Science.gov

Sample records for god improves response

  1. God will forgive: reflecting on God's love decreases neurophysiological responses to errors.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Inzlicht, Michael; Larson, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God's love may be more effective, relative to God's wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God's love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one's behavior and overarching religious standards. We do so within a neurophysiological framework, by observing the effects of exposure to concepts of God's love vs punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN)--a neural signal originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that is associated with performance monitoring and affective responses to errors. Participants included 123 students at Brigham Young University, who completed a Go/No-Go task where they made 'religious' errors (i.e. ostensibly exhibited pro-alcohol tendencies). Reflecting on God's love caused dampened ERNs and worse performance on the Go/No-Go task. Thinking about God's punishment did not affect performance or ERNs. Results suggest that one possible reason religiosity is generally linked to positive well-being may be because of a decreased affective response to errors that occurs when God's love is prominent in the minds of believers.

  2. God will forgive: reflecting on God's love decreases neurophysiological responses to errors.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Inzlicht, Michael; Larson, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God's love may be more effective, relative to God's wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God's love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one's behavior and overarching religious standards. We do so within a neurophysiological framework, by observing the effects of exposure to concepts of God's love vs punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN)--a neural signal originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that is associated with performance monitoring and affective responses to errors. Participants included 123 students at Brigham Young University, who completed a Go/No-Go task where they made 'religious' errors (i.e. ostensibly exhibited pro-alcohol tendencies). Reflecting on God's love caused dampened ERNs and worse performance on the Go/No-Go task. Thinking about God's punishment did not affect performance or ERNs. Results suggest that one possible reason religiosity is generally linked to positive well-being may be because of a decreased affective response to errors that occurs when God's love is prominent in the minds of believers. PMID:25062839

  3. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  4. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  5. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  6. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  7. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  8. God will forgive: reflecting on God’s love decreases neurophysiological responses to errors

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Larson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God’s love may be more effective, relative to God’s wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God’s love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one’s behavior and overarching religious standards. We do so within a neurophysiological framework, by observing the effects of exposure to concepts of God’s love vs punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN)—a neural signal originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that is associated with performance monitoring and affective responses to errors. Participants included 123 students at Brigham Young University, who completed a Go/No-Go task where they made ‘religious’ errors (i.e. ostensibly exhibited pro-alcohol tendencies). Reflecting on God’s love caused dampened ERNs and worse performance on the Go/No-Go task. Thinking about God’s punishment did not affect performance or ERNs. Results suggest that one possible reason religiosity is generally linked to positive well-being may be because of a decreased affective response to errors that occurs when God’s love is prominent in the minds of believers. PMID:25062839

  9. The likelihood of GODs' existence: improving the SN 1987a constraint on the size of large compact dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, C.; Pons, J. A.; Phillips, D. R.; Reddy, S.

    2001-06-01

    The existence of compact dimensions which are accessible only to gravity represents an intriguing possible solution to the hierarchy problem. At present the strongest constraint on the existence of such compact Gravity-Only Dimensions (GODs) comes from SN 1987a. Here we report on the first self-consistent simulations of the early, neutrino-emitting phase of a proto-neutron star which include energy losses due to the coupling of the Kaluza-Klein modes of the graviton which arise in a world with GODs. We compare the neutrino signals from these simulations to that from SN 1987a and use a rigorous probabilistic analysis to derive improved bounds for the radii of such GODs. We find that the possibility that there are two compact extra dimensions with radii larger than 0.66 μm is excluded at the 95% confidence level - as is the possibility that there are three compact extra dimensions larger than 0.8 nm.

  10. An old god awakens, briefly.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    During a psychodynamic psychotherapy with a middle-aged Catholic woman, her realization that she had foregone her calling to a religious vocation led to the patient's entering a convent. Throughout these developments the therapist struggled with countertransference responses related to her own religious history, recognizing the re-awakening of a previous god representation from her own adolescence. The interaction suggests that, although one's god representation may undergo maturation, old relationships with divinity may not be completely suppressed. PMID:19364257

  11. Good for God? Religious motivation reduces perceived responsibility for and morality of good deeds.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Will M

    2014-08-01

    Many people view religion as a crucial source of morality. However, 6 experiments (total N = 1,078) revealed that good deeds are perceived as less moral if they are performed for religious reasons. Religiously motivated acts were seen as less moral than the exact same acts performed for other reasons (Experiments 1-2 and 6). Religious motivations also reduced attributions of intention and responsibility (Experiments 3-6), an effect that fully mediated the effect of religious motivations on perceived morality (Experiment 6). The effects were not explained by different perceptions of motivation orientation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) across conditions (Experiment 4) and also were evident when religious upbringing led to an intuitive moral response (Experiment 5). Effects generalized across religious and nonreligious participants. When viewing a religiously motivated good deed, people infer that actually helping others is, in part, a side effect of other motivations rather than an end in itself. Thus, religiously motivated actors are seen as less responsible than secular actors for their good deeds, and their helping behavior is viewed as less moral than identical good deeds performed for either unclear or secular motivations.

  12. Good for God? Religious motivation reduces perceived responsibility for and morality of good deeds.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Will M

    2014-08-01

    Many people view religion as a crucial source of morality. However, 6 experiments (total N = 1,078) revealed that good deeds are perceived as less moral if they are performed for religious reasons. Religiously motivated acts were seen as less moral than the exact same acts performed for other reasons (Experiments 1-2 and 6). Religious motivations also reduced attributions of intention and responsibility (Experiments 3-6), an effect that fully mediated the effect of religious motivations on perceived morality (Experiment 6). The effects were not explained by different perceptions of motivation orientation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) across conditions (Experiment 4) and also were evident when religious upbringing led to an intuitive moral response (Experiment 5). Effects generalized across religious and nonreligious participants. When viewing a religiously motivated good deed, people infer that actually helping others is, in part, a side effect of other motivations rather than an end in itself. Thus, religiously motivated actors are seen as less responsible than secular actors for their good deeds, and their helping behavior is viewed as less moral than identical good deeds performed for either unclear or secular motivations. PMID:24773192

  13. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  14. Of God and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T Byram

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients. PMID:26802419

  15. How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind.

    PubMed

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Lane, Jonathan D; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of religious cognition. First, we show that although adults explicitly discriminate supernatural minds from human minds, their implicit responses reveal far less discrimination. Next, we demonstrate that children's religious cognition often matches adults' implicit responses, revealing anthropomorphic notions of God's mind. Together, data from children and adults suggest the intuitive nature of perceiving God's mind as human-like. We then propose three complementary explanations for why anthropomorphism persists in adulthood, suggesting that anthropomorphism may be (a) an instance of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic; (b) a reflection of early testimony; and/or (c) an evolutionary byproduct. PMID:25807973

  16. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  17. The god within and the god without.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Teddi

    2013-09-01

    Spirituality enables the direct experience of connection between the individual and God, and can exist with or without an intermediary such as a religious institution. Via meditation or spiritual practice one can find God within oneself. Seeing oneself as a little Christ or Buddha affirms that one is sacred, and worthy of self-love and self-respect. This self-image is incongruent with violence to the self, such as substance misuse. Through spirituality we learn to see ourselves as parts of a whole, and worthy of the love and respect of others. This love is sustainable, and can fulfill what was unconsciously or consciously sought through the misuse of substances. From the point of view of the therapist, this is the beginning of healing.

  18. Improving Student Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Sara; Hughs, Leah; Wilder, Ronda

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for increasing student academic and social responsibility. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, 1st, and 5th grade students in a growing middle-class community in central Illinois. The problems of irresponsible academic and social behavior were documented through…

  19. Gods behaving badly.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the myths surrounding the birth and death of Asclepios, the popular healing God of the Greeks and his place among other deities of the Greek Pantheon. The enigmatic invocation of Asclepios by Socrates, the Athenian philosopher condemned to take the hemlock, in his final moments is also discussed.

  20. Gods behaving badly.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the myths surrounding the birth and death of Asclepios, the popular healing God of the Greeks and his place among other deities of the Greek Pantheon. The enigmatic invocation of Asclepios by Socrates, the Athenian philosopher condemned to take the hemlock, in his final moments is also discussed. PMID:24585610

  1. The House of God : another look.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese

    2002-06-01

    Since its publication in 1978, Samuel Shem's The House of God has sold over two million copies in over 50 countries. While it has remained popular among medical students, its value as a literary text to promote critical reflection on self and profession continues to be unrecognized in professional spheres. In spite of the ongoing conditions in medical training that prompted Shem's satirical novel, The House of God continues to evoke negative responses from academic medicine and has even been dismissed as "dated." This article examines the novel, its reception by academic medicine, and the relevance of its satire through an analyses of articles, reviews, and letters, along with Shem's observations on the novel and its controversies. Finally, the future of The House of God is proposed.

  2. Divine intuition: cognitive style influences belief in God.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Amitai; Rand, David G; Greene, Joshua D

    2012-08-01

    Some have argued that belief in God is intuitive, a natural (by-)product of the human mind given its cognitive structure and social context. If this is true, the extent to which one believes in God may be influenced by one's more general tendency to rely on intuition versus reflection. Three studies support this hypothesis, linking intuitive cognitive style to belief in God. Study 1 showed that individual differences in cognitive style predict belief in God. Participants completed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005), which employs math problems that, although easily solvable, have intuitively compelling incorrect answers. Participants who gave more intuitive answers on the CRT reported stronger belief in God. This effect was not mediated by education level, income, political orientation, or other demographic variables. Study 2 showed that the correlation between CRT scores and belief in God also holds when cognitive ability (IQ) and aspects of personality were controlled. Moreover, both studies demonstrated that intuitive CRT responses predicted the degree to which individuals reported having strengthened their belief in God since childhood, but not their familial religiosity during childhood, suggesting a causal relationship between cognitive style and change in belief over time. Study 3 revealed such a causal relationship over the short term: Experimentally inducing a mindset that favors intuition over reflection increases self-reported belief in God.

  3. Method for improving instrument response

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  4. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  5. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  6. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented.

  7. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. PMID:24350816

  8. An appointment with god: AIDS, place, and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes how an African American gay man living with AIDS used his spiritual, religious, and cultural strengths to resist internalized dislocation because of heterosexism and homophobia. He was able to experience a relocation of God from places that rejected him to places that were conducive to his healing. By using these strengths, he was able to reject his physician's prediction of death and to call on God in response to an end-stage AIDS crisis. The development of spiritual agency is addressed.

  9. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    PubMed

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  10. Immune responses to improving welfare

    PubMed Central

    Berghman, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that “increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better” because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as “sickness behavior,” includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  11. Meteor Beliefs Project: Spears of GodSpears of God

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Howard V.; McBeath, Alastair; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2012-04-01

    A selection of genuine or supposedly sky-fallen objects from real-world sources, a mixture of weapons, tools and "magical" objects of heavenly provenance, are drawn from their re-use in the near-future science-fiction novel Spears of God by author Howard V Hendrix, with additional discussion. The book includes other meteoric and meteoritic items too, some of which have been the subject of previous Meteor Beliefs Project examinations.

  12. The clash of Gods: changes in a patient's use of God representations.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that manifest and latent intrapsychic and interpersonal clashes of god representations, which are inextricably yoked to transference and countertransference communications, signify the patient's and therapist's personal realities and histories. More specifically, the therapist's conscious (relatively speaking) commitment to a god representation will not only shape his/her analytic attitude-as well as interpretations and noninterpretive interventions-it may also be implicated in a patient altering his/her use of god representations. I suggest further that one way to understand the process of psychoanalytic therapy is how both analyst and analysand tacitly face and answer the following questions: What God(s) orients my life and relationships? What God(s) represents subjugation, fear, and the loss of freedom? What God(s) have I repressed? What God(s) represents the possibility and experience of being alive and real with others? In the end, what God(s) will I choose to serve, to surrender to?

  13. The need to belong can motivate belief in God.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2012-04-01

    The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs.

  14. [Traffic accidents during the Roman empire: to go to the doctor o to the god?].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    A few pages by Galen and an inscription from Roman Egypt testify to two psychological attitudes towards diseases and accidents: either you feel responsible and go to the doctor, or you think you are in the hands of some god.

  15. God's ruthless embrace: religious belief in three women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gravitt, Wendy Jones

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if three people with the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) viewed religion in characteristic and unique ways. The data was analyzed using Object Relations Theory, Attachment Theory, and an integrated cognitive, affect, and object relations theory. I concluded that the participants shared a faith style that resulted from an early developmental failure and that their image and response to God and the moral universe were a re-enactment of the dysfunctional mother/infant dyad. Specifically, God's character was seen as (1) self-evident and inescapable and (2) stationary and large. God was envisioned (3) as a person who is (4) magical; (5) inexplicable, and therefore, unreliable. Participants believed that (6) God's task was to provide and that (7) God created a moral universe. Their responses had an intense and desperate quality, were typified by ambivalence, and emphasized a power differential. Finally, the women's relationship with God took the form of a deal: if she was dependent, then God would provide. The interface between BPD and psychological and spiritual well-being is discussed and a tentative application of the findings is made to the field of mental health nursing. I suggest that an understanding of BPD religious constructs and the sensitive application of a few principles can contribute to the spiritual and psychological well-being of the BPD inpatient. PMID:21574844

  16. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

    PubMed

    Be'ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  17. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  18. How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Lane, Jonathan D.; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of…

  19. Perceiving Minds and Gods: How Mind Perception Enables, Constrains, and Is Triggered by Belief in Gods.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Will M

    2013-07-01

    Most people believe in the existence of empirically unverifiable gods. Despite apparent heterogeneity, people's conceptions of their gods center on predictable themes. Gods are overwhelmingly represented as intentional agents with (more or less) humanlike mental lives. This article reviews converging evidence suggesting that this regularity in god concepts exists in part because the ability to represent gods emerges as a cognitive by-product of the human capability to perceive minds. Basic human mind-perception abilities both facilitate and constrain belief in gods, with profound implications for individual differences in religious beliefs, implicit representations of supernatural agents, and the varieties of nonreligious experience. Furthermore, people react similarly to both reminders of gods and cues of social surveillance (e.g., audiences or video cameras), leading to interesting consequences in the domains of prosocial behavior, socially desirable responding, and self-awareness. Converging evidence indicates that mind perception is both cause and consequence of many religious beliefs. PMID:26173118

  20. Stress and depression among older residents in religious monasteries: do friends and God matter?

    PubMed

    Bishop, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore how friendship and attach-0 ment to God provide protective benefits against stress and depression. Participants included 235 men and women, age 64 and older, residing in religious monasteries affiliated with the Order of St. Benedict. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were completed to assess main and moderating effects of friendship and attachment to God relative to the influence of stress on depressive symptomology. Lower degree of friendship closeness (beta = -.12, p < .10) and greater insecurity with God (beta = -.15, p < .01) were directly associated with greater depressive symptoms. A significant three-way interaction (Stress x Friendship x Attachment to God) also existed relative to depressive symptoms (beta = .14, p < .05). Three "stress-buffering" mechanisms emerged relative to the influence of stress on depressive symptomology. First, a greater degree of friendship closeness in combination with less secure attachment to God represented a greater risk for depressive symptoms. Second, greater friendship closeness in combination with greater secure attachment to God reduced the risk for depressive symptoms. Third, lower degree of friendship closeness combined with less secure attachment to God diminished the noxious effects of stress on depressive symptoms. This has implications relative to how social and spiritual resources can be used to reduce stress and improve quality of life for older adults residing in religious communities.

  1. Response properties of self-improving systems.

    PubMed

    Krakovsky, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    We observe that a sustained positivity (or negativity) of a system's second-order response will result in a directional change of the system's characteristics under the corresponding random exposure. We identify these changes with improvement (or decline) in the state of a system and introduce the concept of self-improving systems as systems which characteristics can sustainably improve under a random exposure. The resulting framework is of a general phenomenological nature and can be applied to complex systems across different areas of knowledge. PMID:27059562

  2. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  3. Theology links Christian ministry with God's call.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, L J

    1984-03-01

    Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future.

  4. Mind God's mind: History, development, and teaching.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, Andreas; Makris, Nikos; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    We dispute the target article that belief in Big Gods facilitated development of large societies and suggest that the direction of causality might be inverted. We also suggest that plain theory of mind (ToM), although necessary, is not sufficient to conceive Big Gods. Grasp of other aspects of the mind is required. However, this theory is useful for the teaching of religion. PMID:26948727

  5. Image of God, religion, spirituality, and life changes in breast cancer survivors: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Judith A; Edward, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Religion and spirituality are much studied coping mechanisms; however, their relationship to changes in behaviors, relationships, and goals is unclear. This study explored the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on religion/faith and changes in behaviors, relationship, or goals. In this qualitative study, women, who participated in a larger, quantitative study, completed written responses to questions regarding the role of religion/faith in their lives, the impact of their diagnosis on their image of God and on faith/religious beliefs, and any changes in behaviors, relationships, or life goals were examined. Based on previous findings noting differences in psychological outcomes based on a higher (HE) or lesser (LE) engaged view of God, 28 (14 HE; 14 LE) women were included in the analysis. Awareness of life and its fleeting nature was common to all. Ensuing behaviors varied from a need to focus on self-improvement-egocentrism (LE)-to a need to focus on using their experiences to help others-altruism (HE). Study results suggest that seemingly small, but highly meaningful, differences based on one's worldview result in considerably different attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.

  6. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  7. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    PubMed

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  8. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelson, D.G.,; Jette, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended.

  10. Improving Science Communication with Responsive Web Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilverda, M.

    2013-12-01

    the world use low-bandwidth connections. Communicating science effectively includes efficient delivery of the information to the reader. To meet this criteria, responsive designs should also incorporate "mobile first" elements such as serving ideal image sizes (a low resolution cell phone does not need to receive a large desktop image) and a focus on fast, readable content delivery. The technical implementation of responsive web design is constantly changing as new web standards and approaches become available. However, fundamental design principles such as grid layouts, clear typography, and proper use of white space should be an important part of content delivery within any responsive design. This presentation will discuss current responsive design approaches for improving scientific communication across multiple devices, operating systems, and bandwidth capacities. The presentation will also include example responsive designs for scientific papers and websites. Implementing a responsive design approach with a focus on content and fundamental design principles is an important step to ensuring scientific information remains clear and accessible as screens and devices continue to evolve.

  11. Fabrication of glucose fiber sensor based on immobilized GOD technique for rapid measurement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Qian; Lu, Yin-Lin; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2010-12-20

    The concentration and pH value of the immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) are critical parameters in a glucose sensor. In this study, we develop a glucose fiber sensor integrated with heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference arising from the chemical reaction between glucose and GOD. Our studies show that the response time and resolution of this sensor will be strongly affected by the pH and concentration properties of GOD. In addition, the results show good linearity between the calibration curve for the glucose solution and serum based sample. The response time of this sensor can be shorter than 3 seconds and best resolutions are 0.1 and 0.136 mg/dl for glucose solution and serum based sample, respectively.

  12. When god sanctions killing: effect of scriptural violence on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L

    2007-03-01

    Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.

  13. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    PubMed

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  14. John of God: an enigma for the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Some cures carried out by Medium João Teixeira de Faría (John of God) are presented. He claims to channel spiritual entities (Drs. Augusto de Almeida, Oswaldo Cruz, and José Valdivino) that have instantaneous access to the physical, emotional and spiritual history of each patient who is then treated by physical or "spiritual" surgeries, herbs, meditation, prayers and the ingestion of "energized" water. People operated on have no pain during the interventions and infections have not been observed. The mechanisms responsible for the healings are unknown.

  15. John of God: an enigma for the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Some cures carried out by Medium João Teixeira de Faría (John of God) are presented. He claims to channel spiritual entities (Drs. Augusto de Almeida, Oswaldo Cruz, and José Valdivino) that have instantaneous access to the physical, emotional and spiritual history of each patient who is then treated by physical or "spiritual" surgeries, herbs, meditation, prayers and the ingestion of "energized" water. People operated on have no pain during the interventions and infections have not been observed. The mechanisms responsible for the healings are unknown. PMID:25558757

  16. Psychoanalytic Bases for One's Image of God: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.

    As a result of Freud's seminal postulations of the psychoanalytic bases for one's God-concept, it is a frequently accepted hypothesis that an individual's image of God is largely a reflection of experiences with and feelings toward one's own father. While such speculations as to an individual's phenomenological conceptions of God have an…

  17. Closeness to God among those doing God's work: a spiritual well-being measure for clergy.

    PubMed

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations. PMID:23400668

  18. Closeness to God among those doing God's work: a spiritual well-being measure for clergy.

    PubMed

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.

  19. Playing God in Frankenstein's Footsteps: Synthetic Biology and the Meaning of Life.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Henk

    2009-12-01

    The emergent new science of synthetic biology is challenging entrenched distinctions between, amongst others, life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, the evolved and the designed, and even the material and the informational. Whenever such culturally sanctioned boundaries are breached, researchers are inevitably accused of playing God or treading in Frankenstein's footsteps. Bioethicists, theologians and editors of scientific journals feel obliged to provide an authoritative answer to the ambiguous question of the 'meaning' of life, both as a scientific definition and as an explication with wider existential connotations. This article analyses the arguments mooted in the emerging societal debates on synthetic biology and the way its practitioners respond to criticism, mostly by assuming a defiant posture or professing humility. It explores the relationship between the 'playing God' theme and the Frankenstein motif and examines the doctrinal status of the 'playing God' argument. One particularly interesting finding is that liberal theologians generally deny the religious character of the 'playing God' argument-a response which fits in with the curious fact that this argument is used mainly by secular organizations. Synthetic biology, it is therefore maintained, does not offend so much the God of the Bible as a deified Nature. While syntheses of artificial life forms cause some vague uneasiness that life may lose its special meaning, most concerns turn out to be narrowly anthropocentric. As long as synthetic biology creates only new microbial life and does not directly affect human life, it will in all likelihood be considered acceptable.

  20. Playing God in Frankenstein's Footsteps: Synthetic Biology and the Meaning of Life.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Henk

    2009-12-01

    The emergent new science of synthetic biology is challenging entrenched distinctions between, amongst others, life and non-life, the natural and the artificial, the evolved and the designed, and even the material and the informational. Whenever such culturally sanctioned boundaries are breached, researchers are inevitably accused of playing God or treading in Frankenstein's footsteps. Bioethicists, theologians and editors of scientific journals feel obliged to provide an authoritative answer to the ambiguous question of the 'meaning' of life, both as a scientific definition and as an explication with wider existential connotations. This article analyses the arguments mooted in the emerging societal debates on synthetic biology and the way its practitioners respond to criticism, mostly by assuming a defiant posture or professing humility. It explores the relationship between the 'playing God' theme and the Frankenstein motif and examines the doctrinal status of the 'playing God' argument. One particularly interesting finding is that liberal theologians generally deny the religious character of the 'playing God' argument-a response which fits in with the curious fact that this argument is used mainly by secular organizations. Synthetic biology, it is therefore maintained, does not offend so much the God of the Bible as a deified Nature. While syntheses of artificial life forms cause some vague uneasiness that life may lose its special meaning, most concerns turn out to be narrowly anthropocentric. As long as synthetic biology creates only new microbial life and does not directly affect human life, it will in all likelihood be considered acceptable. PMID:20234875

  1. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  2. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc.

  3. Engaging the Young to Experience God

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochu, Barbara; Baragar-Brcic, Penny

    2007-01-01

    In the way of Catholic Education, young people are engaged to experience God. Although the authors' reflections are written from the Catholic faith perspective, they feel the suggestions offered for educators to engage the human spirit could be extended to various faith communities or audiences. These suggestions were coalesced from their personal…

  4. "She Made Me Think about God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is interventionist. Agreement is necessary to decide what is to be taught. May one begin from the premise that God is worthy of attention? And how can teachers help pupils discern true from false in religion? This article compares the Non-Statutory National Framework for Religious Education with the Birmingham Agreed Syllabus to consider…

  5. Provide History of Religion and God

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginex, Nicholas P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for high school, college, and university educators to introduce their students to a history of mankind's development of religions and beliefs in God. Regarded as too sensitive a subject, students are deprived of learning how mankind has evolved ways to establish moral and righteous behavior to maintain harmony among competing…

  6. Doing God in a Liberal Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Daniel; Robson, James

    2012-01-01

    While we agree with Cooling's argument from fairness, we argue that Cooling fails to give an adequate account of how fairness can be conceived, particularly because he does not decisively tackle the issues surrounding doing God in a plural context, or the contentious issues of compulsory collective worship and faith schools. In order to explore an…

  7. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. PMID:24823631

  8. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Kristin; Shariff, Azim F; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C

    2012-08-22

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary--though often costly--task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in 'altruistic punishment'--bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to augment earthly punishment in large societies that could not effectively monitor norm violations. In five studies, we investigate whether such beliefs in God can replace people's motivation to engage in altruistic punishment, and their support for state-sponsored punishment. Results show that, although religiosity generally predicts higher levels of punishment, the specific belief in powerful, intervening Gods reduces altruistic punishment and support for state-sponsored punishment. Moreover, these effects are specifically owing to differences in people's perceptions that humans are responsible for punishing wrongdoers.

  9. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    PubMed

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  10. Cytomegalovirus infection improves immune responses to influenza

    PubMed Central

    Furman, David; Jojic, Vladimir; Sharma, Shalini; Shen-Orr, Shai; Angel, Cesar J Lopez; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Kidd, Brian; Maecker, Holden T; Concannon, Patrick; Dekker, Cornelia L; Thomas, Paul G; Davis, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpes virus present in a latent form in most people worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals, CMV can reactivate and cause serious clinical complications, but the effect of the latent state on healthy people remains elusive. We undertook a systems approach to understand the differences between seropositive and negative subjects and measured hundreds of immune system components from blood samples including cytokines and chemokines, immune cell phenotyping, gene expression, ex vivo cell responses to cytokine stimuli and the antibody response to seasonal influenza vaccination. As expected, we found decreased responses to vaccination and an overall down-regulation of immune components in aged individuals regardless of CMV serostatus. In contrast, CMV-infected young adults exhibited an overall up-regulation of immune components including enhanced antibody responses to influenza vaccination, increased CD8+ T cell sensitivity, and elevated levels of circulating IFN-γ compared to uninfected individuals. Experiments with young mice infected with murine CMV also showed significant protection from an influenza virus challenge compared with uninfected animals, although this effect declined with time. These data show that CMV and its murine equivalent can have a beneficial effect on the immune response of young, healthy individuals, which may explain the continued coexistence of CMV and mammals throughout their evolution. PMID:25834109

  11. Good God?!? Lamentations as a model for mourning the loss of the good God.

    PubMed

    Houck-Loomis, Tiffany

    2012-09-01

    This article will address the devastating psychological and social effects due to the loss of one's primary love-object, namely God in the case of faith communities and religious individuals. By using Melanie Klein's Object Relations Theory (Klein in Envy and gratitude and other works 1946/1963. The Free Press, New York, 1975a) as a way to enter the text of Lamentations, I will articulate an alternative reading that can serve as a model for Pastors and Educators to use when walking with individuals and communities through unspeakable losses. I will argue that Lamentations may be used as a tool for naming confounding depression and anxiety that stems from a damaged introjected object (one's personal God). This tool may provide individuals and communities a framework for placing anger and contempt upon God in order to re-assimilate this loved yet hated object, eventually leading toward healing and restoration of the self.

  12. Good God?!? Lamentations as a model for mourning the loss of the good God.

    PubMed

    Houck-Loomis, Tiffany

    2012-09-01

    This article will address the devastating psychological and social effects due to the loss of one's primary love-object, namely God in the case of faith communities and religious individuals. By using Melanie Klein's Object Relations Theory (Klein in Envy and gratitude and other works 1946/1963. The Free Press, New York, 1975a) as a way to enter the text of Lamentations, I will articulate an alternative reading that can serve as a model for Pastors and Educators to use when walking with individuals and communities through unspeakable losses. I will argue that Lamentations may be used as a tool for naming confounding depression and anxiety that stems from a damaged introjected object (one's personal God). This tool may provide individuals and communities a framework for placing anger and contempt upon God in order to re-assimilate this loved yet hated object, eventually leading toward healing and restoration of the self. PMID:22395751

  13. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  14. Benevolent Images of God, Gratitude, and Physical Health Status.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Emmons, Robert A; Ironson, Gail

    2015-08-01

    This study has two goals. The first is to assess whether a benevolent image of God is associated with better physical health. The second goal is to examine the aspects of congregational life that is associated with a benevolent image of God. Data from a new nationwide survey (N = 1774) are used to test the following core hypotheses: (1) people who attend worship services more often and individuals who receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., informal assistance that is intended to increase the religious beliefs and behaviors of the recipient) will have more benevolent images of God, (2) individuals who believe that God is benevolent will feel more grateful to God, (3) study participants who are more grateful to God will be more hopeful about the future, and (4) greater hope will be associated with better health. The data provide support for each of these relationships.

  15. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  16. Engineering Titanium for Improved Biological Response

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C; Bearinger, J; Dimasi, E; Gilbert, J

    2002-01-23

    The human body and its aggressive environment challenge the survival of implanted foreign materials. Formidable biocompatibility issues arise from biological, chemical, electrical, and tribological origins. The body's electrolytic solution provides the first point of contact with any kind of implant, and is responsible for transport, healing, integration, or attack. Therefore, determining how to successfully control the integration of a biomaterial should begin with an analysis of the early interfacial dynamics involved. setting, a complicated feedback system of solution chemistry, pH, ions, and solubility exists. The introduction of a fixation device instantly confounds this system. The body is exposed to a range of voltages, and wear can bring about significant shifts in potentials across an implant. In the environment of a new implant the solution pH becomes acidic, ionic concentrations shift, cathodic currents can lead to corrosion, and oxygen levels can be depleted; all of these impact the ability of the implant to retain its protective oxide layer and to present a stable interface for the formation of a biolayer. Titanium has been used in orthopedic and maxilofacial surgery for many years due to its reputation as being biocompatible and its ability to osseointegrate. Osseointegration is defined as direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone, and the surface of a load carrying implant. Branemark discovered this phenomenon in the 60's while examining titanium juxtaposed to bone. The mechanism by which titanium and its passivating oxide encourage osseosynthetic activity remains unknown. However in general terms the oxide film serves two purposes: first to provide a kinetic barrier that prevents titanium from corroding and second to provide a substrate that allows the constituents of bone (calcium phosphate crystals, cells, proteins, and collagen) to bond to it. We believe that the electrochemical environment dictates the titanium

  17. Exploring God: Using the Arts as a Way to Engage Secondary Students in Discussions about God

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The article presents research from a practitioner research study conducted in a non-denominational Jewish secondary school. As part of the study, students created artistic works based on chapter 12 of the biblical book of Numbers. Four of the twelve student groups created works that directly engaged with their conceptions of God as represented in…

  18. God put a thought into my mind: the charismatic Christian experience of receiving communications from God

    PubMed Central

    Dein, Simon; Cook, Christopher C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The agentive aspects of communicative religious experiences remain somewhat neglected in the social sciences literature. There is a need for phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the ways in which they differ from culturally defined psychopathological states. In this semi-structured interview study, eight congregants attending an evangelical church in London were asked to describe their experiences of God communicating with them. Communications from God were related to current events rather than to the prediction of future events. These communications were received as thoughts and do not generally reveal metaphysical insights, but rather they relate to the mundane world. They provided direction, consolation and empowerment in the lives of those receiving them. Individuals recounted that on occasion God sometimes speaks audibly, or accompanied by supernatural phenomena, but in the vast majority of cases, the way God speaks is through thoughts or impressions. In all instances, agency is maintained, individuals can choose to obey the thoughts/voices or not. The findings are discussed in relation to externalisation of agency and the phenomenon of thought insertion in schizophrenia. PMID:25999778

  19. Godly Play Nourishing Children's Spirituality: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    "Godly Play", an approach to Religious Education in early childhood devised by Jerome W. Berryman, has been utilized by many Christian denominations in Sunday school contexts and it is currently influencing the design of early years' Religious Education curricula in many Catholic dioceses. One of the appealing qualities of the Godly Play process…

  20. Mask of Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Teresa M.

    2005-01-01

    One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to Black God. Today, a famous star cluster--the Pleiades--often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while honing their…

  1. Nearness to God: A Perspective on Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    Islam, as one of the most important religions of the world, has particular and significant educational views. The purpose of this article is to extract and interpret Islam's view of education. Using classic texts and the author's scholarship, Islamic education is defined as a form of religious education drawing humans near to God and God's…

  2. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  3. Divine Intuition: Cognitive Style Influences Belief in God

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenhav, Amitai; Rand, David G.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Some have argued that belief in God is intuitive, a natural (by-)product of the human mind given its cognitive structure and social context. If this is true, the extent to which one believes in God may be influenced by one's more general tendency to rely on intuition versus reflection. Three studies support this hypothesis, linking intuitive…

  4. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies. PMID:26948745

  5. Man and His Gods, English, World Literature: 5114.58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide examines man's relation to his gods--his fear, love, obedience, worship, and imitation of God--as demonstrated in print and nonprint sources. Classical, Judaeo-Christian, and other outlooks are considered. Reading includes such works as "Oedipus Rex,""The Odyssey," selections from the New Testament, "King Lear,""Don…

  6. [Playing God? Critical consideration of biotechnology].

    PubMed

    ter Schegget, G H

    2002-05-01

    The ethics must do justice to the man who can freely decide and should pose to him the proper questions that can lead to a good choice. 'Playing God' is out of the question, because the biblical God has taken the enchantment out of the creation and produced man for him to shape and keep her. The zygote is already a human being in gestation. But not all stages of gestation of man have the right to the same reverence. The end justifies the means. Reason why this growing respect should be weighed against the use and meaning of the modifying action. The goal should be human in order to have a justifiable effect. Man is not determined by his genes but conditioned by them: they are pliable. Prenatal diagnostic tests and cloning should not be allowed to lead to the moulding of an 'Ubermensch'. It is indeed not yet technologically possible. Germination technology is justifiable provided that it is safely performed. DNA-profiling for identification of criminals is allowed. If only the profile and not the DNA were kept one could consider making a profile-bank. The patenting of discoveries should not stop developing countries from getting cheap medicines (e.g. for AIDS). Not everything that is possible is also allowed. Every time the reason and the benefit should be weighed against the damage and there must be a humane authority.

  7. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p < .05) to greater religiosity, greater fear of death, loss of other attachment figures, religious affiliation, and being younger in age, Black, and of lower socioeconomic status. Participants belonging to fundamentalist or evangelical Protestant denominations had a stronger attachment to God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God. PMID:15764125

  8. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

    2007-08-01

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot’s ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human –robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response.

  9. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. PMID:23891826

  10. Effects of Response Preparation on Developmental Improvements in Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Ordaz, Sarah; Stephanie, Davis; Luna, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Studies in adults indicate that response preparation is crucial to inhibitory control, but it remains unclear whether preparation contributes to improvements in inhibitory control over the course of childhood and adolescence. In order to assess the role of response preparation in developmental improvements in inhibitory control, we parametrically manipulated the duration of the instruction period in an antisaccade (AS) task given to participants ages 8 to 31 years. Regressions showing a protracted development of AS performance were consistent with existing research, and two novel findings emerged. First, all participants showed improved performance with increased preparation time, indicating that response preparation is crucial to inhibitory control at all stages of development. Preparatory processes did not deteriorate at even the longest preparatory period, indicating that the youngest participants were able to sustain preparation at even the longest interval. Second, developmental trajectories did not differ for different preparatory period lengths, highlighting that the processes supporting response preparation continue to mature in tandem with improvements in AS performance. Our findings suggest that developmental improvements are not simply due to an inhibitory system that is faster to engage but may also reflect qualitative changes in the processes engaged during the preparatory period. PMID:20347061

  11. Harlem Connections: Teaching Walter Dean Myers'"Scorpions" with Paul Laurence Dunbar's "The Sport of the Gods."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mark I.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the author, in a course titled "Literature for Adolescents" paired Walter Dean Myers' 1988 young adult novel, "Scorpions," with Paul Laurence Dunbar's 1902 novel for adults, "The Sport of the Gods." Describes student readers' responses to the pair of books, which focus on the difficulties of growing up in Harlem. (SR)

  12. Addressing Race, Class, and Gender in Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Are Watching God": Strategies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Brenda M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an educator's attempt to raise multicultural issues in the classroom through a course centered on Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Are Watching God." Maintains that educators have a responsibility to raise issues of cultural diversity in learning communities that provide ways for student to engage in thinking that expands their world…

  13. Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God" and the Influence of Jens Peter Jacobsen's "Marie Grubbe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Jon

    1992-01-01

    Argues that Harlem Renaissance literary figure, Zora Neale Hurston, may have written her novel of a three-times married woman, "Their Eyes Were Watching God," under the influence of and in response to "Marie Grubbe," a novel by a nineteenth-century Danish man. (JB)

  14. Improving the Average Response Time in Collective I/O

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Chen; Sehrish, Saba; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2011-09-21

    In collective I/O, MPI processes exchange requests so that the rearranged requests can result in the shortest file system access time. Scheduling the exchange sequence determines the response time of participating processes. Existing implementations that simply follow the increasing order of file ofsets do not necessary produce the best performance. To minimize the average response time, we propose three scheduling algorithms that consider the number of processes per file stripe and the number of accesses per process. Our experimental results demonstrate improvements of up to 50% in the average response time using two synthetic benchmarks and a high-resolution climate application.

  15. Some strategies for improving caloric responses with ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-06-01

    Many important breakthroughs and significant engineering developments have been achieved during the past two decades in the field of caloric materials. In this review, we address ferroelectrics emerging as ideal materials which permit both giant elastocaloric and/or electrocaloric responses near room temperature. We summarize recent strategies for improving caloric responses using geometrical optimization, maximizing the number of coexisting phases, combining positive and negative caloric responses, introducing extra degree of freedom like mechanical stress/pressure, and multicaloric effect driven by either single stimulus or multiple stimuli. This review highlights the promising perspective of ferroelectrics for developing next-generation solid-state refrigeration.

  16. Improving the Quality of Training: Coach and Player Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of linking player and coach responsibilities to improve the quality of individual and team training, discussing four major factors that encapsulate the most important areas that athletes and coaches should address: adopting quality attitudes, utilizing quality preparation prior to training, incorporating quality execution…

  17. From Checklist to Awareness: Hearing God's Call to Missions.

    PubMed

    Snead, Victoria; Moss, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    This student experience of international community health nursing in Cape Town, South Africa, illustrates the value of missions that provide health training and education to lay persons, and the calling of God to serve him through nursing. PMID:27295232

  18. God and the search for meaning among hospice caregivers.

    PubMed

    Mickley, J R; Pargament, K I; Brant, C R; Hipp, K M

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to describe both religious and nonreligious appraisals of caregiving for a terminally ill patient and (2) to explore the relationship between these appraisals with situational outcomes, mental health outcomes, and spiritual health outcomes in the caregivers. Ninety-two caregivers completed a questionnaire consisting of religious and nonreligious appraisals, general and religious outcomes, depression, anxiety, and purpose in life. Caregivers who appraised their situation as part of God's plan or as a means of gaining strength or understanding from God reported positive outcomes while caregivers who viewed their situation as unjust, as unfair punishment from God, or as desertion from God had low scores on mental and spiritual health outcomes. Religious appraisals made a significant and unique contribution to the prediction of situational outcomes and mental and spiritual health outcomes above and beyond the effects of nonreligious appraisals.

  19. God and the search for meaning among hospice caregivers.

    PubMed

    Mickley, J R; Pargament, K I; Brant, C R; Hipp, K M

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to describe both religious and nonreligious appraisals of caregiving for a terminally ill patient and (2) to explore the relationship between these appraisals with situational outcomes, mental health outcomes, and spiritual health outcomes in the caregivers. Ninety-two caregivers completed a questionnaire consisting of religious and nonreligious appraisals, general and religious outcomes, depression, anxiety, and purpose in life. Caregivers who appraised their situation as part of God's plan or as a means of gaining strength or understanding from God reported positive outcomes while caregivers who viewed their situation as unjust, as unfair punishment from God, or as desertion from God had low scores on mental and spiritual health outcomes. Religious appraisals made a significant and unique contribution to the prediction of situational outcomes and mental and spiritual health outcomes above and beyond the effects of nonreligious appraisals. PMID:9883124

  20. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. 1. STREETSCAPE VIEW OF COMMUNITY PARK KNOWN AS GOD'S LITTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STREETSCAPE VIEW OF COMMUNITY PARK KNOWN AS GOD'S LITTLE ACRE, STONE WALL, AND APPROACH TO BRIDGE, FACING NORTH. - West Branch Bridge, South Carolina Road S-569 spanning West Branch of Pacolet River, Pacolet, Spartanburg County, SC

  2. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration.

  3. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration. PMID:26041124

  4. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  5. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Kristin; Shariff, Azim F.; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary—though often costly—task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in ‘altruistic punishment’—bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to augment earthly punishment in large societies that could not effectively monitor norm violations. In five studies, we investigate whether such beliefs in God can replace people's motivation to engage in altruistic punishment, and their support for state-sponsored punishment. Results show that, although religiosity generally predicts higher levels of punishment, the specific belief in powerful, intervening Gods reduces altruistic punishment and support for state-sponsored punishment. Moreover, these effects are specifically owing to differences in people's perceptions that humans are responsible for punishing wrongdoers. PMID:22628465

  6. An Electron is the God Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Milo

    2001-04-01

    Philosophers, Clifford, Mach, Einstein, Wyle, Dirac & Schroedinger, believed that only a wave structure of particles could satisfy experiment and fulfill reality. A quantum Wave Structure of Matter is described here. It predicts the natural laws more accurately and completely than classic laws. Einstein reasoned that the universe depends on particles which are "spherically, spatially extended in space." and "Hence a discrete material particle has no place as a fundamental concept in a field theory." Thus the discrete point particle was wrong. He deduced the true electron is primal because its force range is infinite. Now, it is found the electron's wave structure contains the laws of Nature that rule the universe. The electron plays the role of creator - the God particle. Electron structure is a pair of spherical outward/inward quantum waves, convergent to a center in 3D space. This wave pair creates a h/4pi quantum spin when the in-wave spherically rotates to become the out-wave. Both waves form a spinor satisfying the Dirac Equation. Thus, the universe is binary like a computer. Reference: http://members.tripod.com/mwolff

  7. A Christian faith-based recovery theory: understanding God as sponsor.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.

  8. Neutralization of Tumor Acidity Improves Antitumor Responses to Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Kodumudi, Krithika N; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Russell, Shonagh; Weber, Amy M; Luddy, Kimberly; Damaghi, Mehdi; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Mulé, James J; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-03-15

    Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade or adoptive T-cell transfer, can lead to durable responses in the clinic, but response rates remain low due to undefined suppression mechanisms. Solid tumors are characterized by a highly acidic microenvironment that might blunt the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. In this study, we directly investigated the effects of tumor acidity on the efficacy of immunotherapy. An acidic pH environment blocked T-cell activation and limited glycolysis in vitro. IFNγ release blocked by acidic pH did not occur at the level of steady-state mRNA, implying that the effect of acidity was posttranslational. Acidification did not affect cytoplasmic pH, suggesting that signals transduced by external acidity were likely mediated by specific acid-sensing receptors, four of which are expressed by T cells. Notably, neutralizing tumor acidity with bicarbonate monotherapy impaired the growth of some cancer types in mice where it was associated with increased T-cell infiltration. Furthermore, combining bicarbonate therapy with anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1, or adoptive T-cell transfer improved antitumor responses in multiple models, including cures in some subjects. Overall, our findings show how raising intratumoral pH through oral buffers therapy can improve responses to immunotherapy, with the potential for immediate clinical translation. PMID:26719539

  9. Neutralization of Tumor Acidity Improves Antitumor Responses to Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Kodumudi, Krithika N; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Russell, Shonagh; Weber, Amy M; Luddy, Kimberly; Damaghi, Mehdi; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Mulé, James J; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-03-15

    Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade or adoptive T-cell transfer, can lead to durable responses in the clinic, but response rates remain low due to undefined suppression mechanisms. Solid tumors are characterized by a highly acidic microenvironment that might blunt the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. In this study, we directly investigated the effects of tumor acidity on the efficacy of immunotherapy. An acidic pH environment blocked T-cell activation and limited glycolysis in vitro. IFNγ release blocked by acidic pH did not occur at the level of steady-state mRNA, implying that the effect of acidity was posttranslational. Acidification did not affect cytoplasmic pH, suggesting that signals transduced by external acidity were likely mediated by specific acid-sensing receptors, four of which are expressed by T cells. Notably, neutralizing tumor acidity with bicarbonate monotherapy impaired the growth of some cancer types in mice where it was associated with increased T-cell infiltration. Furthermore, combining bicarbonate therapy with anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1, or adoptive T-cell transfer improved antitumor responses in multiple models, including cures in some subjects. Overall, our findings show how raising intratumoral pH through oral buffers therapy can improve responses to immunotherapy, with the potential for immediate clinical translation.

  10. Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

    2015-01-15

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites.

  11. Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

    2015-01-15

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites. PMID:25499183

  12. Improving Response Inhibition in Parkinson’s Disease with Atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R.; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L.; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of Parkinson’s disease therapy but often fail to improve cognitive problems such as impulsivity. This may be due to the loss of other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, which is linked to impulsivity and response inhibition. We therefore examined the effect of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on response inhibition in a stop-signal paradigm. Methods This pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blinded randomized crossover design with low-frequency inhibition trials distributed among frequent Go trials. Twenty-one patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo. Control subjects were tested on no-drug. The effects of disease and drug on behavioral performance, regional brain activity, and functional connectivity were analyzed using general linear models. Anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion-weighted imaging. Results Patients with Parkinson’s disease had longer stop-signal reaction times, less stop-related activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and weaker functional connectivity between the RIFG and striatum compared with control subjects. Atomoxetine enhanced stop-related RIFG activation in proportion to disease severity. Although there was no overall behavioral benefit from atomoxetine, analyses of individual differences revealed that enhanced response inhibition by atomoxetine was associated with increased RIFG activation and functional frontostriatal connectivity. Improved performance was more likely in patients with higher structural frontostriatal connectivity. Conclusions This study suggests that enhanced prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity by atomoxetine may improve response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease. These results point the way to new stratified clinical trials of atomoxetine to treat impulsivity in selected patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24655598

  13. Future of God in recovery from drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Sellman, John D; Baker, Michael P; Adamson, Simon J; Geering, Lloyd G

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to explore the concept and experience of God in relation to recovery from drug addiction from a scientific perspective. Examination of a diverse literature was undertaken, including five key threads: the universality of the experience of God; the induction of spiritual experiences of God through hallucinogenic drugs; the nature of drug addiction from an evolutionary neurobiological perspective; the 12 Step movement as the prototype for the place of God in recovery from drug addiction; and identified ingredients for successful recovery from addiction. The diverse threads of literature examined can be integrated around the concept of higher power as an important factor in recovery from drug addiction. Higher power can be manifested in individuals in diverse ways: religious, ethnic, spiritual including the use of entheogens, as well as cognitive behavioural development, but a common final pathway for all is the strengthening of executive functions (the brain's 'higher power'). Practical implications for assisting people with drug addiction to achieve recovery through their own experience of God/development of higher power are outlined.

  14. Energy response improvement for photon dosimetry using pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Dizaji H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last few years, active personal dosimeters have been developed and have replaced passive personal dosimeters in some external monitoring systems, frequently using silicon diode detectors. Incident photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. These photon-induced electrons deposit energy in the detector's sensitive region and contribute to the response of diode detectors. To achieve an appropriate photon dosimetry response, the detectors are usually covered by a metallic layer with an optimum thickness. The metallic cover acts as an energy compensating shield. In this paper, a software process is performed for energy compensation. Selective data sampling based on pulse height is used to determine the photon dose equivalent. This method is applied to improve the energy response in photon dosimetry. The detector design is optimized for the response function and determination of the photon dose equivalent. Photon personal dose equivalent is determined in the energy range of 0.3-6 MeV. The error values of the calculated data for this wide energy range and measured data for 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co and 241Am-Be sources respectively are up to 20% and 15%. Fairly good agreement is seen between simulation and dose values obtained from our process and specifications from several photon sources.

  15. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  16. Making God real and making God good: some mechanisms through which prayer may contribute to healing.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

    2013-10-01

    Many social scientists attribute the health-giving properties of religious practice to social support. This paper argues that another mechanism may be a positive relationship with the supernatural, a proposal that builds upon anthropological accounts of symbolic healing. Such a mechanism depends upon the learned cultivation of the imagination and the capacity to make what is imagined more real and more good. This paper offers a theory of the way that prayer enables this process and provides some evidence, drawn from experimental and ethnographic work, for the claim that a relationship with a loving God, cultivated through the imagination in prayer, may contribute to good health and may contribute to healing in trauma and psychosis.

  17. Making God real and making God good: some mechanisms through which prayer may contribute to healing.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

    2013-10-01

    Many social scientists attribute the health-giving properties of religious practice to social support. This paper argues that another mechanism may be a positive relationship with the supernatural, a proposal that builds upon anthropological accounts of symbolic healing. Such a mechanism depends upon the learned cultivation of the imagination and the capacity to make what is imagined more real and more good. This paper offers a theory of the way that prayer enables this process and provides some evidence, drawn from experimental and ethnographic work, for the claim that a relationship with a loving God, cultivated through the imagination in prayer, may contribute to good health and may contribute to healing in trauma and psychosis. PMID:23793786

  18. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    PubMed Central

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  19. Unanswered prayers: religiosity and the god-serving bias.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Heidi R; Uhalt, Joshua; Matthies, Brigitte K

    2014-01-01

    Two self-report experiments examined how religiosity affects attributions made for a target person's death. Online adults (Study 1, N = 427) and undergraduate students (Study 2, N = 326) read about Chris who had a heart attack, used religious or health behaviors, and lived or died. Participants made attributions to Chris and God (both studies), and reported their emotions (Study 2). Participants made more attributions to Chris when he lived than when he died, but only when he used health behaviors. The highly religious made more attributions to God, but not when Chris used religious behaviors and died (the God-serving bias); they reported the most positive emotions when Chris lived after using religious behaviors (the Hallelujah effect). Directions for future research in terms of implicit religious beliefs and normative evaluations of religion are discussed. PMID:25280166

  20. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God.

    PubMed

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  1. Unanswered prayers: religiosity and the god-serving bias.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Heidi R; Uhalt, Joshua; Matthies, Brigitte K

    2014-01-01

    Two self-report experiments examined how religiosity affects attributions made for a target person's death. Online adults (Study 1, N = 427) and undergraduate students (Study 2, N = 326) read about Chris who had a heart attack, used religious or health behaviors, and lived or died. Participants made attributions to Chris and God (both studies), and reported their emotions (Study 2). Participants made more attributions to Chris when he lived than when he died, but only when he used health behaviors. The highly religious made more attributions to God, but not when Chris used religious behaviors and died (the God-serving bias); they reported the most positive emotions when Chris lived after using religious behaviors (the Hallelujah effect). Directions for future research in terms of implicit religious beliefs and normative evaluations of religion are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 51518 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ballplayers, Gods, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ballplayers, Gods, and Rainmaker... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ballplayers, Gods, and Rainmaker Kings: Masterpieces...

  3. Practicing the Code of Ethics, finding the image of God.

    PubMed

    Hoglund, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for Nurses gives a professional obligation to practice in a compassionate and respectful way that is unaffected by the attributes of the patient. This article explores the concept "made in the image of God" and the complexities inherent in caring for those perceived as exhibiting distorted images of God. While the Code provides a professional standard consistent with a biblical worldview, human nature impacts the ability to consistently act congruently with the Code. Strategies and nursing interventions that support development of practice from a biblical worldview and the Code of Ethics for Nurses are presented.

  4. Armenian Vahagn God as birth of four Cosmic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2014-10-01

    The survived two snatches of the mythological history about Vahagn - the Armenian god of the Sun and Fire is analyzed to find fingerprints of ancient cosmology. In the first fragment known as "Birth of Vahagn" all the four primary elements are mentioned as travailing ones which brought the god into life. The second fragment devoted to the ancient conception on the formation of the Milky Way named in Armenian mythology "Straw Thief's Way". The fact that both survived fragments concern the structure of the Universe might be explained easily if the ode glorifying Vahagn was based on the ancient Armenian cosmological views.

  5. Harnessing DNA-induced immune responses for improving cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Herrada, Andrés A; Rojas-Colonelli, Nicole; González-Figueroa, Paula; Roco, Jonathan; Oyarce, César; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Lladser, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive strategy to promote protective cellular and humoral immunity against the encoded antigen. DNA vaccines are easy to generate, inexpensive to produce and purify at large-scale, highly stable and safe. In addition, plasmids used for DNA vaccines act as powerful "danger signals" by stimulating several DNA-sensing innate immune receptors that promote the induction of protective adaptive immunity. The induction of tumor-specific immune responses represents a major challenge for DNA vaccines because most of tumor-associated antigens are normal non-mutated self-antigens. As a consequence, induction of potentially self-reactive T cell responses against such poorly immunogenic antigens is controlled by mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression. Although several DNA vaccines against cancer have reached clinical testing, disappointing results have been observed. Therefore, the development of new adjuvants that strongly stimulate the induction of antitumor T cell immunity and counteract immune-suppressive regulation is an attractive approach to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines and overcome tumor-associated tolerance. Understanding the DNA-sensing signaling pathways of innate immunity that mediate the induction of T cell responses elicited by DNA vaccines represents a unique opportunity to develop novel adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency. The advance of DNA adjuvants needs to be complemented with the development of potent delivery systems, in order to step toward successful clinical application. Here, we briefly discuss recent evidence showing how to harness DNA-induced immune response to improve the potency of cancer vaccines and counteract tumor-associated tolerance.

  6. Harnessing DNA-induced immune responses for improving cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Herrada, Andrés A.; Rojas-Colonelli, Nicole; González-Figueroa, Paula; Roco, Jonathan; Oyarce, César; Ligtenberg, Maarten A.; Lladser, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive strategy to promote protective cellular and humoral immunity against the encoded antigen. DNA vaccines are easy to generate, inexpensive to produce and purify at large-scale, highly stable and safe. In addition, plasmids used for DNA vaccines act as powerful “danger signals” by stimulating several DNA-sensing innate immune receptors that promote the induction of protective adaptive immunity. The induction of tumor-specific immune responses represents a major challenge for DNA vaccines because most of tumor-associated antigens are normal non-mutated self-antigens. As a consequence, induction of potentially self-reactive T cell responses against such poorly immunogenic antigens is controlled by mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression. Although several DNA vaccines against cancer have reached clinical testing, disappointing results have been observed. Therefore, the development of new adjuvants that strongly stimulate the induction of antitumor T cell immunity and counteract immune-suppressive regulation is an attractive approach to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines and overcome tumor-associated tolerance. Understanding the DNA-sensing signaling pathways of innate immunity that mediate the induction of T cell responses elicited by DNA vaccines represents a unique opportunity to develop novel adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency. The advance of DNA adjuvants needs to be complemented with the development of potent delivery systems, in order to step toward successful clinical application. Here, we briefly discuss recent evidence showing how to harness DNA-induced immune response to improve the potency of cancer vaccines and counteract tumor-associated tolerance. PMID:23111166

  7. Authoritarian and benevolent god representations and the two sides of prosociality.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    The Big Gods model focuses on belief in an authoritarian God as a psychological mechanism that inhibits antisocial behavior and facilitates the formation of tight, cohesive groups. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that belief in a benevolent God is more likely to inspire helping and inclusivity. Both kinds of beliefs are necessary to explain the development of large-scale societies. PMID:26948733

  8. Authoritarian and benevolent god representations and the two sides of prosociality.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    The Big Gods model focuses on belief in an authoritarian God as a psychological mechanism that inhibits antisocial behavior and facilitates the formation of tight, cohesive groups. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that belief in a benevolent God is more likely to inspire helping and inclusivity. Both kinds of beliefs are necessary to explain the development of large-scale societies.

  9. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  10. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  11. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  12. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  13. The use of quorum sensing to improve vaccine immune response.

    PubMed

    Sturbelle, R T; Conceição, R C S; Da Rosa, M C; Roos, T B; Dummer, L; Leite, F P L

    2013-12-17

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is an important cause of diarrhea in both newborn and post-weaning pigs, it is also responsible for economic losses on farms worldwide. Vaccines that use ETEC virulence factors have been well documented, and several vaccines containing inactivated bacteria with protective antigens, or purified (isolated) antigens are available on the market. Vaccination of pregnant sows is widely seen as an effective strategy for the control of the disease. Yet these vaccines very often do not lead to efficient protection. In this study, we produced an ETEC bacterin with the use of quorum sensing (QS), and observed a significant expression of F4 adhesin, and heat-labile toxin (LT) in the cultures when compared to the controls. Mice, and pigs vaccinated with the QS bacterin demonstrated higher antibody titers against these antigens when compared with commercial and control bacterin. Our results suggest that the system might bring promising improvements in ETEC bacterin efficacy. PMID:24188753

  14. Active microwave responses - An aid in improved crop classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A study determined the feasibility of using visible, infrared, and active microwave data to classify agricultural crops such as corn, sorghum, alfalfa, wheat stubble, millet, shortgrass pasture and bare soil. Visible through microwave data were collected by instruments on board the NASA C-130 aircraft over 40 agricultural fields near Guymon, OK in 1978 and Dalhart, TX in 1980. Results from stepwise and discriminant analysis techniques indicated 4.75 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 0.4 GHz cross-polarized microwave frequencies were the microwave frequencies most sensitive to crop type differences. Inclusion of microwave data in visible and infrared classification models improved classification accuracy from 73 percent to 92 percent. Despite the results, further studies are needed during different growth stages to validate the visible, infrared, and active microwave responses to vegetation.

  15. The God That Limps: Science and Technology in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    The title of this book derives its name from Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire and metalworking, who had a pronounced limp. Focusing on science and technology in the eighties, the first chapter of this book uses Hephaestus as a focal point since he was entrusted with the development and maintenance of key technologies and with keeping society…

  16. Using "Children of a Lesser God" To Teach Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Russell F., II; Rock, Roseanna

    One film widely recommended as an instructional resource for communication courses is "Children of a Lesser God," the 1986 movie starring Marlee Matlin and William Hurt. In this film, which can serve as a case study, James Leeds, a talented young teacher in a school for the deaf, falls in love with Sarah Norman, a graduate of the school who, in…

  17. Faith Fictions: "The Word between This World and God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Tran, Mai-Anh

    2009-01-01

    The search for religious truth and depth in "fiction" invites a conceptualization of life and fictional narratives as "faith fictions"--narrative accounts of human experiences and the human condition that bridge this world and God. This article juxtaposes "Mother Crocodile", "Hunger", and "Lost in Translation" to highlight the ways in which they,…

  18. Dewey's Democracy as the Kingdom of God on Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey has been portrayed as a sort of villain in Rosenow's (1997) article which appeared in this journal, apparently because he was unfairly opposed to God and to religion, and also because he deliberately usurped religious language to "camouflage" his secular ideas. By drawing mainly upon similar sources but with some important additions, I…

  19. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  20. What If I Don't Want to Play God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrin, Kelly Hykes; Yarnall, Gary Dean

    The authors review technological advances in medicine, such as gene manipulation, amniocentesis, ultra sound, organ transplants, and cloning, and point out ethical and moral dilemmas resulting from such capabilities. Implications of overpopulation are briefly considered. The authors contend that the decision "to play God" has already been made,…

  1. God-Concept Socialization: Some Explanations from Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Discusses some tendencies in young children's thinking that have been identified by Piaget as helping a child's initial socialization to the God-concept. Attempts to explain such tendencies of thought as childhood nominal realism, internal necessity, and affirmation in childhood thought. (DB)

  2. The Development of the Concept of God in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, W. Chad; And Others

    The development of the concept of God was assessed among 120 children between the ages of 5 to 16 years who attended private Protestant and Catholic day schools in the San Diego area. All children participated in a semi-clinical interview. Twelve interview questions were asked as the first step of a probing technique used to initiate a dialogue…

  3. Who's Crazy? Students Critique "The Gods Must Be Crazy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawking, Chris

    2012-01-01

    On the surface, "The Gods Must Be Crazy" is a campy confluence of three independent plotlines involving Xi, a Kalahari tribesman, who journeys to the end of the earth to dispose of a Coke bottle that has begun to disrupt the harmony of his community; Mr. Steyn, a white scientist, and the beautiful blonde schoolteacher he escorts through the bush;…

  4. View of main entrance of the Church of God. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main entrance of the Church of God. This structure was originally a lodge hall for the Woodmen of the World from the adjacent mill neighborhoods such as Lincoln and Dallas Mill - 601 Humes Avenue (House), 601 Humes Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Scriptural Engagement, Communication with God, and Moral Behavior among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovwigho, Pamela Caudill; Cole, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    How often an individual reads or listens to scripture is one dimension of private spirituality rarely discussed in the literature. In this study, we use data from a random sample survey of 1009 American children (ages eight to 12) to explore children's engagement with the Christian Bible, their views of communicating with God, and their moral…

  6. God's Beliefs versus Mother's: The Development of Nonhuman Agent Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Justin L.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Driesenga, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined assumption that children attribute human properties to nonhuman agents. Two- to 8-year-olds participated in false-belief tests concerning human and various nonhuman agents, including animals and God, and in a modified perspective-taking task including nonhuman agents. Results suggested that children do not consistently…

  7. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  8. Prosthesis, Surrogation, and Relation in Arturo Islas's "The Rain God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, John Alba

    2008-01-01

    This essay seeks to intervene in critical discussions about Arturo Islas's 1984 novel "The Rain God", as well as to suggest the potential for synthesizing discourses heretofore deployed in disparate conversations about disability, sexuality, and ethnicity. I first demonstrate how the novel's queer characters, Miguel Chico and Felix, pose critical…

  9. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  10. Structural Plasticity Denoises Responses and Improves Learning Speed

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Robin; George, Richard; Cook, Matthew; Diehl, Peter U.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an abundance of computational models for learning of synaptic weights, there has been relatively little research on structural plasticity, i.e., the creation and elimination of synapses. Especially, it is not clear how structural plasticity works in concert with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and what advantages their combination offers. Here we present a fairly large-scale functional model that uses leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, STDP, homeostasis, recurrent connections, and structural plasticity to learn the input encoding, the relation between inputs, and to infer missing inputs. Using this model, we compare the error and the amount of noise in the network's responses with and without structural plasticity and the influence of structural plasticity on the learning speed of the network. Using structural plasticity during learning shows good results for learning the representation of input values, i.e., structural plasticity strongly reduces the noise of the response by preventing spikes with a high error. For inferring missing inputs we see similar results, with responses having less noise if the network was trained using structural plasticity. Additionally, using structural plasticity with pruning significantly decreased the time to learn weights suitable for inference. Presumably, this is due to the clearer signal containing less spikes that misrepresent the desired value. Therefore, this work shows that structural plasticity is not only able to improve upon the performance using STDP without structural plasticity but also speeds up learning. Additionally, it addresses the practical problem of limited resources for connectivity that is not only apparent in the mammalian neocortex but also in computer hardware or neuromorphic (brain-inspired) hardware by efficiently pruning synapses without losing performance.

  11. Structural Plasticity Denoises Responses and Improves Learning Speed

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Robin; George, Richard; Cook, Matthew; Diehl, Peter U.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an abundance of computational models for learning of synaptic weights, there has been relatively little research on structural plasticity, i.e., the creation and elimination of synapses. Especially, it is not clear how structural plasticity works in concert with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and what advantages their combination offers. Here we present a fairly large-scale functional model that uses leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, STDP, homeostasis, recurrent connections, and structural plasticity to learn the input encoding, the relation between inputs, and to infer missing inputs. Using this model, we compare the error and the amount of noise in the network's responses with and without structural plasticity and the influence of structural plasticity on the learning speed of the network. Using structural plasticity during learning shows good results for learning the representation of input values, i.e., structural plasticity strongly reduces the noise of the response by preventing spikes with a high error. For inferring missing inputs we see similar results, with responses having less noise if the network was trained using structural plasticity. Additionally, using structural plasticity with pruning significantly decreased the time to learn weights suitable for inference. Presumably, this is due to the clearer signal containing less spikes that misrepresent the desired value. Therefore, this work shows that structural plasticity is not only able to improve upon the performance using STDP without structural plasticity but also speeds up learning. Additionally, it addresses the practical problem of limited resources for connectivity that is not only apparent in the mammalian neocortex but also in computer hardware or neuromorphic (brain-inspired) hardware by efficiently pruning synapses without losing performance. PMID:27660610

  12. Structural Plasticity Denoises Responses and Improves Learning Speed.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Robin; George, Richard; Cook, Matthew; Diehl, Peter U

    2016-01-01

    Despite an abundance of computational models for learning of synaptic weights, there has been relatively little research on structural plasticity, i.e., the creation and elimination of synapses. Especially, it is not clear how structural plasticity works in concert with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and what advantages their combination offers. Here we present a fairly large-scale functional model that uses leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, STDP, homeostasis, recurrent connections, and structural plasticity to learn the input encoding, the relation between inputs, and to infer missing inputs. Using this model, we compare the error and the amount of noise in the network's responses with and without structural plasticity and the influence of structural plasticity on the learning speed of the network. Using structural plasticity during learning shows good results for learning the representation of input values, i.e., structural plasticity strongly reduces the noise of the response by preventing spikes with a high error. For inferring missing inputs we see similar results, with responses having less noise if the network was trained using structural plasticity. Additionally, using structural plasticity with pruning significantly decreased the time to learn weights suitable for inference. Presumably, this is due to the clearer signal containing less spikes that misrepresent the desired value. Therefore, this work shows that structural plasticity is not only able to improve upon the performance using STDP without structural plasticity but also speeds up learning. Additionally, it addresses the practical problem of limited resources for connectivity that is not only apparent in the mammalian neocortex but also in computer hardware or neuromorphic (brain-inspired) hardware by efficiently pruning synapses without losing performance. PMID:27660610

  13. Improving the prediction of response to therapy in autism.

    PubMed

    Bent, Stephen; Hendren, Robert L

    2010-07-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous disorder involving complex mechanisms and systems occurring at diverse times. Because an individual child with autism may have only a subset of all possible abnormalities at a specific time, it may be challenging to identify beneficial effects of an intervention in double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, which compare the mean responses to treatments. Beneficial effects in a small subset of children may be obscured by the lack of effect in the majority. We review the evidence for several potential model systems of biochemical abnormalities that may contribute to the etiology of autism, we describe potential biomarkers or treatment targets for each of these abnormalities, and we provide illustrative treatment trials using this methodology. Potential model systems include immune over and under reactivity, inflammation, oxidative stress, free fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excitotoxicity. Including potential biomarkers and targeted treatments in clinical trials for autism provides a potential method for limiting the heterogeneity of enrolled subjects, which may improve the power of studies to identify beneficial effects of treatments while also improving the understanding of the disease.

  14. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme

  15. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  16. God give me strength: exploring prayer as self-disclosure.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Patrick R; Elliott, Marta

    2013-03-01

    The current project was designed to examine the contention that written prayers about difficult life events function as self-disclosure to God and are structurally and effectively the same as other forms of written self-disclosure, at least in the short term. Over four writing sessions, 155 participants either wrote about mundane experiences (the control group) or wrote narratives about traumatic or stressful life events that were targeted at no one, targeted at a person of their choice, or construed as prayers to God. The results indicate that written prayers are lexically similar to the other two types of written narratives and distinct from the control group. Furthermore, the immediate effects of trauma writing on mood and physical well-being were similar as well. These findings have potentially important implications for understanding the relationship between personal prayer and a variety of health outcomes.

  17. Teotlaqualli: the psychoactive food of the Aztec gods.

    PubMed

    Elferink, J G

    1999-01-01

    The Aztecs in pre-Columbian Mexico used not only a large number of single hallucinogens, they also used some combinations. The present article describes reports of the use of teotlaqualli, an unction prepared from ololiuhqui and picietl, with a large number of additions. The work of the chroniclers of pre-Columbian Mexico served as a source of information. The teotlaqualli was offered to the gods, for whom it served as food. The Aztec priests smeared themselves with this unction, to lose fear and to get the appropriate state of mind to serve the Aztec gods. A few cases are reported in which the Aztec emperor or soldiers were smeared with teotlaqualli. It is suggested that the black color of some Aztec deities, as depicted in the codices, was due to anointment with teotlaqualli. In addition to its use for psychoactive purposes, teotlaqualli was used in medicine under the name teopatli. PMID:10681110

  18. Experimenting with spirituality: analyzing The God Gene in a nonmajors laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Linda A

    2008-01-01

    References linking genes to complex human traits, such as personality type or disease susceptibility, abound in the news media and popular culture. In his book The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into Our Genes, Dean Hamer argues that a variation in the VMAT2 gene plays a role in one's openness to spiritual experiences. In a nonmajors class, we read and discussed The God Gene and conducted on a small scale an extension of the study it describes. Students used polymerase chain reaction to replicate a portion of their VMAT2 genes, and they analyzed three polymorphic sites in the sequence of these products. Associations between particular VMAT2 alleles and scores on a personality test were assessed by t test. The course, of which this project was a major part, stimulated student learning; scores on a test covering basic genetic concepts, causation/correlation, and laboratory methodology improved after completion of the course. In a survey, students reported the laboratory project aided their learning, especially in the areas of statistics and the linking of genes to behaviors. They reported high levels of engagement with the project, citing in particular its personal nature as motivating their interest.

  19. Experimenting with Spirituality: Analyzing The God Gene in a Nonmajors Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    References linking genes to complex human traits, such as personality type or disease susceptibility, abound in the news media and popular culture. In his book The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into Our Genes, Dean Hamer argues that a variation in the VMAT2 gene plays a role in one's openness to spiritual experiences. In a nonmajors class, we read and discussed The God Gene and conducted on a small scale an extension of the study it describes. Students used polymerase chain reaction to replicate a portion of their VMAT2 genes, and they analyzed three polymorphic sites in the sequence of these products. Associations between particular VMAT2 alleles and scores on a personality test were assessed by t test. The course, of which this project was a major part, stimulated student learning; scores on a test covering basic genetic concepts, causation/correlation, and laboratory methodology improved after completion of the course. In a survey, students reported the laboratory project aided their learning, especially in the areas of statistics and the linking of genes to behaviors. They reported high levels of engagement with the project, citing in particular its personal nature as motivating their interest. PMID:18316816

  20. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  1. Improved Response of ZnO Films for Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Yu, Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the temperature variation rate is a useful method for enhancing the response of pyroelectric devices. A three-dimensional ZnO film was fabricated by the aerosol deposition (AD) rapid process using the shadow mask method, which induces lateral temperature gradients on the sidewalls of the responsive element, thereby increasing the temperature variation rate. To enhance the quality of the film and reduce the concentration of defects, the film was further treated by laser annealing, and the integration of a comb-like top electrode enhanced the voltage response and reduced the response time of the resulting ZnO pyroelectric devices. PMID:23235444

  2. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  3. Anticipating divine protection? Reminders of god can increase nonmoral risk taking.

    PubMed

    Kupor, Daniella M; Laurin, Kristin; Levav, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Religiosity and participation in religious activities have been linked with decreased risky behavior. In the current research, we hypothesized that exposure to the concept of God can actually increase people's willingness to engage in certain types of risks. Across seven studies, reminders of God increased risk taking in nonmoral domains. This effect was mediated by the perceived danger of a risky option and emerged more strongly among individuals who perceive God as a reliable source of safety and protection than among those who do not. Moreover, in an eighth study, when participants were first reminded of God and then took a risk that produced negative consequences (i.e., when divine protection failed to materialize), participants reported feeling more negatively toward God than did participants in the same situation who were not first reminded of God. This research contributes to an understanding of the divergent effects that distinct components of religion can exert on behavior.

  4. Spiritual Struggle Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Chronic Headaches: Anger and Protest Behaviors Toward God.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Krause, Steven J; Broer, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    This study examined anger and protest behaviors toward God among 80 US adults seeking treatment for chronic headaches (66 women, 14 men; 71 completed treatment). Measures were administered before and after an intensive 3-week outpatient treatment program. At both times, anger and protest toward God correlated with lower pain acceptance, more emotional distress, and greater perceived disability. However, when considered simultaneously, anger predicted sustained distress, whereas protest behaviors (e.g., complaining, questioning, arguing) predicted both reduced distress and an increased sense of meaning. These findings suggest the utility of distinguishing between anger toward God and behaviors suggesting assertiveness toward God. PMID:27216030

  5. Parental and God Representations Among Individuals with Psychosis: A Grounded Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prout, Tracy A; Ottaviano, Patricia; Taveras, Alexa; Sepulveda, Carolyn; Torres, Julian

    2016-12-01

    Religiousness, spirituality, and social support have all been identified as having a positive impact on overall mental health outcomes. The current study describes quantitative and qualitative assessment of parental and God representations among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 46). Six salient themes emerged; participants described the importance of caregiver love and nurturance, need for God, loss of family members, love of God, concrete support provided by parents, and the ability to tolerate ambivalent feelings toward parents. Participants linked their relationships with parents and God to their process of recovery. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Divergent effects of activating thoughts of God on self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Kristin; Kay, Aaron C; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M

    2012-01-01

    Despite the cultural ubiquity of ideas and images related to God, relatively little is known about the effects of exposure to God representations on behavior. Specific depictions of God differ across religions, but common to most is that God is (a) an omnipotent, controlling force and (b) an omniscient, all-knowing being. Given these 2 characteristic features, how might exposure to the concept of God influence behavior? Leveraging classic and recent theorizing on self-regulation and social cognition, we predict and test for 2 divergent effects of exposure to notions of God on self-regulatory processes. Specifically, we show that participants reminded of God (vs. neutral or positive concepts) demonstrate both decreased active goal pursuit (Studies 1, 2, and 5) and increased temptation resistance (Studies 3, 4, and 5). These findings provide the first experimental evidence that exposure to God influences goal pursuit and suggest that the ever-present cultural reminders of God can be both burden and benefit for self-regulation.

  7. The protective role of attachment to God against eating disorder risk factors: concurrent and prospective evidence.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Boyatzis, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study explored whether a secure relationship with God would protect young women (N = 231, M = 19.2) from the impact of four risk factors for eating disturbance: pressure to be thin; thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction; and dieting. Analyses showed that women with secure attachment to God experienced reduced levels of each risk factor. Prospective data showed that pressure to be thin and thin-ideal internalization predicted body dissatisfaction only for women with an anxious insecure attachment to God. The data indicate that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors.

  8. Spiritual Struggle Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Chronic Headaches: Anger and Protest Behaviors Toward God.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Krause, Steven J; Broer, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    This study examined anger and protest behaviors toward God among 80 US adults seeking treatment for chronic headaches (66 women, 14 men; 71 completed treatment). Measures were administered before and after an intensive 3-week outpatient treatment program. At both times, anger and protest toward God correlated with lower pain acceptance, more emotional distress, and greater perceived disability. However, when considered simultaneously, anger predicted sustained distress, whereas protest behaviors (e.g., complaining, questioning, arguing) predicted both reduced distress and an increased sense of meaning. These findings suggest the utility of distinguishing between anger toward God and behaviors suggesting assertiveness toward God.

  9. Psychoanalytic theory and loving God concepts: parent referencing versus self-referencing.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R; Mueller, R A

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their parents' nurturance, their parents' permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness, and the students' own self-esteem. Although parents' nurturance, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were related to participants' conceptions of God (thus providing some support for psychoanalytic assertions), the variable of self-esteem far outweighed all other variables in accounting for the variance in God concepts. These results suggest that self-referencing explanations better account for individuals' conceptions of God than do parent referencing (i.e., psychoanalytic) explanations. PMID:8510050

  10. Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.; Walker, William Q.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to determine if a Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology could be applied to on-orbit thermal analysis and produce a set of Response Surface Equations (RSE) that predict Orion vehicle temperatures within 10 F. The study used the Orion Outer Mold Line model. Five separate factors were identified for study: yaw, pitch, roll, beta angle, and the environmental parameters. Twenty-three external Orion components were selected and their minimum and maximum temperatures captured over a period of two orbits. Thus, there are 46 responses. A DOE case matrix of 145 runs was developed. The data from these cases were analyzed to produce a fifth order RSE for each of the temperature responses. For the 145 cases in the DOE matrix, the agreement between the engineering data and the RSE predictions was encouraging with 40 of the 46 RSEs predicting temperatures within the goal band. However, the verification cases showed most responses did not meet the 10 F goal. After reframing the focus of the study to better align the RSE development with the purposes of the model, a set of RSEs for both the minimum and maximum radiator temperatures was produced which predicted the engineering model output within +/-4 F. Therefore, with the correct application of the DOE/RSE methodology, RSEs can be developed that provide analysts a fast and easy way to screen large numbers of environments and assess proposed changes to the RSE factors.

  11. 34 CFR 200.39 - Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... school improvement. 200.39 Section 200.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Lea and School Improvement § 200.39 Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement. (a) If an LEA identifies a school for school improvement under § 200.32— (1) The LEA must—...

  12. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  13. Improved design provides faster response time in photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Dynamic Crossed-Field Electron Multiplying /DCFEM/ light demodulator avoids the normal response time limitations inherent in static field devices by using time varying crossed electric and static magnetic fields. This eliminates the transit time spread that affects electrons as they proceed along the secondary emission stages of the tube.

  14. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Improvements to Emergency Medical Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraffenreid, Jeff Gordon

    The challenge facing many emergency medical services (EMS) is the implementation of a comprehensive educational strategy to address emergency responses to terrorism. One such service, Johnson County (Kansas) Medical Action, needed a strategy that would keep paramedics safe and offer the community an effective approach to mitigation. A…

  15. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  16. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  17. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality. PMID:26863190

  18. Instructional Improvement: Roles and Responsibilities in Statewide Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane M. E.; Kenney, Jane L.

    This paper summarizes the first 18 months of Maryland's School Improvement through Instructional Process (SITIP) program, begun in fall 1980. Four general methods of data collection were used for the project: observation, interviews, questionnaires, and document analysis. Of Maryland's 24 local education agencies (LEAs)--Baltimore City plus 23…

  19. [To God through science. Natural theology in Francoism].

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Francisco Blázquez

    2011-01-01

    In Spain, during Franco's dictatorship (1939-1975) the teaching and divulgation of science were subordinated to the Catholic religion and many books defended a theistic and creationistic point of view of biology that accepted a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis and denied the theory of evolution, especially as it relates to human origin. This article is devoted to the main books and characteristics of this way of thinking which reproduced arguments and metaphors of the pre-Darwinian natural theology, arguing that nature was ruled by God and living organisms were the results of his design. PMID:22372008

  20. Use of biguanides to improve response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sandulache, Vlad C; Yang, Liangpeng; Skinner, Heath D

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is a commonly utilized antidiabetic agent, which has been associated with improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients. The precise mechanism of action remains unclear, but preclinical evidence suggests that metformin can sensitize tumor cells to the effects to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation (IR). In this chapter we discuss the general background of an approach to evaluate the effects of metformin on conventional chemotherapeutic agent toxicity in a preclinical model.

  1. 34 CFR 200.39 - Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement. 200.39 Section 200.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Lea and School Improvement § 200.39 Responsibilities resulting from identification for...

  2. 34 CFR 200.39 - Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement. 200.39 Section 200.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Lea and School Improvement § 200.39 Responsibilities resulting from identification for...

  3. 34 CFR 200.39 - Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities resulting from identification for school improvement. 200.39 Section 200.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Lea and School Improvement § 200.39 Responsibilities resulting from identification for...

  4. Improving Flow Response of a Variable-rate Aerial Application System by Interactive Refinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates and to improve its response at correspondingly varying system pressures. System improvements have been made by refinement of the control algorithms over time in collaboration with ...

  5. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? (a) If, one year after an eligible recipient has... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? 403.204 Section 403.204 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  6. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? (a) If, one year after an eligible recipient has... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? 403.204 Section 403.204 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  7. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? (a) If, one year after an eligible recipient has... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement? 403.204 Section 403.204 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  8. Theoretical Model of God: The Key to Correct Exploration of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2007-04-01

    The problem of the correct approach to exploration of the Universe cannot be solved if there is no solution of the problem of existence of God (Creator, Ruler) in science. In this connection, theoretical proof of existence of God is proposed. The theoretical model of God -- as scientific proof of existence of God -- is the consequence of the system of the formulated axioms. The system of the axioms contains, in particular, the following premises: (1) all objects formed (synthesized) by man are characterized by the essential property: namely, divisibility into aspects; (2) objects which can be mentally divided into aspects are objects formed (synthesized); (3) the system ``Universe'' is mentally divided into aspects. Consequently, the Universe represents the system formed (synthesized); (4) the theorem of existence of God (i.e. Absolute, Creator, Ruler) follows from the principle of logical completeness of system of concepts: if the formed (synthesized) system ``Universe'' exists, then God exists as the Absolute, the Creator, the Ruler of essence (i.e. information) and phenomenon (i.e. material objects). Thus, the principle of existence of God -- the content of the theoretical model of God -- must be a starting-point and basis of correct gnosiology and science of 21 century.

  9. Young Children's God Concepts: Influences of Attachment and Religious Socialization in a Family and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Roos, Simone A.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution offers an overview of two studies testing two attachment theoretical correspondence hypotheses in the prediction of individual differences in young children's God concepts. The correspondence hypothesis supposes that people's view on God parallels their images of their early caregiver-child relationship. The revised…

  10. Adolescents' Justifications for Faith or Doubt in God: A Study of Fulfilled and Unfulfilled Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nipkow, Karl Ernst; Schweitzer, Friedrich

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of a collection of statements about God written by German students between 16 and 22 years of age. Examines results from a psychoanalytic and cognitive-developmental perspective. Also considers the ways in which adolescents talk about the relationship between God and the church. (BB)

  11. Chinese Christians in America: Attachment to God, Stress, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Chen, Hwei-Jane; Wade, Nathaniel; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Guo, Gwo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attachment to God moderated the relation between perceived stress and well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positive affect) among 183 Chinese Christian international students and immigrants. Results showed significant main effects of (a) perceived stress on life satisfaction and (b) secure attachment to God and…

  12. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  13. What's "up" with God? Vertical space as a representation of the divine.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Hauser, David J; Robinson, Michael D; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Schjeldahl, Katie

    2007-11-01

    "God" and "Devil" are abstract concepts often linked to vertical metaphors (e.g., "glory to God in the highest," "the Devil lives down in hell"). It is unknown, however, whether these metaphors simply aid communication or implicate a deeper mode of concept representation. In 6 experiments, the authors examined the extent to which the vertical dimension is used in noncommunication contexts involving God and the Devil. Experiment 1 established that people have implicit associations between God-Devil and up-down. Experiment 2 revealed that people encode God-related concepts faster if presented in a high (vs. low) vertical position. Experiment 3 found that people's memory for the vertical location of God- and Devil-like images showed a metaphor-consistent bias (up for God; down for Devil). Experiments 4, 5a, and 5b revealed that people rated strangers as more likely to believe in God when their images appeared in a high versus low vertical position, and this effect was independent of inferences related to power and likability. These robust results reveal that vertical perceptions are invoked when people access divinity-related cognitions.

  14. My Hero, My Friend: Exploring Honduran Youths' Lived Experience of the God-Individual Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Monique B.; Silver, Christopher F.; Ross, Christopher F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive social science research has focused on God image and God concept through the lens of attachment theory and the parental relationship. While vast theoretical frameworks exist, the authors suggest that more focused phenomenological research would shed light on adolescent lived experience within experiential descriptive language and…

  15. Children's Image of God and Their Parents: Explorations in Children's Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito

    2012-01-01

    Exploring children's image of God and parents has invited interest among program preparers for children's spirituality in the Philippines. This research seeks to find out the fundamental orientation of children's image of God as well as their perceptions of father and mother from 241 fifth graders in three selected government primary schools in…

  16. Disappointment with God and Well-Being: The Mediating Influence of Relationship Quality and Dispositional Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Acton, Collin; Patrick, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which disappointment with God influenced the psychological and spiritual well-being of 160 churchgoers, and the potential mediating influences of relationship quality (spiritual maturity and relationship commitment) and dispositional forgiveness. Disappointment with God was positively related to depression and…

  17. Images of a Loving God and Sense of Meaning in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroope, Samuel; Draper, Scott; Whitehead, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Although prior studies have documented a positive association between religiosity and sense of meaning in life, the role of specific religious beliefs is currently unclear. Past research on images of God suggests that loving images of God will positively correlate with a sense of meaning and purpose. Mechanisms for this hypothesized relationship…

  18. 75 FR 15764 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gods of Angkor: Bronzes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gods of Angkor: Bronzes From the... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gods of...

  19. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  20. Improving Item Response Theory Model Calibration by Considering Response Times in Psychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed-distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response…

  1. Improved Tet-responsive promoters with minimized background expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The performance of the tetracycline controlled transcriptional activation system (Tet system) depends critically on the choice of minimal promoters. They are indispensable to warrant low expression levels with the system turned "off". On the other hand, they must support high level of gene expression in the "on"-state. Results In this study, we systematically modified the widely used Cytomegalovirus (CMV) minimal promoter to further minimize background expression, resulting in an improved dynamic expression range. Using both plasmid-based and retroviral gene delivery, our analysis revealed that especially background expression levels could be significantly reduced when compared to previously established "standard" promoter designs. Our results also demonstrate the possibility to fine-tune expression levels in non-clonal cell populations. They also imply differences regarding the requirements for tight regulation and high level induction between transient and stable gene transfer systems. Conclusions Until now, our understanding of mammalian transcriptional regulation including promoter architecture is limited. Nevertheless, the partly empirical modification of cis-elements as shown in this study can lead to the specific improvement of the performance of minimal promoters. The novel composite Ptet promoters introduced here will further expand the utility of the Tet system. PMID:21106052

  2. Improving Kepler Pipeline Sensitivity with Pixel Response Function Photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Robert L.; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our investigation into the feasibility and expected benefits of implementing PRF-fitting photometry in the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. The Kepler Pixel Response Function (PRF) describes the expected system response to a point source at infinity and includes the effects of the optical point spread function, the CCD detector responsivity function, and spacecraft pointing jitter. Planet detection in the Kepler pipeline is currently based on simple aperture photometry (SAP), which is most effective when applied to uncrowded bright stars. Its effectiveness diminishes rapidly as target brightness decreases relative to the effects of noise sources such as detector electronics, background stars, and image motion. In contrast, PRF photometry is based on fitting an explicit model of image formation to the data and naturally accounts for image motion and contributions of background stars. The key to obtaining high-quality photometry from PRF fitting is a high-quality model of the system's PRF, while the key to efficiently processing the large number of Kepler targets is an accurate catalog and accurate mapping of celestial coordinates onto the focal plane. If the CCD coordinates of stellar centroids are known a priori then the problem of PRF fitting becomes linear. A model of the Kepler PRF was constructed at the time of spacecraft commissioning by fitting piecewise polynomial surfaces to data from dithered full frame images. While this model accurately captured the initial state of the system, the PRF has evolved dynamically since then and has been seen to deviate significantly from the initial (static) model. We construct a dynamic PRF model which is then used to recover photometry for all targets of interest. Both simulation tests and results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science

  3. Disasters, the environment, and public health: improving our response.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, J N

    1996-01-01

    Natural and human-made disasters continue to adversely affect all areas of the world in both predictable and unpredictable ways. To highlight the importance of natural disasters, the United Nations declared the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This paper considers the public health response to disasters. It highlights environmental health issues and approaches since disasters are extreme environmental events, and it reviews developments relating to capacity building, training, and collaboration. Although progress is noted, a comprehensive federal or academic approach is not evident in the United States and the proper linkage to environmental health is lacking. With the International Decade now half over, public health professionals and others involved with disaster management should reflect on progress made to date and goals for the future. PMID:8806369

  4. Social Involvement in Religious Institutions and God-Mediated Control Beliefs: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal M

    2007-12-01

    This study examines the relationships among race, education, formal as well as informal involvement in the church, and God-mediated control. Formal involvement in the church was assessed by the frequency of attendance at worship services, Bible study groups, and prayer groups. Informal involvement was measured with an index of spiritual support provided by fellow church members. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people suggest that both formal and informal church involvement tend to sustain feelings of God-mediated control over time. The findings further reveal that compared to older whites, older African Americans are more likely to have stronger feelings of God-mediated control at the baseline survey and older blacks are more likely to sustain their sense of God-mediated control over time. In contrast, the data suggest that education is not significantly related to feelings of God-mediated control.

  5. Representations of God uncovered in a spirituality group of borderline inpatients.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Geoff; Manierre, Amy

    2008-01-01

    We present aspects of a psychoanalytically-oriented, exploratory spirituality group for nine female psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Through drawings and group process, the patients uncovered and elaborated on their representations of God. Two patterns of representations were identified: (1) representations of a punitive, judgmental, rigid God that seemed directly to reflect and correspond with parental representations and (2) representations of a depersonified, inanimate, abstract God entailing aspects of idealization that seemed to compensate for parental representations. Interestingly, the second pattern was associated with comorbid narcissistic features in the patients. Those patients who presented punitive God representations were able to begin the process of re-creating these representations toward more benign or benevolent images in the context of this group, while those participants who presented depersonified God representations seemed unable to do so.

  6. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  7. Blaming god for our pain: human suffering and the divine mind.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kurt; Wegner, Daniel M

    2010-02-01

    Believing in God requires not only a leap of faith but also an extension of people's normal capacity to perceive the minds of others. Usually, people perceive minds of all kinds by trying to understand their conscious experience (what it is like to be them) and their agency (what they can do). Although humans are perceived to have both agency and experience, humans appear to see God as possessing agency, but not experience. God's unique mind is due, the authors suggest, to the uniquely moral role He occupies. In this article, the authors propose that God is seen as the ultimate moral agent, the entity people blame and praise when they receive anomalous harm and help. Support for this proposition comes from research on mind perception, morality, and moral typecasting. Interestingly, although people perceive God as the author of salvation, suffering seems to evoke even more attributions to the divine.

  8. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  9. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  10. Mifepristone improves chemo-radiation response in glioblastoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have investigated the ability of Mifepristone, an anti-progestin and anti-glucocorticoid drug, to modulate the antitumor effect of current standard clinical treatment in glioblastoma xenografts. Methods The effect of radiation alone or combined with Mifepristone and Temozolamide was evaluated on tumor growth in glioblastoma xenografts, both in terms of preferentially triggering tumor cell death and inhibiting angiogenesis. Tumor size was measured once a week using a caliper and tumor metabolic-activity was carried out by molecular imaging using a microPET/CT scanner. The effect of Mifepristone on the expression of angiogenic factors after concomitant radio-chemotherapy was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of VEGF gene expression. Results The analysis of the data shows a significant antitumoral effect by the simultaneous administration of radiation-Mifepristone-Temozolamide in comparison with radiation alone or radiation-Temozolamide. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mifepristone could improve the efficacy of chemo-radiotherapy in Glioblastoma. The addition of Mifepristone to standard radiation-Temozolamide therapy represents a potential approach as a chemo-radio-sensitizer in treating GBMs, which have very limited treatment options. PMID:23530939

  11. Improving policy responses to the risk of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Nathwani, Jatin; Pandey, Mahesh; Hurley, Fintan

    2007-02-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the need for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the available policy instruments for air pollution. To prioritize different possible actions, one needs to know which source of pollution causes how much damage. This requires an impact pathway analysis, that is, an analysis of the chain emission --> dispersion --> dose-response function --> monetary valuation. The methodology for this is described and illustrated with the results of the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) project series of the European Commission. Two examples of an application to CBA are shown: one where a proposed reduction of emission limits is justified, and one where it is not. It is advisable to subject any proposed regulation to a CBA, including an analysis of the uncertainties. Even if the uncertainties are large and a policy decision may have to take other considerations into account, a well-documented CBA clarifies the issues and provides a basis for rational discussion. One of the main sources of uncertainty lies in the monetary valuation of premature mortality, the dominant contribution to the damage cost of air pollution. As an alternative, an innovative policy tool is described, the Life Quality Index (LQI), a compound indicator comprising societal wealth and life expectancy. It is applied to the Canada-wide standards for particulate matter and ozone. Regardless of monetary valuation, a 50% reduction of PM10 concentrations in Europe and North America has been shown to yield a population-average life expectancy increase on the order of 4 to 5 mo.

  12. Chromium improves insulin response to glucose in rats.

    PubMed

    Striffler, J S; Law, J S; Polansky, M M; Bhathena, S J; Anderson, R A

    1995-10-01

    The effects of chromium (Cr) supplementation on insulin secretion and glucose clearance (KG) during intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTS) were assessed in rats with impaired glucose tolerance due to dietary Cr deficiency. Male Wistar rats were maintained after weaning on a basal low-Cr diet containing 55% sucrose, 15% lard, 25% casein. American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-recommended levels of vitamins, no added Cr, and an altered mineral content as required to produce Cr deficiency and impaired glucose tolerance. The Cr-supplemented group ([+Cr] n = 6) were provided with 5 ppm Cr as CrCl3 in the drinking water, and the Cr-deficient group ([-Cr]n = 5) received purified drinking water. At 12 weeks on the diet, both groups of rats were hyperinsulinemic (+Cr, 103 +/- 13; -Cr, 59 +/- 12 microU/mL) and normoglycemic (+Cr, 127 +/- 7; -Cr, 130 +/- 4 mg/dL), indicating insulin resistance. After 24 weeks, insulin levels were normal (+Cr, 19 +/- 5; -Cr, 21 +/- 3 microU/mL) and all rats remained normoglycemic (+Cr, 124 +/- 8; -Cr, 131 +/- 6 mg/dL). KG values during IVGTTS were lower in -Cr rats (KG = 3.58%/min) than in +Cr rats (KG = 5.29%/min), correlating with significantly greater 40-minute glucose areas in the -Cr group (P < .01). Comparisons of 40-minute insulin areas indicated marked insulin hyperresponsiveness in the -Cr group, with insulin-secretory responses increased nearly twofold in -Cr animals (P < .05). Chromium deficiency also led to significant decreases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in spleen and testis (P < .01). In these studies, Cr deficiency was characterized by both beta-cell hypersecretion of insulin and tissue insulin resistance that were associated with decreased tissue levels of cAMP PDE activity.

  13. Work of the Gods: Tatai Arorangi (Maori Astronomy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leather, Kay; Hall, Richard

    Knowledgeable elders of ancient times, and their descendants today, studied the heavens and the stars - such was matai whetu, study of the stars - to identify the heavenly bodies and their relationships to each other. The knowledge gained was arranged in whakapapa, genealogies. Recitation of the star names was known as tatai whetu; navigation across the seas was tatai aro rangi: finding the appropriate path by the stars. The maramataka, or literally moon calendar, and the seasons were determined by the heliacal rising (rising just before the Sun) of certain stars. Knowledge of their world was the tool the ancients used to order their lives. From the first twitch in Te Kore, which gave life, to the continuous flow of creation, carried in the waters of life, even unto the breath of life, which allows creatures to move under their own mana, all the universe shares the tapu and the mana of the gods.

  14. Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms.

    PubMed Central

    Loimer, H; Guarnieri, M

    1996-01-01

    Despite criticism from safety professionals, scientists continue to use the word accident, meaning an unexpected, unintended injury, or event. Some argue for its use based on tradition, but "traditional" arguments appear to be invalid given our examination of the history of the word and its companion phrase act of God in statistics, law, and religion. People who were interested in public health recognized in the 1600s that unintended injuries were neither random nor unexpected. Legal scholars in the 1800s saw the word was useless for technical purposes. The word does not appear in the Bible until the mid 1900s and then only in a para-phrased edition. Others have maintained that the meaning of accident is well understood, even though it has not been perfectly defined. We maintain that without a clear definition, people substitute an image, which may be distorted or damaging. Images p102-a p104-a p105-a PMID:8561226

  15. Investigations of the mechanisms by which lower body negative pressure (LBNP) improves orthostatic responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, S. M.; Steinmann, L.; Dussack, L.; Wood, M.; Cintron, N.; Whitson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Saline ingestion during LBNP is a counter measure proposed to improve orthostatic function during space flight. To understand the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect, body fluid, endocrine, and orthostatic responses (graded LBNP tests) were measured during bed rest (BR) and after 2 hr and 4 hr LBNP/saline treatments (-30 mm Hg and 1 liter of isotonic saline). PV (from I-125 and hematocrit measurements) decreased during BR but was restored to the pre-bed rest level (3157 +/- 161 ml) 20 hrs after both 2 hr (3109 +/- 146 ml) and 4 hr (3144 +/- 173 ml) LBNP. The heart rate response to graded LBNP tests was significantly improved after the 4 hr, but not after the 2 hr treatment. These results suggest PV expansion may be responsible for some improvement in orthostatic responses, but other mechanisms also must contribute.

  16. Changes in cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition after performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Satoshi; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor learning is supported by the cerebellum and the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Response inhibition involves motor responses and the higher-order inhibition that controls the motor responses. In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition in two separate days of task performance, and detected the changes in the interaction following performance improvement. Behaviorally, performance improved in the second day, compared to the first day. The psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed the interaction decrease from the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) to the cerebellum (lobule VII or VI). It was also revealed that the interaction increased from the same cerebellar region to the primary motor area. These results suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in response inhibition, and raise the possibility that the performance improvement was supported by the changes in the cerebro-cerebellar interaction.

  17. Different effects of religion and God on prosociality with the ingroup and outgroup.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have found that activating religious cognition by priming techniques can enhance prosocial behavior, arguably because religious concepts carry prosocial associations. But many of these studies have primed multiple concepts simultaneously related to the sacred. We argue here that religion and God are distinct concepts that activate distinct associations. In particular, we examine the effect of God and religion on prosociality toward the ingroup and outgroup. In three studies, we found that religion primes enhanced prosociality toward ingroup members, consistent with ingroup affiliation, whereas, God primes enhanced prosociality toward outgroup member, consistent with concerns of moral impression management. Implications for theory and methodology in religious cognition are discussed.

  18. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values < .05). Multiple regression analyses including covariates and other locus of control variables revealed that God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  19. The Importance of Terminal Values and Religious Experience of God's Presence and God's Absence in the Lives of University Students with Various Levels of Empathy.

    PubMed

    Głaz, Stanisław

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the research I embarked on were: (a) to show the preference of terminal values in personal and in social character, as well to determine the level of religious experience--God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people characterized by a high and low level of empathy and (b) to show the relation between terminal values in personal and in social character and religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people with a high and low level of empathy. In the research, the following methods were applied: The Scale of Religious Experience by Głaz-in order to define the level of religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, and Mehrabian and Epstein's Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy-in order to define the level of empathy. In order to show the terminal values preference amongst young people, the Rokeach Value Survey was applied. The research was carried out in Kraków amongst 200 university students. The research has shown that students with a high level of empathy reveal a higher level of experience of God's presence than the people with a low level of it. University students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer most two values in personal character, that is wisdom and pleasure, and one in social character-family security. Similarly, students with a low level of empathy prefer most also two values in personal character, that is pleasure and freedom, and one in social character-family security. In the group of people with a high level of empathy, it is value in personal character-a sense of accomplishment-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's presence, and in group of people with a low level of empathy, it is social value-social recognition. Whereas in the group of people with a high level of empathy it is value in social character-equality-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's absence, and

  20. The Importance of Terminal Values and Religious Experience of God's Presence and God's Absence in the Lives of University Students with Various Levels of Empathy.

    PubMed

    Głaz, Stanisław

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the research I embarked on were: (a) to show the preference of terminal values in personal and in social character, as well to determine the level of religious experience--God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people characterized by a high and low level of empathy and (b) to show the relation between terminal values in personal and in social character and religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people with a high and low level of empathy. In the research, the following methods were applied: The Scale of Religious Experience by Głaz-in order to define the level of religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, and Mehrabian and Epstein's Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy-in order to define the level of empathy. In order to show the terminal values preference amongst young people, the Rokeach Value Survey was applied. The research was carried out in Kraków amongst 200 university students. The research has shown that students with a high level of empathy reveal a higher level of experience of God's presence than the people with a low level of it. University students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer most two values in personal character, that is wisdom and pleasure, and one in social character-family security. Similarly, students with a low level of empathy prefer most also two values in personal character, that is pleasure and freedom, and one in social character-family security. In the group of people with a high level of empathy, it is value in personal character-a sense of accomplishment-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's presence, and in group of people with a low level of empathy, it is social value-social recognition. Whereas in the group of people with a high level of empathy it is value in social character-equality-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's absence, and

  1. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  2. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  3. Improvement of Step Response of Voice Coil Motor (VCM) Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Masashi

    A method for designing a sensitivity function by taking into consideration the step response is proposed. The target for the position control is generated by a feedback, instead of a feedforward controller, to improve the step response profile for perturbations in plant gain. The sampling rate for generating the target is slower than the rate for the position control to suppress the mechanical resonances at a high-frequency range. The method is applied to the hard disk drive (HDD) benchmark, and an improved step response is obtained.

  4. Playing God and the ethics of divine names: an Islamic paradigm for biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaiser

    2007-10-01

    The notion of 'playing God' frequently comes to fore in discussions of bioethics, especially in religious contexts. The phrase has always been analyzed and discussed from Christian and secular standpoints. Two interpretations exist in the literature. The first one takes 'God' seriously and playing 'playfully'. It argues that this concept does state a principle but invokes a perspective on the world. The second takes both terms playfully. In the Islamic Intellectual tradition, the Sufi concept of 'adopting divine character traits' provides a legitimate paradigm for 'playing God'. This paradigm is interesting because here we take both terms 'God' and 'playing' seriously. It is significant for the development of biomedical ethics in contemporary Islamic societies as it can open new vistas for viewing biotechnological developments.

  5. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Tong, Eddie M W; Pang, Joyce S; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words "religion", "God" and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed.

  6. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  7. Development and validation of the alcohol-related God locus of control scale.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas S; Goggin, Kathy; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2006-03-01

    Control beliefs and spirituality appear to be important factors in recovery from alcoholism. However, the integration of these two constructs has received little attention, and the relationship of spiritually related control beliefs to recovery remains unclear. Currently no measures exist to specifically assess these beliefs. To address this need, the Alcohol-Related God Locus of Control scale (AGLOC) was developed. This 12-item self-report measure assesses perceptions of God/Higher Power's role in recovery from alcoholism. The AGLOC was administered to 144 recovering alcoholics attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution with one factor related to attributions of God control over initial cessation of drinking (Cessation) and the other factor related to attributions of God control over one's continued maintenance of sobriety (Maintenance). Both subscales and the overall scale demonstrated adequate to high internal consistency. Demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, the total AGLOC scale and the Cessation subscale were significantly but moderately correlated with spirituality (both frequency and importance), and independent of perceptions of internal control over drinking. Maintenance subscale scores were inversely associated with internal drinking-related scores and were not associated with spiritual importance or frequency of spiritual practice. Findings support the utility of this instrument for the assessment of alcohol-related God/Higher Power locus of control beliefs in an alcoholic population and suggest the importance of further research on changes in alcohol-related God control beliefs throughout the course of recovery.

  8. Believers' estimates of God's beliefs are more egocentric than estimates of other people's beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Epley, Nicholas; Converse, Benjamin A.; Delbosc, Alexa; Monteleone, George A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    People often reason egocentrically about others' beliefs, using their own beliefs as an inductive guide. Correlational, experimental, and neuroimaging evidence suggests that people may be even more egocentric when reasoning about a religious agent's beliefs (e.g., God). In both nationally representative and more local samples, people's own beliefs on important social and ethical issues were consistently correlated more strongly with estimates of God's beliefs than with estimates of other people's beliefs (Studies 1–4). Manipulating people's beliefs similarly influenced estimates of God's beliefs but did not as consistently influence estimates of other people's beliefs (Studies 5 and 6). A final neuroimaging study demonstrated a clear convergence in neural activity when reasoning about one's own beliefs and God's beliefs, but clear divergences when reasoning about another person's beliefs (Study 7). In particular, reasoning about God's beliefs activated areas associated with self-referential thinking more so than did reasoning about another person's beliefs. Believers commonly use inferences about God's beliefs as a moral compass, but that compass appears especially dependent on one's own existing beliefs. PMID:19955414

  9. Believers' estimates of God's beliefs are more egocentric than estimates of other people's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Epley, Nicholas; Converse, Benjamin A; Delbosc, Alexa; Monteleone, George A; Cacioppo, John T

    2009-12-22

    People often reason egocentrically about others' beliefs, using their own beliefs as an inductive guide. Correlational, experimental, and neuroimaging evidence suggests that people may be even more egocentric when reasoning about a religious agent's beliefs (e.g., God). In both nationally representative and more local samples, people's own beliefs on important social and ethical issues were consistently correlated more strongly with estimates of God's beliefs than with estimates of other people's beliefs (Studies 1-4). Manipulating people's beliefs similarly influenced estimates of God's beliefs but did not as consistently influence estimates of other people's beliefs (Studies 5 and 6). A final neuroimaging study demonstrated a clear convergence in neural activity when reasoning about one's own beliefs and God's beliefs, but clear divergences when reasoning about another person's beliefs (Study 7). In particular, reasoning about God's beliefs activated areas associated with self-referential thinking more so than did reasoning about another person's beliefs. Believers commonly use inferences about God's beliefs as a moral compass, but that compass appears especially dependent on one's own existing beliefs. PMID:19955414

  10. Fingers-of-God effect of infalling satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Non-linear redshift-space distortion known as the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect is a major systematic uncertainty in redshift-space distortion studies conducted to test gravity models. The FoG effect has been usually attributed to the random motion of galaxies inside their clusters. When the internal galaxy motion is not well virialized, however, the coherent infalling motion towards the cluster centre generates the FoG effect. Here, we derive an analytical model of the satellite velocity distribution due to the infall motion combined with the random motion. We show that the velocity distribution becomes far from Maxwellian when the infalling motion is dominant. We use simulated subhalo catalogues to find that the contribution of infall motion is important to massive subhaloes and that the velocity distribution has a top-hat like shape as expected from our analytic model. We also study the FoG effect due to infall motion on the redshift-space power spectrum. Using simulated mock samples of luminous red galaxies constructed from haloes and massive subhaloes in N-body simulations, we show that the redshift-space power spectra can differ from expectations when the infall motion is ignored.

  11. Assessing and improving cross-border chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Evans, James; Hall, Lisbeth; Czerczak, Slawomir; Manley, Kevin; Dobney, Alec; Hoffer, Sally; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka

    2014-11-01

    Good practices in emergency preparedness and response for chemical incidents include practices specific to the different functions of exposure assessment (e.g., within the monitoring function, the use of mobile monitoring equipment; within the modelling function, the use of rapid dispersion models with integrated mapping software) and generic practices to engage incident response stakeholders to maximise exposure assessment capabilities (e.g., sharing protocols and pre-prepared information and multi-agency training and exercising). Such practices can optimise cross-border collaboration. A wide range of practices have been implemented across MSs during chemical incident response, particularly during incidents that have cross-border and trans-boundary impacts. This paper proposes a self-assessment methodology to enable MSs, or organisations within MSs, to examine exposure assessment capabilities and communication pathways between exposure assessors and public health risk assessors. Where gaps exist, this methodology provides links to good practices that could improve response, communication and collaboration across local, regional and national borders. A fragmented approach to emergency preparedness for chemical incidents is a major obstacle to improving cross-border exposure assessment. There is no one existing body or structure responsible for all aspects of chemical incident preparedness and response in the European Union. Due to the range of different organisations and networks involved in chemical incident response, emergency preparedness needs to be drawn together. A number of recommendations are proposed, including the use of networks of experts which link public health risk assessors with experts in exposure assessment, in order to coordinate and improve chemical incident emergency preparedness. The EU's recent Decision on serious cross-border threats to health aims to facilitate MSs' compliance with the International Health Regulations, which require

  12. Progressive improvement in hemodynamic response to muscle metaboreflex in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo; Milia, Raffaele; Angius, Luca; Pinna, Marco; Olla, Sergio; Roberto, Silvana; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Porcu, Maurizio; Concu, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Exercise capacity remains lower in heart transplant recipients (HTRs) following transplant compared with normal subjects, despite improved cardiac function. Moreover, metaboreceptor activity in the muscle has been reported to increase. The aim of the present investigation was to assess exercise capacity together with metaboreflex activity in HTR patients for 1 yr following heart transplant, to test the hypothesis that recovery in exercise capacity was paralleled by improvements in response to metaboreflex. A cardiopulmonary test for exercise capacity and Vo(2max) and hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation obtained by postexercise ischemia were gathered in six HTRs and nine healthy controls (CTL) four times: at the beginning of the study (T0, 42 ± 6 days after transplant), at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after TO (T1, T2, and T3). The main results were: 1) exercise capacity and Vo(2max) were seen to progressively increase in HTRs; 2) at T0 and T1, HTRs achieved a higher blood pressure response in response to metaboreflex compared with CTL, and this difference disappeared at T2 and T3; and 3) this exaggerated blood pressure response was the result of a systemic vascular resistance increment. This study demonstrates that exercise capacity progressively improves in HTRs after transplant and that this phenomenon is accompanied by a progressive reduction of the metaboreflex-induced increase in blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. These facts indicate that, despite improved cardiac function, resetting of cardiovascular regulation in HTRs requires months. PMID:23195627

  13. On timing response improvement of an NE213 scintillator attached to two PMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, S.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Bayat, E.

    2013-09-01

    A 5 cm diameter by 6 cm height NE213 scintillator attached to two XP2282 PHOTONIS photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) exposed to 241Americium-Berylium (Am-Be) neutron-gamma source has been used for timing response studies. The neutron-gamma discrimination (NGD) measurements based on a modified zero-crossing (ZC) method show that the discrimination quality, usually expressed in figure-of-merit (FoM) and peak-to-valley (P/V) values, has been improved. The timing response evaluated with Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, also verifies this improvement.

  14. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  15. Ongoing efforts to improve the international nuclear and radiological emergency response.

    PubMed

    Ugletveit, Finn; Molhoek, Wim

    2004-01-01

    It is recognised that states, through the development of a consistent, coherent and sustainable joint programme for improved and more efficient international responses to nuclear and radiological emergencies, could achieve a better and more cost-effective response capability. Enhanced efforts by IAEA member states and the IAEA secretariat to improve the implementation of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency have been initiated, establishing a national competent authority coordination group (NCACG) and a long-term action plan for the work.

  16. Use of the Vocera Communications Badge Improves Public Safety Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Jeremy D.; Goldberger, David; Johnson, Loretta; Waltz, D. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Violence in the Emergency Department (ED) has been a long-standing issue complicated by deficiencies in staff training, ease of weapons access, and response availability of public safety officers. The Vocera Badge is being used by our staff to request public safety assistance in lieu of a formal phone call to the University Police Communications Center. We sought to learn if use of this technology improved officer response times to the ED. Methods. Mean response times were reviewed and descriptive statistics analyzed to determine if the use of the Vocera Badge improved public safety officer response times to the ED. Results. Average response times improved from an average of 3.2 minutes (SD = 0.456) in the 6 months before the use of the communication badges to an average of 1.02 minutes (SD = 0.319) in the 6 months after use began. Conclusions. The use of the Vocera Badge seemed to decrease response times of public safety officers to our ED compared with the traditional method of calling a dispatch center to request assistance. PMID:27127654

  17. Hysterectomy improves sexual response? Addressing a crucial omission in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Komisaruk, Barry R.; Frangos, Eleni; Whipple, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing view in the literature is that hysterectomy improves the quality of life. This is based on claims that hysterectomy alleviates pain (dyspareunia and abnormal bleeding), and improves sexual response. Since hysterectomy requires cutting the sensory nerves that supply the cervix and/or uterus, it is surprising that the reports of deleterious effects on sexual response are so limited. However, we note that almost all the papers we found reported that some of the women in their studies claim that hysterectomy is detrimental to their sexual response. It is likely that the degree to which a woman’s sexual response and pleasure are affected by hysterectomy would depend not only upon which nerves were severed by the surgery, but also the genital regions whose stimulation the woman enjoys for eliciting sexual response. Since clitoral sensation (via pudendal and genitofemoral nerves) should not be affected by hysterectomy, this surgery would not diminish sexual response in women who prefer clitoral stimulation. However, women whose preferred source of stimulation is vaginal or cervical would be more likely to experience a decrement in sensation and consequently sexual response after hysterectomy, because the nerves innervating those organs -- pelvic, hypogastric and vagus -- are more likely to be damaged or severed in the course of hysterectomy. However, all the published reports of the effects of hysterectomy on sexual response fail to specify the women’s preferred sources of genital stimulation. As discussed in the present review, we believe that the critical lack of information as to the women’s preferred sources of genital stimulation is key to accounting for the discrepancies in the literature as to whether hysterectomy improves or attenuates sexual pleasure. PMID:21545957

  18. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  19. Interventions to Improve Responses of Helping Professionals to Intimate Partner Violence: A Quick Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Y. Joon; An, Soonok

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to systematically review the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve the response of various helping professionals who come into contact with female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Several databases were searched, and N = 38 studies met the inclusion criteria…

  20. Improving Instructor Response to Student E-Mails Using Template and Reminder Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeck, Matthew; Song, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    Student e-mails without the student's name, message, file attachment, and other identifying information may impede a timely and thorough instructor response. To help resolve this issue, we apply template and reminder interventions to improve student e-mail format defined as the degree of agreement between a student's e-mail format and an…

  1. Jung and White and the God of terrible double aspect.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Ann C

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical, historical and personal issues in the ill-fated friendship and intellectual collaboration between C.G. Jung and the Dominican scholar Victor White, O.P., based on primary documents in their correspondence, 1945 to 1960. The collaboration of Jung and White began with high expectations but fell into painful disagreements about the nature of God, the problem of evil, and shadow aspects of the Self. They made a rapid commitment to their working alliance based on personal and professional hopes, but paying scant attention to their divergent underlying assumptions. White hoped to build theoretical and practical connections between Jungian psychology and Catholic theology for the sake of modern Catholics. Jung needed learned theological support as he explored the psychological meanings of Christian symbols, including the central symbol of Christ. At the grandest level, they both hoped to transform the Christian West, after the moral disaster of World War II. Their collaboration was risky for both men, especially for White in his career as a Dominican, and it led to considerable suffering. The Self is prominent in the relationship, symbolically present in the text of the correspondence and consciously forming their major topic of debate. From the start, the Self is an archetypal field, drawing the friends into their visionary task at the risk of unconscious inflation. Later the Self is revealed with its shadow as a burden, a puzzle, and a basis for estrangement. Finally, with the intervention of feminine wisdom, mortal suffering is transformed by an attitude of conscious sacrifice. PMID:17537141

  2. Early Symptom Improvement as a Predictor of Response to Extended Release Quetiapine in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Gorwood, Philip; Thase, Michael E.; Liss, Charlie; Desai, Dhaval; Chen, Ji; Bauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to determine whether early symptom improvement with extended release quetiapine (quetiapine XR) may predict treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Data were from 6, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of quetiapine XR (2 fixed-dose and 2 flexible-dose monotherapy and 2 adjunct studies) in adult patients with major depressive disorder. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Score (CGI-S) were assessed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) was assessed at baseline and week 6. The MADRS improvement at week 2 (15%, 20%, 25%, 30%) was used to predict response and remission, based on MADRS (50% improvement; total score ≤ 12) or HAM-D (50% improvement; total score ≤ 7). The CGI-S improvement (1 point) at week 2 was used to predict final outcome (CGI-S score ≤ 2). The predictive value for early improvement with quetiapine XR was found to be “very strong” (Yule’s Q coefficient, a combined measure of sensitivity and specificity) using 30% MADRS improvement as the threshold. This was relatively comparable for response and remission and for fixed-dose, flexible-dose, and adjunct studies. This was also observed for placebo. Exceptions were: adjunct studies (where predictivity was lower for ongoing antidepressant/placebo), and for remission (predictivity for remission appeared lower than for response with placebo). In conclusion, outcome at week 6 with quetiapine XR for a major depressive episode could be predicted by 30% improvement after 2 weeks, a finding that could give doctors confidence to continue treatment and may facilitate adherence in patients. PMID:26474010

  3. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs.

  4. Synthesising empirical results to improve predictions of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in research into wildfire impacts on runoff and erosion have demonstrated increasing complexity of controlling factors and responses, which, combined with changing fire frequency, present challenges for modellers. We convened a conference attended by experts and practitioners in post-wildfire impacts, meteorology and related research, including modelling, to focus on priority research issues. The aim was to improve our understanding of controls and responses and the predictive capabilities of models. This conference led to the eight selected papers in this special issue. They address aspects of the distinctiveness in the controls and responses among wildfire regions, spatiotemporal rainfall variability, infiltration, runoff connectivity, debris flow formation and modelling applications. Here we summarise key findings from these papers and evaluate their contribution to improving understanding and prediction of post-wildfire runoff and erosion under changes in climate, human intervention and population pressure on wildfire-prone areas.

  5. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs. PMID:24595258

  6. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  7. Improving Access to Medicines in Low and Middle Income Countries: Corporate Responsibilities in Context

    PubMed Central

    Leisinger, Klaus Michael; Garabedian, Laura Faden; Wagner, Anita Katharina

    2012-01-01

    More than two billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack adequate access to essential medicines. In this paper, we make strong public health, human rights and economic arguments for improving access to medicines in LMIC and discuss the different roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including national governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We then establish a framework of pharmaceutical firms’ corporate responsibilities - the “must,” the “ought to,” and the “can” dimensions - and make recommendations for actionable business strategies for improving access to medicines. We discuss controversial topics, such as pharmaceutical profits and patents, with the goal of building consensus around facts and working towards a solution. We conclude that partnerships and collaboration among multiple stakeholders are urgently needed to improve equitable access to medicines in LMIC. PMID:23535994

  8. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

  9. The relationship between core self-evaluations, views of god, and intrinsic/extrinsic religious motivation.

    PubMed

    Smither, James W; Walker, Alan G

    2015-04-01

    Core self-evaluations refer to a higher-order construct that subsumes four well-established traits in the personality literature: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, (low) neuroticism, and (internal) locus of control. Studies that have examined the relationship between various measures of religiosity and individual components of core self-evaluations show no clear pattern of relationships. The absence of a clear pattern may be due to the failure of most previous studies in this area to use theory to guide research. Therefore, theories related to core self-evaluations, religious motivation, and views of God were used to develop and test four hypotheses. 220 adults completed measures of four religious attitudes (intrinsic religious motivation, extrinsic religious motivation, viewing God as loving, and viewing God as punitive), general religiosity, and core self-evaluations, separated by 6 weeks (with the order of measures counterbalanced). Multivariate multiple regression, controlling for general religiosity, showed that core self-evaluations were positively related to viewing God as loving, negatively related to viewing God as punitive, and negatively related to extrinsic religious motivation. The hypothesis that core self-evaluations would be positively related to intrinsic religious motivation was not supported. PMID:25826433

  10. View of God as benevolent and forgiving or punishing and judgmental predicts HIV disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ironson, Gail; Stuetzle, Rick; Ironson, Dale; Balbin, Elizabeth; Kremer, Heidemarie; George, Annie; Schneiderman, Neil; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the predictive relationship between View of God beliefs and change in CD4-cell and Viral Load (VL) in HIV positive people over an extended period. A diverse sample of HIVseropositive participants (N = 101) undergoing comprehensive psychological assessment and blood draws over the course of 4 years completed the View of God Inventory with subscales measuring Positive View (benevolent/forgiving) and Negative View of God (harsh/judgmental/punishing). Adjusting for initial disease status, age, gender, ethnicity, education, and antiretroviral medication (at every 6-month visit), a Positive View of God predicted significantly slower disease-progression (better preservation of CD4-cells, better control of VL), whereas a Negative View of God predicted faster disease-progression over 4 years. Effect sizes were greater than those previously demonstrated for psychosocial variables known to predict HIV-disease-progression, such as depression and coping. Results remained significant even after adjusting for church attendance and psychosocial variables (health behaviors, mood, and coping). These results provide good initial evidence that spiritual beliefs may predict health outcomes.

  11. The relationship between core self-evaluations, views of god, and intrinsic/extrinsic religious motivation.

    PubMed

    Smither, James W; Walker, Alan G

    2015-04-01

    Core self-evaluations refer to a higher-order construct that subsumes four well-established traits in the personality literature: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, (low) neuroticism, and (internal) locus of control. Studies that have examined the relationship between various measures of religiosity and individual components of core self-evaluations show no clear pattern of relationships. The absence of a clear pattern may be due to the failure of most previous studies in this area to use theory to guide research. Therefore, theories related to core self-evaluations, religious motivation, and views of God were used to develop and test four hypotheses. 220 adults completed measures of four religious attitudes (intrinsic religious motivation, extrinsic religious motivation, viewing God as loving, and viewing God as punitive), general religiosity, and core self-evaluations, separated by 6 weeks (with the order of measures counterbalanced). Multivariate multiple regression, controlling for general religiosity, showed that core self-evaluations were positively related to viewing God as loving, negatively related to viewing God as punitive, and negatively related to extrinsic religious motivation. The hypothesis that core self-evaluations would be positively related to intrinsic religious motivation was not supported.

  12. God-Mediated Control and Change in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses.

  13. Exercise training improves renal excretory responses to acute volume expansion in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Zucker, Irving H; Patel, Kaushik P

    2006-12-01

    Experiments were performed to test the postulate that exercise training (ExT) improves the blunted renal excretory response to acute volume expansion (VE), in part, by normalizing the neural component of the volume reflex typically observed in chronic heart failure (HF). Diuretic and natriuretic responses to acute VE were examined in sedentary and ExT groups of rats with either HF or sham-operated controls. Experiments were performed in anesthetized (Inactin) rats 6 wk after coronary ligation surgery. Histological data indicated that there was a 34.9 +/- 3.0% outer and 42.5 +/- 3.2% inner infarct of the myocardium in the HF group. Sham rats had no observable damage to the myocardium. In sedentary rats with HF, VE produced a blunted diuresis (46% of sham) and natriuresis (35% of sham) compared with sham-operated control rats. However, acute VE-induced diuresis and natriuresis in ExT rats with HF were comparable to sham rats and significantly higher than sedentary HF rats. Renal denervation abolished the salutary effects of ExT on renal excretory response to acute VE in HF. Since glomerular filtration rates were not significantly different between the groups, renal hemodynamic changes may not account for the blunted renal responses in rats with HF. Additional experiments confirmed that renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to acute VE were blunted in sedentary HF rats; however, ExT normalized the renal sympathoinhibition in HF rats. These results confirm an impairment of neurally mediated excretory responses to acute VE in rats with HF. ExT restored the blunted excretory responses as well as the renal sympathoinhibitory response to acute VE in HF rats. Thus the beneficial effects of ExT on cardiovascular regulation in HF may be partly due to improvement of the neural component of volume reflex.

  14. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-09-21

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life.

  15. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life. PMID:27650332

  16. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life. PMID:27650332

  17. Nanotextured stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biological response in coronary stenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Chandini C.; Prabhath, Anupama; Cherian, Aleena Mary; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Chennazhi, Krishnaprasad; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-12-01

    Nanosurface engineering of metallic substrates for improved cellular response is a persistent theme in biomaterials research. The need to improve the long term prognosis of commercially available stents has led us to adopt a `polymer-free' approach which is cost effective and industrially scalable. In this study, 316L stainless steel substrates were surface modified by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline pH, with and without the addition of a chromium precursor, to generate a well adherent uniform nanotopography. The modified surfaces showed improved hemocompatibility and augmented endothelialization, while hindering the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, they also exhibited superior material properties like corrosion resistance, surface integrity and reduced metal ion leaching. The combination of improved corrosion resistance and selective vascular cell viability provided by nanomodification can be successfully utilized to offer a cell-friendly solution to the inherent limitations pertinent to bare metallic stents.

  18. Nanotextured stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biological response in coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Chandini C; Prabhath, Anupama; Cherian, Aleena Mary; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V; Chennazhi, Krishnaprasad; Menon, Deepthy

    2015-01-14

    Nanosurface engineering of metallic substrates for improved cellular response is a persistent theme in biomaterials research. The need to improve the long term prognosis of commercially available stents has led us to adopt a 'polymer-free' approach which is cost effective and industrially scalable. In this study, 316L stainless steel substrates were surface modified by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline pH, with and without the addition of a chromium precursor, to generate a well adherent uniform nanotopography. The modified surfaces showed improved hemocompatibility and augmented endothelialization, while hindering the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, they also exhibited superior material properties like corrosion resistance, surface integrity and reduced metal ion leaching. The combination of improved corrosion resistance and selective vascular cell viability provided by nanomodification can be successfully utilized to offer a cell-friendly solution to the inherent limitations pertinent to bare metallic stents.

  19. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  20. Cortical depth dependent functional responses in humans at 7T: improved specificity with 3D GRASE.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Federico; Zimmermann, Jan; Muckli, Lars; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high fields (7T and above) allow functional imaging with high contrast-to-noise ratios and improved spatial resolution. This, along with improved hardware and imaging techniques, allow investigating columnar and laminar functional responses. Using gradient-echo (GE) (T2* weighted) based sequences, layer specific responses have been recorded from human (and animal) primary visual areas. However, their increased sensitivity to large surface veins potentially clouds detecting and interpreting layer specific responses. Conversely, spin-echo (SE) (T2 weighted) sequences are less sensitive to large veins and have been used to map cortical columns in humans. T2 weighted 3D GRASE with inner volume selection provides high isotropic resolution over extended volumes, overcoming some of the many technical limitations of conventional 2D SE-EPI, whereby making layer specific investigations feasible. Further, the demonstration of columnar level specificity with 3D GRASE, despite contributions from both stimulated echoes and conventional T2 contrast, has made it an attractive alternative over 2D SE-EPI. Here, we assess the spatial specificity of cortical depth dependent 3D GRASE functional responses in human V1 and hMT by comparing it to GE responses. In doing so we demonstrate that 3D GRASE is less sensitive to contributions from large veins in superficial layers, while showing increased specificity (functional tuning) throughout the cortex compared to GE.

  1. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  2. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  3. Adolescents’ relationship with God and internalizing adjustment over time: The moderating role of maternal religious coping

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths’ adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bi-directional association between adolescents’ relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from two-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predicts a weaker relationship with God one year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping. PMID:24955590

  4. Adolescents' relationship with God and internalizing adjustment over time: the moderating role of maternal religious coping.

    PubMed

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-12-01

    A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths' adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bidirectional association between adolescents' relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from 2-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predict a weaker relationship with God 1 year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping.

  5. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  6. Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-04-01

    We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

  7. Unmet needs in modern vaccinology: adjuvants to improve the immune response.

    PubMed

    Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2010-08-31

    The key objective of vaccination is the induction of an effective pathogen-specific immune response that leads to protection against infection and/or disease caused by that pathogen, and that may ultimately result in its eradication from humanity. The concept that the immune response to pathogen antigens can be improved by the addition of certain compounds into the vaccine formulation was demonstrated about one hundred years ago when aluminium salts were introduced. New vaccine technology has led to vaccines containing highly purified antigens with improved tolerability and safety profiles, but the immune response they induce is suboptimal without the help of adjuvants. In parallel, the development of effective vaccines has been facing more and more important challenges linked to complicated pathogens (e.g. malaria, TB, HIV, etc.) and/or to subjects with conditions that jeopardize the induction or persistence of a protective immune response. A greater understanding of innate and adaptive immunity and their close interaction at the molecular level is yielding insights into the possibility of selectively stimulating immunological pathways to obtain the desired immune response. The better understanding of the mechanism of 'immunogenicity' and 'adjuvanticity' has prompted the research of new vaccine design based on new technologies, such as naked DNA or live vector vaccines and the new adjuvant approaches. Adjuvants can be used to enhance the magnitude and affect the type of the antigen-specific immune response, and the combination of antigens with more than one adjuvant, the so called adjuvant system approach, has been shown to allow the development of vaccines with the ability to generate effective immune responses adapted to both the pathogen and the target population. This review focuses on the adjuvants and adjuvant systems currently in use in vaccines, future applications, and the remaining challenges the field is facing. PMID:20713254

  8. Improved Lunar Lander Handling Qualities Through Control Response Type and Display Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Eric Richard; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Frost, Chad Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    A piloted simulation that studied the handling qualities for a precision lunar landing task from final approach to touchdown is presented. A vehicle model based on NASA's Altair Lunar Lander was used to explore the design space around the nominal vehicle configuration to determine which combination of factors provides satisfactory pilot-vehicle performance and workload; details of the control and propulsion systems not available for that vehicle were derived from Apollo Lunar Module data. The experiment was conducted on a large motion base simulator. Eight Space Shuttle and Apollo pilot astronauts and three NASA test pilots served as evaluation pilots, providing Cooper-Harper ratings, Task Load Index ratings and qualitative comments. Each pilot flew seven combinations of control response types and three sets of displays, including two varieties of guidance and a nonguided approach. The response types included Rate Command with Attitude Hold, which was used in the original Apollo Moon landings, a Velocity Increment Command response type designed for up-and-away flight, three response types designed specifically for the vertical descent portion of the trajectory, and combinations of these. It was found that Velocity Increment Command significantly improved handling qualities when compared with the baseline Apollo design, receiving predominantly Level 1 ratings. This response type could be flown with or without explicit guidance cues, something that was very difficult with the baseline design, and resulted in approximately equivalent touchdown accuracies and propellant burn as the baseline response type. The response types designed to be used exclusively in the vertical descent portion of the trajectory did not improve handling qualities.

  9. The problem of the imperfection of a world, itself created by a perfect god

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, André

    1992-02-01

    The two main arguments concern (1) the presence of an “enlightened complementarity” between philosophic (including scientific) and religious ( not including mystic) thought, and (2) the necessity to postulate a “threefold relationship” whenever one is to gain knowledge of any kind. They are both inspired by physics (from Bohr's “strict complementarity”, resp. from Newton's fundamental postulate). God's perfection resides at least in Symmetry in a generalized (not restrictively spatial) sense. Yet, as the argument goes, Space does not “exist” as a thing. Consequently, the Great Geometer (God) cannot dwell within a World He creates, and it is wrong to speak about His (God's) ‘existence’; for, existence is bound to the temporal, and Time is, together with the World, part of God's creation. Thus the only possible creation consists in God separating World and Time from Himself: This is the paradigm of Symmetry-breaking. Polytheistic mythologies all assume such and such imperfection of their deities; hence perfection is meaningful for monotheism only. A relationship of a threefold (‘trinitary’) nature must then obtain between God, World, and Time; this is analogous to Newton's postulate relating force, momentum and time. Just as the latter and its specific generalizations must be “found true” by verification, the said threefold relationship must also be found true: within philosophic thought more geometrico (in a generalized sense), within religious thought more “hymnometrico”. Yet the complementarity (called “enlightened”) arising between the two kinds of thought is of a higher nature than Bohr's “strict” complementarity. While it can be understood from the role assumed by language itself, it can however only be disposed of within mystic contemplation.

  10. Relationships between God and people in the Bible, part III: When the other is an outsider.

    PubMed

    Popp, Carol; Luborsky, Lester; Descôteaux, Jean; Diguer, Louis; Andrusyna, Tomasz P; Kirk, Dan; Cotsonis, George

    2004-01-01

    This study considers intergroup attitudes in the Bible and compares relationships between God or Jesus and (a) Torah non-Israelites; (b) New Testament people who were not followers of Jesus; and (c) New Testament people who were not Jewish. Torah non-Israelites belonged to an out-group with respect to the Hebrew Torah, New Testament people who were not followers of Jesus belonged to an out-group with respect to the Christian New Testament, and New Testament people who were not Jewish were an in-group with respect to Christians. Results were that God or Jesus' relationships were very negative with people in the Torah who were non-Israelites and with people in the New Testament who were not followers, while relationships were positive with people in the New Testament who were not Jewish. Thus, in conclusion, results indicate that both the New Testament and the Torah portray negative relationships between God or Jesus and members of out-groups. Relationships portrayed in New Testament narratives about God and people who were not followers were sometimes more negative than observed for other groups in the New Testament and the Torah; for people who were viewed as outsiders, the New Testament could sometimes be more negative than the Torah. An aim of this study was to identify patterns of relationships between God or Jesus and different types of people in narratives of the Torah and in the New Testament. One of the characteristics of different types of people, including people described in biblical narratives, is whether they are members of in-groups or out-groups. Our focus in this report is on biblical narratives about people who are members of out-groups. The results contribute a clinical-quantitative assessment of out-groups in the Torah and New Testament that is focused on relationship with God, a central issue in the psychology of religion and the Bible.

  11. The Waukesha Turbocharger Control Module: A tool for improved engine efficiency and response

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.R.; Reinbold, E.O.; Mueller, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Waukesha Turbocharger Control Module allows optimum control of turbochargers on lean burn gaseous fueled engines. The Turbocharger Control Module is user programmed to provide either maximum engine efficiency or best engine response to load changes. In addition, the Turbocharger Control Module prevents undesirable turbocharger surge. The Turbocharger Control Module consists of an electronic control box, engine speed, intake manifold pressure, ambient temperature sensors, and electric actuators driving compressor bypass and wastegate valves. The Turbocharger Control Module expands the steady state operational environment of the Waukesha AT27GL natural gas engine from sea level to 1,525 m altitude with one turbocharger match and improves the engine speed turn down by 80 RPM. Finally, the Turbocharger Control Module improves engine response to load changes.

  12. The function and response of an improved stratospheric condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Hyun, J. H.; Blackshear, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    An improved condensation nucleus counter (CNC) for use in the stratosphere is described. The University of Minnesota CNC (UMCNC) has a sequential saturator and condenser and uses n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid. The use of a coaxial saturator flow, with aerosol in the center and filtered, alcohol-laden air around it, speeds the response of this instrument and improves its stability as pressure changes. The counting efficiency has been studied as a function of particle size and pressure. The UMCNC provides an accurate measure of submicron aerosol concentration as long as the number distribution is not dominated by sub-0.02 micron diameter aerosol. The response of the UMCNC is compared with that of other stratospheric condensation nucleus counters, and the results of a (near) comparison with a balloon-borne condensation nucleus counter are presented. The UMCNC has operated 14 times on a NASA U-2 aircraft at altitudes from 8 to 21.5 km.

  13. Attachment and God Representations among Lay Catholics, Priests, and Religious: A Matched Comparison Study Based on the Adult Attachment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…

  14. 76 FR 63702 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Aphrodite and the Gods of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Aphrodite and the Gods of Love... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Aphrodite and the Gods of Love,''...

  15. Assessing the Role of Attachment to God, Meaning, and Religious Coping as Mediators in the Grief Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…

  16. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  17. [Pharmacotherapeutical efficiency of the dry extract "Ce-god-5" in liver injury induced by CCl4 in white rats].

    PubMed

    Dashinamzhilov, Zh B; Turtuev, C D

    2014-01-01

    It has been established that the complex plant remedy "Ce-god-5" possesses the marked hepatoprotective effect in liver injury induced by CCl4 in white rats. The ability to inhibit the processes of lipid peroxidation and stimulate antioxidant system of the body is a basic mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of "Ce-god-5".

  18. Conscientizacion of the Oppressed Language and the Politics of Humor in Ana Castillo's "So Far from God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thananopavarn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between Ana Castillo's novel "So Far from God" (1993) and her development of an activist poetics inspired by Paulo Freire's influential 1970 treatise "Pedagogy of the Oppressed." "So Far from God" may be understood as the practical application of Castillo's theory of "conscienticized poetics"; that is, the…

  19. Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N

    2013-12-01

    Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

  20. What's God Got to Do with It? How Religiosity Predicts Atheists' Health.

    PubMed

    Speed, David; Fowler, Ken

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between atheism and health is poorly understood within the Religion/Spirituality-health literature. While the extant literature promotes the idea that Attendance, Prayer, and Religiosity are connected to positive health outcomes, these relationships have not been established when controlling for whether a person is an atheist. Data from the 2008-2012 American General Social Survey (n = 3210) were used to investigate this relationship. Results indicated that atheists experienced Religiosity more negatively than non-atheists. Additionally, results demonstrated that non-belief in God was not related to better or worse perceived global health, suggesting that belief in God is not inherently linked to better reported health.

  1. Improvement of Electrochemical Response of Cocaine Sensors Based on DNA Aptamer by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Satoshi; Shimono, Ken; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Fumio; Yoshioka, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a biosensor for cocaine based on the conformation change of DNA aptamer by capturing the cocaine molecules. The oxidation current of ferrocene conjugated on the terminal end of aptamer immobilized on an Au electrode increased with increasing cocaine concentration. The sensor response has been improved by a simple heat treatment after immobilization, since the aggregates of DNA aptamer generated during the immobilization step could be dissociated and rearranged on the electrode. PMID:27063722

  2. Network Analysis of Force Concept Inventory Responses to Improve Diagnostic Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric; Bruun, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a diagnostic instrument designed to investigate students' understanding of Newtonian Mechanics and is widely used in Physics Education Research. One of the strengths of the FCI is that the distractors are drawn from student conceptions based in their experiences. The distractors chosen are often more informative about student's understanding as they identify the particular nature of students' alternative conceptions. We propose a network based analysis of the FCI which will enhance the utility of the FCI as a diagnostic tool for identifying student conceptions. In this approach, student responses are treated as a bipartite network which is then projected into two networks - students and responses. The response network includes all responses that are shared among students. We use the LANS backbone extraction algorithm to identify patterns in student responses. We use community detection algorithms on the backbone networks to identify clusters of common responses which map to models held by students, for example, ``force is needed for movement'' and ``the active agent uses the most force.'' This method has utility across a variety of instruments and could be used to improve instruction by providing in-depth knowledge of student conceptions. Supported in part by NSF Grant #PHY 134424.

  3. Akt inhibition improves irinotecan treatment and prevents cell emergence by switching the senescence response to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vétillard, Alexandra; Jonchère, Barbara; Moreau, Marie; Toutain, Bertrand; Henry, Cécile; Fontanel, Simon; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Campone, Mario; Guette, Catherine; Coqueret, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Activated in response to chemotherapy, senescence is a tumor suppressive mechanism that induces a permanent loss of proliferation. However, in response to treatment, it is not really known how cells can escape senescence and how irreversible or incomplete this pathway is. We have recently described that cells that escape senescence are more transformed than non-treated parental cells, they resist anoikis and rely on Mcl-1. In this study, we further characterize this emergence in response to irinotecan, a first line treatment used in colorectal cancer. Our results indicate that Akt was activated as a feedback pathway during the early step of senescence. The inhibition of the kinase prevented cell emergence and improved treatment efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. This improvement was correlated with senescence inhibition, p21waf1 downregulation and a concomitant activation of apoptosis due to Noxa upregulation and Mcl-1 inactivation. The inactivation of Noxa prevented apoptosis and increased the number of emergent cells. Using either RNA interference or p21waf1-deficient cells, we further confirmed that an intact p53-p21-senescence pathway favored cell emergence and that its downregulation improved treatment efficacy through apoptosis induction. Therefore, although senescence is an efficient suppressive mechanism, it also generates more aggressive cells as a consequence of apoptosis inhibition. We therefore propose that senescence-inducing therapies should be used sequentially with drugs favoring cell death such as Akt inhibitors. This should reduce cell emergence and tumor relapse through a combined induction of senescence and apoptosis. PMID:26485768

  4. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in immunity: improving our understanding of vaccine immune responses in men.

    PubMed

    Furman, David

    2015-03-01

    Weaker immune responses are often observed in males compared to females. Since female hormones have proinflammatory properties and androgens have potent immunomodulatory effects, this sexual dimorphism in the immune response seems to be hormone dependent. Despite our current knowledge about the effect of sex hormones on immune cells, definition of the factors driving the sex differences in immunoclinical outcomes, such as the diminished response to infection and vaccination observed in men or the higher rates of autoimmunity observed in females, remains elusive. Recently, systems approaches to immune function have started to suggest a way toward establishing this connection. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual dimorphism observed in the human immune system.

  6. Use of Lean Response to Improve Pandemic Influenza Surge in Public Health Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yin; Prystajecky, Natalie; Petric, Martin; Mak, Annie; Abbott, Brendan; Paris, Benjamin; Decker, K.C.; Pittenger, Lauren; Guercio, Steven; Stott, Jeff; Miller, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus detected in April 2009 rapidly spread around the world. North American provincial and state laboratories have well-defined roles and responsibilities, including providing accurate, timely test results for patients and information for regional public health and other decision makers. We used the multidisciplinary response and rapid implementation of process changes based on Lean methods at the provincial public health laboratory in British Columbia, Canada, to improve laboratory surge capacity in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Observed and computer simulating evaluation results from rapid processes changes showed that use of Lean tools successfully expanded surge capacity, which enabled response to the 10-fold increase in testing demands. PMID:22257385

  7. Use of borated polyethylene to improve low energy response of a prompt gamma based neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyada, P.; Ashwini, U.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility of using a combined sample of borated polyethylene and normal polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent from measured prompt gamma emissions is investigated theoretically to demonstrate improvements in low energy neutron dose response compared to only polyethylene. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of boron, hydrogen and carbon prompt gamma emissions to mono energetic neutrons. The weighted least square method is employed to arrive at the best linear combination of these responses that approximates the ICRP fluence to dose conversion coefficients well in the energy range of 10-8 MeV to 14 MeV. The configuration of the combined system is optimized through FLUKA simulations. The proposed method is validated theoretically with five different workplace neutron spectra with satisfactory outcome.

  8. Improving image contrast and material discrimination with nonlinear response in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Forchheimer, Robert; Haviland, David B.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy has recently been extented to bimodal operation, where increased image contrast is achieved through excitation and measurement of two cantilever eigenmodes. This enhanced material contrast is advantageous in analysis of complex heterogeneous materials with phase separation on the micro or nanometre scale. Here we show that much greater image contrast results from analysis of nonlinear response to the bimodal drive, at harmonics and mixing frequencies. The amplitude and phase of up to 17 frequencies are simultaneously measured in a single scan. Using a machine-learning algorithm we demonstrate almost threefold improvement in the ability to separate material components of a polymer blend when including this nonlinear response. Beyond the statistical analysis performed here, analysis of nonlinear response could be used to obtain quantitative material properties at high speeds and with enhanced resolution.

  9. Personalized in vitro cancer models to predict therapeutic response: Challenges and a framework for improvement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Molly M; Johnson, Brian P; Livingston, Megan K; Schuler, Linda A; Alarid, Elaine T; Sung, Kyung E; Beebe, David J

    2016-09-01

    Personalized cancer therapy focuses on characterizing the relevant phenotypes of the patient, as well as the patient's tumor, to predict the most effective cancer therapy. Historically, these methods have not proven predictive in regards to predicting therapeutic response. Emerging culture platforms are designed to better recapitulate the in vivo environment, thus, there is renewed interest in integrating patient samples into in vitro cancer models to assess therapeutic response. Successful examples of translating in vitro response to clinical relevance are limited due to issues with patient sample acquisition, variability and culture. We will review traditional and emerging in vitro models for personalized medicine, focusing on the technologies, microenvironmental components, and readouts utilized. We will then offer our perspective on how to apply a framework derived from toxicology and ecology towards designing improved personalized in vitro models of cancer. The framework serves as a tool for identifying optimal readouts and culture conditions, thus maximizing the information gained from each patient sample.

  10. Experimental findings on God as an attachment figure: normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Gewirtz, Vered; Shaver, Phillip R

    2012-11-01

    Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with "God" heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion.

  11. When is "good enough"? The role and responsibility of physicians to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Goode, Leslie D; Clancy, Carolyn M; Kimball, Harry R; Meyer, Gregg; Eisenberg, John M

    2002-10-01

    In September 2001, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the ABIM Foundation jointly sponsored an invitational conference entitled "The Role and Responsibility of Physicians to Improve Patient Safety." The goal of the conference was to begin a national conversation focusing on the individual clinician's role and strategies physicians might employ to advance patient safety. The authors summarize the main themes and issues that emerged at the conference. The authors draw from work by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to support the need for greater emphasis on quality improvement. To date, most of the work in this area has involved a systems-level approach, and physicians are often viewed as obstacles to improvement programs. By contrast, physicians may view population- or systems-based approaches to health care as interfering with the delivery of care to specific patients. The authors argue that physicians, individually and collectively, have a key role in quality improvement efforts, albeit a role that is yet fully defined. After reviewing successful examples involving physicians, the authors explore the major levers to achieve change-removing barriers, creating incentives, emphasizing collaboration, increasing education, and promulgating regulation-and summarize ten recurring themes, including both current and near-term opportunities, for physicians to exercise leadership in quality improvement and patient safety. Finally, they assert that even modest change can lead to substantial improvements, particularly if medical societies and the profession's standard-setting bodies work together. PMID:12377667

  12. Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006. Public Law 109-236, S2803

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This Act may be cited as the 'Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006' or the 'MINER Act'. It amends the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 to improve the safety of mines and mining. The Act requires operators of underground coal mines to improve accident preparedness. The legislation requires mining companies to develop an emergency response plan specific to each mine they operate, and requires that every mine has at least two rescue teams located within one hour. S. 2803 also limits the legal liability of rescue team members and the companies that employ them. The act increases both civil and criminal penalties for violations of federal mining safety standards and gives the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) the ability to temporarily close a mine that fails to pay the penalties or fines. In addition, the act calls for several studies into ways to enhance mine safety, as well as the establishment of a new office within the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health devoted to improving mine safety. Finally, the legislation establishes new scholarship and grant programs devoted to training individuals with respect to mine safety.

  13. "Value" of improved treadmill exercise capacity: lessons from a study of rate responsive pacing

    PubMed Central

    Staniforth, A; Andrews, R; Harrison, M; Perry, A; Cowley, A

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the value of a series of cardiovascular measurements in patients with symptomatic disease receiving an effective treatment (rate responsive pacing).
Patients—12 pacemaker dependent patients with VVIR units.
Interventions—Single blind crossover between VVI and VVIR.
Outcome measures—Exercise capacity was assessed by treadmill tests (modified Bruce protocol and a fixed workload protocol) with respiratory gas analysis. Self paced corridor walk tests were also undertaken. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by questionnaire. Daily activity was measured in the patients' homes using shoe and belt pedometers.
Results—Treadmill tests and QOL questionnaires correctly identified the clinical benefit associated with VVIR. The modified Bruce protocol was superior to the fixed workload protocol as it was better tailored to the fairly well preserved exercise capacity of the patients. Symptom scores, but not walking times, were improved with VVIR during corridor walk tests. VVIR did not improve daily activity measured using either the belt or shoe pedometers.
Conclusions—VVIR pacing improved some but not all measures of exercise capacity. This finding illustrates the difficulty of selecting an instrument to measure symptomatic improvement in clinical research; and raises the question, what is the best way of measuring exercise capacity?

 Keywords: rate responsive pacing;  exercise capacity;  quality of life PMID:9875118

  14. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

  15. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26005933

  16. When the light shed by God is dimmer than the light shed upon God: countertransference illumination of latent religious object representations of a Jewish patient in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Spero, Moshe Halevi

    2009-01-01

    A report is offered of the psychoanalysis of an emotionally constricted, religiously devout ko'hen, a member of the Jewish priestly class, undertaken with the author, himself a religiously committed Jew. While the analysand brought a great deal of material to his hours and was deeply committed to the analysis, the sessions were emotionally vapid, obsessively repetitious and ruminative. For more than three years, the patient's steadfast production of a plethora of dreams did not much alter the brittle quality of work and the restricted range of the transference. At first, though religious themes as such abounded, the patient's relationship with God and his representation of God seemed to play no role in the working dynamic. This vacancy played a negating or absenting role, distancing the analyst from his own sense of a living divinity, parallel to the basic aporia in the patient's emotional representation of his significant parental objects and the image of God that rested upon the former. The countertransference dimension of the analytic relationship peaked during a spontaneous but complex enactment that helped refract the patient's and analyst's shared and divergent religious perceptions, leading to a significant transformation in the analysand's religious experience.

  17. Moral Voices of Women and Men in the Christian Liberal Arts College: Links between Views of Self and Views of God.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kaye V.; Larson, Daniel C,; Boivin, Monique D.

    2003-01-01

    Explores Christian college students views of self and of a Christian God. Discusses differences in views between men and women. Suggests that the Christian liberal arts context nurtures integrated and complex views of the self, but authoritative views of God. Notes authoritative views of God shaped the heavy justice self-ethic. (CAJ)

  18. Using response characteristics of neutron measurement devices to improve neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Hsu, H.H.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Recent administrative restrictions on personnel dose equivalent have resulted in increased pressure to more accurately report the neutron component without the traditional conservative added factors which sometimes inflate the reported values. Improvements include a new albedo neutron dosimeter which is capable of some limited energy discrimination. Also, additional emphasis has been placed on improving field measurements using traditional survey instrumentation and specialized spectroscopic techniques such as tissue equivalent proportional counters, Bonner spheres, and a modified 9 inches to 3 inches ratio technique. Improvements in these techniques along with a better understanding of the response of the TLD system have resulted in substantial reduction in the reported dose equivalent by improving the accuracy of the dosimeter system. The response characteristics of the TLD system and other instrumentation are obtained through modeling with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. Neutron fields in work-areas are initially characterized with Bonner spheres. Routine updates are accomplished using a modified 9 inches to 3 inches ratio technique. These measurements are then used to predict the response of the TLD system when worn in that area. Correction curves are derived for the principal spectrum with various fractions of moderated or reflected neutrons. Work assignments are tracked through a database systems which is used to determine the principal spectrum that results in the neutron dose equivalent. The energy discrimination capability of the TLD system is used with the correction curve to derive an average correction appropriate to the readings of the dosimeter thus giving an energy corrected dose equivalent for the individual.

  19. Improving Follow-up Response Rate at Brevard Community College. Final Report from September 24, 1984 to August 31, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Robert E.

    A plan was developed to improve followup study response rates by refining techniques for data collection and improving student motivation to respond to daily requests. Factors affecting response rate to followup surveys were investigated, and alternative approaches were recommended. Findings indicated that current procedures--two mailouts of…

  20. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  1. Exercise improves mitochondrial and redox-regulated stress responses in the elderly: better late than never!

    PubMed

    Cobley, James N; Moult, Peter R; Burniston, Jatin G; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-04-01

    Ageing is associated with several physiological declines to both the cardiovascular (e.g. reduced aerobic capacity) and musculoskeletal system (muscle function and mass). Ageing may also impair the adaptive response of skeletal muscle mitochondria and redox-regulated stress responses to an acute exercise bout, at least in mice and rodents. This is a functionally important phenomenon, since (1) aberrant mitochondrial and redox homeostasis are implicated in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal ageing and (2) the response to repeated exercise bouts promotes exercise adaptations and some of these adaptations (e.g. improved aerobic capacity and exercise-induced mitochondrial remodelling) offset age-related physiological decline. Exercise-induced mitochondrial remodelling is mediated by upstream signalling events that converge on downstream transcriptional co-factors and factors that orchestrate a co-ordinated nuclear and mitochondrial transcriptional response associated with mitochondrial remodelling. Recent translational human investigations have demonstrated similar exercise-induced mitochondrial signalling responses in older compared with younger skeletal muscle, regardless of training status. This is consistent with data indicating normative mitochondrial remodelling responses to long-term exercise training in the elderly. Thus, human ageing is not accompanied by diminished mitochondrial plasticity to acute and chronic exercise stimuli, at least for the signalling pathways measured to date. Exercise-induced increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species promote an acute redox-regulated stress response that manifests as increased heat shock protein and antioxidant enzyme content. In accordance with previous reports in rodents and mice, it appears that sedentary ageing is associated with a severely attenuated exercise-induced redox stress response that might be related to an absent redox signal. In this regard, regular exercise training affords some protection

  2. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Kirstine J.; Petocz, Peter; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII) values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their “insulin demand”. PMID:27070641

  3. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirstine J; Petocz, Peter; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII) values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their "insulin demand".

  4. Biological Features of Human Papillomavirus-related Head and Neck Cancers Contributing to Improved Response.

    PubMed

    Cleary, C; Leeman, J E; Higginson, D S; Katabi, N; Sherman, E; Morris, L; McBride, S; Lee, N; Riaz, N

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the sixth most common malignancy globally, and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal HNSCCs are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Patients with HPV-associated tumours have markedly improved overall and disease-specific survival compared with their HPV-negative counterparts when treated with chemoradiation. Although the difference in outcomes between these two groups is clearly established, the mechanism underlying these differences remains an area of investigation. Data from preclinical, clinical and genomics studies have started to suggest that an increase in radio-sensitivity of HPV-positive HNSCC may be responsible for improved outcomes, the putative mechanisms of which we will review here. The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have recently documented a multitude of molecular differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumours. Preclinical investigations by multiple groups have explored possible mechanisms of increased sensitivity to therapy, including examining differences in DNA repair, hypoxia and the immune response. In addition to differences in the response to therapy, some groups have started to investigate phenotypic differences between the two diseases, such as tumour invasiveness. Finally, we will conclude with a brief review of ongoing clinical trials that are attempting to de-escalate treatment to minimise long-term toxicity while maintaining cure rates. New insights from preclinical and genomic studies may eventually lead to personalised treatment paradigms for HPV-positive patients. PMID:27052795

  5. Attachment to God/Higher Power and Bulimic Symptoms among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.; Gibson, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between avoidant and anxious attachment to God/Higher Power and bulimia symptoms among 599 female college student participants. After controlling for body mass index, the authors found a positive association between both attachment variables and bulimia. When entered together in a regression, anxious…

  6. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  7. Using the Movie, "The Gods Must Be Crazy," in Interpersonal Communications Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, David

    Opening in 1981 to moviegoers in Japan, France, and the United States, "The Gods Must Be Crazy" became an international hit. Set in Botswana, the film covers a relatively small geographic area yet nevertheless can open classroom discussions about how many cultures and how much cultural diversity can exist in a small area. It has three main groups…

  8. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  9. Experimenting with Spirituality: Analyzing "The God Gene" in a Nonmajors Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    References linking genes to complex human traits, such as personality type or disease susceptibility, abound in the news media and popular culture. In his book "The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into Our Genes", Dean Hamer argues that a variation in the "VMAT2" gene plays a role in one's openness to spiritual experiences. In a nonmajors class,…

  10. God on the Gallows: Reading the Holocaust through Narratives of Redemption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Karen

    2007-01-01

    "Where is God now?" is a question from the Holocaust memoir "Night" by Elie Wiesel and an underlying narrative dilemma for the teachers and most student participants in this qualitative study of three Holocaust units in secondary English classrooms in the Midwestern United States. Using a narrative theory framework, this study explores how…

  11. Felix beyond the Closet: Sexuality, Masculinity, and Relations of Power in Arturo Islas's "The Rain God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the uneasy relationship that Arturo Islas's "The Rain God" has had with narratives of identity, focusing on how the representation of Felix's sexuality makes him a problematic figure for certain strains of Chicana/o and queer studies. In other writings, Islas criticizes Quinto Sol, the chief publishing house of Chicano…

  12. Investigating the Importance of Relating with God for School Students' Spiritual Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Fisher's spiritual well-being (SWB) questionnaires assessed students' levels of relationship in four domains, namely with themselves, others, the environment and with a Transcendent Other (commonly called God). Students also reported the extent to which different entities helped them develop relationships in the four domains of SWB. However,…

  13. Stress and Depression among Older Residents in Religious Monasteries: Do Friends and God Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bishop J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore how friendship and attachment to God provide protective benefits against stress and depression. Participants included 235 men and women, age 64 and older, residing in religious monasteries affiliated with the Order of St. Benedict. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were completed to assess…

  14. Folklore in Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God." [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Zora Neale Hurston's work is lively, lyrical, funny, and poignant, but this consummate literary craftsperson was also a first-rate ethnographer, conducting field work for Franz Boas and for the Works Progress Administration (WPA). "Their Eyes Were Watching God," often acclaimed as Hurston's masterpiece, is perhaps the richest beneficiary of her…

  15. "Under God" and the Pledge of Allegiance: Examining a 1954 Sermon and Its Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Eric C.; Heafner, Tina; Bellows, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A lesson exploring the Pledge of Allegiance, its history, and the addition of the phrase "under God," can serve as a jumping off point into major themes of U.S. history and First Amendment freedoms. Although the Pledge is ubiquitous in contemporary America, educators and students are often uninformed about the history and meaning of the…

  16. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Tong, Eddie M W; Pang, Joyce S; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words "religion", "God" and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed. PMID:26812526

  17. Nihilism and Education in Heidegger's Essay: "Nietzsche's Word: "God Is Dead"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrmantraut, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the "Rectoral Address", of 1933, Martin Heidegger indicates that the crisis of the West, articulated by Nietzsche as the "death of God", was a central concern in his attempt to rethink and reform higher education in 1933-1934. While Heidegger soon thereafter appears to have abandoned serious efforts at any practical…

  18. "It's the Word of God": Students' Resistance to Questioning and Overcoming Heterosexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Kane, Heather

    2007-01-01

    At the core of many people's homophobia is their understanding of the position God had toward homosexuals. Fundamental to their homophobia is their use of religious rhetoric that justifies it. According to many conservative Christians who label homosexuality as sinful, homophobia is "praised by the Lord." Such use of religion naturalizes and…

  19. Surveying Rubisco Diversity and Temperature Response to Improve Crop Photosynthetic Efficiency1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Andralojc, P. John

    2016-01-01

    The threat to global food security of stagnating yields and population growth makes increasing crop productivity a critical goal over the coming decades. One key target for improving crop productivity and yields is increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis. Central to photosynthesis is Rubisco, which is a critical but often rate-limiting component. Here, we present full Rubisco catalytic properties measured at three temperatures for 75 plants species representing both crops and undomesticated plants from diverse climates. Some newly characterized Rubiscos were naturally “better” compared to crop enzymes and have the potential to improve crop photosynthetic efficiency. The temperature response of the various catalytic parameters was largely consistent across the diverse range of species, though absolute values showed significant variation in Rubisco catalysis, even between closely related species. An analysis of residue differences among the species characterized identified a number of candidate amino acid substitutions that will aid in advancing engineering of improved Rubisco in crop systems. This study provides new insights on the range of Rubisco catalysis and temperature response present in nature, and provides new information to include in models from leaf to canopy and ecosystem scale. PMID:27342312

  20. Partial blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in recurrently hypoglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    LaGamma, Edmund F; Kirtok, Necla; Chan, Owen; Nankova, Bistra B

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia can impair the normal counterregulatory hormonal responses that guard against hypoglycemia, leading to hypoglycemia unawareness. This pathological condition known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is the main adverse consequence that prevents individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus from attaining the long-term health benefits of tight glycemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the progressive loss of the epinephrine response to subsequent bouts of hypoglycemia, a hallmark sign of HAAF, are largely unknown. Normally, hypoglycemia triggers both the release and biosynthesis of epinephrine through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on the adrenal glands. We hypothesize that excessive cholinergic stimulation may contribute to impaired counterregulation. Here, we tested whether administration of the nAChR partial agonist cytisine to reduce postganglionic synaptic activity can preserve the counterregulatory hormone responses in an animal model of HAAF. Compared with nicotine, cytisine has limited efficacy to activate nAChRs and stimulate epinephrine release and synthesis. We evaluated adrenal catecholamine production and secretion in nondiabetic rats subjected to two daily episodes of hypoglycemia for 3 days, followed by a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp on day 4. Recurrent hypoglycemia decreased epinephrine responses, and this was associated with suppressed TH mRNA induction (a measure of adrenal catecholamine synthetic capacity). Treatment with cytisine improved glucagon responses as well as epinephrine release and production in recurrently hypoglycemic animals. These data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of ganglionic nAChRs may be promising as a translational adjunctive therapy to avoid HAAF in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Fast odor learning improves reliability of odor responses in the locust antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Bazhenov, Maxim; Stopfer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Laurent, Gilles

    2005-05-01

    Recordings in the locust antennal lobe (AL) reveal activity-dependent, stimulus-specific changes in projection neuron (PN) and local neuron response patterns over repeated odor trials. During the first few trials, PN response intensity decreases, while spike time precision increases, and coherent oscillations, absent at first, quickly emerge. We examined this "fast odor learning" with a realistic computational model of the AL. Activity-dependent facilitation of AL inhibitory synapses was sufficient to simulate physiological recordings of fast learning. In addition, in experiments with noisy inputs, a network including synaptic facilitation of both inhibition and excitation responded with reliable spatiotemporal patterns from trial to trial despite the noise. A network lacking fast plasticity, however, responded with patterns that varied across trials, reflecting the input variability. Thus, our study suggests that fast olfactory learning results from stimulus-specific, activity-dependent synaptic facilitation and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio for repeatedly encountered odor stimuli.

  2. Liposome can improve the adjuvanticity of astragalus polysaccharide on the immune response against ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Weimin; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhen, Yin; Suolangzhaxi; Song, Xiaoping

    2013-09-01

    In vitro, the effects of astragalus polysaccharide liposome (APSL) on splenocyte proliferation of mice were determined. The results showed that APSL could significantly promote splenocyte proliferation synergistically with PHA and LPS and the efficacy were superior to those of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and blank liposome (BL). In immune response experiment, the adjuvant effect of APSL at three doses, APS, BL and aluminum hydroxide (alum) were compared on mice immunized subcutaneously with ovalbumin (OVA). The results showed that APSL could significantly promote splenocyte proliferation, enhance specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses, promote IFN-γ and IL-6 secretion, and the efficacy were significantly better than alum at most time points. These results indicated that APSL could significantly improve the adjuvanticity and drug action of APS, and its high and medium doses possessed the best efficacy. Therefore, the liposome would be expected to exploit into a new-type preparation of APS.

  3. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery.

  4. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops.

  5. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Koevoets, Iko T; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J Theo M; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant's response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  6. Improved method of measuring pressure coupled response for composite solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wanxing; Wang, Ningfei; Li, Junwei; Zhao, Yandong; Yan, Mi

    2014-04-01

    Pressure coupled response is one of the main causes of combustion instability in the solid rocket motor. It is also a characteristic parameter for predicting the stability. The pressure coupled response function is usually measured by different methods to evaluate the performance of new propellant. Based on T-burner and "burning surface doubled and secondary attenuation", an improved method for measuring the pressure coupled response of composite propellant is introduced in this article. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has also been conducted to validate the method and to understand the pressure oscillation phenomenon in T-burner. Three rounds of tests were carried out on the same batch of aluminized AP/HTPB composite solid propellant. The experimental results show that the sample propellant had a high response function under the conditions of high pressure (~11.5 MPa) and low frequency (~140 Hz). The numerically predicted oscillation frequency and amplitude are consistent with the experimental results. One practical solid rocket motor using this sample propellant was found to experience pressure oscillation at the end of burning. This confirms that the sample propellant is prone to combustion instability. Finally, acoustic pressure distribution and phase difference in T-burner were analyzed. Both the experimental and numerical results are found to be associated with similar acoustic pressure distribution. And the phase difference analysis showed that the pressure oscillations at the head end of the T-burner are 180° out of phase from those in the aft end of the T-burner.

  7. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  8. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-12-15

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to over-pressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  9. Improving auditory steady-state response detection using independent component analysis on multichannel EEG data.

    PubMed

    Van Dun, Bram; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2007-07-01

    Over the last decade, the detection of auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) has been developed for reliable hearing threshold estimation at audiometric frequencies. Unfortunately, the duration of ASSR measurement can be long, which is unpractical for wide scale clinical application. In this paper, we propose independent component analysis (ICA) as a tool to improve the ASSR detection in recorded single-channel as well as multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) data. We conclude that ICA is able to reduce measurement duration significantly. For a multichannel implementation, near-optimal performance is obtained with five-channel recordings. PMID:17605353

  10. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes. PMID:25316204

  11. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  12. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  13. Delivery of antigen to sialoadhesin or CD163 improves the specific immune response in pigs.

    PubMed

    Poderoso, Teresa; Martínez, Paloma; Álvarez, Belén; Handler, Ana; Moreno, Sara; Alonso, Fernando; Ezquerra, Ángel; Domínguez, Javier; Revilla, Concepción

    2011-06-24

    Delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cell surface receptors represents a promising strategy to improve immune response to weak immunogenic antigens. We have analyzed the potential of porcine sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 as antigen targeting receptors using mouse Igs as surrogate antigens. Sn and CD163 are two endocytic receptors mainly expressed on macrophages located in antigen-sampling zones of secondary lymphoid organs. MAbs to CD163 induced in vitro PBMC proliferation at concentrations 50-80 fold lower than the control mAb when using, as responder cells, cells from pigs immunized with mouse serum IgGs. To evaluate in vivo targeting, pigs were immunized s.c. with anti-Sn, anti-CD163 or control mAbs, and the immune response induced to mouse Ig was analyzed. Two weeks after the first immunization, pigs receiving either anti-Sn or anti-CD163 mAbs started to show higher anti-mouse-IgG serum titres than controls. Boosting 6 weeks later, further increased the anti-IgG titres up to 15-60 fold those of controls. In addition, differences in the relative predominance of IgG1 or IgG2 subclasses in the response depending on Sn or CD163 targeting were observed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs immunized with anti-Sn mAb showed a higher proliferative response to mouse IgG than cells from pigs immunized with control mAb. These results show that targeting antigen to Sn or CD163 can enhance the immune response in pigs.

  14. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations. PMID

  15. How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2016-08-01

    This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping.

  16. How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2016-08-01

    This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping. PMID:27324267

  17. The Function and response of an Improved Stratospheric Condensation Nucleus Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Hyun, J. H.; Blackshear, E. D.

    1983-08-01

    An improved condensation nucleus counter (CNC) for use in the stratosphere is described. The University of Minnesota CNC (UMCNC) has a sequential saturator and condenser and uses n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid. The use of a coaxial saturator flow, with aerosol in the center and filtered, alcohol-laden air around it, speeds the response of this instrument and improves its stability as pressure changes. The counting efficiency has been studied as a function of particle size and pressure. The UMCNC provides an accurate measure of submicron aerosol concentration as long as the number distribution is not dominated by sub 0.02 μm diameter aerosol. The response of the UMCNC is compared with that of other stratospheric condensation nucleus counters, and the results of a (near) comparison with a balloon-borne condensation nucleus counter are presented. The UMCNC has operated 14 times on a NASA U-2 aircraft at altitudes from 8 to 21.5 km.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates right ventricular dysfunction and improves responses to dobutamine during acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Sousa-Santos, Ozelia; Ferraz, Karina C; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Romano, Minna M D; Gali, Luis G; Maciel, Benedito C; Schulz, Richard; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-12-01

    Activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause cardiomyocyte injury during acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT). However, the functional consequences of this alteration are not known. We examined whether doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) improves right ventricle function and the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT. APT was induced with autologous blood clots (350 mg/kg) in anaesthetized male lambs pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy, 10 mg/kg/day, intravenously) or saline. Non-embolized control lambs received doxycycline pre-treatment or saline. The responses to intravenous dobutamine (Dob, 1, 5, 10 μg/kg/min.) or saline infusions at 30 and 120 min. after APT induction were evaluated by echocardiography. APT increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index by ~185%. Doxycycline partially prevented APT-induced pulmonary hypertension (P < 0.05). RV diameter increased in the APT group (from 10.7 ± 0.8 to 18.3 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.05), but not in the Doxy+APT group (from 13.3 ± 0.9 to 14.4 ± 1.0 mm, P > 0.05). RV dysfunction on stress echocardiography was observed in embolized lambs (APT+Dob group) but not in embolized animals pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy+APT+Dob). APT increased MMP-9 activity, oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity in the RV. Although doxycycline had no effects on RV MMP-9 activity, it prevented the increases in RV oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity (P < 0.05). APT increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations (P < 0.05), doxycycline partially prevented this alteration (P < 0.05). We found evidence to support that doxycycline prevents RV dysfunction and improves the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT. PMID:24199964

  19. The climate responses of tropical and boreal ecosystems with an improved land surface model (JULES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Anna; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Cox, Peter; Wiltshire, Andy; Jones, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is the land surface of the next generation UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). Recently, JULES was updated with new plant functional types and physiology based on a global plant trait database. These developments improved the simulation of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity on local and global scales, and enabled a more realistic representation of the global distribution of vegetation. In this study, we explore the present-day distribution of ecosystems and their vulnerability to climate change in JULES with these improvements, focusing on tropical and boreal ecosystems. Changes to these ecosystems will have implications for biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change and need to be understood. First, we examine the simulated and observed rainforest-savannah boundary, which is strongly related to annual precipitation and the maximum climatological water deficit. Second, we assess the length of growing season and biomass stored in boreal ecosystems, where 20th century warming has likely extended the growing season. In each case, we first evaluate the ability of JULES to capture observed climate-vegetation relationships and trends. Finally, we run JULES to 2100 using climate data from 3 models and 2 RCP scenarios, and examine potential 21st century changes to these ecosystems. For example, do the tropical forests shrink in response to changes in tropical rainfall seasonality? And, how does the composition of boreal ecosystems change in response to climate warming? Given the potential for climate feedbacks and the inherent value in these ecosystems, it is essential to assess their responses to a range of climate change scenarios.

  20. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Cappon, P; Watson, D

    1999-08-01

    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability.

  1. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Cappon, P; Watson, D

    1999-08-01

    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability. PMID:10495748

  2. Hybrid quantum dot-tin disulfide field-effect transistors with improved photocurrent and spectral responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Zang, Huidong; Chen, Jia-Shiang; Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Cotlet, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    We report an improved photosensitivity in few-layer tin disulfide (SnS2) field-effect transistors (FETs) following doping with CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). The hybrid QD-SnS2 FET devices achieve more than 500% increase in the photocurrent response compared with the starting SnS2-only FET device and a spectral responsivity reaching over 650 A/W at 400 nm wavelength. The negligible electrical conductance in a control QD-only FET device suggests that the energy transfer between QDs and SnS2 is the main mechanism responsible for the sensitization effect, which is consistent with the strong spectral overlap between QD photoluminescence and SnS2 optical absorption as well as the large nominal donor-acceptor interspacing between QD core and SnS2. We also find enhanced charge carrier mobility in hybrid QD-SnS2 FETs which we attribute to a reduced contact Schottky barrier width due to an elevated background charge carrier density.

  3. Fucoidan from sea cucumber may improve hepatic inflammatory response and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Hu, Shiwei; Jiang, Wei; Song, Wendong; Cai, Lu; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition excess-induced inflammation positively contributed to insulin resistance. Fucoidan from sea cucumber can increase glucose translocation in skeletal muscle. However, its effects on inflammation-associated insulin resistance are not understood. We investigated fucoidan from Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC)-alleviated inflammatory response and signaling as well as -improved insulin resistance in the liver of obesity mice. The results showed that Ib-FUC reduced body weight and glucose levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and inhibited serum lipid concentrations. Meanwhile, Hepatic glycogen synthesis was promoted by Ib-FUC via activation of the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signaling and regulation of glucose metabolism-related enzymatic activities. Ib-FUC regulated serum inflammatory cytokines and their mRNA expression in the liver. Ib-FUC-induced inactivation of the JNK and IKKβ/NFκB pathways was involved in the activation of insulin signal cascade and inflammatory factor production. These findings suggested that Ib-FUC supplementary-induced alleviation of inflammatory response could be a mechanism responsible for its beneficial effects against hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:26690975

  4. Fucoidan from sea cucumber may improve hepatic inflammatory response and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Hu, Shiwei; Jiang, Wei; Song, Wendong; Cai, Lu; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition excess-induced inflammation positively contributed to insulin resistance. Fucoidan from sea cucumber can increase glucose translocation in skeletal muscle. However, its effects on inflammation-associated insulin resistance are not understood. We investigated fucoidan from Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC)-alleviated inflammatory response and signaling as well as -improved insulin resistance in the liver of obesity mice. The results showed that Ib-FUC reduced body weight and glucose levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and inhibited serum lipid concentrations. Meanwhile, Hepatic glycogen synthesis was promoted by Ib-FUC via activation of the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signaling and regulation of glucose metabolism-related enzymatic activities. Ib-FUC regulated serum inflammatory cytokines and their mRNA expression in the liver. Ib-FUC-induced inactivation of the JNK and IKKβ/NFκB pathways was involved in the activation of insulin signal cascade and inflammatory factor production. These findings suggested that Ib-FUC supplementary-induced alleviation of inflammatory response could be a mechanism responsible for its beneficial effects against hepatic insulin resistance.

  5. Hybrid quantum dot-tin disulfide field-effect transistors with improved photocurrent and spectral responsivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cotlet, Mircea; Huang, Yuan Zang; Chen, Jia -Shiang; Huidong Zang; Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.; Nam, Chang -Yong

    2016-03-24

    We report an improved photosensitivity in few-layer tin disulfide (SnS2) field-effect transistors(FETs) following doping with CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(QDs). The hybrid QD-SnS2 FET devices achieve more than 500% increase in the photocurrent response compared with the starting SnS2-only FET device and a spectral responsivity reaching over 650 A/W at 400 nm wavelength. The negligible electrical conductance in a control QD-only FET device suggests that the energy transfer between QDs and SnS2 is the main mechanism responsible for the sensitization effect, which is consistent with the strong spectral overlap between QDphotoluminescence and SnS2 optical absorption as well as the large nominalmore » donor-acceptor interspacing between QD core and SnS2. Furthermore, we also find enhanced charge carrier mobility in hybrid QD-SnS2 FETs which we attribute to a reduced contact Schottky barrier width due to an elevated background charge carrier density.« less

  6. Application of nanotechnologies for improved immune response against infectious diseases in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Look, Michael; Bandyopadhyay, Arunima; Blum, Jeremy S.; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new strategies to combat infectious diseases in developing countries. Many pathogens have evolved to elude immunity and this has limited the utility of current therapies. Additionally, the emergence of co-infections and drug resistant pathogens has increased the need for advanced therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. These challenges can be addressed with therapies that boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable, designable fashion that can be applied for wide-spread use. Here, we discuss how biomaterials and specifically nanoscale delivery vehicles can be used to modify and improve the immune system response against infectious diseases. Immunotherapy of infectious disease is the enhancement or modulation of the immune system response to more effectively prevent or clear pathogen infection. Nanoscale vehicles are particularly adept at facilitating immunotherapeutic approaches because they can be engineered to have different physical properties, encapsulated agents, and surface ligands. Additionally, nanoscaled point-of-care diagnostics offer new alternatives for portable and sensitive health monitoring that can guide the use of nanoscale immunotherapies. By exploiting the unique tunability of nanoscale biomaterials to activate, shape, and detect immune system effector function, it may be possible in the near future to generate practical strategies for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in the developing world. PMID:19922750

  7. A multiobjective response surface approach for improved water quality planning in lakes and reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Antenucci, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    Improved data collection techniques as well as increasing computing power are opening up new opportunities for the development of sophisticated models that can accurately reproduce hydrodynamic and biochemical conditions of water bodies. While increasing model complexity is considered a virtue for scientific purposes, it is a definite disadvantage for management (engineering) purposes, as it limits the model applicability to what-if analysis over a few, a priori defined interventions. In the recent past, this has become a significant limitation, particularly considering recent advances in water quality rehabilitation technologies (e.g., mixers or oxygenators) for which many design parameters have to be decided. In this paper, a novel approach toward integrating science-oriented and engineering-oriented models and improving water quality planning is presented. It is based on the use of a few appropriately designed simulations of a complex process-based model to iteratively identify the multidimensional function (response surface) that maps the rehabilitation interventions into the objective function. On the basis of the response surface (RS), a greater number of interventions can be quickly evaluated and the corresponding Pareto front can be approximated. Interesting points on the front are then selected and the corresponding interventions are simulated using the original process-based model, thus obtaining new decision-objective samples to refine the RS approximation. The approach is demonstrated in Googong Reservoir (Australia), which is periodically affected by high concentrations of manganese and cyanobacteria. Results indicate that significant improvements could be observed by simply changing the location of the two mixers installed in 2007. Furthermore, it also suggests the best location for an additional pair of mixers.

  8. Adaptation to large-magnitude treadmill-based perturbations: improvements in reactive balance response

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prakruti; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the trial-to-trial changes in the reactive balance response to large magnitude slip-like treadmill perturbations in stance and whether the acquired adaptive changes could be appropriately scaled to a higher intensity perturbation. Seventeen young adults experienced 15 slips for training on level I intensity. Pre- and post-training slips were delivered at a higher intensity (20% > level I). Pre- and post-slip onset stability (at liftoff and touchdown of stepping limb) was measured as the shortest distance of the center of mass (COM) position (XCOM/BOS) and velocity (ẊCOM/BOS) relative to base of support (BOS) from a predicted threshold for backward loss of balance. The number of steps to recover balance, compensatory step length and peak trunk angle were recorded. The post-slip onset stability (at liftoff and touchdown) significantly increased across the trials with no change in preslip stability. Improvement in stability at touchdown positively correlated with an anterior shift in XCOM/BOS but not with ẊCOM/BOS. Consequently, the number of steps required to recover balance declined. The adaptive change in XCOM/BOS resulted from an increase in compensatory step length and reduced trunk extension. Individuals also improved post-slip onset stability on a higher intensity perturbation post-training compared with the pre-training trial. The results support that the CNS adapts to fixed intensity slip-like perturbations primarily by improving the reactive stability via modulation in compensatory step length and trunk extension. Furthermore, based on prior experience from the training phase, the acquired adaptive response can be successfully calibrated to a higher intensity perturbation. PMID:25649245

  9. Relay chatter and operator response after a large earthquake: An improved PRA methodology with case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E.; Hill, E.E.

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this project has been to develop and demonstrate improvements in the PRA methodology used for analyzing earthquake-induced accidents at nuclear power reactors. Specifically, the project addresses methodological weaknesses in the PRA systems analysis used for studying post-earthquake relay chatter and for quantifying human response under high stress. An improved PRA methodology for relay-chatter analysis is developed, and its use is demonstrated through analysis of the Zion-1 and LaSalle-2 reactors as case studies. This demonstration analysis is intended to show that the methodology can be applied in actual cases, and the numerical values of core-damage frequency are not realistic. The analysis relies on SSMRP-based methodologies and data bases. For both Zion-1 and LaSalle-2, assuming that loss of offsite power (LOSP) occurs after a large earthquake and that there are no operator recovery actions, the analysis finds very many combinations (Boolean minimal cut sets) involving chatter of three or four relays and/or pressure switch contacts. The analysis finds that the number of min-cut-set combinations is so large that there is a very high likelihood (of the order of unity) that at least one combination will occur after earthquake-caused LOSP. This conclusion depends in detail on the fragility curves and response assumptions used for chatter. Core-damage frequencies are calculated, but they are probably pessimistic because assuming zero credit for operator recovery is pessimistic. The project has also developed an improved PRA methodology for quantifying operator error under high-stress conditions such as after a large earthquake. Single-operator and multiple-operator error rates are developed, and a case study involving an 8-step procedure (establishing feed-and-bleed in a PWR after an earthquake-initiated accident) is used to demonstrate the methodology.

  10. Mild hyperthermia enhances transport of liposomal gemcitabine and improves in vivo therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Kirui, Dickson K; Celia, Christian; Molinaro, Roberto; Bansal, Shyam S; Cosco, Donato; Fresta, Massimo; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive biological barriers limit the transport and efficacy of cancer nanotherapeutics. Creative manipulation of tumor microenvironment provides promising avenues towards improving chemotherapeutic response. Such strategies include the use of mechanical stimuli to overcome barriers, and increase drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy. The rational use of gold nanorod-mediated mild hyperthermia treatment (MHT) alters tumor transport properties, increases liposomal gemcitabine (Gem Lip) delivery, and antitumor efficacy in pancreatic cancer CAPAN-1 tumor model. MHT treatment leads to a threefold increase in accumulation of 80-nm liposomes and enhances spatial interstitial distribution. I.v. injection of Gem Lip and MHT treatment lead to a threefold increase in intratumor gemcitabine concentration compared to chemotherapeutic infusion alone. Furthermore, combination of MHT treatment with infusion of 12 mg kg(-1) Gem Lip leads to a twofold increase in therapeutic efficacy and inhibition of CAPAN-1 tumor growth when compared to equimolar chemotherapeutic treatment alone. Enhanced therapeutic effect is confirmed by reduction in tumor size and increase in apoptotic index where MHT treatment combined with 12 mg kg(-1) Gem Lip achieves similar therapeutic efficacy as the use of 60 mg kg(-1) free gemcitabine. In conclusion, improvements in vivo efficacy are demonstrated resulting from MHT treatment that overcome transport barriers, promote delivery, improve efficacy of nanomedicines.

  11. Mild hyperthermia enhances transport of liposomal gemcitabine and improves in vivo therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Kirui, Dickson K; Celia, Christian; Molinaro, Roberto; Bansal, Shyam S; Cosco, Donato; Fresta, Massimo; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive biological barriers limit the transport and efficacy of cancer nanotherapeutics. Creative manipulation of tumor microenvironment provides promising avenues towards improving chemotherapeutic response. Such strategies include the use of mechanical stimuli to overcome barriers, and increase drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy. The rational use of gold nanorod-mediated mild hyperthermia treatment (MHT) alters tumor transport properties, increases liposomal gemcitabine (Gem Lip) delivery, and antitumor efficacy in pancreatic cancer CAPAN-1 tumor model. MHT treatment leads to a threefold increase in accumulation of 80-nm liposomes and enhances spatial interstitial distribution. I.v. injection of Gem Lip and MHT treatment lead to a threefold increase in intratumor gemcitabine concentration compared to chemotherapeutic infusion alone. Furthermore, combination of MHT treatment with infusion of 12 mg kg(-1) Gem Lip leads to a twofold increase in therapeutic efficacy and inhibition of CAPAN-1 tumor growth when compared to equimolar chemotherapeutic treatment alone. Enhanced therapeutic effect is confirmed by reduction in tumor size and increase in apoptotic index where MHT treatment combined with 12 mg kg(-1) Gem Lip achieves similar therapeutic efficacy as the use of 60 mg kg(-1) free gemcitabine. In conclusion, improvements in vivo efficacy are demonstrated resulting from MHT treatment that overcome transport barriers, promote delivery, improve efficacy of nanomedicines. PMID:25721343

  12. Structural Equation Model Approach to the Use of Response Times for Improving Estimation in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    In the last five decades, research on the uses of response time has extended into the field of psychometrics (Schnikpe & Scrams, 1999; van der Linden, 2006; van der Linden, 2007), where interest has centered around the usefulness of response time information in item calibration and person measurement within an item response theory. framework.…

  13. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  14. Direct measurement and calibration of the Kepler CCD Pixel Response Function for improved photometry and astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninkov, Zoran

    Stellar images taken with telescopes and detectors in space are usually undersampled, and to correct for this, an accurate pixel response function is required. The standard approach for HST and KEPLER has been to measure the telescope PSF combined ("convolved") with the actual pixel response function, super-sampled by taking into account dithered or offset observed images of many stars (Lauer [1999]). This combined response function has been called the "PRF" (Bryson et al. [2011]). However, using such results has not allowed astrometry from KEPLER to reach its full potential (Monet et al. [2010], [2014]). Given the precision of KEPLER photometry, it should be feasible to use a pre-determined detector pixel response function (PRF) and an optical point spread function (PSF) as separable quantities to more accurately correct photometry and astrometry for undersampling. Wavelength (i.e. stellar color) and instrumental temperature should be affecting each of these differently. Discussion of the PRF in the "KEPLER Instrument Handbook" is limited to an ad-hoc extension of earlier measurements on a quite different CCD. It is known that the KEPLER PSF typically has a sharp spike in the middle, and the main bulk of the PSF is still small enough to be undersampled, so that any substructure in the pixel may interact significantly with the optical PSF. Both the PSF and PRF are probably asymmetric. We propose to measure the PRF for an example of the CCD sensors used on KEPLER at sufficient sampling resolution to allow significant improvement of KEPLER photometry and astrometry, in particular allowing PSF fitting techniques to be used on the data archive.

  15. Is transcranial direct current stimulation a potential method for improving response inhibition?

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won

    2013-04-15

    Inhibitory control of movement in motor learning requires the ability to suppress an inappropriate action, a skill needed to stop a planned or ongoing motor response in response to changes in a variety of environments. This study used a stop-signal task to determine whether transcranial direct-current stimulation over the pre-supplementary motor area alters the reaction time in motor inhibition. Forty healthy subjects were recruited for this study and were randomly assigned to either the transcranial direct-current stimulation condition or a sham-transcranial direct-current stimulation condition. All subjects consecutively performed the stop-signal task before, during, and after the delivery of anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation over the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-transcranial direct-current stimulation phase, transcranial direct-current stimulation phase, and post-transcranial direct-current stimulation phase). Compared to the sham condition, there were significant reductions in the stop-signal processing times during and after transcranial direct-current stimulation, and change times were significantly greater in the transcranial direct-current stimulation condition. There was no significant change in go processing-times during or after transcranial direct-current stimulation in either condition. Anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation was feasibly coupled to an interactive improvement in inhibitory control. This coupling led to a decrease in the stop-signal process time required for the appropriate responses between motor execution and inhibition. However, there was no transcranial direct-current stimulation effect on the no-signal reaction time during the stop-signal task. Transcranial direct-current stimulation can adjust certain behaviors, and it could be a useful clinical intervention for patients who have difficulties with response inhibition.

  16. Telephone reminders are a cost effective way to improve responses in postal health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Salim, S; Smith, W; Bammer, G

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To assess the effectiveness of a telephone reminder in increasing responses to postal surveys and to calculate the differential costs per completed questionnaire. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Australian university and rehabilitation medicine practice. Participants: The trial was conducted in 1999 among the 143 non-respondents to a questionnaire about work related neck and upper body disorders. The questionnaire was sent to two Australian female samples: 200 office workers (Sample A) and 92 former rehabilitation medicine patients (Sample B). A reminder letter, another copy of the questionnaire and a final letter were sent at two week intervals. Half of the non-respondents within each sample were randomly selected to receive a telephone reminder just after the second mailout of the questionnaire. All direct costs were calculated. Main results: Responses were significantly higher among those who received the telephone reminder intervention (relative risk 2.54, 95% confidence intervals 1.43 to 4.52). Analysed by intention to phone, 47% of non-respondents in Sample A and 38% in Sample B returned a complete questionnaire after the intervention, compared with 21% and 10%, respectively, in the control groups. For the 112 women (combined samples) who returned completed questionnaires before randomisation, the average cost per respondent was AUD14. There was a higher total cost for the intervention groups (AUD851 versus AUD386 for controls), but the significantly higher number of additional completed responses (31 versus 12) resulted in a 15% lower marginal cost per completed questionnaire in those groups. Conclusion: Telephone reminders are cost effective in improving responses to postal surveys. PMID:11812810

  17. Triangle and concave pentagon electrodes for an improved broadband frequency response of stripline beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Yong Ho; Takata, Koji; Toyama, Takeshi; Nakamura, Keigo

    2016-02-01

    The frequency domain performance of a stripline beam position monitor depends largely on the longitudinal shape of its electrode. Some shapes other than a conventional rectangle have been proposed and tested. To attain a good impedance matching along the electrode, they need to be precisely bent down toward their downstream in proportion to their width. This is a considerable task, and a failure to comply with it will result in a large distortion of the frequency-domain transfer function from the ideal one due to unwanted signal reflections. In this report, we first propose a triangle electrode for easy fabrication and setup: it only requires that a triangularly cut flat electrode will be placed in a chamber while being obliquely inclined toward the downstream port. Theoretical and simulation results show that the simple triangle electrode has a remarkably flatter frequency response than the rectangle one. The frequency response, in particular at high frequencies, can be further improved by attaching an "apron" plate, perpendicular to the upstream edge of the electrode. The overshooting of the frequency response at low frequency can be eliminated by replacing the straight sidelines of the triangle by three-point polylines (with a result that the triangle is transformed to a concave pentagon). The concave pentagon electrode needs to be bent only once at the middle point of the polylines for a good impedance matching and thus its fabrication and setup remain to be easy. Rf measurements for the various electrode shapes have been carried out. We found that the concave pentagon electrode achieves a wide and flat frequency response up to about 4 GHz for the J-PARC Main Ring (MR).

  18. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture. We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. PMID:22351637

  19. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture.We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury.

  20. Adjunctive Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor Therapy Improves Antibiotic Response to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Tsenova, Liana; Holloway, Jennifer; Peixoto, Blas; O'Brien, Paul; Dartois, Véronique; Khetani, Vikram; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Kaplan, Gilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adjunctive host-directed therapy is emerging as a new potential approach to improve the outcome of conventional antimicrobial treatment for tuberculosis (TB). We tested the ability of a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (PDE4i) CC-11050, co-administered with the first-line anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH), to accelerate bacillary killing and reduce chronic inflammation in the lungs of rabbits with experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Methods A rabbit model of pulmonary TB that recapitulates the pathologic manifestations seen in humans was used. Rabbits were infected with virulent Mtb by aerosol exposure and treated for eight weeks with INH with or without CC-11050, starting at four weeks post infection. The effect of CC-11050 treatment on disease severity, pathology, bacillary load, T cell proliferation and global lung transcriptome profiles were analyzed. Results Significant improvement in bacillary clearance and reduced lung pathology and fibrosis were noted in the rabbits treated for eight weeks with INH + CC-11050, compared to those treated with INH or CC-11050 only. In addition, expression of host genes associated with tissue remodeling, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) regulation, macrophage activation and lung inflammation networks was dampened in CC-11050-treated, compared to the untreated rabbits. Conclusions Adjunctive CC-11050 therapy significantly improves the response of rabbits with experimental pulmonary TB to INH treatment. We propose that CC-11050 may be a promising candidate for host directed therapy of patients with pulmonary TB, reducing the duration and improving clinical outcome of antibiotic treatment. PMID:26981575

  1. Improved photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) based source camera identification.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Alan J

    2013-03-10

    The concept of using Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) as a reliable forensic tool to match an image to a source camera is now well established. Traditionally, the PRNU estimation methodologies have centred on a wavelet based de-noising approach. Resultant filtering artefacts in combination with image and JPEG contamination act to reduce the quality of PRNU estimation. In this paper, it is argued that the application calls for a simplified filtering strategy which at its base level may be realised using a combination of adaptive and median filtering applied in the spatial domain. The proposed filtering method is interlinked with a further two stage enhancement strategy where only pixels in the image having high probabilities of significant PRNU bias are retained. This methodology significantly improves the discrimination between matching and non-matching image data sets over that of the common wavelet filtering approach. PMID:23312587

  2. Recommendations to improve the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) based on item response theory.

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Rizopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-08-15

    The adequacy of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items in measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia was examined using Item Response Theory (IRT). Baseline PANSS assessments were analyzed from two multi-center clinical trials of antipsychotic medication in chronic schizophrenia (n=1872). Generally, the results showed that the PANSS (a) item ratings discriminated symptom severity best for the negative symptoms; (b) has an excess of "Severe" and "Extremely severe" rating options; and (c) assessments are more reliable at medium than very low or high levels of symptom severity. Analysis also showed that the detection of statistically and non-statistically significant differences in treatment were highly similar for the original and IRT-modified PANSS. In clinical trials of chronic schizophrenia, the PANSS appears to require the following modifications: fewer rating options, adjustment of 'Lack of judgment and insight', and improved severe symptom assessment.

  3. A method of improving the dynamic response of 3D force/torque sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osypiuk, Rafał; Piskorowski, Jacek; Kubus, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    In the paper attention is drawn to adverse dynamic properties of filters implemented in commercial measurement systems, force/torque sensors, which are increasingly used in industrial robotics. To remedy the problem, it has been proposed to employ a time-variant filter with appropriately modulated parameters, owing to which it is possible to suppress the amplitude of the transient response and, at the same time, to increase the pulsation of damped oscillations; this results in the improvement of dynamic properties in terms of reducing the duration of transients. This property plays a key role in force control and in the fundamental problem of the robot establishing contact with rigid environment. The parametric filters have been verified experimentally and compared with filters available for force/torque sensors manufactured by JR3. The obtained results clearly indicate the advantages of the proposed solution, which may be an interesting alternative to the classic methods of filtration.

  4. Improved water quality in response to pollution control measures at Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won Keun; Ryu, Jongseong; Yi, Yoonju; Lee, Won-Chan; Lee, Chan-Won; Kang, Daeseok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Nam, Jungho; Khim, Jong Seong

    2012-02-01

    The total pollution load management system (TPLMS) was first applied in 2007 to the highly developed Masan Bay watershed, Korea. To evaluate the effect of TPLMS on water quality improvement, we analyzed the water qualities in rivers and bay during 2005-2010, targeting chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loads. Land-based pollutant loading all decreased during this period, with a significant reduction in COD and SS loads (p<0.01). The COD reduction in seawater, following the TPLMS implementation, was also significant (p<0.01). Time-lagged responses in COD and Chl-a supported an estimated seawater residence time of ~1 month. Land-based nutrient loads were also significantly reduced for TN (p<0.01) and TP (p<0.05), however, significant reductions were not observed in the bay, indicating potential alternative nutrient inputs from non-point sources into the bay system. PMID:22155120

  5. Using Medicare data to identify individuals who are electricity dependent to improve disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Bogdanov, Alina; Dinkler, Ayame; Babcock, Sarah; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    During a disaster or prolonged power outage, individuals who use electricity-dependent medical equipment are often unable to operate it and seek care in acute care settings or local shelters. Public health officials often report that they do not have proactive and systematic ways to rapidly identify and assist these individuals. In June 2013, we piloted a first-in-the-nation emergency preparedness drill in which we used Medicare claims data to identify individuals with electricity-dependent durable medical equipment during a disaster and securely disclosed it to a local health department. We found that Medicare claims data were 93% accurate in identifying individuals using a home oxygen concentrator or ventilator. The drill findings suggest that claims data can be useful in improving preparedness and response for electricity-dependent populations.

  6. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees. PMID:27030776

  7. Placing Bounds on Extreme Temperature Response of Maize to Improve Crop Model Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Babcock, B.; Peng, Y.; Gassman, P. W.; Campbell, T.

    2015-12-01

    We propose the development of community-based estimates for bounds on maize sensitivity to extreme temperature. We use model-based, observation-driven soil moisture climatology in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on high temperature sensitivity through its dependence on available water. For the portion of the region with relatively long growing season, yield reduction per degree-C is 10% for high water availability and 32.5% for low water availability. Where the growing season is shorter, yield reduction per degree-C is 6% for high water availability and 27% for low water availability. High temperature sensitivity is indeterminate where extreme temperature yield effect does not yet exceed excessive water yield effect. We suggest new soil moisture climatology from reanalysis datasets could be used to develop community-based estimates of high temperature sensitivity that would significantly improve the accuracy of maize temperature sensitivity bounds, their regional variability, and their importance relative to other weather yield shocks. A community-based estimate would substantially improve evaluation of crop system simulation models and provide baseline information for evaluation of adaptation options. For instance, since process models are needed for evaluation of crop system adaptation response under climate projections, a community-developed estimate would provide a clear target for process model evaluation. Furthermore, the range of extreme temperature sensitivity from empirical models would provide a lower bound on variability that could be achieved from process models. If the process models achieved this bound, it would mean the uncertainty among their simulations would be primarily from observational limitations than differences in model response. While we demonstrate the potential in the context of maize, the concept could be implemented within any crop production system.

  8. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  9. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees.

  10. Model Constrained by Visual Hierarchy Improves Prediction of Neural Responses to Natural Scenes.

    PubMed

    Antolík, Ján; Hofer, Sonja B; Bednar, James A; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D

    2016-06-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal receptive fields is essential for understanding sensory processing in the early visual system. Yet a full characterization of receptive fields is still incomplete, especially with regard to natural visual stimuli and in complete populations of cortical neurons. While previous work has incorporated known structural properties of the early visual system, such as lateral connectivity, or imposing simple-cell-like receptive field structure, no study has exploited the fact that nearby V1 neurons share common feed-forward input from thalamus and other upstream cortical neurons. We introduce a new method for estimating receptive fields simultaneously for a population of V1 neurons, using a model-based analysis incorporating knowledge of the feed-forward visual hierarchy. We assume that a population of V1 neurons shares a common pool of thalamic inputs, and consists of two layers of simple and complex-like V1 neurons. When fit to recordings of a local population of mouse layer 2/3 V1 neurons, our model offers an accurate description of their response to natural images and significant improvement of prediction power over the current state-of-the-art methods. We show that the responses of a large local population of V1 neurons with locally diverse receptive fields can be described with surprisingly limited number of thalamic inputs, consistent with recent experimental findings. Our structural model not only offers an improved functional characterization of V1 neurons, but also provides a framework for studying the relationship between connectivity and function in visual cortical areas. PMID:27348548

  11. Model Constrained by Visual Hierarchy Improves Prediction of Neural Responses to Natural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Antolík, Ján; Hofer, Sonja B.; Bednar, James A.; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal receptive fields is essential for understanding sensory processing in the early visual system. Yet a full characterization of receptive fields is still incomplete, especially with regard to natural visual stimuli and in complete populations of cortical neurons. While previous work has incorporated known structural properties of the early visual system, such as lateral connectivity, or imposing simple-cell-like receptive field structure, no study has exploited the fact that nearby V1 neurons share common feed-forward input from thalamus and other upstream cortical neurons. We introduce a new method for estimating receptive fields simultaneously for a population of V1 neurons, using a model-based analysis incorporating knowledge of the feed-forward visual hierarchy. We assume that a population of V1 neurons shares a common pool of thalamic inputs, and consists of two layers of simple and complex-like V1 neurons. When fit to recordings of a local population of mouse layer 2/3 V1 neurons, our model offers an accurate description of their response to natural images and significant improvement of prediction power over the current state-of-the-art methods. We show that the responses of a large local population of V1 neurons with locally diverse receptive fields can be described with surprisingly limited number of thalamic inputs, consistent with recent experimental findings. Our structural model not only offers an improved functional characterization of V1 neurons, but also provides a framework for studying the relationship between connectivity and function in visual cortical areas. PMID:27348548

  12. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH) dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo (solvent vehicle) were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD) choice test and by the Open-Field (OF) exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = .047), while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = .341, non-significant). The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < .001) but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = .009 and P = .003, resp.), while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < .01 for all tested variables). Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia. PMID:19752165

  13. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Sears, Lonnie L.; Opris, Ioan; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    changes along with increased centro-parietal P100 and P300 (P3b) to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS treatment. Another important finding was decrease of the latency and increase of negativity of error-related negativity (ERN) during commission errors that may reflect improvement in error monitoring and correction function. Enhanced information processing was also manifested in lower error rate. In addition we calculated normative post-error treaction time (RT) slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS treatment was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and higher commission and omission error rates. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions (RT, accuracy) during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical evaluations. PMID:25147508

  14. The Body, Gender, and Biotechnology in Jeanette Winterson's The Stone Gods.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that Winterson's use of satire and the common tropes of science fiction in her 2007 novel The Stone Gods provides an effective and important critique of the gender discrepancies arising in the implementation of aesthetic medical biotechnologies under the logic of neoliberal consumerism. In particular, engaging with aspects of Winterson's fictional landscape in Part 1 of The Stone Gods, I will explore the themes of bodily normalization, the medicalization of youth and appearance, and the notion that biotechnologies such as cosmetic surgery can inculcate happiness through some sort of "psychological cure." Ultimately, I will argue that Winterson's aim in this novel is to raise important questions about where rising standards of enhancement and appearance, implemented through biotechnologies, will take us and, furthermore, to demonstrate that the problems of the human condition require more than the surface fixes offered by consumption, technological innovation, and narcissistic body projects.

  15. [On gods, snakes and staffs--the emblem of the medical profession].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Salzer, Liat; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinnat

    2014-10-01

    The commonly accepted emblems of the Medical Profession are the staff of the Greek god of medicine--Asklepios (or Asclepius], on which one serpent is entwined. Later, around the 16th century C.E., the wand of the herald of the Greek Gods, e.g., Hermes, on which two snakes are entwined and facing each other, became popular as the emblem of the medical profession. We elaborate on the history of the evolution of these emblems as symbols of medicine, including earlier influences from the times of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, which were followed by Judeo-Christian traditions and concepts. The relevance of the use of the wand of Hermes as an emblem of our profession is further discussed.

  16. Playing God or just unnatural? Religious beliefs and approval of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Dragojlovic, Nicolas; Einsiedel, Edna

    2013-10-01

    Using evidence from a 2010 survey of 32 European publics, this article argues that belief in God increases disapproval for synthetic biology through two different mechanisms, depending on the strength of the individual's belief. Among weak believers, belief in God appears to be associated with the increased availability and accessibility of the idea that genetic manipulation interferes with nature. Strong believers, in contrast, appear to also engage in an explicitly theological evaluation of synthetic biology, with opposition to synthetic biology resulting from the perception that the creation of new types of organisms encroaches on a domain of activity (creation) that has traditionally been considered to be a divine prerogative. Overall, our findings suggest that value predispositions can influence public attitudes towards synthetic biology even when individuals engage in explicit deliberation about the technology in question.

  17. The Body, Gender, and Biotechnology in Jeanette Winterson's The Stone Gods.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that Winterson's use of satire and the common tropes of science fiction in her 2007 novel The Stone Gods provides an effective and important critique of the gender discrepancies arising in the implementation of aesthetic medical biotechnologies under the logic of neoliberal consumerism. In particular, engaging with aspects of Winterson's fictional landscape in Part 1 of The Stone Gods, I will explore the themes of bodily normalization, the medicalization of youth and appearance, and the notion that biotechnologies such as cosmetic surgery can inculcate happiness through some sort of "psychological cure." Ultimately, I will argue that Winterson's aim in this novel is to raise important questions about where rising standards of enhancement and appearance, implemented through biotechnologies, will take us and, furthermore, to demonstrate that the problems of the human condition require more than the surface fixes offered by consumption, technological innovation, and narcissistic body projects. PMID:26095842

  18. Improved transverse (e,e{sup '}) response function of {sup 3}He at intermediate momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Efros, Victor D.; Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina; Tomusiak, Edward L.

    2010-03-15

    The transverse electron scattering response function of {sup 3}He is studied in the quasielastic peak region for momentum transfers between 500 and 700 MeV/c. A conventional description of the process leads to results that vary substantially from experiment. To improve the results, the present calculation is done in a reference frame [the active nucleon Breit (ANB) frame] that diminishes the influence of relativistic effects on nuclear states. The laboratory frame response function is then obtained via a kinematics transformation. In addition, a one-body nuclear current operator is employed that includes all leading-order relativistic corrections. Multipoles of this operator are listed. It is shown that the use of the ANB frame leads to a sizable shift in the quasielastic peak to lower energy and, contrary to the relativistic current, also to an increase in the peak height. The additionally considered meson exchange current contribution is quite small in the peak region. In comparison with experiment, there is excellent agreement of the peak positions. The peak height agrees well with experiment for the lowest considered momentum transfer (500 MeV/c) but tends to be too high for higher momentum transfer (10% at 700 MeV/c).

  19. Improvements in the star-based monitoring of GOES Imager visible-channel responsivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.-Lok; Dean, Charles; Han, Dejiang; Crosby, David; Weinreb, Michael; Baucom, Jeanette; Baltimore, Perry; Wu, Xiangqian

    2005-08-01

    Stars are regularly observed in the visible channels of the GOES Imagers for real-time navigation operations. However, we have been also using star observations off-line to deduce the rate of degradation of the responsivity of the visible channels. We estimate degradation rates from the time series of the intensities of the Imagers' output signals, available in the GOES Orbit and Attitude Tracking System (OATS). We begin by showing our latest results in monitoring the responsivities of the visible channels on GOES-8, GOES-10 and GOES-12. Unfortunately, the OATS computes the intensities of the star signals with approximations suitable for navigation, not for estimating accurate signal strengths, and thus we had to develop objective criteria for screening out unsuitable data. With several layers of screening, our most recent trending method yields smoother time series of star signals, but the time series are supported by a smaller pool of stars. With the goal of simplifying the task of data selection and to retrieve stars that have been rejected in the screening, we tested a technique that accessed the raw star measurements before they were processed by the OATS. We developed formulations that produced star signals in a manner more suitable for monitoring the conditions of the visible channels. We present specifics of this process together with sample results. We discuss improvements in the quality of the time series that allow for more reliable inferences on the characteristics of the visible channels.

  20. Diazoxide improves hormonal counterregulatory responses to acute hypoglycemia in long-standing type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    George, Priya S; Tavendale, Roger; Palmer, Colin N A; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk of severe hypoglycemia secondary to impairments in normal glucose counterregulatory responses (CRRs). Strategies to prevent hypoglycemia are often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels within the hypothalamus are thought to be integral to hypoglycemia detection and initiation of CRRs; however, to date this has not been confirmed in human subjects. In this study, we examined whether the KATP channel-activator diazoxide was able to amplify the CRR to hypoglycemia in T1D subjects with long-duration diabetes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial using a stepped hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia clamp was performed in 12 T1D subjects with prior ingestion of diazoxide (7 mg/kg) or placebo. Diazoxide resulted in a 37% increase in plasma levels of epinephrine and a 44% increase in plasma norepinephrine during hypoglycemia compared with placebo. In addition, a subgroup analysis revealed that the response to oral diazoxide was blunted in participants with E23K polymorphism in the KATP channel. This study has therefore shown for the first time the potential utility of KATP channel activators to improve CRRs to hypoglycemia in individuals with T1D and, moreover, that it may be possible to stratify therapeutic approaches by genotype. PMID:25591873

  1. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. PMID:27374554

  2. Does including physiology improve species distribution model predictions of responses to recent climate change?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Waaser, Stephanie A; MacLean, Heidi J; Fox, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Thermal constraints on development are often invoked to predict insect distributions. These constraints tend to be characterized in species distribution models (SDMs) by calculating development time based on a constant lower development temperature (LDT). Here, we assessed whether species-specific estimates of LDT based on laboratory experiments can improve the ability of SDMs to predict the distribution shifts of six U.K. butterflies in response to recent climate warming. We find that species-specific and constant (5 degrees C) LDT degree-day models perform similarly at predicting distributions during the period of 1970-1982. However, when the models for the 1970-1982 period are projected to predict distributions in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, species-specific LDT degree-day models modestly outperform constant LDT degree-day models. Our results suggest that, while including species-specific physiology in correlative models may enhance predictions of species' distribution responses to climate change, more detailed models may be needed to adequately account for interspecific physiological differences. PMID:22352161

  3. pH-Responsive Isoniazid-Loaded Nanoparticles Markedly Improve Tuberculosis Treatment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Angela A; Lee, Bai-Yu; Clemens, Daniel L; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Zink, Jeffrey I; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a major global health problem for which improved therapeutics are needed to shorten the course of treatment and combat emergence of drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is an intracellular pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes. As such, it is an ideal pathogen for nanotherapeutics because macrophages avidly ingest nanoparticles even without specific targeting molecules. Hence, a nanoparticle drug delivery system has the potential to target and deliver high concentrations of drug directly into M. tuberculosis-infected cells-greatly enhancing efficacy while avoiding off-target toxicities. Stimulus-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles of two different sizes, 100 and 50 nm, are developed as carriers for the major anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid in a prodrug configuration. The drug is captured by the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticle via hydrazone bond formation and coated with poly(ethylene imine)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-PEG). The drug is released from the nanoparticles in response to acidic pH at levels that naturally occur within acidified endolysosomes. It is demonstrated that isoniazid-loaded PEI-PEG-coated nanoparticles are avidly ingested by M. tuberculosis-infected human macrophages and kill the intracellular bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. It is further demonstrated in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis that the nanoparticles are well tolerated and much more efficacious than an equivalent amount of free drug.

  4. Reprogramming the Host Response in Bacterial Meningitis: How Best To Improve Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    van der Flier, M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Tuomanen, E. I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite effective antibiotic therapy, bacterial meningitis is still associated with high morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Animal studies have shown that the host inflammatory response induced by bacterial products in the subarachnoid space is associated with central nervous system injury. Thus, attenuation of inflammation early in the disease process might improve the outcome. The feasibility of such an approach is demonstrated by the reduction in neurologic sequelae achieved with adjuvant dexamethasone therapy. Increased understanding of the pathways of inflammation and neuronal damage has suggested rational new targets to modulate the host response in bacterial meningitis, but prediction of which agents would be optimal has been difficult. This review compares the future promise of benefit from the use of diverse adjuvant agents. It appears unlikely that inhibition of a single proinflammatory mediator will prove useful in clinical practice, but several avenues to reprogram a wider array of mediators simultaneously are encouraging. Particularly promising are efforts to adjust combinations of cytokines, to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and to enhance brain repair. PMID:12857775

  5. Fitting a Mixture Item Response Theory Model to Personality Questionnaire Data: Characterizing Latent Classes and Investigating Possibilities for Improving Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…

  6. Improving Classroom Performance in Underachieving Preadolescents: The Additive Effects of Response Cost to a School-Home Note System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Alyson P.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1994-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of a school-home note with and without response cost on the disruptive and on-task behavior of three preadolescents. Inclusion of response cost was associated with marked improvements in attentiveness and stabilization of disruptive behavior as compared with that obtained with a traditional school-home note. (LKS)

  7. Would Tarzan believe in God? Conditions for the emergence of religious belief.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Would someone raised without exposure to religious views nonetheless come to believe in the existence of God, an afterlife, and the intentional creation of humans and other animals? Many scholars would answer yes, proposing that universal cognitive biases generate religious ideas anew within each individual mind. Drawing on evidence from developmental psychology, we argue here that the answer is no: children lack spontaneous theistic views and the emergence of religion is crucially dependent on culture. PMID:23238119

  8. Children's Attributions of Beliefs to Humans and God: Cross-Cultural Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nicola; Sousa, Paulo; Barrett, Justin L.; Atran, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to attribute beliefs to others in order to understand action is one of the mainstays of human cognition. Yet it is debatable whether children attribute beliefs in the same way to all agents. In this paper, we present the results of a false-belief task concerning humans and God run with a sample of Maya children aged 4-7, and place…

  9. Intravenous Immunoglobulin with Enhanced Polyspecificity Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis and Aseptic Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Roumenina, Lubka; Pashov, Anastas; Dimitrov, Jordan; Hadzhieva, Maya; Lindig, Sandro; Voynova, Elisaveta; Dimitrova, Petya; Ivanovska, Nina; Bockmeyer, Clemens; Stefanova, Zvetanka; Fitting, Catherine; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; von Gunten, Stephan; Kaveri, Srini; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Bauer, Michael; Vassilev, Tchavdar

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause for death worldwide. Numerous interventional trials with agents neutralizing single proinflammatory mediators have failed to improve survival in sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndromes. This failure could be explained by the widespread gene expression dysregulation known as “genomic storm” in these patients. A multifunctional polyspecific therapeutic agent might be needed to thwart the effects of this storm. Licensed pooled intravenous immunoglobulin preparations seemed to be a promising candidate, but they have also failed in their present form to prevent sepsis-related death. We report here the protective effect of a single dose of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity in three models of sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammation. The modification of the pooled immunoglobulin G molecules by exposure to ferrous ions resulted in their newly acquired ability to bind some proinflammatory molecules, complement components and endogenous “danger” signals. The improved survival in endotoxemia was associated with serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, diminished complement consumption and normalization of the coagulation time. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity have a clinical potential in sepsis and related systemic inflammatory syndromes. PMID:26701312

  10. Improving the response of accelerometers for automotive applications by using LMS adaptive filters: Part II.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Wilmar; de Vicente, Jesús; Sergiyenko, Oleg Y; Fernández, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the fast least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to both eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications, and improve the convergence rate of the filtering process based on the conventional LMS algorithm. The response of the accelerometer under test was corrupted by process and measurement noise, and the signal processing stage was carried out by using both conventional filtering, which was already shown in a previous paper, and optimal adaptive filtering. The adaptive filtering process relied on the LMS adaptive filtering family, which has shown to have very good convergence and robustness properties, and here a comparative analysis between the results of the application of the conventional LMS algorithm and the fast LMS algorithm to solve a real-life filtering problem was carried out. In short, in this paper the piezoresistive accelerometer was tested for a multi-frequency acceleration excitation. Due to the kind of test conducted in this paper, the use of conventional filtering was discarded and the choice of one adaptive filter over the other was based on the signal-to-noise ratio improvement and the convergence rate. PMID:22315579

  11. Coping with drought: stress and adaptive responses in potato and perspectives for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Obidiegwu, Jude E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.; Prashar, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is often considered as a drought sensitive crop and its sustainable production is threatened due to frequent drought episodes. There has been much research aiming to understand the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of drought tolerance in potato as a basis for improving production under drought conditions. The complex phenotypic response of potato plants to drought is conditioned by the interactive effects of the plant's genotypic potential, developmental stage, and environment. Effective crop improvement for drought tolerance will require the pyramiding of many disparate characters, with different combinations being appropriate for different growing environments. An understanding of the interaction between below ground water uptake by the roots and above ground water loss from the shoot system is essential. The development of high throughput precision phenotyping platforms is providing an exciting new tool for precision screening, which, with the incorporation of innovative screening strategies, can aid the selection and pyramiding of drought-related genes appropriate for specific environments. Outcomes from genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioengineering advances will undoubtedly compliment conventional breeding strategies and presents an alternative route toward development of drought tolerant potatoes. This review presents an overview of past research activity, highlighting recent advances with examples from other crops and suggesting future research directions. PMID:26257752

  12. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  13. Improvement in glucose biosensing response of electrochemically grown polypyrrole nanotubes by incorporating crosslinked glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Palod, Pragya Agar; Singh, Vipul

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel enzymatic glucose biosensor has been reported in which platinum coated alumina membranes (Anodisc™s) have been employed as templates for the growth of polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays using electrochemical polymerization. The PPy nanotube arrays were grown on Anodisc™s of pore diameter 100 nm using potentiostatic electropolymerization. In order to optimize the polymerization time, immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) was first performed using physical adsorption followed by measuring its biosensing response which was examined amperometrically for increasing concentrations of glucose. In order to further improve the sensing performance of the biosensor fabricated for optimum polymerization duration, enzyme immobilization was carried out using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Approximately six fold enhancement in the sensitivity was observed in the fabricated electrodes. The biosensors also showed a wide range of linear operation (0.2-13 mM), limit of detection of 50 μM glucose concentration, excellent selectivity for glucose, notable reliability for real sample detection and substantially improved shelf life. PMID:26117773

  14. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water.

  15. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water. PMID:23819294

  16. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  17. Coping with drought: stress and adaptive responses in potato and perspectives for improvement.

    PubMed

    Obidiegwu, Jude E; Bryan, Glenn J; Jones, Hamlyn G; Prashar, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is often considered as a drought sensitive crop and its sustainable production is threatened due to frequent drought episodes. There has been much research aiming to understand the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of drought tolerance in potato as a basis for improving production under drought conditions. The complex phenotypic response of potato plants to drought is conditioned by the interactive effects of the plant's genotypic potential, developmental stage, and environment. Effective crop improvement for drought tolerance will require the pyramiding of many disparate characters, with different combinations being appropriate for different growing environments. An understanding of the interaction between below ground water uptake by the roots and above ground water loss from the shoot system is essential. The development of high throughput precision phenotyping platforms is providing an exciting new tool for precision screening, which, with the incorporation of innovative screening strategies, can aid the selection and pyramiding of drought-related genes appropriate for specific environments. Outcomes from genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioengineering advances will undoubtedly compliment conventional breeding strategies and presents an alternative route toward development of drought tolerant potatoes. This review presents an overview of past research activity, highlighting recent advances with examples from other crops and suggesting future research directions.

  18. Improvement in glucose biosensing response of electrochemically grown polypyrrole nanotubes by incorporating crosslinked glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Palod, Pragya Agar; Singh, Vipul

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel enzymatic glucose biosensor has been reported in which platinum coated alumina membranes (Anodisc™s) have been employed as templates for the growth of polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays using electrochemical polymerization. The PPy nanotube arrays were grown on Anodisc™s of pore diameter 100 nm using potentiostatic electropolymerization. In order to optimize the polymerization time, immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) was first performed using physical adsorption followed by measuring its biosensing response which was examined amperometrically for increasing concentrations of glucose. In order to further improve the sensing performance of the biosensor fabricated for optimum polymerization duration, enzyme immobilization was carried out using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Approximately six fold enhancement in the sensitivity was observed in the fabricated electrodes. The biosensors also showed a wide range of linear operation (0.2-13 mM), limit of detection of 50 μM glucose concentration, excellent selectivity for glucose, notable reliability for real sample detection and substantially improved shelf life.

  19. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  20. An Experience Oriented-Convergence Improved Gravitational Search Algorithm for Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamforming Optimum

    PubMed Central

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Rezai Soleymanpour, Hassan; Kibria, Salehin

    2016-01-01

    An experience oriented-convergence improved gravitational search algorithm (ECGSA) based on two new modifications, searching through the best experiments and using of a dynamic gravitational damping coefficient (α), is introduced in this paper. ECGSA saves its best fitness function evaluations and uses those as the agents’ positions in searching process. In this way, the optimal found trajectories are retained and the search starts from these trajectories, which allow the algorithm to avoid the local optimums. Also, the agents can move faster in search space to obtain better exploration during the first stage of the searching process and they can converge rapidly to the optimal solution at the final stage of the search process by means of the proposed dynamic gravitational damping coefficient. The performance of ECGSA has been evaluated by applying it to eight standard benchmark functions along with six complicated composite test functions. It is also applied to adaptive beamforming problem as a practical issue to improve the weight vectors computed by minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique. The results of implementation of the proposed algorithm are compared with some well-known heuristic methods and verified the proposed method in both reaching to optimal solutions and robustness. PMID:27399904

  1. Improved Angiogenesis in Response to Localized Delivery of Macrophage-Recruiting Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Saik, Jennifer E.; Ali, Saniya; Wang, Shang; Yosef, Nejla; Calderon, Gisele A.; Scott, Larry; Vadakkan, Tegy J.; Larina, Irina V.; West, Jennifer L.; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Successful engineering of complex organs requires improved methods to promote rapid and stable vascularization of artificial tissue scaffolds. Toward this goal, tissue engineering strategies utilize the release of pro-angiogenic growth factors, alone or in combination, from biomaterials to induce angiogenesis. In this study we have used intravital microscopy to define key, dynamic cellular changes induced by the release of pro-angiogenic factors from polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogels transplanted in vivo. Our data show robust macrophage recruitment when the potent and synergistic angiogenic factors, PDGFBB and FGF2 were used as compared with VEGF alone and intravital imaging suggested roles for macrophages in endothelial tip cell migration and anastomosis, as well as pericyte-like behavior. Further data from in vivo experiments show that delivery of CSF1 with VEGF can dramatically improve the poor angiogenic response seen with VEGF alone. These studies show that incorporating macrophage-recruiting factors into the design of pro-angiogenic biomaterial scaffolds is a key strategy likely to be necessary for stable vascularization and survival of implanted artificial tissues. PMID:26132702

  2. An Experience Oriented-Convergence Improved Gravitational Search Algorithm for Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamforming Optimum.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Soodabeh; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Rezai Soleymanpour, Hassan; Kibria, Salehin

    2016-01-01

    An experience oriented-convergence improved gravitational search algorithm (ECGSA) based on two new modifications, searching through the best experiments and using of a dynamic gravitational damping coefficient (α), is introduced in this paper. ECGSA saves its best fitness function evaluations and uses those as the agents' positions in searching process. In this way, the optimal found trajectories are retained and the search starts from these trajectories, which allow the algorithm to avoid the local optimums. Also, the agents can move faster in search space to obtain better exploration during the first stage of the searching process and they can converge rapidly to the optimal solution at the final stage of the search process by means of the proposed dynamic gravitational damping coefficient. The performance of ECGSA has been evaluated by applying it to eight standard benchmark functions along with six complicated composite test functions. It is also applied to adaptive beamforming problem as a practical issue to improve the weight vectors computed by minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique. The results of implementation of the proposed algorithm are compared with some well-known heuristic methods and verified the proposed method in both reaching to optimal solutions and robustness. PMID:27399904

  3. Improving the Response of Accelerometers for Automotive Applications by Using LMS Adaptive Filters: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar; de Vicente, Jesús; Sergiyenko, Oleg Y.; Fernández, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the fast least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to both eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications, and improve the convergence rate of the filtering process based on the conventional LMS algorithm. The response of the accelerometer under test was corrupted by process and measurement noise, and the signal processing stage was carried out by using both conventional filtering, which was already shown in a previous paper, and optimal adaptive filtering. The adaptive filtering process relied on the LMS adaptive filtering family, which has shown to have very good convergence and robustness properties, and here a comparative analysis between the results of the application of the conventional LMS algorithm and the fast LMS algorithm to solve a real-life filtering problem was carried out. In short, in this paper the piezoresistive accelerometer was tested for a multi-frequency acceleration excitation. Due to the kind of test conducted in this paper, the use of conventional filtering was discarded and the choice of one adaptive filter over the other was based on the signal-to-noise ratio improvement and the convergence rate. PMID:22315579

  4. God's Turnstile: The Work of John Wheeler and Stephen Hawking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the book entitled "Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos." Provides narration of behind-the-scenes events in the lives, the scientific debates, and the intellectual triumphs of the two physicists responsible for inventing the concept of the black hole. (JJK)

  5. Miracles In, Creationism Out: "The Geophysics of God."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Molleen

    1997-01-01

    Clarifies media reports that suggest that flood geology should be taught as part of the biology curriculum to provide support for the teaching of creationist theory. Analyzes the reports and provides support for response on the local level to these claims. (DDR)

  6. Randomized Trial of the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) Organizational Intervention for Improving Youth Outcomes in Community Mental Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…

  7. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jonathan E.; Tong, Eddie M. W.; Pang, Joyce S.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words “religion”, “God” and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed. PMID:26812526

  8. Acts of God - The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Ted

    2003-05-01

    With the exception of the 9/11 disaster, the top ten most costly catastrophes in U.S. history have all been natural disasters--five of them hurricanes--and all have occurred since 1989. Why this tremendous plague on our homes? In Acts of God , environmental historian Ted Steinberg explains that much of the death and destruction has been well within the realm of human control. Steinberg exposes the fallacy of seeing such calamities as simply random events. Beginning with the 1886 Charleston and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes, and continuing to the present, Steinberg explores the unnatural history of natural calamity, the decisions of business leaders and government officials that have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows--America's poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg argues, has helped to hide the fact that some Americans are better protected from the violence of nature than their counterparts lower down the socioeconomic ladder. Sure to provoke discussion, Acts of God is a call to action that must be heard. "A sobering lesson in humanity's vulnerability to extreme climatic events, especially the impoverished farmer and the urban poor."--The Los Angeles Times Book Review

  9. Characterizing driver-response relationships in marine pelagic ecosystems for improved ocean management.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, Mary E; Kappel, Carrie V; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Halpern, Benjamin S; Scarborough, Courtney; Mease, Lindley; Amrhein, Alisan

    2016-04-01

    about threshold responses to guide how other stressors are managed and to adapt to new ocean conditions. As methods to detect and reduce uncertainty around threshold values improve, managers will be able to better understand and account for ubiquitous non-linear relationships. PMID:27411240

  10. Genomic Selection Improves Response to Selection in Resilience by Exploiting Genotype by Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Han A.

    2016-01-01

    Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) are very common in livestock and hamper genetic improvement. On the other hand, GxE is a source of genetic variation: genetic variation in response to environment, e.g., environmental perturbations such as heat stress or disease. In livestock breeding, there is tendency to ignore GxE because of increased complexity of models for genetic evaluations and lack of accuracy in extreme environments. GxE, however, creates opportunities to increase resilience of animals toward environmental perturbations. The main aim of the paper is to investigate to which extent GxE can be exploited with traditional and genomic selection methods. Furthermore, we investigated the benefit of reaction norm (RN) models compared to conventional methods ignoring GxE. The questions were addressed with selection index theory. GxE was modeled according to a linear RN model in which the environmental gradient is the contemporary group mean. Economic values were based on linear and non-linear profit equations. Accuracies of environment-specific (G)EBV were highest in intermediate environments and lowest in extreme environments. RN models had higher accuracies of (G)EBV in extreme environments than conventional models ignoring GxE. Genomic selection always resulted in higher response to selection in all environments than sib or progeny testing schemes. The increase in response was with genomic selection between 9 and 140% compared to sib testing and between 11 and 114% compared to progeny testing when the reference population consisted of 1 million animals across all environments. When the aim was to decrease environmental sensitivity, the response in slope of the RN model with genomic selection was between 1.09 and 319 times larger than with sib or progeny testing and in the right direction in contrast to sib and progeny testing that still increased environmental sensitivity. This shows that genomic selection with large reference populations offers great

  11. Characterizing driver-response relationships in marine pelagic ecosystems for improved ocean management.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, Mary E; Kappel, Carrie V; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Halpern, Benjamin S; Scarborough, Courtney; Mease, Lindley; Amrhein, Alisan

    2016-04-01

    about threshold responses to guide how other stressors are managed and to adapt to new ocean conditions. As methods to detect and reduce uncertainty around threshold values improve, managers will be able to better understand and account for ubiquitous non-linear relationships.

  12. Deferoxamine improves coronary vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoya; Schnell, Oliver; Bengel, Frank M; Rihl, Julian; Nekolla, Stephan G; Drzezga, Alexander E; Standl, Eberhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2002-07-01

    Effects of oxygen-derived free radicals are suggested to be a potential pathogenic factor for endothelial dysfunction. In this study we sought to evaluate the effect of hydroxyl radicals on the human coronary vascular bed in type I diabetes mellitus using positron emission tomography (PET). Thirteen patients with type 1 diabetes underwent PET using nitrogen-13 ammonia at rest and during sympathetic stimulation with the cold pressor test (CPT). The rest-stress study protocol was repeated twice (on different days) using pre-stress infusion of either saline as placebo or deferoxamine, an iron chelator which inhibits generation of hydroxyl radicals. At rest, global MBF was higher in diabetics than in normal controls (78.1+/-17.5 vs 63.2+/-14.9 mg 100 g(-1) min(-1), P<0.05) and myocardial vascular resistance (MVR) showed a trend towards lower values (patients, 1.28+/-0.35; controls, 1.55+/-0.32, P=NS). CPT increased MBF in all controls while 7/13 diabetics responded normally. CPT decreased MVR in 10/13 controls but in only 4/13 diabetics. There was no significant difference in the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, daily insulin dose, body mass index, or lipid profiles between patients with and patients without abnormal MBF or MVR responses. Pre-stress infusion of deferoxamine normalized MBF response in all six patients, and MVR response in six of the nine patients. Another group consisting of seven patients underwent a rest-rest protocol after infusion of deferoxamine and saline to investigate the effect of deferoxamine on resting MBF. Deferoxamine did not change the resting MBF (deferoxamine, 81+/-17 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1); saline, 75+/-19 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1), P=NS) or MVR (deferoxamine, 1.0+/-0.5 mmHg ml(-1) 100 g(-1) min(-1); saline, 1.2+/-0.6 mmHg ml(-1) 100 g(-1) min(-1), P=NS). In conclusion, inhibition of hydroxyl radical formation using deferoxamine significantly improved the responses of coronary microvasculature to sympathetic stimulation. Hydroxyl radicals may play

  13. The European Union Integrated Political Crisis Response Arrangements: Improving the European Union's Major Crisis Response Coordination Capacities.

    PubMed

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Atienza-Macías, Elena; Armaza, Emilio Armaza

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the European Union (EU) has progressively assumed more and more of a primary role in crisis response coordination. The EU Integrated Political Crisis Response arrangements (IPCR) were recently approved to facilitate this task. These new agreements, which substitute for the Crisis Coordination Agreements, will add more flexibility to crisis response mechanisms in the EU. They will also strengthen cooperation between the different relevant agents in a major crisis situation and create new useful tools, such as the Integrated Situational Awareness and Analysis. Their real performance still needs to be fully tested, but some weakness can already be foreseen. This article provides a deep analysis of this new legislation.

  14. Early Improvement in One Week Predicts the Treatment Response to Escitalopram in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kang-Seob; Shin, Eunsook; Ha, Juwon; Shin, Dongwon; Shin, Youngchul; Lim, Se-Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social anxiety disorder (SAD) shows relatively delayed responses to pharmacotherapy when compared to other anxiety disorders. Therefore, more effective early therapeutic decisions can be made if the therapeutic response is predictable as early as possible. We studied whether the therapeutic response at 12 weeks is predictable based on the early improvement with escitalopram at 1 week. Methods The subjects were 28 outpatients diagnosed with SAD. The subjects took 10–20 mg/day of escitalopram. The results of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS), Hamilton anxiety rating scale, and Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale were evaluated at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Early improvement was defined as a ≥10% reduction in the LSAS total at 1 week of treatment, and endpoint response was defined as a ≥35% reduction in the LSAS total score. The correlation between clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses was analyzed by simple linear regression. The correlation between early improvement responses and endpoint responses was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results When we adjusted the influence of a ≥35% reduction in the LSAS total endpoint score on a ≥10% reduction of the LSAS total score at 1 week of treatment for the patients’ age, the early improvement group at 1 week of treatment was expected to show stronger endpoint responses compared to the group with no early improvement. Conclusion The results suggest that a ≥10% reduction in the LSAS total score in a week can predict endpoint treatment response. PMID:27121427

  15. Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Lightfoot, Stan; Collin, Peter D; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-04-01

    Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25657017

  16. Improving Response to Hormone Therapy in Breast Cancer: New Targets, New Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Vidula, Neelima; Ma, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer expresses the estrogen and or progesterone receptors (ER and PR). In tumors without concomitant HER2 amplification, hormone therapy is a major treatment option for all disease stages. Resistance to hormonal therapy is associated with disease recurrence and progression. Recent studies have identified a number of resistance mechanisms leading to estrogen-independent growth of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer as a result of genetic and epigenetic alterations, which could be exploited as novel therapeutic targets. These include acquired mutations in ER-alpha (ESR1) in response to endocrine deprivation; constitutive activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6; cross talk between ER and growth factor receptor signaling such as HER family members, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathways, intracellular growth, and survival signals PI3K/Akt/mTOR; and epigenetic modifications by histone deacetylase (HDAC) as well as interactions with tumor microenvironment and host immune response. Inhibitors of these pathways are being developed to improve efficacy of hormonal therapy for treatment of both metastatic and early-stage disease. Two agents are currently approved in the United States for the treatment of metastatic HR+ breast cancer, including the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Management of toxicity is a critical aspect of treatment; the primary toxicity of everolimus is stomatitis (treated with topical steroids) and of palbociclib is neutropenia (treated with dose reduction/delay). Many agents are in clinical trials, primarily in combination with hormone therapy; novel combinations are under active investigation. PMID:27249746

  17. Dietary administration of laminarin improves the growth performance and immune responses in Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Li, Wenwu; Lin, Qian; Lin, Xi; Lin, Jianbin; Zhu, Qingguo; Jiang, Heji; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of laminarin on the growth performance, immunological and biochemical parameters, as well as immune related genes expression in the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. One hundred and eight fish were randomly divided into four groups (45 groupers/group). Blank control group was fed with the basal diet, while low, medium and high doses of laminarin groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% laminarin, respectively, for 48 days. The immunological and biochemical parameters in blood were investigated. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 in midgut were also evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Dietary laminarin supplementation significantly improved the specific growth rate and the feed efficiency ratio of the fish. The level of TP and the activity of LZM, CAT and SOD were higher than that of the control. The levels of UREA and CREA as well as the activity of ALP were lower than of the control. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALT and AST between control groups and treated groups. In addition, dietary laminarin supplementation decreased the levels of C3 and C4. The expression of immune response genes IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in groupers fed low dose (0.5%) and medium dose (1.0%) of laminarin compared with the blank control. These results suggest that laminarin modulates the immune response and stimulates growth of the fish. PMID:25266890

  18. Improving Global Building Exposure Data for Disaster Forecasting, Mitigation, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Huyck, C.; Lewis, G.; Becker, M.; Vinay, S.; Tralli, D.; Eguchi, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study being performed under the NASA Applied Sciences Program where the goal is to integrate Earth science data and information for disaster forecasting, mitigation and response. Specifically, we are delivering EO-derived built environment data and information for use in catastrophe (CAT) models and loss estimation tools. CAT models and loss estimation tools typically use GIS exposure databases to characterize the real-world environment. These datasets are often a source of great uncertainty in the loss estimates, particularly in international events, because the data are incomplete, and sometimes inaccurate and disparate in quality from one region to another. Preliminary research by project team members as part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) consortium suggests that a strong relationship exists between the height and volume of built-up areas and NASA data products from the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Applying this knowledge within the framework of the GEM Global Exposure Database (GED) is significantly enhancing our ability to quantify building exposure, particularly in developing countries and emerging insurance markets. Global insurance products that have a more comprehensive basis for assessing risk and exposure - as from EO-derived data and information assimilated into CAT models and loss estimation tools - will help a) help to transform the way in which we measure, monitor and assess the vulnerability of our communities globally, and in turn, b) help encourage the investments needed - especially in the developing world - stimulating economic growth and actions that would lead to a more disaster-resilient world. Improved building exposure data will also be valuable for near-real time applications such as emergency response

  19. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  20. Enhanced Immune Response in Immunodeficient Mice Improves Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bombeiro, André L.; Santini, Júlio C.; Thomé, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Elisângela R. L.; Nunes, Sérgio L. O.; Moreira, Bárbara M.; Bonet, Ivan J. M.; Sartori, Cesar R.; Verinaud, Liana; Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves cause loss of motor and sensory function, greatly affecting life quality. Successful repair of the lesioned nerve requires efficient cell debris removal, followed by axon regeneration and reinnervation of target organs. Such process is orchestrated by several cellular and molecular events in which glial and immune cells actively participate. It is known that tissue clearance is largely improved by macrophages, which activation is potentiated by cells and molecules of the acquired immune system, such as T helper lymphocytes and antibodies, respectively. In the present work, we evaluated the contribution of lymphocytes in the regenerative process of crushed sciatic nerves of immunocompetent (wild-type, WT) and T and B-deficient (RAG-KO) mice. In Knockout animals, we found increased amount of macrophages under basal conditions and during the initial phase of the regenerative process, that was evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after lesion (wal). That parallels with faster axonal regeneration evidenced by the quantification of neurofilament and a growth associated protein immunolabeling. The motor function, evaluated by the sciatic function index, was fully recovered in both mouse strains within 4 wal, either in a progressive fashion, as observed for RAG-KO mice, or presenting a subtle regression, as seen in WT mice between 2 and 3 wal. Interestingly, boosting the immune response by early adoptive transference of activated WT lymphocytes at 3 days after lesion improved motor recovery in WT and RAG-KO mice, which was not ameliorated when cells were transferred at 2 wal. When monitoring lymphocytes by in vivo imaging, in both mouse strains, cells migrated to the lesion site shortly after transference, remaining in the injured limb up to its complete motor recovery. Moreover, a first peak of hyperalgesia, determined by von-Frey test, was coincident with increased lymphocyte infiltration in the damaged paw. Overall, the present results suggest

  1. Improved osteoblast response to UV-irradiated PMMA/TiO2 nanocomposites with controllable wettability.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Jung, Youngsoo; Huang, Po-Shun; Moradi, Marzyeh; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Lee, Jung-Kun; Shankar, Ravi; Chun, Youngjae

    2014-12-01

    Osteoblast response was evaluated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite thin films that exhibit the controllable wettability with ultraviolet (UV) treatment. In this study, three samples of PMMA/TiO2 were fabricated with three different compositional volume ratios (i.e., 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25) followed by UV treatment for 0, 4, and 8 h. All samples showed the increased hydrophilicity after UV irradiation. The films fabricated with the greater amount of TiO2 and treated with the longer UV irradiation time increased the hydrophilicity more. The partial elimination of PMMA on the surface after UV irradiation created a durable hydrophilic surface by (1) exposing higher amount of TiO2 on the surface, (2) increasing the hydroxyl groups on the TiO2 surface, and (3) producing a mesoporous structure that helps to hold the water molecules on the surface longer. The partial elimination of PMMA on the surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface profiler and atomic force microscopy demonstrated the increased surface roughness after UV irradiation. Both scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that particles containing calcium and phosphate elements appeared on the 8 h UV-treated surface of PMMA/TiO2 25/75 samples after 4 days soaking in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. UV treatment showed the osteoblast adhesion improved on all the surfaces. While all UV-treated hydrophilic samples demonstrated the improvement of osteoblast cell adhesion, the PMMA/TiO2 25/75 sample after 8 h UV irradiation (n = 5, P value = 0.000) represented the best cellular response as compared to other samples. UV-treated PMMA/TiO2 nanocomposite thin films with controllable surface properties represent a high potential for the biomaterials used in both orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:25074833

  2. Cod and God: Dr Wilfred Grenfell in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Short, C

    2007-06-01

    Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940) began his medical career working for the National Mission for Deep Sea Fishermen on the North Sea. In 1892, the Mission sent him to Newfoundland to invesitigate the living and working conditions of the fishermen there. He spent most of his life improving conditions for the settlers on the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador. His unorthodox methods and difficult personality brought him into conflict with the authorities. In spite of this, he achieved significant changes for the Newfoundlanders in medical care, education and economic prospects. PMID:17993087

  3. Improved method for retinotopy constrained source estimation of visual evoked responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.

    2011-01-01

    Retinotopy constrained source estimation (RCSE) is a method for non-invasively measuring the time courses of activation in early visual areas using magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). Unlike conventional equivalent current dipole or distributed source models, the use of multiple, retinotopically-mapped stimulus locations to simultaneously constrain the solutions allows for the estimation of independent waveforms for visual areas V1, V2, and V3, despite their close proximity to each other. We describe modifications that improve the reliability and efficiency of this method. First, we find that increasing the number and size of visual stimuli results in source estimates that are less susceptible to noise. Second, to create a more accurate forward solution, we have explicitly modeled the cortical point spread of individual visual stimuli. Dipoles are represented as extended patches on the cortical surface, which take into account the estimated receptive field size at each location in V1, V2, and V3 as well as the contributions from contralateral, ipsilateral, dorsal, and ventral portions of the visual areas. Third, we implemented a map fitting procedure to deform a template to match individual subject retinotopic maps derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This improves the efficiency of the overall method by allowing automated dipole selection, and it makes the results less sensitive to physiological noise in fMRI retinotopy data. Finally, the iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) method was used to reduce the contribution from stimulus locations with high residual error for robust estimation of visual evoked responses. PMID:22102418

  4. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    grown on PMMA resembled closely to that of cells grown on the control surface, thus confirming the biocompatibility of PMMA. Additionally, the astrocyte GFAP gene expressions of cells grown on PMMA were lower than the control, signifying a lack of astrocyte reactivity. Based on the findings from the biomaterials study, it was decided to optimize PMMA by changing the surface characteristic of the material. Through the process of hot embossing, nanopatterns were placed on the surface in order to test the hypothesis that nanopatterning can improve the cellular response to the material. Results of this study agreed with current literature showing that topography effects protein and cell behavior. It was concluded that for the use in neural electrode fabrication and design, the 3600mm/gratings pattern feature sizes were optimal. The 3600 mm/gratings pattern depicted cell alignment along the nanopattern, less protein adsorption, less cell adhesion, proliferation and viability, inhibition of GFAP and MAP2k1 compared to all other substrates tested. Results from the initial biomaterials study also indicated platinum was negatively affected the cells and may not be a suitable material for neural electrodes. This lead to pursuing studies with iridium oxide and platinum alloy wires for the glial scar assay. Iridium oxide advantages of lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity would appear to make iridium oxide more favorable for neural electrode fabrication. However, results of this study demonstrate iridium oxide wires exhibited a more significant reactive response as compared to platinum alloy wires. Astrocytes cultured with platinum alloy wires had less GFAP gene expression, lower average GFAP intensity, and smaller glial scar thickness. Results from the nanopatterning PMMA study prompted a more thorough investigation of the nanopatterning effects using an organotypic brain slice model. PDMS was utilized as the substrate due to its optimal physical properties

  5. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Serena; Serafini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer.

  6. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zilio, Serena; Serafini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:27618112

  7. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Serena; Serafini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:27618112

  8. Cilostazol improves the response to ischemia in diabetic mice by a mechanism dependent on PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Pecorini, Giovanni; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Angelini, Flavia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Flex, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Cilostazol is effective for the treatment of peripheral ischemia. This compound has several beneficial effects on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and endothelial cells, and we recently found that it enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, a receptor for thiazolidinediones, plays a role in angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and effects of cilostazol in a model of peripheral ischemia in diabetic mice. We induced diabetes in mice by streptozotocin (STZ) administration and studied ischemia-induced angiogenesis in the ischemic hind limbs of cilostazol-treated and untreated control mice. We found that perfusion recovery was significantly improved in treated compared with control diabetic mice. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PPARγ is reduced in ischemic tissues of diabetic mice. Furthermore, we discovered that local inhibition of the activity of this nuclear receptor decreased the angiogenic response to cilostazol treatment. Finally, we noted that this phenomenon is dependent on VEGF and modulated by PPARγ. Cilostazol administration enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of STZ-induced diabetic mice through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.

  9. Evaluation of RNA Amplification Methods to Improve DC Immunotherapy Antigen Presentation and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Slagter-Jäger, Jacoba G; Raney, Alexa; Lewis, Whitney E; DeBenedette, Mark A; Nicolette, Charles A; Tcherepanova, Irina Y

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with total amplified tumor cell RNA have the potential to induce broad antitumor immune responses. However, analytical methods required for quantitatively assessing the integrity, fidelity, and functionality of the amplified RNA are lacking. We have developed a series of assays including gel electrophoresis, northern blot, capping efficiency, and microarray analysis to determine integrity and fidelity and a model system to assess functionality after transfection into human DCs. We employed these tools to demonstrate that modifications to our previously reported total cellular RNA amplification process including the use of the Fast Start High Fidelity (FSHF) PCR enzyme, T7 Powerswitch primer, post-transcriptional capping and incorporation of a type 1 cap result in amplification of longer transcripts, greater translational competence, and a higher fidelity representation of the starting total RNA population. To study the properties of amplified RNA after transfection into human DCs, we measured protein expression levels of defined antigens coamplified with the starting total RNA populations and measured antigen-specific T cell expansion in autologous DC-T cell co-cultured in vitro. We conclude from these analyses that the improved RNA amplification process results in superior protein expression levels and a greater capacity of the transfected DCs to induce multifunctional antigen-specific memory T cells. PMID:23653155

  10. A bioactive polymer grafted on titanium oxide layer obtained by electrochemical oxidation. Improvement of cell response.

    PubMed

    Hélary, Gérard; Noirclère, Flavie; Mayingi, Josselin; Bacroix, Brigitte; Migonney, Véronique

    2010-02-01

    The anchorage failure of titanium implants in human body is mainly due to biointegration problem. The proposed solution is to graft a bioactive polymer at the surface of the implant in order to improve and control the interactions with the living system. In this paper, we describe the grafting of poly sodium styrene sulfonate on titanium surface by using a silanization reaction. The key point is to increase the TiOH content at the surface of the implant which can react with methoxy silane groups of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). Two procedures were used: chemical oxidation and electrochemical oxidation. The last oxidation procedure was carried out in two different electrolytes: oxalic acid and methanol. These different oxidation methods allow controlling the roughness and the depth of the oxide layer. The methacryloyl group of MPS grafted at the titanium surface by silanization reaction is copolymerized with sodium styrene sulfonate using a thermal initiator able to produce radicals by heating. Colorimetric method, ATR-FTIR, XPS techniques and contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the surfaces. MG63 osteoblastic cell response was studied on polished, oxidized and grafted titanium samples. Cell adhesion, Alkaline Phosphatase activity and calcium nodules formation were significantly enhanced on grafted titanium surfaces compared to un-modified surfaces.

  11. Iron-Responsive Olfactory Uptake of Manganese Improves Motor Function Deficits Associated with Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghan; Li, Yuan; Buckett, Peter D.; Böhlke, Mark; Thompson, Khristy J.; Takahashi, Masaya; Maher, Timothy J.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D2 (D2R) levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed “rescue response” with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status. PMID:22479410

  12. Tai Chi Improves Oxidative Stress Response and DNA Damage/Repair in Young Sedentary Females

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Yu; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Silsirivanit, Atit; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Wu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on antioxidant capacity, and DNA damage/repair in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female students from a Chinese university voluntarily participated in this program. All of them practiced the 24-form simplified Tai Chi, 5 times weekly, for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), hydroxyl radical inhibiting capacity (OH·-IC), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) were measured at 0, 8, and 12 weeks. Heart rate (HR) was monitored during the last set of the training session at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. [Results] Plasma SOD and OH·-IC levels were increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline (0 weeks). Gpx and GSH levels did not change significantly throughout the study period. The plasma MDA level was decreased significantly at 8 weeks but not at 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. While the plasma 8-OHdG level did not change throughout the study period, the plasma OGG1 level was significantly increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. [Conclusion] TC practice for 12 weeks efficiently improved the oxidative stress response in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. The TC exercise also increased the DNA repairing capacity. PMID:25013276

  13. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae).

    PubMed

    Bynum, M R; Smith, W K

    2001-06-01

    Studies of floral movements in response to environmental change are rare in the literature, and information about possible adaptive benefits appears nonexistent. The closure of the upright, tubular flowers of alpine gentian (Gentiana algida) were observed during the frequent afternoon thunderstorms characteristic of the central and southern Rocky Mountains (USA). Flowers closed within minutes of an approaching thunderstorm and reopened after direct sunlight returned. Corolla opening widths decreased ∼10%/min prior to rainfall, in close correspondence to declines in air and corolla temperatures. Identical floral behavior was also induced experimentally in the field and laboratory by artificial changes in corolla temperature. Corolla closure did not occur during experiments that simulated natural changes in solar irradiance, wind, or absolute humidity during a thunderstorm. Furthermore, individual G. algida plants forced experimentally to remain open during rain had substantial losses of pollen after single rain events (up to 34%) and if forced to remain open for the entire flowering period (59%). Subsequent seasonal reductions in female fitness (up to 73%) also occurred, including seed size and mass, number of ovules produced, number of viable seeds produced per ovule, and seed germination. Thus, corolla closing and opening in G. algida associated with frequent summer thunderstorms may be a behavioral adaptation that improves both paternal and maternal reproductive effort.

  14. Defective carbon nanotube-silicon heterojunctions for photodetector and chemical sensor with improved responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2015-11-01

    The direct growth and integration of defect-modulated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on n-type silicon (Si) microstructures for high performance photodetectors and chemiresistive sensors is presented. By devising a Si microspring that is strained by the growth force of the CNTs, a vertical load from the restoring force of the microspring is perpendicularly applied against the growth direction of the CNTs. This vertical load induces the formation of defective structures in the CNTs while the CNT-Si heterojunctions are fabricated. Under the illumination of UV light, photogenerated carriers from both the CNTs and the Si can be separated at the CNT-Si heterojunctions and at the defects in the CNTs before recombination, which contributes to a high photoresponsivity of 262.3 mA W-1 and an external quantum efficiency of 91.4%. Moreover, the adsorption of chemical species can be promoted by increasing the defects in the CNTs, thereby improving the sensing responsiveness toward ethanol and NO2 vapors. Our simple and facile growth of defect-adjusted CNTs on conductive Si microstructures would be beneficial to the scalable, high throughput manufacturing of heterojunctioned devices with tunable properties and functionalities of the CNTs.

  15. Caspase inhibition reduces lymphocyte apoptosis and improves host immune responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elisabeth M; Guillermo, Landi V C; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; De Meis, Juliana; Nunes, Marise P; Senra, Juliana F V; Soares, Milena B P; DosReis, George A; Lopes, Marcela F

    2007-03-01

    In experimental Chagas' disease, lymphocytes from mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi show increased apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with a pan-caspase blocker peptide inhibited expression of the active form of effector caspase-3 in vitro and rescued both B and T cells from cell death. Injection of the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone, but not a control peptide, reduced parasitemia and lymphocyte apoptosis in T. cruzi-infected mice. Moreover, treatment with caspase inhibitor throughout acute infection increased the absolute numbers of B and T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, without affecting cell infiltrates in the heart. Following treatment, we found increased accumulation of memory/activated CD4 and CD8 T cells, and secretion of IFN-gamma by splenocytes stimulated with T. cruzi antigens. Caspase inhibition in the course of infection reduced the intracellular load of parasites in peritoneal macrophages, and increased the production of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide upon activation in vitro. Our results indicate that inhibition of caspases with a pan-caspase blocker peptide improves protective type-1 immune responses to T. cruzi infection. We suggest that mechanisms of apoptosis are potential therapeutic targets in Chagas' disease.

  16. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae).

    PubMed

    Bynum, M R; Smith, W K

    2001-06-01

    Studies of floral movements in response to environmental change are rare in the literature, and information about possible adaptive benefits appears nonexistent. The closure of the upright, tubular flowers of alpine gentian (Gentiana algida) were observed during the frequent afternoon thunderstorms characteristic of the central and southern Rocky Mountains (USA). Flowers closed within minutes of an approaching thunderstorm and reopened after direct sunlight returned. Corolla opening widths decreased ∼10%/min prior to rainfall, in close correspondence to declines in air and corolla temperatures. Identical floral behavior was also induced experimentally in the field and laboratory by artificial changes in corolla temperature. Corolla closure did not occur during experiments that simulated natural changes in solar irradiance, wind, or absolute humidity during a thunderstorm. Furthermore, individual G. algida plants forced experimentally to remain open during rain had substantial losses of pollen after single rain events (up to 34%) and if forced to remain open for the entire flowering period (59%). Subsequent seasonal reductions in female fitness (up to 73%) also occurred, including seed size and mass, number of ovules produced, number of viable seeds produced per ovule, and seed germination. Thus, corolla closing and opening in G. algida associated with frequent summer thunderstorms may be a behavioral adaptation that improves both paternal and maternal reproductive effort. PMID:11410474

  17. Dendrimer mediated clustering of bacteria: improved aggregation and evaluation of bacterial response and viability.

    PubMed

    Leire, Emma; Amaral, Sandra P; Louzao, Iria; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-06-24

    Here, we evaluate how cationic gallic acid-triethylene glycol (GATG) dendrimers interact with bacteria and their potential to develop new antimicrobials. We demonstrate that GATG dendrimers functionalised with primary amines in their periphery can induce the formation of clusters in Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic marine pathogen, in a generation dependent manner. Moreover, these cationic GATG dendrimers demonstrate an improved ability to induce cluster formation when compared to poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) [p(DMAPMAm)], a cationic linear polymer previously shown to cluster bacteria. Viability of the bacteria within the formed clusters and evaluation of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes (i.e. light production in V. harveyi) suggest that GATG dendrimers may be activating microbial responses by maintaining a high concentration of quorum sensing signals inside the clusters while increasing permeability of the microbial outer membranes. Thus, the reported GATG dendrimers constitute a valuable platform for the development of novel antimicrobial materials that can target microbial viability and/or virulence. PMID:27127812

  18. Preparing and administering injectable antibiotics: How to avoid playing God.

    PubMed

    Longuet, P; Lecapitaine, A L; Cassard, B; Batista, R; Gauzit, R; Lesprit, P; Haddad, R; Vanjak, D; Diamantis, S

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline represent a public health priority. Maximizing the quality of antibiotic prescriptions is therefore of major importance in terms of adequate preparation and administration modalities. Adequate preparation prevents the inactivation of antibiotics and is a prerequisite to maximizing their efficacy (taking into account the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship) and to minimizing their toxicity. Many antibiotic guidelines address the choice of drugs and treatment duration but none of them exclusively address preparation and administration modalities. These guidelines are based on the available literature and offer essential data for a proper antibiotic preparation and administration by physicians and nurses. They may lead to a better efficacy and to a reduced antibiotic resistance. Such guidelines also contribute to a proper use of drugs and improve the interaction between inpatient and outpatient care for a better overall management of patients.

  19. An Empirical Correction Method for Improving off-Axes Response Prediction in Component Type Flight Mechanics Helicopter Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.

    1997-01-01

    Historically, component-type flight mechanics simulation models of helicopters have been unable to satisfactorily predict the roll response to pitch stick input and the pitch response to roll stick input off-axes responses. In the study presented here, simple first-order low-pass filtering of the elemental lift and drag forces was considered as a means of improving the correlation. The method was applied to a blade-element model of the AH-64 APache, and responses of the modified model were compared with flight data in hover and forward flight. Results indicate that significant improvement in the off-axes responses can be achieved in hover. In forward flight, however, the best correlation in the longitudinal and lateral off-axes responses required different values of the filter time constant for each axis. A compromise value was selected and was shown to result in good overall improvement in the off-axes responses. The paper describes both the method and the model used for its implementation, and presents results obtained at hover and in forward flight.

  20. Does an understanding of ecosystems responses to rainfall pulses improve predictions of responses of drylands to climate change?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drylands will experience more intense and frequent droughts and floods. Ten-year field experiments manipulating the amount and variability of precipitation suggest that we cannot predict responses of drylands to climate change based on pulse experimentation. Long-term drought experiments showed no e...

  1. Thrombomodulin: protectorate God of the vasculature in thrombosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Maruyama, I

    2011-07-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial anticoagulant cofactor that promotes thrombin-mediated activation of protein C. Recently, we conducted a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM, also known as ART-123) for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and found that rhsTM therapy is more effective and safer than low-dose heparin therapy. Thus, in 2008, rhsTM (Recomodulin) was approved for the treatment of DIC in Japan. Here we re-evaluate the therapeutic basis of this drug from the view of its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. Structurally, the extracellular portion of TM is composed of three domains: an N-terminal lectin-like domain (TM-D1), followed by an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain (TM-D2), and an O-glycosylation-rich domain (TM-D3). TM-D2 and TM-D3 are important for the protein's anticoagulant cofactor activities, i.e. inhibition of thrombin and activation of protein C. TM-D1 plays an important role in attenuation of inflammatory responses, through inhibition of leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, inhibition of complement pathways, neutralization of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and sequestration and degradation of pro-inflammatory high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Thus, TM on the surface of endothelial cells prevents dissemination of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory molecules, and by doing so, allows these molecules to act locally at the site of injury. In patients with sepsis and DIC, TM expression is down-regulated, which may result in dissemination of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory molecules throughout the systemic circulation. Replacement with rhsTM may offer therapeutic value in such conditions. PMID:21781252

  2. Assessing the role of attachment to God, meaning, and religious coping as mediators in the grief experience.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Melissa M; Chan, Keith T

    2012-03-01

    Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God, meaning, and religious coping as mediators in the grief experience for a sample of 93 individuals who experienced a significant death in the prior year. Results suggest that a more secure style of attachment to God was directly and indirectly associated with lower depression and grief and increased stress-related growth for this sample. Meaning, defined as a sense of purpose and coherence, also emerged as an important construct in this process. Overall goodness-of fit statistics were examined for competing models using structural equation modeling. Secure attachment to God, meaning, and positive religious coping were found to have significant direct and indirect effects on grief and stress-related growth. For some individuals, attachment to God may be an important construct in the experience of meaning following a significant death and may have tremendous potential in its direct and indirect effects on overall outcomes.

  3. Attachment and God representations among lay Catholics, priests, and religious: a matched comparison study based on the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), they compared attachment-related experiences and representations in a group of 30 Catholic priests and religious with a matched group of lay Catholics and with the worldwide normal distribution of AAI classifications. They found an overrepresentation of secure-autonomous states regarding attachment among those more likely to experience a principal attachment to God (i.e., the priests and religious) compared with the other groups and an underrepresentation of unresolved-disorganized states in the two groups of Catholics compared with the worldwide normal distribution. Key findings also included links between secure-autonomous states regarding attachment and estimated experiences with loving or nonrejecting parents on the one hand and loving God imagery on the other. These results extend the literature on religion from an attachment perspective and support the idea that generalized working models derived from attachment experiences with parents are reflected in believers' perceptions of God.

  4. Improved acquisition of left-right response differentiation in the rat following section of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Noonan, M; Axelrod, S

    1991-12-20

    Split-brained rats learned a left-right response differentiation in a water maze significantly faster than rats with sham surgery. It is unlikely that this superiority resulted from improvement in performance variables since callosotomized rats did not differ significantly from sham operates in speed of acquisition of a brightness discrimination in the same apparatus. Additionally, callosotomy likewise had no effect on the acquisition of a water-maze task requiring consistent unilateral responses. The superiority of the callosotomized animals in forming the left-right response differentiation supports a hypothesis implicating the forebrain commissures in left-right confusion.

  5. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    PubMed Central

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  6. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.

  7. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology. PMID:18644217

  8. Improved approximate methods for calculating frequency response function matrix and response of MDOF systems with viscoelastic hereditary terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Hu, Yujin; Wang, Xuelin

    2013-07-01

    As we know, it is difficult and unnecessary to obtain all the eigenpairs of a large-scaled viscoelastic (nonviscous or hysteretic) damping systems, which means that the mode truncation scheme is generally used and the mode-truncated error is therefore introduced. This study is aimed at eliminating the influence of the unavailable modes on the dynamic response of MDOF systems with viscoelastic hereditary terms. The energy dissipation terms of the system depend on the past history of motion via convolution integrals over some kernel functions. Therefore, the system is a nonviscously damped system, which has been considered as the most generalized damping model within the scope of a linear mechanical analysis. To approximate frequency response function (FRF) matrix and response without using the unavailable modes, we suggest two methods, which attempt to approximate the influence of the unavailable modes in terms of the lower modes and system matrices by using the first one or two terms of Neumann expansion of the contribution of the unavailable modes. In contrast with the FRF matrix approximated in terms of the first two terms of Neumann expansion, these procedures cannot be extended to further high order terms since all of them will be affected by the frequency-dependent variation of damping matrix from previous terms. Finally, an example is shown that the two presented methods can make the mode-truncated error reduce and may be used to approximate the influence of nonviscous modes contributed to FRF matrix due to the fact that the nonviscous modes are difficult to be obtained accurately even if a small scaled model is used for some eigensolution methods.

  9. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  10. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    grown on PMMA resembled closely to that of cells grown on the control surface, thus confirming the biocompatibility of PMMA. Additionally, the astrocyte GFAP gene expressions of cells grown on PMMA were lower than the control, signifying a lack of astrocyte reactivity. Based on the findings from the biomaterials study, it was decided to optimize PMMA by changing the surface characteristic of the material. Through the process of hot embossing, nanopatterns were placed on the surface in order to test the hypothesis that nanopatterning can improve the cellular response to the material. Results of this study agreed with current literature showing that topography effects protein and cell behavior. It was concluded that for the use in neural electrode fabrication and design, the 3600mm/gratings pattern feature sizes were optimal. The 3600 mm/gratings pattern depicted cell alignment along the nanopattern, less protein adsorption, less cell adhesion, proliferation and viability, inhibition of GFAP and MAP2k1 compared to all other substrates tested. Results from the initial biomaterials study also indicated platinum was negatively affected the cells and may not be a suitable material for neural electrodes. This lead to pursuing studies with iridium oxide and platinum alloy wires for the glial scar assay. Iridium oxide advantages of lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity would appear to make iridium oxide more favorable for neural electrode fabrication. However, results of this study demonstrate iridium oxide wires exhibited a more significant reactive response as compared to platinum alloy wires. Astrocytes cultured with platinum alloy wires had less GFAP gene expression, lower average GFAP intensity, and smaller glial scar thickness. Results from the nanopatterning PMMA study prompted a more thorough investigation of the nanopatterning effects using an organotypic brain slice model. PDMS was utilized as the substrate due to its optimal physical properties

  11. Selection of broilers with improved innate immune responsiveness to reduce on-farm infection by foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Nisbet, David J; Kaiser, Pete; Kogut, Michael H

    2009-09-01

    Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Since the innate immune response directs the acquired immune response, efforts to select poultry with an efficient innate immune response would be beneficial. Our laboratories have been evaluating the innate immune system of two parental broiler lines to assess their capacity to protect against multiple infections. We have shown increased in vitro heterophil function corresponds with increased in vivo resistance to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. Additionally, there are increased mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in heterophils isolated from resistant lines compared to susceptible lines. Collectively, all data indicate there are measurable differences in innate responsiveness under genetic control. Recently, a small-scale selection trial was begun. We identified sires within a broiler population with higher and/or lower-than-average pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels and subsequently utilized small numbers of high-expressing and low-expressing sires to produce progeny with increased or decreased, respectively, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles. This novel approach should allow us to improve breeding stock by improving the overall immunological responsiveness. This will produce a line of chickens with an effective pro-inflammatory innate immune response that should improve resistance against diverse pathogens, improve responses to vaccines, and increase livability. Ongoing work from this project is providing fundamental information for the development of poultry lines that will be inherently resistant to colonization by pathogenic and food-poisoning microorganisms. Utilization of pathogen

  12. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers. PMID:26792800

  13. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers.

  14. A hybrid model for improving response time in distributed data mining.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Shonali; Loke, Seng W; Zaslasvky, Arkady

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid distributed data mining (DDM) model for optimization of response time. The model combines a mobile agent approach with client server strategies to reduce the overall response time. The hybrid model proposes and develops accurate a priori estimates of the computation and communication components of response time as the costing strategy to support optimization. Experimental evaluation of the hybrid model is presented. PMID:15619946

  15. A hybrid model for improving response time in distributed data mining.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Shonali; Loke, Seng W; Zaslasvky, Arkady

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid distributed data mining (DDM) model for optimization of response time. The model combines a mobile agent approach with client server strategies to reduce the overall response time. The hybrid model proposes and develops accurate a priori estimates of the computation and communication components of response time as the costing strategy to support optimization. Experimental evaluation of the hybrid model is presented.

  16. Improving Responses to Individual and Family Crises. Learning Guide 10. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide on improving responses to individual and family crises is part of a series of learning guides developed for competency-based adult consumer and homemaking education programs in community colleges, adult education centers, community centers, and the workplace. Focus is on the connections among personal, family, and job…

  17. Do People Who Believe in God Report More Meaning in Their Lives? The Existential Effects of Belief.

    PubMed

    Cranney, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    I conduct the first large-N study explicitly exploring the association between belief in God and sense of purpose in life. This relationship, while often discussed informally, has received little empirical attention. Here I use the General Social Survey to investigate how form of and confidence in belief in God is related to sense of purpose in life, as measured by a Likert item level of agreement with the statement "In my opinion, life does not serve any purpose." Using logistic regression analysis, I find that those who indicate that they are confident in God's existence report a higher sense of purpose compared to nonbelievers, believers in a higher power, and those who believe but occasionally doubt.

  18. Do People Who Believe in God Report More Meaning in Their Lives? The Existential Effects of Belief

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    I conduct the first large-N study explicitly exploring the association between belief in God and sense of purpose in life. This relationship, while often discussed informally, has received little empirical attention. Here I use the General Social Survey to investigate how form of and confidence in belief in God is related to sense of purpose in life, as measured by a Likert item level of agreement with the statement “In my opinion, life does not serve any purpose.” Using logistic regression analysis, I find that those who indicate that they are confident in God's existence report a higher sense of purpose compared to nonbelievers, believers in a higher power, and those who believe but occasionally doubt. PMID:24729632

  19. Multimodal treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma to achieve complete response results in improved survival

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Pippa H; Wu, YingXing; Hoen, Helena; Uppal, Richa; Thiesing, John Tyler; Sasadeusz, Kevin; Cassera, Maria A; Wolf, Ronald F; Hansen, Paul; Hammill, Chet W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With technological advances, questions arise regarding how to best fit newer treatment modalities, such as transarterial therapies, into the treatment algorithm for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Between 2005 and 2011, 128 patients initially treated with transarterial radioembolization or chemoembolization using drug-eluting beads were identified. The response was graded retrospectively. Toxicity was measured 1, 3, and 6 months after the first and last treatments. Results Sixty-five patients (53%) were advanced stage. Twenty patients (16%) had an initial complete response, but with additional treatments, this was increased to 46 (36%). Patients with a complete response as their best response to treatment had a median survival [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 5.77 (2.58, upper limit not yet reached) years, significantly longer than those whose best response was a partial response, 1.22 (0.84, 2.06) years and those with stable disease as their best response, 0.34 (0.29, 0.67) years. Repeated treatments did not increase toxicity. Discussion This retrospective review of patients treated for intermediate and advanced stage HCC revealed a significant survival advantage in patients who achieved a complete response. These data support use of a multi-modality approach to intermediate and advanced stage HCC, combining liver-directed treatments as necessary to achieve a complete response. PMID:25580988

  20. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    PubMed

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  1. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    PubMed

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  2. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.” Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a “Writers' Conference” in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  3. Proposed Hydrodynamic Model Improves Resolution of Species-Specific Responses to Drought and Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.; Fiorella, R.; Mirfenderesgi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant functional types in land surface models (LSMs) are broadly defined, and often represent species with different physiologies within the same category. For example, trees of opposing hydraulic strategies and traits are commonly grouped together, as is the case of red oak and red maple. As a result, LSMs generate typical patterns of errors in predictions of transpiration and production. We studied sap flux, stem water storage, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, rooting depth, and bole growth of these species at disturbed and undisturbed field sites in Michigan. Species-specific differences significantly impact temporal patterns of stomatal conductance and overall transpiration responses to both drought and disturbance. During drought, maples relied heavily on stem-stored water, while oaks did not. After disturbance, oaks increased stomatal conductance while maple conductance declined. Isotopic analysis of xylem water revealed that oak roots can access a deep groundwater source, which maple roots cannot. This deep rooting strategy permits transpiration and growth to continue in oaks during periods of water limitation, even when maples cease transpiration. Using 16 years of bole growth data, we show that maple growth is strongly correlated with mean annual precipitation, yet oak growth is not. We propose a framework to incorporate these species-specific differences into LSMs using the Finite-Element Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) that resolves the fast dynamics and diurnal hysteresis of stomatal conductance at the tree level. FETCH2 uses atmospheric and biological forcings from the LSM, simulates water movement through trees as flow through a system of porous media conduits, and calculates realistic hydraulic restrictions to stomatal conductance. This model replaces the current, non-physical link which empirically connects soil moisture to stomatal conductance in LSMs. FETCH2 resolved transpiration is then easily scaled to the plot level

  4. Identification of Novel Defense Response Genes in Medicago truncatula for Improving Disease Resistance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of plants by pathogens initiates a cascade of defense responses that halt or limit pathogen growth. However, the role of many of the genes induced by pathogens is unknown. Transcript profiling was used to identify genes associated with defense responses in the model legume Medicago truncat...

  5. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.204 What are the State's... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for...

  6. Neural Mechanisms of Improvements in Social Motivation after Pivotal Response Treatment: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Tirrell, Jonathan; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Vander Wyk, Brent; Kaiser, Martha D.; McPartland, James C.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Ventola, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment that has widespread positive effects on communication, behavior, and social skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For the first time, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of successful response to…

  7. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  8. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.204 What are the State's... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for...

  9. On The Reality of Tooth Fairies: A Review of The God Delusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    In The God Delusion, Richard Dawkins reviews the evidence for and against God. After considering arguments for a divine power, he says the main current one is that the characteristics of living creatures must be attributed to an all-powerful designer. Design is the only plausible account, because the excellent fit between each plant and animal and its environment could not possibly have appeared in one stroke by pure chance. Dawkins agrees that randomness could not have done the job, but he says that a designer is equally unlikely. The only viable explanation is evolution by natural selection, a process that operates without plan or design. He then turns to the adaptive value of religious belief. After failing to find any, he proposes that belief in divinities is the by-product of a powerful tendency to learn from others, an adaptive strategy produced by natural selection. Adults and other influential figures teach children many useful things, but they also train them to worship deities. Religious devotion is established through education, and it is maintained over generations by the social learning processes underlying all instances of cultural evolution. Dawkins' arguments together with other problems encountered in describing evolutionary processes highlight the importance of social learning. His discussion leads the reviewer to assert that only by knowing the mechanisms of social learning is it possible to understand how biological and cultural evolution interact to produce life as we find it.

  10. Thinking from God's perspective decreases biased valuation of the life of a nonbeliever.

    PubMed

    Ginges, Jeremy; Sheikh, Hammad; Atran, Scott; Argo, Nichole

    2016-01-12

    Religious belief is often thought to motivate violence because it is said to promote norms that encourage tribalism and the devaluing of the lives of nonbelievers. If true, this should be visible in the multigenerational violent conflict between Palestinians and Israelis which is marked by a religious divide. We conducted experiments with a representative sample of Muslim Palestinian youth (n = 555), examining whether thinking from the perspective of Allah (God), who is the ultimate arbitrator of religious belief, changes the relative value of Jewish Israelis' lives (compared with Palestinian lives). Participants were presented with variants of the classic "trolley dilemma," in the form of stories where a man can be killed to save the lives of five children who were either Jewish Israeli or Palestinian. They responded from their own perspective and from the perspective of Allah. We find that whereas a large proportion of participants were more likely to endorse saving Palestinian children than saving Jewish Israeli children, this proportion decreased when thinking from the perspective of Allah. This finding raises the possibility that beliefs about God can mitigate bias against other groups and reduce barriers to peace.

  11. Creator God Rules The Universe Because Hawking Built The Big Bang On A Foundation Of Quicksand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Hawking is the world's premier big bang cosmologist; his compatriots, vast in number, have repeatedly checked all he ever wrote. They would have discovered it earlier if he had blundered even slightly. Thus it's impossible that he built the big bang on a foundation of quicksand. So the final verdict must be that Hawking is the winner and the God of Genesis is the loser. Despite this cosmological unanimity, we will show that Hawking and all his compatriots are guilty of that blunder and hence are now destined to collectively reap the consequences of having made it. And further that neither they nor their many followers will understand this blunder until learning of it in our presentation. Only then will they realize that Hawking and others did build the big bang on a false gravitational redshift foundation, one that in one crucial respect so closely imitates the physics of the actual gravitational redshift that neither Hawking - nor any of the millions of his followers - ever suspected they were all being flummoxed into accepting the greatest scientific debacle of all time. Our presentation reveals how this false foundational assumption of in-flight wavelength expansion was identified, and why its discovery led to big bang's disproof and conclusion that God rules the Universe.

  12. God's categories: the effect of religiosity on children's teleological and essentialist beliefs about categories.

    PubMed

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these stances to categories in different domains. Israeli secular and orthodox Jewish 1st and 5th graders responded to questions assessing these three types of beliefs. The results revealed that secular children did not differ from orthodox children with respect to their essentialist beliefs about the stability of animal category membership, and their teleological construal of artifacts. In turn, secular children did differ from orthodox children with respect to their essentialist beliefs about the stability of social category membership, and their teleological construal of both animal and social categories. These findings intimate that while essentialist beliefs about animals, and teleological beliefs about artifacts do not require cultural input in order to emerge, essentialist beliefs about social categories, and teleological beliefs about both animal and social categories do. PMID:19058796

  13. Thinking from God's perspective decreases biased valuation of the life of a nonbeliever.

    PubMed

    Ginges, Jeremy; Sheikh, Hammad; Atran, Scott; Argo, Nichole

    2016-01-12

    Religious belief is often thought to motivate violence because it is said to promote norms that encourage tribalism and the devaluing of the lives of nonbelievers. If true, this should be visible in the multigenerational violent conflict between Palestinians and Israelis which is marked by a religious divide. We conducted experiments with a representative sample of Muslim Palestinian youth (n = 555), examining whether thinking from the perspective of Allah (God), who is the ultimate arbitrator of religious belief, changes the relative value of Jewish Israelis' lives (compared with Palestinian lives). Participants were presented with variants of the classic "trolley dilemma," in the form of stories where a man can be killed to save the lives of five children who were either Jewish Israeli or Palestinian. They responded from their own perspective and from the perspective of Allah. We find that whereas a large proportion of participants were more likely to endorse saving Palestinian children than saving Jewish Israeli children, this proportion decreased when thinking from the perspective of Allah. This finding raises the possibility that beliefs about God can mitigate bias against other groups and reduce barriers to peace. PMID:26711991

  14. An Urban School Leader's Approach to School Improvement: Toward Contextually Responsive Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Latish C.; Swaminathan, Raji

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the leadership practices and actions of an urban high school principal who faced many challenges, but worked diligently to improve student achievement and school climate over a 3-year period. Significant improvements were made by using elements of Distributed Leadership, Professional Learning Communities, and Social…

  15. Client/Clinician Discrepancies in Perceived Problem Improvement and the Potential Influence on Dropout Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulford, Justin; Adams, Peter; Sheridan, Janie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility that clinicians working in an alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment service may lack appreciation of problem improvement in clients who choose to dropout against clinical advice. Underlying this investigation is the belief that if clinicians are indeed unperceptive of problem improvement amongst this population…

  16. Second-meal effect: low-glycemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycemic response.

    PubMed

    Wolever, T M; Jenkins, D J; Ocana, A M; Rao, V A; Collier, G R

    1988-10-01

    The effects of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate eaten the previous night on the glycemic response to a standard test meal eaten subsequently in the morning (breakfast) was studied. On separate evenings normal subjects ate low- or high-GI test meals of the same nutrient composition. The dinners consisted of single foods in two experiments and mixed meals containing several foods in the third. The differences between the observed glycemic responses to low- and high-GI dinners were predicted by their GIs. The glycemic responses to breakfast were significantly lower on mornings after low-GI dinners than after high-GI dinners. Eating, at dinner, foods with different fiber contents but the same GI had no effect on postbreakfast glycemia. We conclude that the GI predicts the difference between glycemic responses of mixed dinner meals; breakfast carbohydrate tolerance is improved when low-GI foods are eaten the previous evening.

  17. Using principles from emergency management to improve emergency response plans for research animals.

    PubMed

    Vogelweid, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Animal research regulatory agencies have issued updated requirements for emergency response planning by regulated research institutions. A thorough emergency response plan is an essential component of an institution's animal care and use program, but developing an effective plan can be a daunting task. The author provides basic information drawn from the field of emergency management about best practices for developing emergency response plans. Planners should use the basic principles of emergency management to develop a common-sense approach to managing emergencies in their facilities.

  18. Mobile Phones, in Combination with a Computer Locator System, Improve the Response Times of Emergency Medical Services in Central London

    PubMed Central

    Gossage, JA; Frith, DP; Carrell, TWG; Damiani, M; Terris, J; Burnand, KG

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine whether mobile phones and mobile phone locating devices are associated with improved ambulance response times in central London. PATIENTS AND METHODS All calls from the London Ambulance Service database since 1999 were analysed. In addition, 100 consecutive patients completed a questionnaire on mobile phone use whilst attending the St Thomas's Hospital Emergency Department in central London. RESULTS Mobile phone use for emergencies in central London has increased from 4007 (5% of total) calls in January 1999 to 21,585 (29%) in August 2004. Ambulance response times for mobile phone calls were reduced after the introduction of the mobile phone locating system (mean 469 s versus 444 s; P = 0.0195). The proportion of mobile phone calls made from mobile phones for life-threatening emergencies was higher after injury than for medical emergencies (41% versus 16%, P = 0.0063). Of patients transported to the accident and emergency department by ambulance, 44% contacted the ambulance service by mobile phone. Three-quarters of calls made from outside the home or work-place were by mobile phone and 72% of patients indicated that it would have taken longer to contact the emergency services if they had not used a mobile. CONCLUSIONS Since the introduction of the mobile phone locating system, there has been an improvement in ambulance response times. Mobile locating systems in urban areas across the UK may lead to faster response times and, potentially, improved patient outcomes. PMID:18325208

  19. 42 CFR 441.745 - State plan HCBS administration: State responsibilities and quality improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Elderly and Individuals with Disabilities § 441.745 State plan HCBS administration: State responsibilities... information on how the State will ensure for transitions with minimal adverse impact on individuals...

  20. Improvement of polypyrrole nanowire devices by plasmonic space charge generation: high photocurrent and wide spectral response by Ag nanoparticle decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, Jaw-Won

    In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times, by the Ag NP decoration onto the PPy NW (PPyAgNPs NW) under blue light illumination. In addition, the PPyAgNPs NW shows a photocurrent decay time twice that of PPy NW, as well as an improved spectral response of the photocurrent. The improved photocurrent efficiency, decay time, and spectral response resulted from the space charges generated by the LSPR of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the increasing exponent (m) of the photocurrent (JPC ~Vm) and finite-differential time domain (FDTD) simulation straightforwardly indicate relatively large plasmonic space charge generation. Supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (no. 2013K1A3A1A32035429 and 2015R1A1A1A05027681).

  1. Does early improvement predict endpoint response in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) treated with pregabalin or venlafaxine XR?

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Schweizer, Edward; Xu, Yikang; Lyndon, Gavin

    2012-02-01

    Many patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) only respond to pharmacological treatment after a delay of some weeks, and approximately 35% of patients do not respond. Therefore, early identification of potential responders may have important implications for clinical decision-making. In order to identify early improvement criteria that optimally predict eventual response during short-term treatment of GAD with pregabalin or venlafaxine XR, data were pooled from four double-blind, placebo-controlled GAD treatment studies. A range of measures were analyzed using logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, to predict endpoint response. Results showed that early improvement (≥ 20% reduction from baseline score) on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was associated with a high probability of achieving an endpoint response at Weeks 1 and 2 among patients treated with pregabalin (~67%), and at Week 2 with venlafaxine XR (60%). A Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) score ≤ 3 at Week 2 was a reliable predictor of achieving endpoint response for pregabalin and venlafaxine XR (odds ratio [OR], 5.33 and 2.47, respectively) with high sensitivity (pregabalin, 0.91; venlafaxine XR, 0.86) and relatively low specificity (pregabalin, 0.33; venlafaxine XR, 0.29), indicating a high true positive rate, but relatively low true negative rate. These findings indicate that improvement by Week 2 on the single item CGI may be a simple and reliable way to predict treatment response with pregabalin or venlafaxine XR in patients with GAD, but a less reliable way to predict non-responders.

  2. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  3. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism.

  4. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism. PMID:27120341

  5. Recombinant human antithrombin III improves survival and attenuates inflammatory responses in baboons lethally challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Minnema, M C; Chang, A C; Jansen, P M; Lubbers, Y T; Pratt, B M; Whittaker, B G; Taylor, F B; Hack, C E; Friedman, B

    2000-02-15

    Plasma-derived antithrombin III (ATIII) prevents the lethal effects of Escherichia coli infusion in baboons, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not clear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human ATIII (rhATIII) on the clinical course and the inflammatory cytokine and coagulation responses in baboons challenged with lethal dose of E coli. Animals in the treatment group (n = 5) received high doses of rhATIII starting 1 hour before an E coli challenge. Those in the control group were administered saline. Survival was significantly improved in the treatment group (P =.002). Both groups had similar hemodynamic responses to E coli challenge but different coagulation and inflammatory responses. The rhATIII group had an accelerated increase of thrombin-ATIII complexes and significantly less fibrinogen consumption compared to controls. In addition, the rhATIII group had much less severe thrombotic pathology on autopsy and virtually no fibrinolytic response to E coli challenge. Furthermore, the rhATIII group had a significantly attenuated inflammatory response as evidenced by marked reduction of the release of various cytokines. We conclude that the early administration of high doses of rhATIII improves the outcome in baboons lethally challenged with E coli, probably due to the combined anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory effects of this therapy. (Blood. 2000;95:1117-1123)

  6. Electroporation mediated DNA vaccination directly to a mucosal surface results in improved immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kichaev, Gleb; Mendoza, Janess M; Amante, Dinah; Smith, Trevor R F; McCoy, Jay R; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

    2013-10-01

    In vivo electroporation (EP) has been shown to be a highly efficient non-viral method for enhancing DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity, when the site of immunization is the skin or muscle of animals and humans. However, the route of entry for many microbial pathogens is via the mucosal surfaces of the human body. We have previously reported on minimally invasive, surface and contactless EP devices for enhanced DNA delivery to dermal tissue. Robust antibody responses were induced following vaccine delivery in several tested animal models using these devices. Here, we investigated extending the modality of the surface device to efficiently deliver DNA vaccines to mucosal tissue. Initially, we demonstrated reporter gene expression in the epithelial layer of buccal mucosa in a guinea pig model. There was minimal tissue damage in guinea pig mucosal tissue resulting from EP. Delivery of a DNA vaccine encoding influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza H1N1 elicited robust and sustained systemic IgG antibody responses following EP-enhanced delivery in the mucosa. Upon further analysis, IgA antibody responses were detected in vaginal washes and sustained cellular immune responses were detected in animals immunized at the oral mucosa with the surface EP device. This data confirms that DNA delivery and EP targeting mucosal tissue directly results in both robust and sustainable humoral as well as cellular immune responses without tissue damage. These responses are seen both in the mucosa and systemically in the blood. Direct DNA vaccine delivery enhanced by EP in mucosa may have important clinical applications for delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against diseases such as HIV, HPV and pneumonia that enter at mucosal sites and require both cellular and humoral immune responses for protection. PMID:23954979

  7. Crop Model Improvement Reduces the Uncertainty of the Response to Temperature of Multi-Model Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorano, Andrea; Martre, Pierre; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Mueller, Christoph; Roetter, Reimund P.; Ruane, Alex C.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Enli

    2016-01-01

    To improve climate change impact estimates and to quantify their uncertainty, multi-model ensembles (MMEs) have been suggested. Model improvements can improve the accuracy of simulations and reduce the uncertainty of climate change impact assessments. Furthermore, they can reduce the number of models needed in a MME. Herein, 15 wheat growth models of a larger MME were improved through re-parameterization and/or incorporating or modifying heat stress effects on phenology, leaf growth and senescence, biomass growth, and grain number and size using detailed field experimental data from the USDA Hot Serial Cereal experiment (calibration data set). Simulation results from before and after model improvement were then evaluated with independent field experiments from a CIMMYT worldwide field trial network (evaluation data set). Model improvements decreased the variation (10th to 90th model ensemble percentile range) of grain yields simulated by the MME on average by 39% in the calibration data set and by 26% in the independent evaluation data set for crops grown in mean seasonal temperatures greater than 24 C. MME mean squared error in simulating grain yield decreased by 37%. A reduction in MME uncertainty range by 27% increased MME prediction skills by 47%. Results suggest that the mean level of variation observed in field experiments and used as a benchmark can be reached with half the number of models in the MME. Improving crop models is therefore important to increase the certainty of model-based impact assessments and allow more practical, i.e. smaller MMEs to be used effectively.

  8. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2013-10-15

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  9. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2012-01-17

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  10. The Training of Volunteer Adult Sunday School Teachers in the Wisconsin Jurisdictions of the Church of God in Christ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the methodological training needs of adult Sunday School teachers in the Church of God in Christ. Pastors and instructional leaders of two Wisconsin jurisdictions were utilized as participants in the study. Research methodology included a blended approach of quantitative and qualitative methods with the…

  11. God's Providence in Puritan New England: An Inquiry into the Nature of Ideas. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Mark

    To show how a central idea shapes a monolithic society, this social studies unit focuses on the idea of God's "providence" as the motivational force in Puritan thinking and analyzes the idea's sources, its truth, its impact, and its evolution through three generations of Puritan living. Sections of the unit discuss (1) the religious, economic, and…

  12. Living God or Cosmic Therapist? Implications of the National Survey of Youth and Religion for Christian Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachand, Sarah Caffrey

    2010-01-01

    This article responds to sociologist Christian Smith's claim that many teenagers today have lost traditional religious faith and instead espouse a new and erroneous faith in God the "Cosmic Therapist." The author challenges this claim by comparing two of Smith's chief complaints vis-a-vis teen faith to established portraits of adolescent faith.…

  13. Experience with Boehringer Mannheim GOD/PAP (Trinder) glucose reagent kit on Autoanalyser I and SMA 12/60 systems.

    PubMed

    Chu, S Y; Cheung, P

    1978-08-01

    We report here our experience with Boehringer Mannheim GOD/PAP (Trinder) glucose kit on Autonanalyzer I and SMA 12/60 systems. With slight modification on the existing procedures, we are able to obtain an efficient method that yields satisfactory results with very low cost. PMID:709814

  14. Extension Education: Training Coordinators to Facilitate Distance Education through the Assemblies of God Bible Institute in Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Terry Lane

    2010-01-01

    The specific objective of this project was to train coordinators to open new extension classes and effectively facilitate existing extension classes offered by the Assemblies of God Bible Institute (AGBI) in Belize. Extensive biblical and literary research and a thorough evaluation of current extension classes led to the development of a…

  15. Religious Diversity, Empathy, and God Images: Perspectives from the Psychology of Religion Shaping a Study among Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Croft, Jennifer S.; Pyke, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Major religious traditions agree in advocating and promoting love of neighbour as well as love of God. Love of neighbour is reflected in altruistic behaviour and empathy stands as a key motivational factor underpinning altruism. This study employs the empathy scale from the Junior Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire to assess the association…

  16. Improvement of polypyrrole nanowire devices by plasmonic space charge generation: high photocurrent and wide spectral response by Ag nanoparticle decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Bae, J.; Lee, S. W.; Jang, J.-W.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). To take advantage of plasmon-exciton coupling in the photocurrent of the device, 80 nm of Ag NPs (454 nm = λmax) were chosen for matching the maximum absorption with PPy NWs (442 nm = λmax). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times (2530%), by the Ag NP decoration onto the PPy NW (PPyAgNPs NW) under blue light (λ = 425-475 nm) illumination. In addition, the PPyAgNPs NW shows a photocurrent decay time twice that of PPy NW, as well as an improved spectral response of the photocurrent. The improved photocurrent efficiency, decay time, and spectral response resulted from the space charges generated by the LSPR of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the increasing exponent (m) of the photocurrent (JPC ~ Vm) and finite-differential time domain (FDTD) simulation straightforwardly indicate relatively large plasmonic space charge generation under blue light illumination. These results prove that the performance of non-single crystallized polymer nanowire devices can also be improved by plasmonic enhancement.In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). To take advantage of plasmon-exciton coupling in the photocurrent of the device, 80 nm of Ag NPs (454 nm = λmax) were chosen for matching the maximum absorption with PPy NWs (442 nm = λmax). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times

  17. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition. PMID:19557745

  18. Aviation and the Environment. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography Related to Aviation's Responses Toward Improving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane

    This informal, brief bibliography attempts to stress the positive side of aviation, annotating documents that explain how the airlines, aircraft engine manufacturers, government agencies, military aviation, and general aviation are meeting their responsibilities in solving environmental problems. Topics arousing public concern are identified:…

  19. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  20. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M; Krhut, Jan; Zvara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.