biomarker of exposure to environmental contaminants.

  16. Different mechanisms of Na(+) uptake and ammonia excretion by the gill and yolk sac epithelium of early life stage rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Wright, Patricia A; Hiroi, Junya; Wood, Chris M

    2017-03-01

    In rainbow trout, the dominant site of Na(+) uptake (JNa,in) and ammonia excretion (Jamm) shifts from the skin to the gills over development. Post-hatch (PH; 7 days post-hatch) larvae utilize the yolk sac skin for physiological exchange, whereas by complete yolk sac absorption (CYA; 30 days post-hatch), the gill is the dominant site. At the gills, JNa,in and Jamm occur via loose Na(+)/NH4(+) exchange, but this exchange has not been examined in the skin of larval trout. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that, contrary to the gill model, JNa,in by the yolk sac skin of PH trout occurs independently of Jamm Following a 12 h exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 0.5 mmol l(-1) NH4HCO3; 600 µmol l(-1) Na(+); pH 8), Jamm by the gills of CYA trout and the yolk sac skin of PH larvae, which were isolated using divided chambers, increased significantly. However, this was coupled to an increase in JNa,in across the gills only, supporting our hypothesis. Moreover, gene expression of proteins involved in JNa,in [Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger-2 (NHE2) and H(+)-ATPase] increased in response to HEA only in the CYA gills. We further identified expression of the apical Rhesus (Rh) proteins Rhcg2 in putative pavement cells and Rhcg1 (co-localized with apical NHE2 and NHE3b and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) in putative peanut lectin agglutinin-positive (PNA(+)) ionocytes in gill sections. Similar Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-positive cells expressing Rhcg1 and NHE3b, but not NHE2, were identified in the yolk sac epithelium. Overall, our findings suggest that the mechanisms of JNa,in and Jamm by the dominant exchange epithelium at two distinct stages of early development are fundamentally different.

  17. Salinity-induced changes in gene expression from anterior and posterior gills of Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae) with implications for crustacean ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Mitchell, Reed T; Henry, Raymond P; Santos, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Decapods represent one of the most ecologically diverse taxonomic groups within crustaceans, making them ideal to study physiological processes like osmoregulation. However, prior studies have failed to consider the entire transcriptomic response of the gill - the primary organ responsible for ion transport - to changing salinity. Moreover, the molecular genetic differences between non-osmoregulatory and osmoregulatory gill types, as well as the hormonal basis of osmoregulation, remain underexplored. Here, we identified and characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via RNA-Seq in anterior (non-osmoregulatory) and posterior (osmoregulatory) gills during high to low salinity transfer in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, a well-studied model for crustacean osmoregulation. Overall, we confirmed previous expression patterns for individual ion transport genes and identified novel ones with salinity-mediated expression. Notable, novel DEGs among salinities and gill types for C. sapidus included anterior gills having higher expression of structural genes such as actin and cuticle proteins while posterior gills exhibit elevated expression of ion transport and energy-related genes, with the latter likely linked to ion transport. Potential targets among recovered DEGs for hormonal regulation of ion transport between salinities and gill types included neuropeptide Y and a KCTD16-like protein. Using publically available sequence data, constituents for a "core" gill transcriptome among decapods are presented, comprising genes involved in ion transport and energy conversion and consistent with salinity transfer experiments. Lastly, rarefication analyses lead us to recommend a modest number of sequence reads (~10-15M), but with increased biological replication, be utilized in future DEG analyses of crustaceans.

  18. Cellular localization of lead using an antibody-based detection system and enzyme activity changes in the gills and digestive gland of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Einsporn, Sonja; Bressling, Jana; Koehler, Angela

    2009-02-01

    Marine organisms are continuously exposed to heavy metals in their environment. Bivalve mollusks such as the blue mussel Mytilus edulis accumulate high levels of heavy metals effecting cellular homeostasis and functions. Lead (Pb) exposure (2.5 mg/L of lead (II) nitrate for 10 d) and depuration (10 d in clean seawater) experiments were conducted to study its intracellular fate in the gills and digestive gland of M. edulis. For this purpose, an antibody-based detection method for ultrastructural localization and a subcellular fractionation approach for chemical analysis of Pb were used. In addition, effects of Pb on enzyme activities involved in oxyradical scavenging, such as the conjugative enzyme glutathione-S-transferase and the antioxidative enzyme catalase, were determined. The ultrastructural studies showed that Pb was mainly detected in lysosomes of gill epithelial cells and digestive cells. Lead was also detected in cell nuclei and granular hemocytes. Higher metal concentrations were measured by chemical analysis in subcellular fractions of the gills compared to those of the digestive gland. Increased activities of glutathione-S-transferase were found in gills after exposure and remained elevated during the depuration period, whereas glutathione-S-transferase activity remained unaffected in the digestive gland. Catalase activities showed no changes after Pb exposure, neither in the gills nor in the digestive gland. We conclude that gill cells are major sites of uptake and accumulation for dissolved Pb and are involved in sequestration and detoxification of this metal in M. edulis.

  19. What is the most efficient respiratory organ for the loricariid air-breathing fish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, gills or stomach? A quantitative morphological study.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, André Luis; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach. Taken together, the surface area, the surface-to-volume ratio and the diffusion distance for O2 transfer from the respiratory medium to blood yield a greater diffusing capacity for gills than for the stomach, suggesting greater importance of aquatic respiration in this species. On the other hand, water breathing is energetically more expensive than breathing air. Under severe hypoxic conditions, O2 uptake by the stomach is more efficient than by the gills, although the stomach has a much lower diffusing capacity. Thus, P. anisitsi uses gills under normoxic conditions but the stomach may also support aerobic metabolism depending on environmental conditions.

  20. Identification of a crab gill FXYD2 protein and regulation of crab microsomal Na,K-ATPase activity by mammalian FXYD2 peptide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elias C C; Masui, Douglas C; Furriel, Rosa P; McNamara, John C; Barrabin, Hector; Scofano, Helena M; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Leone, Francisco A; Fontes, Carlos Frederico L

    2012-11-01

    This investigation discloses the recognition of an FXYD2 protein in a microsomal Na,K-ATPase preparation from the posterior gills of the blue crab, Callinectes danae, by a mammalian (rabbit) FXYD2 peptide specific antibody (γC(33)) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry techniques. This is the first demonstration of an invertebrate FXYD2 protein. The addition of exogenous pig FXYD2 peptide to the crab gill microsomal fraction stimulated Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous pig FXYD2 also considerably increased enzyme affinity for K(+), ATP and NH(4)(+). K(0.5) for Na(+) was unaffected. Exogenous pig FXYD2 increased the V(max) for stimulation of gill Na,K-ATPase activity by Na(+), K(+) and ATP, by 30% to 40%. The crab gill FXYD2 is phosphorylated by PKA, suggesting a regulatory function similar to that known for the mammalian enzyme. The PKA-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide stimulated the crab gill Na,K-ATPase activity by 80%, about 2-fold greater than did the non-phosphorylated peptide. Stimulation by the PKC-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide was minimal. These findings confirm the presence of an FXYD2 peptide in the crab gill Na,K-ATPase and demonstrate that this peptide plays an important role in regulating enzyme activity.

  1. Effect of cadmium on the extracellular Na⁺, K⁺, and Ca²⁺ in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Zhiwei; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the toxic effect of cadmium on extracellular Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus was determined with the technique of ion chromatograph. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the two factors (Cd(2+) treatment and time) and the interaction factor had significant effect on the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill. 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) significantly increased Ca(2+) level in the small intestine, but Ca(2+) level in the gill was significantly decreased by 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24, 48, and 72 h. Na(+) and K(+) level in the small intestine and gill was increased by 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at three time points, but increased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at a certain different time. In addition, Na(+) level was significantly decreased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24 or 48 h in the small intestine and gill. The results indicated that Cd(2+) played an important role in regulating the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill of goldfish C. auratus. A method was constructed to investigate the extracellular Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) in the tissues of gold fish with ion chromatography.

  2. Predicting fish acute toxicity using a fish gill cell line-based toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, Katrin; Knöbel, Melanie; Busser, Frans J M; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-15

    The OECD test guideline 203 for determination of fish acute toxicity requires substantial numbers of fish and uses death as an apical end point. One potential alternative are fish cell lines; however, several studies indicated that these appear up to several orders of magnitude less sensitive than fish. We developed a fish gill cell line-based (RTgill-W1) assay, using several measures to improve sensitivity. The optimized assay was applied to determine the toxicity of 35 organic chemicals, having a wide range of toxicity to fish, mode of action and physicochemical properties. We found a very good agreement between in vivo and in vitro effective concentrations. For up to 73% of the tested compounds, the difference between the two approaches was less than 5-fold, covering baseline toxicants but as well compounds with presumed specific modes of action, including reactivity, inhibition of acetylcholine esterase or uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Accounting for measured chemical concentrations eliminated two outliers, the hydrophobic 4-decylaniline and the volatile 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, with an outlier being operationally defined as a substance showing a more than 10-fold difference between in vivo/in vitro effect concentrations. Few outliers remained. The most striking were allyl alcohol (2700-fold), which likely needs to be metabolically activated, and permethrin (190-fold) and lindane (63-fold), compounds acting, respectively, on sodium and chloride channels in the brain of fish. We discuss further developments of this assay and suggest its use beyond predicting acute toxicity to fish, for example, as part of adverse outcome pathways to replace, reduce, or refine chronic fish tests.

  3. Histological evaluation of sodium percarbonate exposure on the gills of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Harris, James O; Landos, Matt; Deveney, Marty R

    2015-06-03

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a recurring problem in Australian rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farms and requires strategically timed, repeat treatments for effective management. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is permitted for use in Australia, with host safety margins based on the toxicity of acute exposures to hydrogen peroxide (HP), the active product released when SPC is added to water. The effects of exposure to HP released by SPC, of repeated doses and of doses exceeding 100 mg l-1 on rainbow trout are unknown. We exposed juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight: 30.5 ± 9 g) to repeated doses of 50, 150 and 250 mg l-1 SPC for 1 h on Days 1, 2, 7 and 8 of a treatment regime. The effect of SPC was assessed by histological evaluation of structural changes in gill tissue. Survival was 100% in all groups, but some fish exposed to 250 mg l-1 SPC displayed impaired swimming performance, and on Day 9 after the final treatment, oedema was present in 9.8% of lamella, which was significantly higher than the mean occurrence of 1.7, 4.2 and 1.3% in fish treated with 0, 50 and 150 mg l-1 SPC, respectively. These changes resolved within 24 h of the cessation of treatment. We conclude that SPC is safe to use on rainbow trout in doses of ≤150 mg l-1 at 17°C, however caution is advised at doses approaching 250 mg l-1. Water temperature, fish age, fish size and maturity, intensity of parasite infection and stocking density could alter the sensitivity of rainbow trout to SPC treatments.

  4. Zooplankton size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all zooplankton observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the zooplankton found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of zooplankton found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest zooplankton available; the mean size of zooplankton observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of zooplankton available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized zooplankton. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized zooplankton to selection for larger-sized zooplankton closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized zooplankton prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and

  5. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism.

  6. Laminar Dust Flames: A Program of Microgravity and Ground Based Studies at McGill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Lee, John

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of heterogeneous combustion mechanisms is required to improve utilization of solid fuels (e.g. coal), safe handling of combustible dusts in industry, and solid propulsion systems. The objective of the McGill University research program on dust combustion is to obtain a reliable set of data on basic combustion parameters for dust suspensions (i.e. laminar burning velocity, flame structure, quenching distance, flammability limits, etc.) over a range of particle sizes, dust concentrations, and types of fuel. This set of data then permits theoretical models to be validated and, when necessary, new models to be developed to describe the detailed reaction mechanisms and transport processes. Microgravity is essential to the generation of a uniform dust suspension of arbitrary particle size and concentration. When particles with a characteristic size on the order of tens of microns are suspended, they rapidly settle in a gravitational field. To maintain a particulate in suspension for time duration adequate to carry out combustion experiments invariably requires continuous convective flow in excess of the gravitational settling velocity (which is comparable with and can even exceed the dust laminar burning velocity). This makes the experiments turbulent in nature and thus renders it impossible to study laminar dust flames. Even for small particle sizes on the order of microns, a stable laminar dust flow can be maintained only for relatively low dust concentrations at normal gravity conditions. High dust loading leads to gravitational instability of the dust cloud and to the formation of recirculation cells in the dust suspension in a confined volume, or to the rapid sedimentation of the dense dust cloud, as a whole, in an unconfined volume. Many important solid fuels such as carbon and boron also have low laminar flame speeds (of the order of several centimeters per second). Convection that occurs in combustion products due to buoyancy disrupts the

  7. Patterns of interaction between Neotropical freshwater fishes and their gill Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana P; Araújo, Sabrina B L; Boeger, Walter A

    2014-02-01

    Using network analysis, we looked for broad patterns of distribution of Monogenoidea gill parasites on Neotropical freshwater fishes within a host phylogenetic framework. We analyzed a database of Monogenoidea parasitizing fishes from Neotropical rivers, from 23 watersheds, based on species descriptions published until 2011. Host-parasite interactions were organized into five matrices grouping species at different taxonomic levels. The network of interactions between host families and parasite genera was significantly modular and revealed that each fish order has a unique composition of parasite genera. Hence, interactions between lower taxa were analyzed separately for the largest fish orders (Perciformes, Siluriformes, and Characiformes). Networks tended to be loosely connected and organized in modules. Despite the putative high host specificity of monogenoids, some have a wider host range that includes distantly related host species. Among the hosts, the clade composed by the piranhas (Serrasalmus spp. and related species, Serrasalmidae) stands out in terms of parasite richness per host species, resulting in a more connected network. The history of the lineages of each host order within Neotropical freshwaters seems to have a great influence on the extent of parasite sharing. The observed modularity was influenced by both spatial structure and phylogenetic relatedness of species. In average, 37 % of modules of networks between host species and parasite genera were associated with a particular river basin and 63 % of modules were associated with a host family. Hence, spatial structure determines the co-occurrence of host and parasite species, but their evolutionary history is the main factor defining which interactions are possible.

  8. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane.

  9. Time, human being and mental health care: an introduction to Gilles Deleuze.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc

    2005-07-01

    The French philosopher, Gilles Deleuze, is emerging as one of the most important and influential philosophers of the 20th century, having published widely on philosophy, literature, language, psychoanalysis, art, politics, and cinema. However, because of the 'experimental' nature of certain works, combined with the manner in which he draws upon a variety of sources from various disciplines, his work can seem difficult, obscure, and even 'willfully obstructive'. In an attempt to resist such impressions, this paper will seek to provide an accessible introduction to Deleuze's work, and to begin to discuss how it can be employed to provide a significant critique and reconceptualization of the theoretical foundations and therapeutic practices of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing. In order to do this, the paper will focus upon Deleuze's masterwork, and the cornerstone to his philosophy as a whole, Difference and Repetition; in particular, it will discuss how his innovative and challenging account of time can be employed to provide a conception of human life as a 'continuity', rather than as a series of distinct 'moments' or 'events'. As well as discussing the manner in which his work can provide us with an understanding of how life is different and significant for each human being, this paper will also highlight the potential importance of Deleuze's work for logotherapy, for the recent 'turn' to 'narrative' as a psychotherapeutic approach and for contemporary mental health care's growing interest in 'social constructionism'. As such, this paper also seeks to stimulate further discussion and research into the importance and the relevance of Deleuze's work for the theory and practice of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing.

  10. Diversity of immune genes and associated gill microbes of European plaice Pleuronectes platessa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K. Mathias; Shama, Lisa N. S.; Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz

    2012-08-01

    Genetic variability of marine fish species is much higher than in most other vertebrates. Nevertheless, some species with large population sizes including flatfish such as European plaice Pleuronectes platessa show signs of population collapse and inbreeding. Taking plaice as a flagship example for fisheries-induced genetic changes also affecting the Wadden Sea, we determined the amount of genetic variability at antigen-presenting genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and its potential interaction with the microbiota associated to gill tissue using a next-generation parallel tag sequencing approach. Genetic variation at MHC class IIB genes was extremely large, with 97 alleles found in 40 fish from different age cohorts. Although a strong signal of positive selection was present (dN/dS = 4.01) and we found significantly higher allelic diversity in 0+ fish than in older age classes, the amount of genetic variation maintained within the population may not have exceeded neutral expectations derived from mitochondrial markers. Associated microbes revealed significant spatiotemporal structure with 0+ fish displaying the highest microbial diversity as well as the highest diversity of potentially pathogenic genera. Overall the correlation between MHC genotypes and bacterial abundance was weak, and only few alleles significantly correlated with certain bacterial genera. These associations all conferred susceptibility (i.e. presence of an allele correlated to higher number of bacteria), either suggesting age-dependent selection on common alleles or weak selection on resistance against these bacterial genera. Taken together, our data suggest that selection coefficients of balancing selection maintaining immunogenetic diversity may be relatively small in large marine populations. However, if population sizes are further reduced by overharvesting, the response to increasing balancing selection coefficients will be largely unpredictable and may also negatively

  11. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  12. Effects of exposure to multiple trace metals on biochemical, histological and ultrastructural features of gills of a freshwater fish, Channa punctata Bloch.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suwarna; Parvez, Suhel; Ansari, Rizwan Ahamd; Ali, Mehboob; Kaur, Manpreet; Hayat, Faisal; Ahmad, Firoz; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2008-08-11

    The trace metals are frequently encountered as mixtures of essential and non-essential elements. Therefore, evaluation of their toxic effects individually does not offer a realistic estimate of their impact on biological processes. We studied effects of a mixture of four essential and toxic metals (Cu, Cd, Fe and Ni) on biochemical and morphological characteristics of the gills of a biomarker freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch) using environmentally relevant concentrations. Fish were exposed to metal mixture through tank water for 7, 15 and 30 days. Biochemical studies as well as light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant metal exposure-induced alterations in gills. Besides ultastructural changes, activities of antioxidant enzymes such catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly altered in the gills of exposed fish. The reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly (p<0.001) decreased, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly (p<0.001) increased. The main alterations in general morphology of fish gills included spiking and fusion of secondary lamellae, formation of club-shaped filaments, and vacuolization and necrosis of filament epithelium in the interlamellar regions. SEM studies showed gradual increase of the density and apical surface area of the chloride cells and transformation of the surface structure of the pavement cells. The results of this study indicate adaptive as well a toxic responses in fish gills exposed to mixture of trace metals. Low concentrations of trace metal appear to compromise the antioxidant defense of gills. Lesions in the gill morphology caused by the effect of low concentrations of trace metals could lead to functional alterations and interference with fundamental processes such as maintenance of osmoregulation, gas exchange and xenobiotic metabolism in the exposed fish populations.

  13. Signal molecule changes in the gills and lungs of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, during the maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, F; Amelio, D; Icardo, J M; Chew, S F; Tota, B; Cerra, M C; Ip, Y K

    2015-01-30

    African lungfishes are obligate air breathers, with reduced gills and pulmonary breathing throughout their life. During the dry season they aestivate on land, with the collapse of secondary lamellae of their gills and the establishment of an exclusive aerial ventilation through the vascularization and expansion of their lungs. To date, the mechanisms underlining the respiratory organ remodeling in aestivating lungfishes are unknown. This study aimed to identify key switch components of the stress-induced signal transduction networks implicated in both rapid and medium-long term remodeling of the gills and lungs of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens during aestivation. Through immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting, the localization and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Akt, Hsp-90 and HIF-1α were evaluated in both gills and lungs exposed to three experimental conditions: freshwater (FW), 6 months of experimentally induced aestivation (6mAe), and 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation (6mAe6d). After 6mAe, the expression of NOS (p-eNOS antibody), Akt (p-Akt antibody), and Hsp-90 decreased in the gills, while NOS and Hsp-90 expression increased with Akt remained unchanged in the lungs. Upon 6mAe6d, NOS, Akt and Hsp-90 expression in the gills returned to the respective FW values. In the lungs of the aroused fish, NOS and Akt decreased to their respective FW levels, while Hsp-90 expression was enhanced with respect to aestivation. In both respiratory organs, the qualitative and quantitative patterns of HIF-1α expression correlated inversely to those of NOS. Overall, our findings suggest that the molecular components of the NOS/NO system changed in a tissue-specific manner in parallel with organ readjustment in the gills and lungs of P. annectens during aestivation and arousal.

  14. Gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Active transport of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P <0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test) less Hg (muscle and liver range 0.61--2.39 and 0.28--2.32 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively). In all reservoirs, liver Hg varied more among individuals than muscle Hg. Water chemistry was similar in all reservoirs. Fish from the three reservoirs did not differ significantly in gill ATPase activity, and a correlation between tissue Hg and Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was not evident.

  15. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1990-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  16. Timing and depositional environments of a Middle Pleistocene glaciation of northeast England: New evidence from Warren House Gill, County Durham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Roberts, D. H.; Bridgland, D. R.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Riding, J. B.; Demarchi, B.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Pawley, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    At various times during the Quaternary, north-eastern England was a zone of confluence between dynamic ice lobes sourced from the Pennines, northern Scotland, the Cheviots, and Scandinavia. The region thus has some of the most complex exposures of Middle to Late Pleistocene sediments in Britain, with both interglacial and glacial sediments deposited in terrestrial and marine settings. We investigated sedimentary sequences exposed on the coastline of County Durham at Warren House Gill, and present a new model of British and Fennoscandian Ice Sheet interaction in the North Sea Basin during the Middle Pleistocene. The stratigraphy at Warren House Gill consists of a lower diamicton and upper estuarine sediments, both part of the Warren House Formation. They are separated from the overlying Weichselian Blackhall and Horden tills by a substantial unconformity. The lower diamicton of the Warren House Formation is re-interpreted here as an MIS 8 to 12 glaciomarine deposit containing ice-rafted lithics from north-eastern Scotland and the northeast North Sea, and is renamed the 'Ash Gill Member'. It is dated by lithological comparison to the Easington Raised Beach, Middle Pleistocene Amino Acid Racemisation values, and indirectly by optically stimulated luminescence. The overlying shallow subaqueous sediments were deposited in an estuarine environment by suspension settling and bottom current activity. They are named the 'Whitesides Member', and form the uppermost member of the Warren House Formation. During glaciation, ice-rafted material was deposited in a marine embayment. There is no evidence of a grounded, onshore Scandinavian ice sheet in County Durham during MIS 6, which has long been held as the accepted stratigraphy. This has major implications for the currently accepted British Quaternary Stratigraphy. Combined with recent work on the Middle Pleistocene North Sea Drift from Norfolk, which is now suggested to have been deposited by a Scottish ice sheet, the presence

  17. Comparative transcriptomics and gene expression in larval tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) gill and lung tissues as revealed by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Eo, Soo Hyung; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Hale, Matthew C; Marra, Nicholas J; Ruhl, Joseph D; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2012-01-25

    Biologists are beginning to unravel the complexities of gene expression in model organisms by studying the transcriptome, the complement of genes that are transcribed in a given tissue. It is unclear, however, if findings from model systems apply to non-model organisms because of environmental effects on gene expression. Furthermore, there have been few efforts to quantify how transcriptome or gene expression varies across individuals and across tissues in natural environments. Herein, we describe transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in lung and gill tissue of three larval tiger salamanders. We do so with a hierarchical experimental design that captures variation in expression among genes, among tissues, and among individuals. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we produced high-quality sequence data of 59 megabases and assembled ~200,000 reads into 19,501 contigs. These contigs BLASTed to 3,599 transcripts, of which 721 were expressed in both tissues, 1,668 were unique to gill, and 1,210 unique to lung. Our data showed tissue-specific patterns in gene expression level with variation among transcripts and individuals. We identified genes and gene ontology terms related to respiration and compared their relative expression levels between gill and lung tissues. We also found evidence of exogenous genes associated with larval salamanders, and we identified ~1400 potential molecular markers (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms) that are associated with expressed genes. Given the tissue-specific differences we observed in transcriptomes, these data reinforce the idea that changes in gene expression serve as a primary mechanism underlying phenotypic plasticity.

  18. Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, A.M.; Christensen, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in teleost fishes is involved in ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. We have developed and validated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific to the NKA alpha1a and alpha1b protein isoforms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus), and used western blots and immunohistochemistry to characterize their size, abundance and localization. The relative molecular mass of NKA alpha1a is slightly less than that for NKA beta1b. The abundance of gill NKA alpha1a was high in freshwater and became nearly undetectable after seawater acclimation. NKA alpha1b was present in small amounts in freshwater and increased 13-fold after seawater acclimation. Both NKA isoforms were detected only in chloride cells. NKA alpha1a was located in both filamental and lamellar chloride cells in freshwater, whereas in seawater it was present only as a faint background in filamental chloride cells. In freshwater, NKA alpha1b was found in a small number of filamental chloride cells, and after seawater acclimation it was found in all chloride cells on the filament and lamellae. Double simultaneous immunofluorescence indicated that NKA alpha1a and alpha1b are located in different chloride cells in freshwater. In many chloride cells in seawater, NKA alpha1b was present in greater amounts in the subapical region than elsewhere in the cell. The combined patterns in abundance and immunolocalization of these two isoforms can explain the salinity-related changes in total NKA and chloride cell abundance. The results indicate that there is a freshwater and a seawater isoform of NKA alpha-subunit in the gills of Atlantic salmon and that they are present in distinct chloride cells.

  19. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2013-07-01

    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  1. Amoeba-like infections in cultured marine fishes: systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and gill disease associated with Paramoeba sp. in sea bream Sparus aurata L. from Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanassopoulou, F; Cawthorn, R; Lytra, K

    2002-10-01

    Two cases of Amoeba-like infections in cultured warmwater marine fish are described, an unusual systemic infection in pompano Trachinotus falcatus L. from Singapore and a gill infection in Mediterranean sea bream Sparus aurata L. All pompano showed marked systemic infection of Amoeba-like parasites in gills, kidney, intestine, pancreas and spleen. The most severe lesions were in the gills and renal tissue with minimal tissue reaction in other organs.

  2. Gill-specific (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity and α-subunit mRNA expression during low-salinity acclimation of the ornate blue crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco A; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério O; Azevedo, Sergio V; Pinto, Marcelo R; McNamara, John C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluate (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, and protein and gene expression of the α-subunit in posterior gills 6 and 7 of Callinectes ornatus, a euryhaline crab, during a 10-day acclimation period from seawater (33‰ S) to low salinity (21‰ S). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity decreased within 1h after transfer to 21‰ S, values recovering by 24h and attaining a maximum of ≈180 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) after 10 days (≈2.5-fold increase). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ≈1.5-fold greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, independently of salinity. Relative expression of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit mRNA increased in both gills within 1- to 2-h exposure to low salinity, reaching an ≈8-fold maximum after 24-h exposure, decreasing slightly by 10 days acclimation to low salinity. This increase in α-subunit mRNA expression may underpin the increased (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity seen after 10 days acclimation to low salinity. Enzyme affinity for ATP was greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, in contrast to ouabain affinity that was greater in gill 7. Western blotting analysis identified a single immunoreactive band against the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit with an Mr of ≈105 kDa, independently of gill number and low salinity acclimation. Despite these differences, gills 6 and 7 appear to perform similar functions in salt uptake from the dilute medium. The partial cDNA sequence obtained for the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase of C. ornatus (GenBank deposit KF056804) showed 97 to 91% identities with similar sequences from other portunid crab gills. The regulation of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity during acclimation to low salinity is discussed.

  3. The Effects of Copper and Copper Blocking Agents on Gill Mitochondrial O2 Utilization of Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Shanika; McCoy, Kwanza; Catapane, Edward J.; Carroll, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    While essential in trace amounts, excess copper is toxic to cells and tissues. Copper is a major aquatic pollutant. Previously, our lab demonstrated that tissues of the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea virginica readily accumulated copper and other metals from their surrounding environment. In this study we showed that O2 consumption in isolated gill mitochondria of C. virginica was impaired by in vitro copper additions and that copper’s deleterious effects on mitochondria respiration could be blocked by the presence of the membrane channel blocker Diltiazam. PMID:21841976

  4. Report of a cooperative venture between the China Medical University library and the medical library of McGill University.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S; Xiong, D Z

    1988-01-01

    In March/April 1986, the medical library at McGill University in Montreal, Canada signed a cooperative agreement with the China Medical University (CMU) Library in Shenyang, China. This paper analyzes the operations of the CMU library within the context of the Chinese system of medical education, health care delivery, and medical librarianship. The CMU library is described in terms of collections, cataloging procedures, filing, public services (reference, bibliographic instruction, circulation, copy service), interlibrary loans, networking, conservation of materials, and personnel. Some interesting comparisons are made between the two libraries with respect to holdings, services provided, and training of staff. The plans for future cooperation are outlined. PMID:3370377

  5. The Developmental/Health Framework within the McGill Model of Nursing: "laws of nature" guiding whole person care.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laurie N; Gottlieb, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The Developmental/Health Framework (DHFW) within the McGill Model of Nursing (MMN) provides the foundational knowledge consistent with Nightingale's vision of working with the "laws of nature" to promote health and healing. The DHFW describes the processes, principles, and mechanisms rooted in the biological, developmental, and nursing sciences that are required to provide "whole person" care. The MMN provides a model of nursing based on a strengths-based approach within a collaborative partnership relationship. The DHFW has been used to modify the MMN to create a universal and comprehensive approach to nursing practice.

  6. First data on the parasites of Hoplias aimara (Characiformes): description of two new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Juliana; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José Luis

    2015-06-01

    The first data on the parasites of the giant trahira, Hoplias aimara (Characiformes: Erythrinidae), a little known, but popular fish for sport angling, are provided. In H. aimara from the Xingu River in Brazil, two new species of gill monogeneans of the family Dactylogyridae were found and their description is provided herein. Urocleidoides aimarai n. sp. differs from all 18 congeners by the presence of a large accessory piece of the male copulatory organ and based by morphology of anchors. Urocleidoides xinguensis n. sp. is distinguished by unique combination of copulatory complex and haptoral structures.

  7. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  8. Thyroid status alters gill ionic metabolism and chloride cell morphology as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short and long term in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Prasad, G; Sunny, F; Oommen, O V

    2007-12-01

    Gill is the main organ of osmotic regulation in teleosts and chloride cells are the sites of ion transport across gill epithelium. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the regulation of osmotic balance in teleosts also. Treatment with 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU) inhibited the membrane bound enzyme Na+K+ ATPase in the gill while triiodothyronine (T3) injection stimulated it in a short-term in vivo study in the teleost Anabas testudineus. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were also decreased in the 6-PTU treated fish and the T3 treatment increased their concentrations in the gill lamellae. The gill morphology also changed according to the thyroid status in the long term study. 6-PTU treatment altered the typical serrated morphology of the gill lamellae, while the T3 treatment reversed it. T3 injection increased the density of pavement and chloride cells as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that physiological status of the thyroid influences gill Na+ pump activity and chloride cell morphological changes. Further, the study suggests a regulatory role of T3 on gill ions (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), Na+K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity and the different gill cell types in A. testudineus.

  9. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Raymond P.; Lucu, Čedomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail. PMID:23162474

  10. Bioconcentration of zinc and its effect on the biochemical constituents of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of β-sheet structure.

  11. Changes of paralytic shellfish toxins in gills and digestive glands of the cockle Cerastoderma edule under post-bloom natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sara T; Vale, Carlos; Raimundo, Joana; Matias, Domitília; Botelho, Maria João

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of the paralytic shellfish toxins C1+2, C3+4, GTX5, GTX6, dcGTX2+3, dcSTX, dcNEO, GTX2+3, GTX1+4, STX and NEO were determined by LC-FLD in composite samples of digestive glands and gills of Cerastoderma edule cockle. The specimens were sampled in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal, under natural depuration conditions (days 0, 8, 12, 14, 19, 21 and 25) after exposure to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum. Individual paralytic shellfish toxins indicated different pathways of elimination and biotransformation in digestive gland and gills. Toxin concentrations in gills were lower than in digestive gland. Most of the quantified toxins in digestive gland decreased during the 25 days of observation according to negative exponential curves, and only GTX5, GTX6 and NEO showed slight irregularities with time. Concentrations of C1+2, C3+4 and dcGTX2+3 in gills decreased progressively, however GTX5, GTX6 and dcSTX showed pronounced increases. Higher concentrations of those toxins in days 8 and 12 in comparison to the initial value (day 0) indicate conversion of other toxins into GTX5, GTX6 and dcSTX during those periods. It appears that inter-conversion of toxins occurs as G. catenatum cells are retained in gills before being transferred to other compartments.

  12. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  13. Hypoxia effects on gill surface area and blood oxygen-carrying capacity of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-08-01

    Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina, are common residents of shallow-water seagrass habitats that experience natural cycles of severe hypoxia during summer months. We hypothesized that stingrays exposed to hypoxic episodes would improve their hypoxia tolerance by increasing branchial surface area and altering blood oxygen-carrying capacity. To this end, we compared critical oxygen minimum, gill morphology, and hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in a control group of Atlantic stingrays held at continuous oxygen saturations of 80-90% (≥5.5 mg/l), to treatment groups exposed to a 7-h hypoxic interval at 55% (~4.0 mg/l), or 30% oxygen saturation (~2.0 mg/l). Stingrays in hypoxic treatment groups significantly improved their hypoxia tolerance. Critical oxygen minimum values fell from 0.7 ± 0.11 mg/l in control fish to 0.4 ± 0.05 and 0.4 ± 0.06 mg/l in the 55 and 30% saturation treatment groups, respectively. Mass-specific gill surface area between control fish and the 30% saturation treatment group increased by 1.7-fold, from 85 to 142 mm(2)/g. Although stingrays did not show an increase in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels, production of more efficient hemoglobin isoforms could not be ruled out. An increase in hypoxia tolerance allows Atlantic stingrays to forage for longer times and across a wide range of hypoxic habitats that are less accessible to predators and competitors.

  14. The gill microbiota of invasive and indigenous Spondylus oysters from the Mediterranean Sea and northern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roterman, Yahala Rina; Benayahu, Yehuda; Reshef, Lea; Gophna, Uri

    2015-12-01

    The gill tissue of bivalve mollusks hosts rich symbiotic microbial communities that may contribute to the animal's metabolism. Spondylus spinosus is an invasive oyster that has become highly abundant along the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) coastline, but is scarce in the northern Red Sea (NRS), its indigenous region. The composition and seasonal dynamics of the gill microbial communities of S. spinosus were examined in both regions, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Additionally, two Red Sea Spondylus species, S. avramsingeri and S. pickeringae, were investigated using the same approach. Significant differences were found between microbial communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the three NRS species. Bacteria from the family Hahellaceae dominated the communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the NRS S. avramsingeri, oysters that are dominant in their habitat, yet were rare in the NRS S. spinosus and S. pickeringae, which are only seldom encountered. Bacterial communities of EMS S. spinosus were more similar to those of NRS S. spinosus than to those of other NRS Spondylus species, indicating that either part of the microbiota had co-invaded with their host into the Mediterranean Sea, or that there are species-specific selective constraints on microbial composition.

  15. Fyke-net and gill-net size selectivities for yellow perch in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, J.A.; Johnson, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    We estimated a fyke-net selectivity function for yellow perch Perca flavescens in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, by comparing length-frequency distributions of yellow perch captured in fyke nets with different mesh sizes in 1986. Using a length--girth relationship for Green Bay yellow perch, we expressed selectivity as the ratio of girth (G) to effective mesh perimeter (P), which was 5a??7% less than nominal mesh perimeter. Then, fitting an existing gill-net selectivity function to the Green Bay yellow perch fishery, we found fyke-net and gill-net selectivities were similar, with similar G /P ratios, but fyke nets had smaller effective mesh perimeters and thus were more efficient at capturing smaller yellow perch for any given mesh size, The derived fyke-net selectivity function can be used to determine mesh sizes that minimize the sublegal catch of yellow perch in this fishery and could be applied to entrapment gear in other yellow perch fisheries, given data on the lengtha??girth relationships and effective mesh perimeters.

  16. Surface ultrastructure of the gills of the mullets Mugil curema, M. liza and M. platanus (Mugilidae, Pisces).

    PubMed

    Eiras-Stofella, D R; Charvet-Almeida, P; Fanta, E; Vianna, A C

    2001-02-01

    Mugil curema, M. liza, and M. platanus were collected from the southeastern and southern coast of Brazil. The second gill arches were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and histology. The highest density of chloride and mucus-secreting cells was observed in the gill filaments of M. liza and M. platanus. Spines are scarce and were found only in the pharyngeal region of M. curema. The dorsal angle of curvature of the simple projections is most reduced in the rakers of M. liza and M. platanus. The raker borderline on the internal side of the arches of M. curema has grooves that do not occur in the other two species. On the external side of the branchial arches, the borders of the rakers of M. liza and M. platanus are smooth. The shape of the rakers is characteristic for each species: in M. curema, it resembles the letter "D"; in M. liza, it is trapezoidal, and in M. platanus, it is triangular. Thus there is a morphologic similarity between M. liza and M. platanus, and both differ from M. curema. All three species show elongated and extremely elaborated rakers that are placed next to each other and turned toward the opercular cavity. There are few taste buds and only several mucus-secreting cells along the whole pharyngeal region. These characteristics suggest that these species do not select food chemically but obtain it mechanically with the rakers and aggregate it with mucus.

  17. From Osler's Library to the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Osler Library of the History of Medicine was opened in 1929 at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), arguably McGill's and Canada's most famous doctor at the time, had bequeathed his magnificent library of almost 8,000 historical works in medicine and, to a lesser extent, science and literature to the university. Under the 30-year reign of its first librarian, Dr. W W. Francis, the Osler Library became famous for its rare books and for its connection with Sir William. Since the 1950s, however, the library has pursued an active collection development policy for both primary and secondary material that has taken it far beyond Osler's original gift. The library has grown in both the size and scope of its holdings and the services it offers to scholars and students of the history of medicine. These have made the Osler Library a major resource centre for studies in the history of the health sciences. This article looks at the Osler Library today in the hopes of making the range of its collections and services better known to the Canadian and international communities.

  18. [Structural changes in mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus offspring under different salinities].

    PubMed

    Ou, You-Jun; Liu, Ru-Jian; Li, Jia-Er; Cao, Shou-Hua

    2013-08-01

    Distribution and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondrion-rich cells in gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus under different salinities (5, 20, and 30) were examined by light and transmission electron micrograph. Results indicated that the mitochondrion-rich cells were mainly present on the base of the gill filaments and branchial leaflets, and the volume and quantity of mitochondrion-rich cells increased with salinity. All three salinity groups had apical crypts, which were constituted by the mitochondrion-rich cells, pavement cells and accessory cells. Mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 group had large apical membranes with developed microridges and shallow apical crypts. Apical crypts in the salinity 20 and 30 groups had small apical membranes and undeveloped microridges, and were embolic obviously. Cytoplasm of mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 and 30 groups developed tubular systems and abundant cristae mitochondria. The tubular system of the salinity 20 group was non-spatially constant and had loose structure. Part of the tubular system contracted into a pearl bubble structure and shared rough endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion-rich cells in Trachinotus ovatus under salinities 5 and 20 appeared both seawater-type's and freshwater-type's features, and those in salinity 30 had typical characteristics as seawater-type MR cells. Structural changes of mitochondrion-rich cells were suited to different osmotic pressure.

  19. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  20. Cytotoxicity assessment of four pharmaceutical compounds on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) haemocytes, gill and digestive gland primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Quinn, Brian; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are considered the new environmental pollutants but at present few studies have evaluated their ecotoxicity on aquatic invertebrates. This study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of four common drugs, namely atenolol (ATL), carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac (DCF) and gemfibrozil (GEM), on three different cell typologies from the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): haemocytes, gill and digestive gland cells. Results obtained by the Trypan blue exclusion test revealed that exposure to increasing concentrations (0.001; 0.01; 0.1; 1 and 10 mg L(-1)) of CBZ, DCF and GEM were able to significantly decrease the viability of each cell type, while the MTT (3(4,5-dimethyl-2thiazholyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay highlighted only a slight reduction of mitochondrial activity of gill and digestive gland cells. Overall, DCF was the most cytotoxic drug for zebra mussel cells, followed by GEM, CBZ, while ATL has not a noteworthy toxic potential. Our preliminary results lay the groundwork for further in vitro evaluations, which will allow a better definition of the potential toxicity of these drugs.

  1. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    PubMed

    Shiogiri, Natália S; Paulino, Marcelo G; Carraschi, Silvia P; Baraldi, Flávia G; da Cruz, Claudinei; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of Roundup(®) Ready (RR) in Piaractus mesopotamicus, and evaluate the effects on the morphology of the gills and liver of exposed surviving fish. Fish were exposed to 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5mgL(-1) of glyphosate, and the LC(50);48h was estimated at 3.74±0.2mgL(-1). Gill histopathology was rare, and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme did not change, suggesting normal function. However, the damage to the liver was classified as moderate to severe. Cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid accumulation, nuclear and cellular membrane alterations and glycogen depletion were found in the liver, suggesting a reduction in the liver function. The glyphosate in the RR formulation was classified as moderately toxic for P. mesopotamicus, and the severe damage in the liver may affect the detoxification and/or tissue repair process and contribute to fish death.

  2. The McGill Pain Questionnaire in Amharic: Zwai Health Center patients' reports on the experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Hiwot, Mismay G; Arega, Adefris; Molla, Mesfin; Samson, S; Seyoum, Nebyou; Ressom, Shewangizaw; Worku, Solomon; Mulatu, Mesfin; Egale, Tewedros

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time an Amharic translation of the McGill Pain Questionnaire developed by Melzack and used in many countries around the world. It allows for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the intensity, location, and nature of experienced pain, as well as conditions that relieve pain. Data collected from one hundred patients attending the Zwai Health Center indicated that 81% reported pain at the time, one-quarter of whom were in severe pain. The most commonly chosen descriptors were: burning, stabbing, sore, gnawing, aching, and cramping. Descriptors were often associated with certain diagnoses: burning with gastrointestinal problems, stabbing with respiratory diseases, and gnawing or aching with myalgia/neuralgia. Approximately 40% of those in pain had previously sought relief from a clinic or pharmacy and were attending the center because the pain persisted. Analgesics were more likely to be prescribed for those in mild pain, while other medication without analgesics were prescribed for those in severe pain. The McGill Pain Questionnaire--Amharic (MPQ-Am) could be a useful tool for future studies of illness-specific pain, and of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for pain management.

  3. DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis during anoxic stress and aerobic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodskova, Valentina V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    Anoxia-induced DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was assessed with the alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). The alkaline comet assay method for detecting DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in individual cells. DNA damage was determened in the scallops ( M. yessoensis) gill cells. The scallops were exposed to air for 8 h showing a clear increase in the levels of DNA damage. After the air exposure, M. yessoensis were re-submersed for a period of 12 h, leading values to return to a pre-aerial exposure level. Control animals were kept immersed during the whole period. The resulting data demonstrate that natural influences, such as oxygen depletion (anoxia) in seawater, can be responsible for the induction of DNA damage. If the scallops were re-immersed in oxic conditions, the anoxically induced breaks were repaired. The main mechanisms influencing the integrity of the DNA structure are discussed in this paper.

  4. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  5. Keeping the fire burning: Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the one of the world's leading physicians during the final third of the 19th century. Rewarded in 1882 with the creation of the first chair in the diseases of the nervous system, he was extremely successful at recruiting loyal and talented students. Charcot himself never produced a general treatise on hysteria, but instead encouraged his pupils to write their own books. Here, we describe how the work on hysteria of Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet was closely associated with Charcot, and how they remained faithful to their mentor. We will highlight the unusual personality of G. Gilles de la Tourette and the tragic end to his life, the exceptional artistic talent of P. Richer (writer and painter of his magnificently illustrated thesis), the prolific writing capacity of C. Féré (bearing witness to his broad fields of interest) and A. Binet (blessed with an extraordinary capacity for work, and author of The Psychology of Reasoning, before presenting his metric scale of intelligence).

  6. Heavy metals distribution in muscle, liver, kidney and gill of European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Italian Rivers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Brizio, P; Gavinelli, S; Pellegrino, M; Scanzio, T; Guarise, S; Benedetto, A; Abete, M C

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in freshwaters has direct consequences to man and ecosystem. Thus, in this study, the concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and chromium in organs of the predator European catfish (Silurus glanis) were investigated. Samples were collected annually in five sites covering the area of the Po River (North Italy) between 2007 and 2009. Metals were differently distributed in the various organs, the highest concentrations of Hg were found in muscle and liver, Cd in kidney, Pb in gill and liver, as in muscle, and of Cr in gill and liver. Our survey found Hg exceeding the Maximum Levels (MLs) of 0.5 ppm in 18% of samples, while Pb and Cd were lower than the MLs set by European regulations in muscle tissues (1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC). Hg concentrations were significantly related to sampling stations studied, according to the presence of many industrial activities in the catchment area of Bormida and Tanaro Rivers. The finding that Hg did not fit food fish legislation limits indicated that S. glanis flesh might not be utilised for human consumption. A close monitoring of metals pollution is strongly recommended especially in piscivorous fish, cause their bioaccumulation capacity.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Henneguya bicaudi n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting gills of Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, Henneguya bicaudi n. sp. infecting gills of Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India, has been described on the basis of myxospore morphology and partial amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. The pseudocysts of H. bicaudi n. sp. were located within the gill filament, whitish with round to irregular outer margin and 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter, 3-4 pseudocysts each containing about 50-100 myxospores were detected per gill. Mature myxospores were oblongate, 21.0 × 6.2 μm had a caudal appendage bifurcating into two thin thread-like branches starting posterior to middle of its length. The two equal polar capsules were 3.14 × 2.02 μm. The present species was compared morphologically with 21 species of the genus Henneguya infecting fresh water fishes in India and related geographical area. H. bicaudi n. sp. differed in having a peculiar oblongate shape and size of the myxospore, equal polar capsules, and also by the location of the point of bifurcation of the caudal appendage. 18S rDNA sequences of H. bicaudi n. sp. obtained revealed 96% homogeneity with H. pseudorhinogobi (Kageyama et al., Fish Sci 75:657-663, 2009) infecting gill filaments of Rhinogobius sp. (Rutter, PANS Philad 56-90, 1897) in Japan. The intensity of infection was determined by the gill pseudocyst index (GPI) based on the number of countable pseudocysts by stereo zoom trinocular microscopy per gill (on one side).

  8. V-H+ -ATPase translocation during blood alkalosis in dogfish gills: interaction with carbonic anhydrase and involvement in the postfeeding alkaline tide.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Wood, Chris M; Goss, Greg G

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the involvement of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in mediating V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane in gills of alkalotic Squalus acanthias. Immunolabeling revealed that CA is localized in the same cells as V-H(+)-ATPase. Blood plasma from dogfish injected with acetazolamide [30 mg/kg at time (t) = 0 and 6 h] and infused with NaHCO(3) for 12 h (1,000 microeq.kg(-1).h(-1)) had significantly higher plasma HCO(3)(-) concentration than fish that were infused with NaHCO(3) alone (28.72 +/- 0.41 vs. 6.57 +/- 2.47 mmol/l, n = 3), whereas blood pH was similar in both treatments (8.03 +/- 0.11 vs. 8.04 +/- 0.11 pH units at t = 12 h). CA inhibition impaired V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane, as estimated from immunolabeled gill sections and Western blotting on gill cell membranes (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.00 +/- 0.28 arbitrary units, n = 3; P < 0.05). We investigated V-H(+)-ATPase translocation during a postfeeding alkalosis ("alkaline tide"). Gill samples were taken 24-26 h after dogfish were fed to satiety in a natural-like feeding regime. Immunolabeled gill sections revealed that V-H(+)-ATPase translocated to the basolateral membrane in the postfed fish. Confirming this result, V-H(+)-ATPase abundance was twofold higher in gill cell membranes of the postfed fish than in fasted fish (n = 4-5; P < 0.05). These results indicate that 1) intracellular H(+) or HCO(3)(-) produced by CA (and not blood pH or HCO(3)(-)) is likely the stimulus that triggers the V-H(+)-ATPase translocation into the basolateral membrane in alkalotic fish and 2) V-H(+)-ATPase translocation is important for enhanced HCO(3)(-) secretion during a naturally occurring postfeeding alkalosis.

  9. Epithelial remodeling and claudin mRNA abundance in the gill and kidney of puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) acclimated to altered environmental ion levels.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Nicole M; Bui, Phuong; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Kelly, Scott P

    2011-02-01

    In water of varying ion content, the gills and kidney of fishes contribute significantly to the maintenance of salt and water balance. However, little is known about the molecular architecture of the tight junction (TJ) complex and the regulation of paracellular permeability characteristics in these tissues. In the current studies, puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), seawater (SW) or ion-poor freshwater (IPW) conditions. Following acclimation, alterations in systemic endpoints of hydromineral status were examined in conjunction with changes in gill and kidney epithelia morphology/morphometrics, as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. T. biocellatus were able to maintain endpoints of hydromineral status within relatively tight limits across the broad range of water ion content examined. Both gill and kidney tissue exhibited substantial alterations in morphology as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. These responses were particularly pronounced when comparing fish acclimated to SW versus those acclimated to IPW. TEM observations of IPW-acclimated fish gills revealed the presence of cells that exhibited the typical characteristics of gill mitochondria-rich cells (e.g. voluminous, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive, exposed to the external environment at the apical surface), but were not mitochondria-rich. To our knowledge, this type of cell has not previously been described in hyperosmoregulating fish gills. Furthermore, modifications in the morphometrics and claudin mRNA abundance of kidney tissue support the notion that spatial alterations in claudin TJ proteins along the nephron of fishes will likely play an important role in the regulation of salt and water balance in these organisms.

  10. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals. PMID:26820139

  11. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (<1 h) experimental gill Zn accumulation and predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  12. Early genotoxic effects in gill cells and haemocytes of Dreissena polymorpha exposed to cadmium, B[a]P and a combination of B[a]P and Cd.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Arini, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2011-07-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd on the zebra mussel, an important freshwater sentinel organism, and to determine the stability of DNA damage in gill cells and haemocytes. The oxidative DNA damage and the co-genotoxicity of Cd in combination with B[a]P were investigated. We measured DNA damage in haemocytes and gill cells of zebra mussels exposed for 11 days to a constant concentration of Cd (10μg/L), B[a]P (10μg/L) or the two combined chemicals (10μg/L+1μg/L). Enzymatic dissociation of gills with dispase gave the lower percentage DNA in tail, compared with collagenase/dispase or collagenase. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of mussels exposed to CdCl(2) or CdCl(2)+B[a]P increased in a time-dependent manner indicating that both exposures were effective. Cd (10μg/L) is genotoxic only during the first 3 days of exposure in gill cells, while in haemocytes the genotoxicity of Cd was observed later. B[a]P (10μg/L) induced an early increase of DNA damage in gill cells (after 10h and 1 day), while in both gill cells and haemocytes, B[a]P caused a marked increase of DNA damage after 3 days of exposure. The Cd+B[a]P mixture decreased the DNA-damaging effect of Cd and B[a]P in both cell types. Cd induced an increase of DNA damage in Fpg-treated slides, indicating that Cd contributed to oxidative DNA damage. Cadmium induced a cytogenetic effect in gill cells, assessed by the number of micronuclei, throughout the duration of the exposure, while B[a]P did not induce any cytogenetic effect. B[a]P, Cd and Cd+B[a]P induced a transient increase in the number of bi-nucleated cells. Our data clearly show that gills are more sensitive to Cd and B[a]P, which makes them more suitable for future bio-monitoring studies.

  13. The hematopoiesis in gill and its role in the immune response of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas against secondary challenge with Vibrio splendidus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqun; Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Yi, Qilin; Jiang, Shuai; Jia, Zhihao; Du, Xinyu; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidences have demonstrated that the invertebrate gill is a predominant tissue participating in the immune response during pathogen challenge. In the present study, the hematopoiesis and immune activities in gill of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated. Stem-like cells with big nuclei and thin cytoplasm were found in the tubules of gill filaments, where DNA synthesis is active and hemocytes production are exuberant. The oysters primarily stimulated by formaldehyde-killed Vibrio splendidus exhibited stronger immune responses and enhanced cell regeneration in gill when they encountered the secondary challenge of live V. splendidus. After the secondary stimulation with V. splendidus, the expression levels of CgClec-4 and CgIFN in the gill of oysters pre-stimulated with formaldehyde-killed V. splendidus were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the oysters pre-stimulated with filter-sterilized (0.22 μm pore size) sea water, while the expression level of CgIL-17 was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the protein expression level of hematopoietic transcription factor CgGATA3 and immune-related protein CgEcSOD in gill increased apparently after the secondary challenge with V. splendidus. ROS production was also enhanced (p < 0.05) at 6 h and 24 h after the secondary challenge. The phagocytic rate in gill of oysters pre-stimulated with formaldehyde-killed V. splendidus was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 6 h after the secondary challenge with live V. splendidus, showing faster response than that pre-stimulated with filter-sterilized sea water. These results collectively showed that the immune parameters in gill were apparently enhanced after secondary challenge with live V. splendidus, indicating that hematopoiesis might participate in immune priming in Pacific oyster C. gigas.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and gill lesions in Rasbora caverii, an indigenous fish inhabiting rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijeyaratne, W M D N; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2006-10-01

    The present study was aimed at applying condition factor (CF), brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and gill histology as biomarkers for detecting possible exposure/effect induced by pesticides in fish residing rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka. Biomarkers of an indigenous fish, Rasbora caverii collected from five sampling sites including canals near rice fields, a river and a reservoir (the reference site) were evaluated at four sampling stages covering pesticide application periods during rice cultivation season in 2004. Results indicated that CF of the fish did not show significant alterations regardless of the sampling sites or sampling stages. Site specific differences in AChE activities of the fish were not evident either prior to application of pesticides or at 7 days after Paraquat application to the rice fields. Two days after the application of a mixture of Fenthion and Phenthoate to the rice fields, AChE activity of the fish collected from canals near rice fields was significantly depressed (65-75%) compared to the fish in the reference site. The activities remain depressed to 50-56% even at 65 days after the insecticides application. Laboratory studies showed that prior exposure of R. caverii to Paraquat (2 microg l(-1), 7 days) enhanced the extent of inhibition of brain AChE activity induced by Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) or a mixture of Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) and Phenthoate (5 microg l(-1)). Gills of fish collected from canals near rice fields exhibited abnormal multiple divisions at the tips of some secondary lamellae in addition to hyperplasia, hypertrophy and club shaped deformities. Results indicate that application of pesticides in rice culture could manifest a threat to native fish populations residing rice field associated waterbodies. The response of brain AChE and histological changes in the gills of R. caverii allowed differentiating sampling sites after insecticide applications to the rice fields. Hence, R. caverii may be

  15. In vivo exposure of the marine clam Ruditapes philippinarum to zinc oxide nanoparticles: responses in gills, digestive gland and haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Marisa, Ilaria; Matozzo, Valerio; Munari, Marco; Binelli, Andrea; Parolini, Marco; Martucci, Alessandro; Franceschinis, Erica; Brianese, Nicola; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Potential nanoparticle (NP) toxicity poses a growing concern in marine coastal environments. Among NPs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are widely used in many common products that ultimately become deposited in coastal habitats from multiple non-point sources. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of nZnO in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Animals were exposed to nZnO (1 and 10 μg/L) and ZnCl2 (10 μg/L) for 7 days. ZnCl2 was used to compare the effects of the NPs to those of Zn(2+) and to ascertain whether nZnO toxicity is attributable to the release of ions into the aquatic medium. At differing time intervals during the exposure, several biochemical and cellular responses were evaluated in the clam gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph. The results showed that nZnO, at concentrations close to the predicted environmental levels, significantly affected various parameters in clam tissues. Significant increases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and a decreasing trend of glutathione S-transferase activity indicated the involvement of oxidative stress in nZnO toxicity. In clams exposed to ZnCl2, slight variations in antioxidant enzyme activities were detected with respect to nZnO-treated clams. However, no damage to lipids, proteins or DNA was revealed in all exposure conditions, suggesting a protection of antioxidant enzymes in the tissues. Of the various haemolymph parameters measured, haemocyte proliferation increased significantly, in ZnCl2-treated clams in particular. Under nZnO (10 μg/L) and ZnCl2 exposure, DNA damage in haemocytes was also revealed, but it was lower in clams exposed to ZnCl2. A decreasing trend in gill AChE activity of treated clams proposed a possible role of zinc ions in nZnO toxicity. However, the dissimilar modulation of the responses in the nZnO- and ZnCl2-exposed clams suggested different mechanisms of action, with nZnO toxicity possibly depending not only on the release of zinc ions but also on NP

  16. Alterations in juvenile flatfish gill epithelia induced by sediment-bound toxicants: A comparative in situ and ex situ study.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Alves de Matos, António P; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-12-01

    Juvenile Solea senegalensis were exposed in the laboratory (ex situ) and field (in situ) to different sediments of a moderately impacted estuary (the Sado, Portugal) for 28 days. A qualitative histopathological screening yielded scant lesions to gills, albeit alterations such as epithelial hyperplasia being evident and more frequent in fish exposed ex situ. Fully quantitative traits, namely chloride and goblet cell count and size revealed differences between the two bioassay approaches, with ex situ experiments likely enhancing bioavailability of toxicants. Chloride cells endured autolytic processes that could, at least in part, relate to contamination by mixed metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Goblet cells did not reveal changes in the chemistry of mucous. Still, their number and size was reduced in fish exposed ex situ to the sediments most contaminated by PAHs, with evidence for adaptation. Also, copper histochemistry revealed the potential role of mucocytes in the regulation of metals.

  17. Superoxide dismutase in the anal gills of the mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti: its inhibition by alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Nivsarkar, M; Kumar, G P; Laloraya, M; Laloraya, M M

    1991-01-01

    The anal gills of the mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti were shown to possess superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activity, which increased with the maturation of the larvae from instar 1 to instar 4. This enzyme was highly inhibited upon treatment of the larvae with alpha-terthienyl (2,2':5,2"-terthiophene) and subsequent exposure to long-wave ultraviolet light. Inhibition also occurred with treatment of the crude enzyme extract in a similar fashion. Exposure of the enzyme to the ultraviolet light alone or the treatment of the enzyme with alpha-terthienyl in darkness could not manifest this inhibition. This finding adds a new dimension to the complex mechanism(s) proposed for the photodynamic toxicity of alpha-terthienyl.

  18. Distinct subcutaneous emphysema following surgical wisdom tooth extraction in a patient suffering from ‘Gilles de la Tourette syndrome’

    PubMed Central

    Tomasetti, Patrick; Kuttenberger, Johannes; Bassetti, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication in oral surgery. In most cases, it resolves spontaneously. However, air might disperse into deeper facial spaces causing life-threatening complications such as compression of the tracheobronchial tree or the development of pneumomediastinum. Moreover, microorganisms might spread from the oral cavity into deeper spaces. Hence, rapid diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema is important. Characteristic signs are both a shiftable swelling and crepitation. In this case report, a 30-year-old man, suffering from the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, with a distinct subcutaneous emphysema after bilateral surgical wisdom tooth extraction is presented. Induced by a specific motor tic, air accumulated from the periorbital through to the parapharyngeal region. Applying a 10-cm-long Redon drainage tube as air valve, 10 days after wisdom teeth extraction, the patient was asymptomatic with complete resolution of the emphysema. PMID:26077530

  19. Specific expression of cytochrome P4501A1 gene in gill, intestine and liver of tilapia exposed to coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Yeung, H Y; Woo, P S; Wong, M H

    2001-09-01

    Toxicological effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aquatic ecosystems lead to the deterioration of water quality and adversely affect fish and human health. The highly lipophilic nature of these pollutants may enter fish through the diet or by water-borne exposure. In monitoring contamination in aquatic systems, induction of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene of fish has been evaluated as a sensitive, "early warning" method. The objective of the present study was to characterize the induction of the gene in fish upon exposure to coastal sediments and to determine its specific expression in liver and extrahepatic organs (i.e. gill and intestine) in which the toxicological effects to the corresponding tissues could be addressed. Sediment samples were collected from different sites, including Victoria Harbour (VS), Ma Wan (MW), Tsim Bei Tsui (TBT) and Mai Po (MP). The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). CYP1A1 mRNA expression was measured in juvenile tilapia exposed experimentally to coastal sediment for 3 and 7 days. A negative control group of fish maintained in seawater was used. Using the primer dropping polymerase chain reaction technique, gill, intestinal and hepatic CYP1A1 mRNAs were quantified. Chemical analysis shows that the samples from VS contaminated with the highest concentration of PCBs (45.24 p.p.b.) and PAHs (1663.7 p.p.b.), followed by MW (16.01 and 347.7 p.p.b.), TBT (14.48 and 235.2 p.p.b.) and MP (14.60 and 242.2 p.p.b.). Fish exposed to sediments were contaminated with various levels of PCBs (VS, 64.14-72.06 p.p.b.; MP, 27.06-31.62 p.p.b.; TBT, 27.29-33.92 p.p.b.; MW, 16.05-17.76 p.p.b.) and PAHs (VS, 124.7-304.9 p.p.b.; MP, 97.57-164.1 p.p.b.; TBT, 25.38-98 p.p.b.; MW, 24.07-68.13 p.p.b.). The control fish displayed moderate expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in liver (1.45 arbitrary units), gill (1.21 arbitrary units) and intestine (0.56 arbitrary units). Following

  20. The nursing shortage crisis in Québec's McGill University affiliated teaching hospitals: strategies that can work.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A

    1993-01-01

    A frequently recurring theme expressed in both the professional health literature and other multimedia sources is the current nursing shortage crisis. This shortage is an ever present reality that is of serious concern and that will continue to escalate unless innovative and creative strategies are implemented. This article will specifically address one hospital's approach to the nursing shortage crisis in Québec's McGill University affiliated teaching hospitals. The pivotal issues of retention, recruitment and attraction of nursing as a profession are examined. Recommendations for dealing with these issues include: 1) restructuring nursing salaries, 2) redefining the types of nursing personnel resources, 3) flexibility in work schedule, 4) recognition, 5) providing an accurate public image of nursing, and 6) recruitment of males and mature persons. This article provides nursing administrators in the hospital, community, and educational settings with potential strategies that they can explore and apply in their own settings.

  1. New retroplumid crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura, Retroplumidae Gill, 1894) from the Eocene of Huesca (Aragón, Spain).

    PubMed

    Artal, Pedro; Van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2013-01-01

    Two new brachyurans assignable to the family Retroplumidae Gill, 1894, Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp., and Gaudipluma bacamortensis n. gen., n. sp., from the Eocene of northern Spain (Huesca, Aragón), substantially enlarge our current knowledge of the morphological diversity of the family. The material, with well-preserved ventral surfaces, permits the erection of two new genera that can be referred to the family with confidence on the basis of the general carapace shape, narrow front, a reduced last pair of pereiopods and characteristic thoracic sternum (broad, trapezoidal sternites 3, 4, subrectangular sternites 5-7, sternite 8 conspicuously reduced and inclined). Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp. co-occurs with two other retroplumids in the most diverse fossil assemblage of that family known to date.

  2. Different uranium distribution patterns in cytosolic protein pool of zebrafish gills after chronic and acute waterborne exposures.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Guillaume; Mounicou, Sandra; Simon, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Lobinski, Ryszard; Frelon, Sandrine

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of uranium (U) to aquatic organisms depends notably on its compartmentalization in organs, tissues, cells as well as on its distribution among biomolecules. In order to contribute to the understanding of U accumulation and associated toxicity mechanisms in case of waterborne exposure, this study focused on U fate in the gills epithelia, uptake pathway, of the fish model Danio rerio (zebrafish). U distribution among cytosolic biomolecules was investigated after no addition (0μgL(-)(1) (c0) for 3 and 30d), chronic (20μgL(-)(1) (c20) for 30d) and acute (20μgL(-)(1) (c20) and 250μgL(-)(1) (c250) for 3d) exposures to depleted U. Cytosolic U accounted for an average of 24-32% of gills burden for c20 and c250, respectively. Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) allowed identification of ecotoxicologically relevant U-containing fractions among cytosolic biomolecules as a function of exposure conditions. In c0 and c20 samples, most U (ca.80%) was found in the Low Molecular Weight fraction (LMW, <18kDa), often considered as a detoxifying fraction. In c250 exposed fish, U was equally distributed between LMW (40%) and High Molecular Weight (HMW, 150-670kDa; 40%) fractions, the latter including sensitive metalloproteins. Uranium-biomolecules were co-eluted with endogenous essential metal (Fe, Cu and Zn) species, however, no major influence on their cytosolic concentration and distribution pattern among cytosolic proteins was found.

  3. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells.

    PubMed

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Gilliland, Douglas; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm) NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm) NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag.

  4. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells

    PubMed Central

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Gilliland, Douglas; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm) NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm) NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag. PMID:26061169

  5. Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

  6. Effect of Salinity and Alkalinity on Luciobarbus capito Gill Na+/K+-ATPase Enzyme Activity, Plasma Ion Concentration, and Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity and alkalinity on gill Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity, plasma ion concentration, and osmotic pressure in Luciobarbus capito. Increasing salinity concentrations (5, 8, 11, and 14 g/L) were associated with an initial increase and then decrease in L. capito gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Activity was affected by the difference between internal and external Na+ ion concentrations and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Both plasma ion (Na+, K+, and Cl−) concentration and osmotic pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05). An increase in alkalinity (15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) caused a significant increase in plasma K+ and urea nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.05) but had no effect on either plasma osmotic pressure or gill filament ATPase activity. In the two-factor experiment, the saline-alkaline interaction caused a significant increase in plasma ion (Na+, Cl−, and urea nitrogen) and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Variance analysis revealed that salinity, alkalinity, and their interaction significantly affected osmotic pressure, with salinity being most affected, followed by alkalinity, and their interaction. Gill filament ATPase activity increased at first and then decreased; peak values were observed in the orthogonal experiment group at a salinity of 8 g/L and alkalinity of 30 mM. PMID:27981049

  7. Binding of nickel and copper to fish gills predicts toxicity when water hardness varies, but free-ion activity does not

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Bobbitt, J.P.; Debrey, L.D.; Boese, C.J.; Bergman, H.L.; Santore, R.C.; Paquin, P.R.; Ditoro, D.M.; Allen, H.E.

    1999-03-15

    Based on a biotic-ligand model (BLM), the authors hypothesized that the concentration of a transition metal bound to fish gills ([M{sub gill}]) will be a constant predictor of mortality, whereas a free-ion activity model is generally interpreted to imply that the chemical activity of the aquo (free) ion of the metal will be a constant predictor of mortality. In laboratory tests, measured [Ni{sub gill}] and calculated [Cu{sub gill}] were constant predictors of acute toxicity of Ni and Cu to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) when water hardness varied up to 10-fold, whereas total aqueous concentrations and free-ion activities of Ni and Cu were not. Thus, the BLM, which simultaneously accounts for (a) metal speciation in the exposure water and (b) competitive binding of transition-metal ions and other cations to biotic ligands predicts acute toxicity better than does free-ion activity of Ni or Cu. Adopting a biotic-ligand modeling approach could help establish a more defensible, mechanistic basis for regulating aqueous discharges of metals.

  8. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P < 0.05). Also, the histological investigation showed a range of histopathological alternations in gills tissue including lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, clubbing of gill lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue.

  9. Combined use of environmental data and biomarkers in fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system - Gills reflect environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

    2010-03-01

    An investigative biomonitoring study was carried out in a eutrophic coastal system with a moderate contamination by metals (Obidos lagoon, Portugal), combining the evaluation of exposure concentrations with metals accumulation and oxidative stress responses in gills of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) were considered at three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) branches; Middle lagoon (ML). Data on the water column pointed to a higher metals and nutrients availability at BB that was reflected in the higher metal concentrations in gills, particularly in winter. Similarly, oxidative stress responses demonstrated a pro-oxidant challenge at BB (winter and summer), which was corroborated by an integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Metal concentrations in gills were higher in summer than winter, reflecting the increased environmental concentrations in combination with elevated metabolic rates. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases observed in winter at BB were related with metal accumulation, while summer enhancement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), GST and GSH(t) was associated with other stressors. Inter-site differences on the basis of IBR were more accentuated in winter. Gills can be considered as an important route of entry for contaminants and were demonstrated to reflect water contamination and are therefore useful in the context of environmental assessment.

  10. Feeding induces translocation of vacuolar proton ATPase and pendrin to the membrane of leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) mitochondrion-rich gill cells.

    PubMed

    Roa, Jinae N; Munévar, Christian L; Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In this study we characterized mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells and regulation of acid/base (A/B) relevant ion-transporting proteins in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) gills. Immunohistochemistry revealed that leopard shark gills posses two separate cell populations that abundantly express either Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) or V-H⁺-ATPase (VHA), but not both ATPases together. Co-immunolocalization with mitochondrial Complex IV demonstrated, for the first time in shark gills, that both NKA- and VHA-rich cells are also MR cells, and that all MR cells are either NKA- or VHA-rich cells. Additionally we localized the anion exchanger pendrin to VHA-rich cells, but not NKA-rich cells. In starved sharks, VHA was localized throughout the cell cytoplasm and pendrin was present at the apical pole (but not in the membrane). However, in a significant number of gill cells from fed leopard sharks, VHA translocated to the basolateral membrane (as previously described in dogfish), and pendrin translocated to the apical membrane. Our results highlight the importance of translocation of ion-transporting proteins to the cell membrane as a regulatory mechanism for A/B regulation.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  12. Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1, isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Kwak, Jangyul; Maeng, Jin-Soo

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium designated M1-1 was isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Studies of 16S rRNA phylogeny and comparative genomics demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1 (KACC 16562).

  13. Gill and liver histopathological changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Nero, V; Farwell, A; Lister, A; Van der Kraak, G; Lee, L E J; Van Meer, T; MacKinnon, M D; Dixon, D G

    2006-03-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) produces significant volumes of process-affected water containing elevated levels of naphthenic acids (NAs), ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sublethal response of aquatic organisms exposed to oil sands constituents in experimental aquatic environments that represent possible reclamation options has been studied. In this study, the effects of process-affected waters on gill and liver tissues in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and caged goldfish (Carassius auratus) held in several reclamation ponds at Syncrude's Mildred Lake site have been assessed. Following a 3-week exposure, significant gill (epithelial cell necrosis, mucous cell proliferation) and liver (hepatocellular degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration) histopathological changes were noted in fish held in waters containing high levels of oil sands process-affected water. In addition, measurements of gill dimensions (gill morphometrical indices) proved sensitive and provided evidence of a physiological disturbance (gas exchange) with exposure to oil sands materials. Due to the complexity of oil sands process-affected water, the cause of the alterations could not be attributed to specific oil sands constituents. However, the histopathological parameters were strong indicators of exposure to oil sands process-affected water and morphometrical data were sensitive indicators of pathological response, which can be used to identify the interactive effects of ionic content, NAs, and PAHs in future laboratory studies.

  14. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Castostomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in ...

  15. Effect of cadmium, copper and mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the gills of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus.

    PubMed

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Cosson, R; Shillito, B; Fiala-Médioni, A

    2004-01-01

    Metals are known to influence lipid peroxidation and oxidative status of marine organisms. Hydrothermal vent mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus live in deep-sea environments with anomalous conditions, including high metal concentrations. Although B. azoricus are aerobic organisms they possess abundant methano and thioautotrophic symbiotic bacteria in the gills. The enzymatic defences (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (Total GPx) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx)) and lipid peroxidation were determined in the gills of B. azoricus exposed to Cd (0.9 microM), Cu (0.4 microM) and Hg (0.1 microM) with different times of exposure. The experiments were performed in pressurized containers at 9+/-1 degrees C and 85 bars. Results show that vent mussels possess antioxidant enzymatic protection in the gills. Cd and Cu had an inhibitory effect in the enzymatic defence system, contrarily to Hg. These enzymatic systems are not completely understood in the B. azoricus, since reactive oxygen species might be produced through other processes than natural redox cycling, due to hydrogen sulphide and oxygen content present. Also the symbiotic bacteria may play an important contribution in the antioxidant protection of the gills.

  16. Structural lipid changes and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of gill cells' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acclimation is a critical period for anadromous species and a process yet to be understood in lampreys. Considering that changes in lipid composition of the gill cells' basolateral membranes may disrupt the major transporter Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, the goal of this study was to detect changes at this level during juvenile sea lamprey seawater acclimation. The results showed that saltwater acclimation has a direct effect on the fatty acid composition of gill cells basolateral membrane's phospholipids. When held in full-strength seawater, the fatty acid profile of basolateral membrane's phospholipids suffered a restructure by increasing either saturation or the ratio between oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Simultaneously, the activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase revealed a significant and positive correlation with basolateral membrane's cholesterol content in the presence of highest salinity. Our results pointed out for lipid adjustments involving the functional transporter present on the gill cell basolateral membranes to ensure the role played by branchial Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in ion transport during saltwater acclimation process. The responses observed contributed to the strategy adopted by gill cell's basolateral membranes to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors, to ensure the success of the process of seawater acclimation associated with the downstream trophic migration of juvenile sea lamprey.

  17. Studies on the oxidative stress and gill histopathology in Channa punctatus of the canal receiving heavy metal-loaded effluent of Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Some investigations were made on the canal water and inhabiting fish Channa punctatus at Kasimpur, district Aligarh (U.P.). It is a prime source for drinking, washing, and irrigation which was found to be receiving effluent from the adjoining Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant. The water samples were found to contain heavy metals, and the values obtained for Fe (8.71 mg L(-1)) and Ni (0.12 mg L(-1)) were beyond the recommended levels set by UNEPGEMS. C. punctatus was found to be the predominant fish in this canal. Fishes' gills are directly exposed to the ambience; hence, the changes are expected to be more prominent. Among the analyzed heavy metals, bioaccumulation of Zn (500.41 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw)) was highest and Ni (13.93 mg kg(-1) dw), the least. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were found in the gills of the test fishes. The level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a nonenzymatic antioxidant, was quite expectedly lower than that in the reference fish. The gills of inhabiting fishes contained several lesions like necrosis, epithelial lifting, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, syneching, infiltration of lymphocytes, and bridging in gill tissue. The present study demonstrated that wastewater/effluent released from thermal power plant containing heavy metals has strong potential to affect the physicochemical properties of the water and well-being of aquatic living organisms.

  18. Effects of elevated seawater pCO2 on gene expression patterns in the gills of the green crab, Carcinus maenas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The green crab Carcinus maenas is known for its high acclimation potential to varying environmental abiotic conditions. A high ability for ion and acid-base regulation is mainly based on an efficient regulation apparatus located in gill epithelia. However, at present it is neither known which ion transport proteins play a key role in the acid-base compensation response nor how gill epithelia respond to elevated seawater pCO2 as predicted for the future. In order to promote our understanding of the responses of green crab acid-base regulatory epithelia to high pCO2, Baltic Sea green crabs were exposed to a pCO2 of 400 Pa. Gills were screened for differentially expressed gene transcripts using a 4,462-feature microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Results Crabs responded mainly through fine scale adjustment of gene expression to elevated pCO2. However, 2% of all investigated transcripts were significantly regulated 1.3 to 2.2-fold upon one-week exposure to CO2 stress. Most of the genes known to code for proteins involved in osmo- and acid-base regulation, as well as cellular stress response, were were not impacted by elevated pCO2. However, after one week of exposure, significant changes were detected in a calcium-activated chloride channel, a hyperpolarization activated nucleotide-gated potassium channel, a tetraspanin, and an integrin. Furthermore, a putative syntaxin-binding protein, a protein of the transmembrane 9 superfamily, and a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger of the SLC 4 family were differentially regulated. These genes were also affected in a previously published hypoosmotic acclimation response study. Conclusions The moderate, but specific response of C. maenas gill gene expression indicates that (1) seawater acidification does not act as a strong stressor on the cellular level in gill epithelia; (2) the response to hypercapnia is to some degree comparable to a hypoosmotic acclimation response; (3) the specialization of each of the posterior gill

  19. Crime, hysteria and belle époque hypnotism: the path traced by Jean-Martin Charcot and Georges Gilles de la Tourette.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Walusinski, Olivier; Veyrunes, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Hysteria and hypnotism became a favorite topic of studies in the fin de siècle neurology that emerged from the school organized at La Salpêtrière by Jean-Martin Charcot, where he had arrived in 1861. Georges Gilles de la Tourette started working with Charcot in 1884 and probably remained his most faithful student, even after his mentor's death in 1893. This collaboration was particularly intense on 'criminal hypnotism', an issue on which Hippolyte Bernheim and his colleagues from the Nancy School challenged the positions taken by the Salpêtrière School. Bernheim claimed that hypnotism was not a diagnostic feature of hysteria and that there were real-life examples of murders suggested under hypnosis, while hypnosis susceptibility was identified with hysteria by Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette, who saw rape as the only crime associated with hypnotism. The quarrel was particularly virulent during a series of famous criminal cases which took place between 1888 and 1890. At the time, it was considered that La Salpêtrière had succeeded over Nancy, since the role of hypnotism was discarded during these famous trials. However, the theories of Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette were also damaged by the fight, which probably triggered the conceptual evolution leading to Joseph Babinski's revision of hysteria in 1901. Gilles de la Tourette's strong and public interest in hypnotism nearly cost him his life, when a young woman who claimed to have been hypnotized against her will shot him in the head at his own home in 1893. It was subsequently shown that hypnotism had nothing to do with it. The delusional woman was interned at Sainte-Anne for mental disturbance, thus escaping trial. Ironically, Gilles de la Tourette may have been partly responsible, since he had been one of the strongest proponents of placing mentally-ill criminals in asylums instead of prisons.

  20. Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR gill expression after seawater transfer in smolts (0+) of different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackie, P.M.; Gharbi, K.; Ballantyne, J.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wright, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoltification involves morphological and physiological changes in the gills that prepare anadromous salmonids to osmoregulate efficiently in seawater. In a previous study, we found that different families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts vary in their ability to osmoregulate when abruptly transferred to cold seawater and that these differences are correlated with gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Here we extend these findings to test whether other key transport proteins, namely Na+/K+/2Cl- contransporter (NKCC) and the Cl- channel or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a significant role in osmoregulatory differences between families. To facilitate molecular analysis of NKCC, we first isolated a gill cDNA containing the complete coding region (1147 aa) of an isoform previously reported as a partial sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this isoform is most closely related to isoforms of the NKCC1a subfamily found in European eel and Mozambique tilapia. In a second step, we quantified NKCC protein abundance as well as mRNA expression levels for NKCC1a and two CFTR isoforms (CFTRI and CFTRII) in 0+ smolts from three families prior to and following seawater transfer. The family with the lowest salinity tolerance also showed significant increases in gill NKCC1a mRNA after seawater transfer. Taken together with our previous study, these data indicate that family differences in expression of transport proteins are in part related to salinity tolerance, although the best indicator of osmoregulatory performance between families may be gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and CFTR I mRNA levels, rather than Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1a mRNA levels or NKCC protein abundance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological and functional characterization of a novel Na+/K+-ATPase-immunoreactive, follicle-like structure on the gill septum of Japanese banded houndshark, Triakis scyllium.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Souichirou; Teranishi, Keitaro; Takaki, Shin; Kusakabe, Makoto; Hirose, Shigehisa; Kaneko, Toyoji; Hyodo, Susumu

    2012-04-01

    In teleost fishes, it is well-established that the gill serves as an important ionoregulatory organ in addition to its primary function of respiratory gas exchange. In elasmobranch fish, however, the ionoregulatory function of the gills is still poorly understood. Although mitochondria-rich (MR) cells have also been found in elasmobranch fish, these cells are considered to function primarily in acid-base regulation. In this study, we found a novel aggregate structure made up of cells with basolaterally-expressed Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), in addition to NKA-immunoreactive MR cells that have already been described in the gill filament and lamella. The cell aggregates, named follicularly-arranged NKA-rich cells (follicular NRCs), were found exclusively in the epithelial lining of the venous web in the cavernous region of the filament and the inter-filamental space of the gill septum. The follicular NRCs form a single-layered follicular structure with a large lumen leading to the external environment. The follicular NRCs were characterized by: (i) well-developed microvilli on the apical membrane, (ii) less prominent infoldings of the basolateral membrane and (iii) typical junction structures including deep tight junction between cells. In addition, large numbers of vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm and some of them were fused to the lateral membrane. The follicular NRCs expressed Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 and Ca(2+) transporter 1. The follicular NRCs thus have the characteristics of absorptive ionoregulatory cells and this suggests that the elasmobranch gill probably contributes more importantly to body fluid homeostasis than previously thought.

  2. Gene expression and cellular localization of ROMKs in the gills and kidney of Mozambique tilapia acclimated to fresh water with high potassium concentration.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Fumiya; Watanabe, Soichi; Kakumura, Keigo; Hiroi, Junya; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2014-12-01

    Regulation of plasma K(+) levels in narrow ranges is vital to vertebrate animals. Since seawater (SW) teleosts are loaded with excess K(+), they constantly excrete K(+) from the gills. However, the K(+) regulatory mechanisms in freshwater (FW)-acclimated teleosts are still unclear. We aimed to identify the possible K(+) regulatory mechanisms in the gills and kidney, the two major osmoregulatory organs, of FW-acclimated Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). As a potential molecular candidate for renal K(+) handling, a putative renal outer medullary K(+) channel (ROMK) was cloned from the tilapia kidney and tentatively named "ROMKb"; another ROMK previously cloned from the tilapia gills was thus renamed "ROMKa". The fish were acclimated to control FW or to high-K(+) (H-K) FW for 1 wk, and we assessed physiological responses of tilapia to H-K treatment. As a result, urinary K(+) levels were slightly higher in H-K fish, implying a role of the kidney in K(+) excretion. However, the mRNA expression levels of both ROMKa and ROMKb were very low in the kidney, while that of K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (KCC1) was robust. In the gills, ROMKa mRNA was markedly upregulated in H-K fish. Immunofluorescence staining showed that branchial ROMKa was expressed at the apical membrane of type I and type III ionocytes, and the ROMKa immunosignals were more intense in H-K fish than in control fish. The present study suggests that branchial ROMKa takes a central role for K(+) regulation in FW conditions and that K(+) excretion via the gills is activated irrespective of environmental salinity.

  3. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldo, Francis B.; Villar, Van Anthony M.; Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Owens, Shaun A.; Asico, Laureano D.; Jones, John E.; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L.; Armando, Ines; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na+-K+-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na+-K+-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na+-K+-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na+-K+-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  4. Effects of salinity acclimation on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase responses and FXYD11 expression in the gills and kidneys of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lai, Dong-Yang; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2012-11-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is a primary active pump provides the driving force for ion-transporting systems in the osmoregulatory tissues of teleosts. Therefore, modulation of NKA expression or activity and its regulatory subunit, FXYD protein, is essential for teleosts in salinity adaptation. To understand the mechanisms for modulation of NKA in catadromous fishes, NKA expression and activity, cloning and mRNA expression of FXYD11 (AjFXYD11) were examined in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) exposed to fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW; 35‰). Expression and activity of NKA as well as mRNA expression of AjFXYD11 in gills were elevated in SW eel compared to FW eel. Conversely, NKA responses in eel kidneys were higher in FW group than SW group, whereas no significant difference was found in renal AjFXYD11 expression between the two groups. Comparison of NKA activity and AjFXYD11 expression between two osmoregulatory tissues suggested that AjFXYD11 plays a specific, functional role in gills. However, since cortisol plays an important role for regulation of ion transport in teleost SW acclimation and gill AjFXYD11 expression was elevated in SW eel, the organ culture approach was used to study the effect of cortisol on gill AjFXYD11 mRNA expression. Our results revealed that cortisol treatment increased the levels of gill AjFXYD11 transcripts. This finding suggested that cortisol could be involved in the regulation of NKA by altering AjFXYD11 expression during the process of SW acclimation in A. japonica. Taken together, the differential expression of branchial and renal NKA and AjFXYD11 implicated their roles in the osmotic homeostasis of Japanese eel exposed to environments of different salinities.

  5. Teleost chloride cell. II. Autoradiographic localization of gill Na,K- ATPase in killifish Fundulus heteroclitus adapted to low and high salinity environments

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The specific binding and inhibitory action of (3H)ouabain were employed to localize transport Na,K-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost gill, a NaCl-transporting osmoregulatory tissue in which both enzyme activity and transepithelial transport vary with environmental salinity. In killifish fully adapted to 10%, 100%, or 200% seawater, the gills were internally perfused and externally irrigated in situ. After suitable internal or external exposure to (3H)ouabain, individual gill arches were excised for Na,K-ATPase assay, measurement of radiolabel binding, or quantitative high-resolution autoradiography. Internal exposure to 50 muM ouabain resulted in essentially complete enzyme inhibition, and binding paralleled the increases in enzyme activity at higher salinities; in contrast, external exposure gave minimal and erratic results consistent with leakage of external ouabain into interstitial fluid. (3H)Ouabain autoradiographs demonstrated that, irrespective of exposure or salinity, most of the gill binding was associated with chloride cell. These cells increased in size and number with salinity and, at the subcellular level, the distribution pattern for bound ouabain was always identical to that for the amplified basal-lateral (tubular system) membrane. The combined physiologicmorphologic results constitute final direct proof that chloride cells are the primary site of gill Na,K-ATPase. More important, they provide convincing evidence for unexpected increases in basal-lateral enzyme at higher salinities and thus raise a fundamental objection to the long-postulated role of the Na pump in secretory NaCl transport. PMID:132451

  6. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis.

  7. Generation of a neutral FST baseline for testing local adaptation on gill raker number within and between European whitefish ecotypes in the Baltic Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M Y; Himberg, M; Aykanat, T; Sendek, D S; Hägerstrand, H; Verliin, A; Krause, T; Olsson, J; Primmer, C R; Vasemägi, A

    2015-05-01

    Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea spawners, river spawners and lake spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly variable microsatellite loci resulted in deflated FST estimates compared to less variable markers, we performed population genetic simulations under finite island and hierarchical island models. The genetic divergence observed among (FCT = 0.010) and within (FST = 0.014-0.041) ecotypes was rather low. The divergence in gill raker number, however, was substantially higher between sea and river spawners compared to observed microsatellite data and simulated neutral baseline (PCT > FCT ). This suggests that the differences in gill raker number between sea and river spawners are likely driven by divergent natural selection. We also found strong support for divergent selection on gill raker number among different populations of sea spawners (PST > FST ), most likely caused by highly variable habitat use and diverse diet. The putative role of divergent selection within lake spawners initially inferred from empirical microsatellite data was not supported by simulated FST distributions. This work provides a first formal test of divergent selection on gill raker number in Baltic whitefish, and demonstrates the usefulness of population genetic simulations to generate informative neutral baselines for PST -FST analyses helping to disentangle the effects of stochastic evolutionary processes from natural selection.

  8. Gill reaction to pollutants from the Tamiš River in three freshwater fish species, Esox lucius L. 1758, Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and Silurus glanis L. 1758: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lujić, J; Matavulj, M; Poleksić, V; Rašković, B; Marinović, Z; Kostić, D; Miljanović, B

    2015-04-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waterborne pollutants from the Tamiš River on gill histology and possible differences in gill reaction patterns between three freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius L. 1758, pike-perch Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and wels catfish Silurus glanis L. 1758 from the Tamiš River. Gills from analysed fish species showed moderate to intense histopathological alterations. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium, whereas the most frequent regressive alteration was epithelial lifting. Circulatory disturbances were most often manifested in the form of hyperaemia. During comparative analysis, differences in gill indices, reaction and alteration indices, as well as in gill and filament prevalence between analysed species, were observed. Although all analysed fish species did show both progressive and regressive alterations, there was a significant difference in the level of expression of these reaction patterns. Gill index obtained for pike clearly stands out as the lowest. Wels catfish showed the highest progressive reaction index, significantly higher in comparison with the other two species (P < 0.05), while pike-perch showed the highest regressive reaction index, also significantly higher in comparison with the other species (P < 0.001). These results may implicate species-specific gill reactions and thus present a useful tool for better understanding toxic mechanisms of various pollutants.

  9. Aestivation Induces Changes in the mRNA Expression Levels and Protein Abundance of Two Isoforms of Urea Transporters in the Gills of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L; Hiong, Kum C; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Lam, Siew H; Ip, Yuen K

    2017-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, is ammonotelic in water despite being ureogenic. When it aestivates in mucus cocoon on land, ammonia is detoxified to urea. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, urea accumulates in the body, which is subsequently excreted upon arousal. Urea excretion involves urea transporters (UT/Ut). This study aimed to clone and sequence the ut isoforms from the gills of P. annectens, and to test the hypothesis that the mRNA and/or protein expression levels of ut/Ut isoforms could vary in the gills of P. annectens during the induction, maintenance, and arousal phases of aestivation. Two isoforms of ut, ut-a2a and ut-a2b, were obtained from the gills of P. annectens. ut-a2a consisted of 1227 bp and coded for 408 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 44.7 kDa, while ut-a2b consisted of 1392 bp and coded for 464 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. Ut-a2a and Ut-a2b of P. annectens had a closer phylogenetic relationship with Ut/UT of tetrapods than Ut of fishes. While the mRNA expression pattern of ut-a2a and ut-a2b across various tissues of P. annectens differed, the transcript levels of ut-a2a and ut-a2b in the gills were comparable, indicating that they might be equally important for branchial urea excretion during the initial arousal phase of aestivation. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the transcript level of ut-a2a increased significantly, but the protein abundance of Ut-a2a remained unchanged in the gills of P. annectens. This could be an adaptive feature to prepare for an increase in the production of Ut-a2a upon arousal. Indeed, arousal led to a significant increase in the branchial Ut-a2a protein abundance. Although the transcript level of ut-a2b remained unchanged, there were significant increases in the protein abundance of Ut-a2b in the gills of P. annectens throughout the three phases of aestivation. The increase in the protein abundance of Ut-a2b during the maintenance

  10. Chloride channel ClC-3 in gills of the euryhaline teleost, Tetraodon nigroviridis: expression, localization and the possible role of chloride absorption

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Hwang, Lie-Yueh; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Previous studies have reported the mechanisms of ion absorption and secretion by diverse membrane transport proteins in gills of various teleostean species. To date, however, the chloride channel expressed in the basolateral membrane of mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells for Cl− uptake in freshwater (FW) fish is still unknown. In this study, the combination of bioinformatics tools [i.e. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, Tetraodon nigroviridis (spotted green pufferfish) genome database (Genoscope), BLAT and BLASTn] were used to identify the gene of ClC-3 (TnClC-3), a member of the CLC chloride channel family in the T. nigroviridis genome. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the gene encoding for the ClC-3 protein was widely expressed in diverse tissues (i.e. gill, kidney, intestine, liver and brain) of FW- and seawater (SW)-acclimated pufferfish. In whole-mount double immunofluorescent staining, branchial ClC-3-like immunoreactive protein was localized to the basolateral membrane of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) immunoreactive cells in both the FW- and SW-acclimated pufferfish. In response to salinity, the levels of transcript of branchial TnClC-3 were similar between FW and SW fish. Moreover, the membrane fraction of ClC-3-like protein in gills was 2.7-fold higher in FW compared with SW pufferfish. To identify whether the expression of branchial ClC-3-like protein specifically responded to lower environmental [Cl−], the pufferfish were acclimated to artificial waters either with a normal (control) or lower Cl− concentration (low-Cl). Immunoblotting of membrane fractions of gill ClC-3-like protein showed the expression was about 4.3-fold higher in pufferfish acclimated to the low-Cl environment than in the control group. Furthermore, branchial ClC-3-like protein was rapidly elevated in response to acute changes of environmental salinity or [Cl−]. Taken together, pufferfish ClC-3-like protein was expressed in the basolateral membrane of gill

  11. Phosphorylation state of the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) in the gills of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) during acclimation to water of varying salinity.

    PubMed

    Flemmer, Andreas W; Monette, Michelle Y; Djurisic, Maja; Dowd, Brian; Darman, Rachel; Gimenez, Ignacio; Forbush, Biff

    2010-05-01

    Euryhaline teleosts such as Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) are able to acclimate to changing environmental salinity by tightly regulating NaCl absorption and secretion across their gills. Many studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for long-term (days) salinity acclimation; however, much remains unknown about the mechanisms of acute (hours) salinity acclimation. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that phosphorylation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) located in the basolateral membrane of the gill plays a role in acute salinity acclimation and that changes in NKCC1 phosphorylation are mediated by a cAMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we determined the time course of changes in total and phosphorylated NKCC1 protein during acclimation to water of various salinities. Long-term (>or=14 days) acclimation of killifish to seawater (SW) and 2x SW resulted in 4- to 6-fold and 5- to 8-fold increases, respectively, in total gill NKCC1 protein relative to fish maintained in freshwater (FW). NKCC1 was found to be between 20% and 70% activated in fish, with lower average activation in fish acclimated to SW and 2x SW compared with FW fish. Increases and decreases in the fractional level of NKCC1 phosphorylation were seen within 1 h of transfer of fish to water of higher and lower salinity, respectively, consistent with a regulatory role of phosphorylation prior to an increase in the biosynthesis of NKCC1; large changes in protein expression of NKCC1 were observed over periods of hours to days. We found that NKCC1 phosphorylation is acutely regulated in the killifish gill in response to changing environmental salinity and that phosphorylation in excised gills increases in response to forskolin stimulation of the cAMP-PKA pathway. The role of phosphorylation is further underscored by the observation that mRNA expression of sterile 20 (Ste20)-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) changes with

  12. Aestivation Induces Changes in the mRNA Expression Levels and Protein Abundance of Two Isoforms of Urea Transporters in the Gills of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens

    PubMed Central

    Chng, You R.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L.; Hiong, Kum C.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Lam, Siew H.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2017-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, is ammonotelic in water despite being ureogenic. When it aestivates in mucus cocoon on land, ammonia is detoxified to urea. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, urea accumulates in the body, which is subsequently excreted upon arousal. Urea excretion involves urea transporters (UT/Ut). This study aimed to clone and sequence the ut isoforms from the gills of P. annectens, and to test the hypothesis that the mRNA and/or protein expression levels of ut/Ut isoforms could vary in the gills of P. annectens during the induction, maintenance, and arousal phases of aestivation. Two isoforms of ut, ut-a2a and ut-a2b, were obtained from the gills of P. annectens. ut-a2a consisted of 1227 bp and coded for 408 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 44.7 kDa, while ut-a2b consisted of 1392 bp and coded for 464 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. Ut-a2a and Ut-a2b of P. annectens had a closer phylogenetic relationship with Ut/UT of tetrapods than Ut of fishes. While the mRNA expression pattern of ut-a2a and ut-a2b across various tissues of P. annectens differed, the transcript levels of ut-a2a and ut-a2b in the gills were comparable, indicating that they might be equally important for branchial urea excretion during the initial arousal phase of aestivation. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the transcript level of ut-a2a increased significantly, but the protein abundance of Ut-a2a remained unchanged in the gills of P. annectens. This could be an adaptive feature to prepare for an increase in the production of Ut-a2a upon arousal. Indeed, arousal led to a significant increase in the branchial Ut-a2a protein abundance. Although the transcript level of ut-a2b remained unchanged, there were significant increases in the protein abundance of Ut-a2b in the gills of P. annectens throughout the three phases of aestivation. The increase in the protein abundance of Ut-a2b during the maintenance

  13. Element ratios between digestive gland and gill tissues of the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica as a proxy for element uptake from different environmental sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poigner, H.; Monien, D.; Monien, P.; Kriews, M.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Wilhelms-Dick, D.; Abele, D.

    2012-04-01

    Trace metals in bivalve carbonate shells are frequently used as environmental or paleoclimate proxies. Carbonate mineralogy and animals' physiology affect the incorporation of elements from different environmental sources into bivalve shells. Generally, metals from particulate matter are assimilated via the digestive tract; whereas dissolved metals are absorbed via gills. Therefore, measurements of element concentrations deposited in the shell matrix do not necessarily allow inference with respect to the assimilation pathways. In this study, we used element ratios between digestive gland (DG) and gills (cDG/cGill) of the Circum-Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica to identify predominating assimilation pathways and potential sources of bio-available metals. This normalization between tissues of each individual eliminates the effects of individual age and physiological condition (e.g. accumulation over lifetime, metabolic activity) on metal assimilation. These effects also minimize the reproducibility, when absolute element concentrations are compared between individuals from different locations. Therefore, an additional normalization is required. We favored "ellipsoid shell volume" over shell length or soft tissue weight as more conservative approximation for intra- and intersite comparisons. Metal concentrations in DG, gills, and hemolymph of the bivalve L. elliptica, collected at Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula), were analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry after total acid digestion. The element ratios (cDG/cGill) indicate a predominant assimilation of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, and Mg from the dissolved phase. These high Al and Fe concentrations in gill tissues and hemolymph are in contrast to the low solubility of Al and Fe in seawater. But high dissolved Fe concentrations in pore waters (up to 1400 μg L-1 due to suboxic sediment conditions) and glacial melt waters enriched in dissolved

  14. Effects of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) on DNA damage of the gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas of marine crab, Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Na; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Jing; Miao, Jingjing

    2011-06-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of heavy metals on the environment. In this study, comet assay and DNA alkaline unwinding assay were conducted on the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and hemocytes) of Charybdis japonica in order to illustrate genotoxicity of three heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) on the marine crabs C. japonica. The crabs were exposed to Cu2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg.L-1), Pb2+ (50, 250, and 500 μg L-1) and Cd2+ (5, 25, and 50 μg L-1), and the tissues were sampled at days 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15. DNA alkaline unwinding assay was used for testing the DNA single strand break in gills and hepatopancreas and comet assay was employed for testing the DNA damage in hemocytes. The results showed that the DNA damage ( F-value) of gills in the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals was decreased gradually during the exposure periods and there was a dose-time response relationship in certain time, suggesting that the levels of DNA single strand break in all the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the controls. Changes of F-value in hepatopancreas of the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals were similar to those in gills except that the peak values were found in the 500 μg L-1 Pb2+ treatment group at day 3 and the 50 μg L-1 Cd2+ treatment group at day 9. The ranks of DNA damage in gills and hepatopancreas induced by the three heavy metal ions (50 μg L-1, day 15) were Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cu2+ and Pb2+ >Cu2+ >Cd2+. The levels of DNA damage in gills were higher than those in hepatopancreas in the same experimental group. It can be concluded that indices of DNA damage can be used as the potential biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in marine environment.

  15. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPaseα - and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Andersson, Eva; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Prunet, Patrick; Stefansson, Sigurd O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) α- and β-subunit isoforms, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-α1b, -α3, -β1 and NKCC mRNA levels in anadromous salmon increased transiently, reaching peak levels in smolts in April/May, whereas no similar smolt-related upregulation of these transcripts occurred in juvenile landlocked salmon. Gill NKA-α1a mRNA decreased significantly in anadromous salmon from February through June, whereas α1a levels in landlocked salmon, after an initial decrease in April, remained significantly higher than those of the anadromous smolts in May and June. Following SW transfer, gill NKA-α1b and NKCC mRNA increased in both strains, whereas NKA-α1a decreased. Both strains exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA α-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill α-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase was observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-α1a, -α1b and -α3 isoforms may be important for potential functional

  16. Regulation of ion transport by pH and [HCO3-] in isolated gills of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Sabatini, Sebastian E; Goss, Greg G; Luquet, Carlos M

    2008-03-01

    Posterior isolated gills of Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulatus were symmetrically perfused with hemolymph-like saline of varying [HCO3-] and pH. Elevating [HCO3-] in the saline from 2.5 to 12.5 mmol/l (pH 7.75 in both cases) induced a significant increase in the transepithelial potential difference (Vte), a measure of ion transport. The elevation in [HCO3-] also induced a switch from acid secretion (-43.7 +/- 22.5 microequiv.kg(-1).h(-1)) in controls to base secretion (84.7 +/- 14.4 microequiv.kg(-1).h(-1)). The HCO3(-)-induced Vte increase was inhibited by basolateral acetazolamide (200 micromol/l), amiloride (1 mmol/l), and ouabain (5 mmol/l) but not by bafilomycin (100 nmol/l). The Vte response to HCO3(-) did not take place in Cl(-)-free conditions; however, it was unaffected by apical SITS (2 mmol/l) or DIDS (1 mmol/l). A decrease in pH from 7.75 to 7.45 pH units in the perfusate also induced a significant increase in Vte, which was matched by a net increase in acid secretion of 67.8 +/- 18.4 microequiv kg(-1) h(-1). This stimulation was sensitive to basolateral acetazolamide, bafilomycin, DIDS, and Na+-free conditions, but it still took place in Cl(-)-free saline. Therefore, the cellular response to low pH is different from the HCO3(-)-stimulated response. We also report V-H+-ATPase- and Na+-K+-ATPase-like immunoreactivity in gill sections for the first time in this crab. Our results suggest that carbonic anhydrase (CA), basolateral Na+/H+ exchangers and Na+-K+-ATPase and apical anion exchangers participate in the HCO3(-)-stimulated response, while CA, apical V-H+-ATPase and basolateral HCO3(-)-dependent cotransporters mediate the response to low pH.

  17. Contamination assessment of a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) using defence and damage biochemical indicators in gill of Liza aurata--an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Maria, V L; Ahmad, I; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2009-03-01

    Fish gill importance in toxicants uptake, bioconcentration and excretion allied to meagre knowledge on branchial damage/protection responses substantiate this study. Five critical sites in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were assessed in comparison with a reference site (Torreira), focusing on Liza aurata gill antioxidant defences versus damage (oxidative and genetic). Only in Barra fish displayed damage (lipid peroxidation) though no differences were found in antioxidants. In all other sites, except Rio, antioxidant alterations were found. Thus, fish from Gafanha, Laranjo and Vagos showed higher total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Higher glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity was also found in the first and the last sites, respectively. In Laranjo, metallothionein levels were higher though lower in Gafanha and Vagos. In general, damage was not accompanied by defences weakening confirming that predicting damage based on antioxidants depletion is not straightforward. The integrated biomarker response index ranked sites as: Gafanha>Barra>Laranjo>Vagos>Rio>Torreira.

  18. [Effects of parasitism on gill structure of Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello and Britsk, 1988 (Anastomidae) and Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes:Characidae)].

    PubMed

    Schalch, Ergio H C; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R E

    2006-01-01

    This work described the lesions caused in different species of fish by gill parasites from fee-fishing at Guariba, State of São Paulo. The research was developed from april, 1997 to march to 1999, seeking to verified the kind tissues lesions from fish. Of these, forty and seven were Leporinus macrocephalus and fifty and five Piaractus mesopotamicus. About 87.2% of the L. macrocephalus, and 58.1% of the P. mesopotamicus were sponged by several species of parasites. The parasite most abundant in L. macrocephalus was Piscinoodinium pillulare, while monogenean, Trichodina sp and myxosporidian infected P. mesopotamicus. Severe gill lesions have been observed in L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus caused by monogenean, P. pillulare e Trichodina sp. parasitism, such as intersticial hemorrhage, sub-epithelium edema, inflammation, epitelial hiperplasy in filaments and lamina, proliferation of mucosal cells and laminar fusion.

  19. Ammonia excretion and expression of transport proteins in the gills and skin of the intertidal fish Lipophrys pholis.

    PubMed

    Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Páscoa, Maria Inês; Freire, Carolina A; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal pools are intensely challenging environments, due to rapid and extreme fluctuations in water conditions during the tidal cycle. Emersion is another challenge intertidal fishes may face. Mechanisms of ammonia excretion and ion regulation were studied in the resident amphibious blennid Lipophrys pholis. The ammonia transporters Rhcg1 and Rhcg2 were cloned and characterized. Fish were challenged for 24h to 1) emersion, 2) fresh water (FW), and 3) high environmental ammonia (HEA; 1mM NH4Cl), or 4) ammonia loading (1.5μmol/g NH4HCO3). When air exposed, L. pholis maintained aquatic ammonia excretion rates (JAmm) while branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity increased, but no changes at the protein or mRNA levels of transporters were noted. In FW, JAmm decreased and osmotic problems were encountered. Skin NKA activity decreased, branchial Rhcg2, and skin Rhcg1 and Rhcg2 increased. Exposure to HEA only increased branchial Rhcg2 levels. Although internal ammonia loading only led to a modest non-significant increase in JAmm, skin NKA (activity and α-subunit), carbonic anhydrase protein levels, and branchial Rhcg1 levels increased. In summary, variable responses were observed involving both gill and skin but given the instability of its habitat, the constitutive expression of transporters is likely also of importance.

  20. The Greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part II: Simulation of Holocene Millennial-Scale Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysak, L. A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Brovkin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Multiple proxy data reveal that the middle Holocene (6 kyr BP) was warmer than the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) as well as the preindustrial period (1700 AD) in most regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This warmth is somewhat counterintuitive because the summer insolation was decreasing during this time. Cooling in the late Holocene (after 6 kyr BP) is hypothesized to be due mainly to the astronomical forcing. This cooling was also accompanied by significant changes in vegetation cover (i.e., treeline retreat from northern high latitudes; the desertification of the Sahara/Sahel region) and a small but gradual increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (from 260 ppm to 280 ppm). The early-to-middle Holocene warming, on the other hand, is hypothesized to be due in part to ice-albedo feedback in Northern America, associated with decreases in the Laurentide ice sheet, which completely disappeared by 6 kyr BP. The snow-vegetation-albedo feedback is also hypothesized to have played a role in this early warming event. To test the above hypotheses, the earlier geophysical McGill Paleoclimate Model has been coupled to the vegetation model known as VECODE (VEgetation COntinuous DEscription, one of the simpler dynamic global vegetation models), and a number of sensitivity experiments have been performed. The model results illustrate the role that Northern Hemisphere land cover changes played in explaining the natural millennial-scale climate variability from the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) to the preindustrial period (1700 AD).

  1. Isolation and identification of an ice-nucleating bacterium from the gills of the intertidal bivalve mollusc Geukensia demissa.

    PubMed

    Loomis, S H.; Zinser, M

    2001-07-01

    In the fall, freeze tolerant intertidal invertebrates usually produce ice-nucleating proteins that are secreted into the hemolymph. These proteins help protect against freeze damage by insuring that ice formation is limited to extracellular spaces. Geukensia demissa, a freeze tolerant, salt marsh bivalve mollusc was examined for the presence of ice nucleating proteins. The ice-nucleating temperature (INT) of the hemolymph was not significantly different from artificial seawater of the same salinity indicating the lack of an ice nucleating protein in the hemolymph. The palial fluid did have an elevated INT, indicating the presence of an ice nucleator. The INT of the palial fluid was significantly reduced by boiling and filtration through a 0.45-&mgr;m filter. High INT was also observed in the seawater associated with the bivalves, and was demonstrated in water samples collected from salt marshes but not sand and pebble beaches. Moreover, the INT of water samples collected from a salt marsh decreased in the summer. All of these data suggest that the ice-nucleating agents in the hemolymph and the seawater are ice-nucleating bacteria. One species of ice-nucleating bacteria, Pseudomonas fulva was isolated from the gills of Geukensia. These bacteria could perform the same function as hemolymph ice-nucleating proteins by limiting ice formation to extracellular compartments.

  2. The basal apparatus. Mass isolation from the molluscan ciliated gill epithelium and a preliminary characterization of striated rootlets

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The basal apparatus, consisting of an array of interconnected basal bodies bearing bifurcating striated rootlets encompassing a nucleus, has been isolated from hypertonically deciliated columnar gill epithelial cells of the bay scallop Aequipecten irradians through gentle lysis with Triton X-100. The rootlets, 8-10 mum in length, were not easily preserved with conventional electron microscope fixatives, suggesting that the extent of their contribution to cellular architecture has been somewhat underestimated, even though Englemann described many of the structural details of the basal apparatus in 1880. The striated rootlets were soluble at high but not at low pH, in 2 M solutions of sodium azide and potassium thiocyanate but not sodium or potassium chloride, in 1% deoxycholate but not digitonin, and in the denaturing solvents 6 M guanidine-HC1, 8 M urea, and 1% sodium dodecylsulfate at 100 degrees C. The protein found consistently when rootlets were solubilized migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels as a closely spaced doublet with apparent molecular weights of 230,000 and 250,000 daltons. This unique protein, distinct from tropocollagen or various muscle components, has been named ankyrin because of the rootlet's anchor-like function in the cell. PMID:1090630

  3. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Mendoza Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Roche, Dominique G

    2009-09-01

    During investigations of fish parasites in the Neotropics (including the state of Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, the Chautengo Lagoon on the Pacific coast of the state of Guerrero in Mexico, and Lake Gatun in the Panama Canal), three monogenoidean (Dactylogyridae) species were found parasitizing the gills of gerreids (Gerreidae): Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, was recovered from Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier) and Diapterus auratus Ranzani in Veracruz, from D. auratus and Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) in Yucatán, from Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) in Panama (all new hosts and geographical records), and from D. peruvianus (Cuvier) and Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) in Guerrero; Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky and Mendoza-Franco, 2008, was recovered from E. plumieri in Veracruz and from D. rhombeus in Yucatan (new hosts and geographical records), and Aristocleidus sp. was recovered from G. cinereus in Guerrero. Results from this study suggest that species of Aristocleidus exhibit wide host specificity within gerreid fishes and that geminate species within this parasite genus may have originated with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (3.1 to 3.5 ma). Evidence is also presented suggesting the potential role of the Panama Canal as a passageway allowing the interoceanic dispersal of Aristocleidus species across the isthmus.

  4. Influence of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on brain event-related potentials in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Geneviève; Felezeu, Mihaela; O’Connor, Kieron P.; Todorov, Christo; Stip, Emmanuel; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30 to 50% of people suffering from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) also fulfill diagnostic criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this high degree of comorbidity, very few studies have addressed the question of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in GTS patients using specific brain event-related potentials (ERP) responses. The aim of the current study was to quantify neurocognitive aspects of comorbidity, using ERPs. Fourteen adults with GTS (without OCD) were compared to a group of 12 participants with GTS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (GTS+OCS), to a group of 15 participants with OCD and to a group of 14 control participants without neurological or psychiatric problems. The P200 and P300 components were recorded during a visual counting oddball task. Results showed intact P200 amplitude in all groups, whilst the P300 amplitude was affected differentially across groups. The P300 oddball effect was reduced in participants in both OCD and GTS+OCS groups in the anterior region. However, the P300 oddball effect was significantly larger in participants of the GTS group compared to all other groups, mostly in the parietal region. These findings suggest that adults with GTS are characterized by enhanced working memory updating processes and that the superimposition of OCS can lead to a reduction of these processes. The discrepancy between our findings and results obtained in previous studies on GTS could reflect the modulating effect of OCS on late ERP components. PMID:18280023

  5. Plasma vitrification and re-use of non-combustible fiber reinforced plastic, gill net and waste glass.

    PubMed

    Chu, J P; Chen, Y T; Mahalingam, T; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, T W

    2006-12-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite material has widespread use in general tank, special chemical tank and body of yacht, etc. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume reduction of non-combustible FRP by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag with specific procedures. In this study, we have employed three main wastes such as, FRP, gill net and waste glass. The thermal molten process was applied to treat vitrified slag at high temperatures whereas in the post-heat treatment vitrified slags were mixed with specific additive and ground into powder form and then heat treated at high temperatures. With a two-stage heat treatment, the treated sample was generated into four crystalline phases, cristobalite, albite, anorthite and wollastonite. Fine and relatively high dense structures with desirable properties were obtained for samples treated by the two-stage heating treatment. Good physical and mechanical properties were achieved after heat treatment, and this study reveals that our results could be comparable with the commercial products.

  6. Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4α. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility.

  7. Pain assessment in context: a state of the science review of the McGill pain questionnaire 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Main, Chris J

    2016-07-01

    The McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) and its later derivative the short form-MPQ have been used widely both in experimental and clinical pain studies. They have been of considerable importance in stimulating research into the perception of pain and now, with the publication of its latest variant, the short form-MPQ-2, it is appropriate to appraise their utility in the light of subsequent research into the nature of pain and the purpose of pain assessment. Following a description of the content and development of the questionnaires, issues of validity, reliability, and utility are addressed, not only in terms of the individual pain descriptors and the scales, but also in terms of methods of quantification. In addition, other methods of pain depiction are considered. In the second part of the review, advances in pain measurement and methodology, in the elucidation of pain mechanisms and pathways, in the psychology of pain, and in the nature of pain behavior are presented and their implications for pain assessment in general and the MPQ family of measures in particular will be addressed. It is suggested that pain assessment needs to be cast in its social context. We need to understand the influences on pain expression using a socio-communication model of pain that recognizes the function of pain and the importance of both innate pain responses and the effects of social learning. The review concludes with recommendations for future use of the MPQ and identifies a number of research challenges which lie ahead.

  8. Effects of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on the biochemistry, swimming performance, gill histology and disease resistance of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.D.; Wood, A.W.; Farrell, A.P.; Kennedy, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The acute lethal and sublethal toxicity of the antisapstain didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated. The 96-h LC{sub 50} value in a flow-through exposure system was 0.4 mg-1{sup {minus}1}. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were significantly elevated after an acute 24-h exposure to 0.4 mg-1{sup {minus}1}. Values for hepato-somatic index (HSI), haematocit, leucocrit, plasma haemoglobin, and liver glycogen remained unchanged. Swimming performance decreased significantly after exposure to 0.2 mg-1{sup {minus}1} for exposure durations of 12-h and 24-h and to 0.4 mg{sup {minus}1} for exposure durations of 12-h, 24-h, and 48-h. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross lesions in gill epithelia as a result of toxicant exposure. In disease challenge experiments, exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDAC for 24-h did not effect the susceptibility of rainbow trout to the pathogen Vibrio anguilarum. Of a suite of toxicity tests, specific biochemical markers were unsatisfactory in revealing sublethal toxic effects. These were best revealed by an integrative measure of performance, namely swimming performance, but not disease resistance.

  9. Zinc causes acute impairment of glutathione metabolism followed by coordinated antioxidant defenses amplification in gills of brown mussels Perna perna.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Flesch, Samira; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Milani, Márcio Raimundo; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Zinc demonstrates protective and antioxidant properties at physiological levels, although these characteristics are not attributed at moderate or high concentrations. Zinc toxicity has been related to a number of factors, including interference with antioxidant defenses. In particular, the inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been suggested as a possible mechanism for acute zinc toxicity in bivalves. The present work investigates the biochemical effects of a non-lethal zinc concentration on antioxidant-related parameters in gills of brown mussels Perna perna exposed for 21 days to 2.6 μM zinc chloride. After 2 days of exposure, zinc caused impairment of the antioxidant system, decreasing GR activity and glutathione levels. An increase in antioxidant defenses became evident at 7 and 21 days of exposure, as an increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity along with restoration of glutathione levels and GR activity. After 7 and 21 days, an increase in cellular peroxides and lipid peroxidation end products were also detected, which are indicative of oxidative damage. Changes in GR activity contrasts with protein immunoblotting data, suggesting that zinc produces a long lasting inhibition of GR. Contrary to the general trend in antioxidants, levels of peroxiredoxin 6 decreased after 21 days of exposure. The data presented here support the hypothesis that zinc can impair thiol homeostasis, causes an increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibits GR, imposing a pro-oxidant status, which seems to trigger homeostatic mechanisms leading to a subsequent increase on antioxidant-related defenses.

  10. Effect of amoxicillin exposure on brain, gill, liver, and kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio): The role of amoxicilloic acid.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Dublán-García, Octavio; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Castañeda-Peñalvo, Gregorio; Lizcano-Sanz, Isabel; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics around the world due to its broad-spectrum activity against different bacterial strains as well as its use as a growth promoter in animal husbandry. Although residues of this antibacterial agent have been found in water bodies in diverse countries, there is not enough information on its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This study aimed to evaluate AMX-induced oxidative stress in brain, gill, liver and kidney of C. carpio. Carp were exposed to three different concentrations of AMX (10 ng/L, 10 μg/L, 10 mg/L) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Amoxicillin and its main degradation product amoxicilloic acid (AMA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and UV detection (HPLC-EC-UV). Significant increases in LPX, HPC, and PCC (P < 0.05) were found in all study organs, particularly kidney, as well as significant changes in antioxidant enzymes activity. Amoxicilloic acid in water is concluded to induce oxidative stress in C. carpio, this damage being highest in kidney. The biomarkers used are effective for the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1102-1120, 2017.

  11. Effect of acetaminophen exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss gills and liver: detoxification mechanisms, oxidative defence system and peroxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Correia, A T; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Nunes, B

    2014-05-01

    The increasing presence of pharmaceutical drugs in nature is cause of concern due to the occurrence of oxidative stress in non-target species. Acetaminophen is widely used in human medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic drug, and it is one of the most sold non-prescription drugs. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of acetaminophen (APAP) in Oncorhynchus mykiss following acute and chronic exposures in realistic levels. In order to evaluate the APAP effects in the rainbow trout, gills and liver were analyzed with biochemical biomarkers, such as catalase (CAT), total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) activity and also lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS). The results obtained in all tests indicate that a significant response of oxidative stress was established, along with the increase of APAP concentrations. The establishment of an oxidative stress scenario occurred with the involvement of all tested biomarkers, sustaining a generalized set of pro-oxidative effects elicited by APAP. Additionally, the occurrence of oxidative damage strongly suggests the impairment of the antioxidant defense mechanism of O. mykiss. It is important to note that the occurrence of oxidative deleterious effects and peroxidative damages occurred for concentrations similar to those already reported for several freshwater ecosystems. The importance of these assumptions is further discussed under the scope of ecological relevance of the assessment of effects caused by pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms.

  12. A personal 35 year perspective on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: prevalence, phenomenology, comorbidities, and coexistent psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This Series is a personal narrative of my experience with patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and covers its definition and history since the first description in 1825. Controversy entered the prevalence debate early. Although originally considered very rare, in the 1980s, Tourette's syndrome was reported to be common. However, Tourette's syndrome has been shown to occur at a prevalence of about 0·85% to 1%. Tourette's syndrome is more common in the male population, more prominent during childhood, and usually improves, but does not disappear with age. Tourette's syndrome is considered less common in people of sub-Saharan black African, African-American, and American Hispanic ethnic origin. The phenomenology is similar worldwide, indicating a biological basis. The hallmark characteristics are multiple motor and one or more vocal/phonic tics. Other associated features include premonitory urges, a waxing and waning course, and to a much lesser degree, coprolalia. Comorbid disorders are common and are suggested to include obsessive-compulsive disorder and behaviours, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autistic spectrum disorder. Coexistent psychopathologies are suggested to include depression and conduct and personality disorders. Importantly, I argue that Tourette's syndrome is not a unitary condition. Finally, I offer suggestions for future research.

  13. Characterization of the post-harvest changes in gene transcription in the gill of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Sato, Toshitsugu

    2009-08-01

    We compared the gene expression patterns of Lentinula edodes fresh fruiting bodies and fruiting bodies 3 days after harvest, by suppression subtractive hybridization, to characterize the physiologic changes that occur after harvest, such as gill browning and cell wall lysis of the fruiting body, which are responsible for the loss of food quality and value. We found increase of transcription levels of several enzyme encoding genes, such as, two phenol oxidases encoding genes (tyr tyrosinase, lcc4 laccase), and several cell wall degradation-related enzyme-encoding genes, such as mixed-linked glucanase (mlg1), chitinases (chi1, chi2), chitin deacetylase (chd1), and chitosanase (cho1), after harvesting. We isolated a putative transcription factor-encoding gene (L. edodes exp1) with high similarity to exp1 from Coprinopsis cinerea, which is involved in autolysis of the cap during spore diffusion. Transcription of L. edodes exp1 increased post-harvest, which suggests that its target genes are up-regulated after harvesting. These enzymes and the transcription factor may be involved in L. edodes fruiting body senescence.

  14. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  15. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  16. Intracellular pH regulation in isolated trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cell subtypes: evidence for Na+/H+ activity.

    PubMed

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Galvez, Fernando; Goss, Greg G

    2010-02-01

    We have studied intracellular pH (pH(i)) recovery in isolated trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells following acidification by the NH(4)Cl pre-pulse technique. Within a mixed MR cell population, one cell type displayed Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery while the other cell type lacked a Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery. Cells displaying Na(+) independent recovery exhibited a significantly higher buffering capacity compared to cells lacking Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery. Cells displaying Na(+) independent recovery were identified as PNA(+) (peanut lectin agluttinin binding) MR cells while those unable to recover were identified as PNA(-) (non-peanut lectin agluttinin binding) MR cells. Therefore, recovery from acidification in the absence of Na(+) provides a direct functional marker for PNA(+) and PNA(-) MR cells. Re-addition of Na(+) to acidified cells resulted in a transient pH(i) recovery in both cell types. This event was abolished by amiloride (500 microM) but it was insensitive to phenamil (50 microM). The phorbol ester PMA (1 microM) potentiated the Na(+) induced pH(i) recovery suggesting that activation by PKC is required for continuous Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in trout gill MR cells. This study is the first functional description of pH(i) recovery in lectin-identified trout gill MR cells and provides insight into a putative cellular signaling mechanism that may control pH(i) regulation in the gill epithelium.

  17. DNA Damage and Transcriptional Changes in the Gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to Nanomolar Doses of Combined Metal Salts (Cd, Cu, Hg)

    PubMed Central

    Varotto, Laura; Domeneghetti, Stefania; Rosani, Umberto; Manfrin, Chiara; Cajaraville, Miren P.; Raccanelli, Stefano; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at an integrated and mechanistic view of the early biological effects of selected metals in the marine sentinel organism Mytilus galloprovincialis, we exposed mussels for 48 hours to 50, 100 and 200 nM solutions of equimolar Cd, Cu and Hg salts and measured cytological and molecular biomarkers in parallel. Focusing on the mussel gills, first target of toxic water contaminants and actively proliferating tissue, we detected significant dose-related increases of cells with micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in the treated mussels, with differences in the bioconcentration of the three metals determined in the mussel flesh by atomic absorption spectrometry. Gene expression profiles, determined in the same individual gills in parallel, revealed some transcriptional changes at the 50 nM dose, and substantial increases of differentially expressed genes at the 100 and 200 nM doses, with roughly similar amounts of up- and down-regulated genes. The functional annotation of gill transcripts with consistent expression trends and significantly altered at least in one dose point disclosed the complexity of the induced cell response. The most evident transcriptional changes concerned protein synthesis and turnover, ion homeostasis, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and intracellular trafficking (transcript sequences denoting heat shock proteins, metal binding thioneins, sequestosome 1 and proteasome subunits, and GADD45 exemplify up-regulated genes while transcript sequences denoting actin, tubulins and the apoptosis inhibitor 1 exemplify down-regulated genes). Overall, nanomolar doses of co-occurring free metal ions have induced significant structural and functional changes in the mussel gills: the intensity of response to the stimulus measured in laboratory supports the additional validation of molecular markers of metal exposure to be used in Mussel Watch programs. PMID:23355883

  18. High yield and rapid growth of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis in co-culture with a rainbow trout gill-derived cell line RTgill-W1.

    PubMed

    Lee, L E J; Van Es, S J; Walsh, S K; Rainnie, D J; Donay, N; Summerfield, R; Cawthorn, R J

    2006-08-01

    Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis is an ubiquitous amphizoic marine protozoan and has been implicated as the causative agent for several diseases in marine organisms, most notably amoebic gill disease (AGD) in Atlantic salmon. Despite several reports on the pathology of AGD, relatively little is known about the protozoan and its relationship to host cells. In this study, an in vitro approach using monolayers of a rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1, ATCC CRL-2523) was used to rapidly grow large numbers of N. pemaquidensis (ATCC 50172) and investigate cell-pathogen interactions. Established cell lines derived from other tissues of rainbow trout and other fish species were also evaluated for amoeba growth support. The amoebae showed preference and highest yield when grown with RTgill-W1 over nine other tested fish cell lines. Amoeba yields could reach as high as 5 x 10(5) cells mL(-1) within 3 days of growth on the gill cell monolayers. The amoebae caused visible focal lesions in RTgill-W1 monolayers within 24 h of exposure and rapidly proliferated and spread with cytopathic effects destroying the neighbouring pavement-like cells within 48-72 h after initial exposure in media above 700 mOsm kg(-1). Disruption of the integrity of the gill cell monolayers could be noted within 30 min of exposure to the amoeba suspensions by changes in transepithelial resistance (TER) compared with control cell monolayers maintained in the exposure media. This was significantly different by 2 h (P < 0.05) compared with control cells and remained significantly different (P < 0.01) for the remaining 72 h that the TER was monitored. The RTgill-W1 cell line is thus a convenient model for growing N. pemaquidensis and for studying host-pathogen interactions in AGD.

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to soft, acidic water on gill development and chloride cell numbers in embryo-larval brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conklin, D.J.; Mowbray, R.C.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recruitment failure is considered to be a major factor contributing to the decline of fish populations in soft, acidic waters; direct mortality of embryo-larval fishes has been postulated as a major cause of the decline. Little is understood of the physiological consequences to embryo-larval fishes of prolonged exposure to soft, acidic waters; however, dysfunction of respiratory and ionoregulatory processes is suspected. In order to evaluate the effects of acid exposure on the respiratory and ionoregulatory systems of developing brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, differences in gill morphology and numbers of chloride cells were compared between groups cf developing embryo-larval fish continuously exposed to moderately hard well water (130.0 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 7.94) or to reconstituted soft, acidic water (4.4 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 5.25) designed to mimic acidic waters of northern Wisconsin acidified lakes. Exposures were maintained for up to 48 days (82 days after fertilization) during critical periods of growth and differentiation of branchial structures. The second right gill arch of each fish was examined for changes in the development of filaments and lamellae and for differences in numbers of chloride cells. Gills of fish that developed in soft, acidic water contained greater numbers of normal and degenerating chloride cells, exhibited hyperplasia of primary epithelium and multiple fusions of adjacent filaments and lamellar epithelium than the gills of control fish. Filament and lamellar lengths and numbers of lamellae per filament were significantly less (P< 0.05) in fish that developed in soft, acidic water than in fish exposed to well water.

  20. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae), gill parasites of Tilapia cabrae (Teleostei: Cichlidae), with discussion on relative length of haptoral sclerites.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, Antoine; Euzet, Louis

    2003-09-01

    Tilapia cabrae Boulenger, 1899, a cichlid fish from coastal lowlands of the Republic of Congo (Africa), was examined for gill parasites. Four new species of the Monogenea were found, all belonging to Cichlidogyrus (Ancyrocephalidae): C. berradae sp. n., C. revesati sp. n., C. legendrei sp. n., and C. lemoallei sp. n. A possible relationship between the relative size of haptoral sclerites (i.e., uncinuli compared to gripi) and microhabitat selection in the studied host-parasite model is discussed.

  1. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase β1 subunit associates with α1 subunit modulating a "higher-NKA-in-hyposmotic media" response in gills of euryhaline milkfish, Chanos chanos.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chu, Keng-Fu; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2017-03-10

    The euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos) is a popular aquaculture species that can be cultured in fresh water, brackish water, or seawater in Southeast Asia. In gills of the milkfish, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (i.e., NKA; sodium pump) responds to salinity challenges including changes in mRNA abundance, protein amount, and activity. The functional pump is composed of a heterodimeric protein complex composed of α- and β-subunits. Among the NKA genes, α1-β1 isozyme comprises the major form of NKA subunits in mammalian osmoregulatory organs; however, most studies on fish gills have focused on the α1 subunit and did not verify the α1-β1 isozyme. Based on the sequenced milkfish transcriptome, an NKA β1 subunit gene was identified that had the highest amino acid homology to β233, a NKA β1 subunit paralog originally identified in the eel. Despite this high level of homology to β233, phylogenetic analysis and the fact that only a single NKA β1 subunit gene exists in the milkfish suggest that the milkfish gene should be referred to as the NKA β1 subunit gene. The results of accurate domain prediction of the β1 subunit, co-localization of α1 and β1 subunits in epithelial ionocytes, and co-immunoprecipitation of α1 and β1 subunits, indicated the formation of a α1-β1 complex in milkfish gills. Moreover, when transferred to hyposmotic media (fresh water) from seawater, parallel increases in branchial mRNA and protein expression of NKA α1 and β1 subunits suggested their roles in hypo-osmoregulation of euryhaline milkfish. This study molecularly characterized the NKA β1 subunit and provided the first evidence for an NKA α1-β1 association in gill ionocytes of euryhaline teleosts.

  2. L'enseignement modulaire et le laboratoire de langues: conception et experimentation d'un nouveau cours de francais oral au Centre d'anglais et de francais, Universite McGill (Modular Instruction and the Language Laboratory: Conception and Experimentation with a New Course in Oral French at the English and French Center, McGill University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legoux, Marie-Noelle

    1980-01-01

    A modular-type course in French was developed at the "Centre d'anglais et de francais" at McGill University (Montreal) to meet the needs of incoming students who were lacking skills in listening and oral expression. The course is composed of eight modules a semester, each module corresponding to 15 to 20 hours work on the student's part. The…

  3. Differences in activity level between cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) and Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) are related to differences in heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, and gill surface area.

    PubMed

    Grim, Jeffrey M; Ding, A Adam; Bennett, Wayne A

    2012-10-01

    Aquatic animals are faced with the challenge of extracting oxygen from water, a medium that is metabolically expensive to ventilate and that contains just a fraction of the oxygen concentration relative to air, yet the physiologies of fishes have evolved to support a wide range of activity levels in nature. Oxygen delivery components, including gill surface area (oxygen uptake), blood chemistry (oxygen transport), and the heart (system pump), have been positively correlated to activity level in teleost fishes, yet relatively little is known about how these components are related to activity in elasmobranches. The current study addresses this question by examining heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, and gill surface area in wild-caught representatives of the benthic Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) and active cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Allometric scaling exponents are similar for all four measures between the study species. Heart mass, gill surfaces areas, and hemoglobin concentrations were 2.1 times, approximately 7.1 times, and 2.0 times higher, respectively, in active cownose rays, when compared to benthic Atlantic stingrays, after correcting for differences in body mass. When considered in the context of functional plasticity within the oxygen delivery systems of benthic and active species, data from the current study indicate that higher activity levels in cownose rays are supported by modifications that, at least in part, are likely to enhance oxygen uptake.

  4. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J.; Carroll, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain’s dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of t