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Sample records for gold 197 beams

  1. Neutron transfer in the C13+Au197 reaction from gold isotope residuals

    DOE PAGES

    Daub, B. H.; Bleuel, D. L.; Wiedeking, M.; ...

    2017-08-01

    Residual gold nuclei were produced in this paper via neutron transfer at multiple energies using a 130-MeV 13C beam incident on a stacked-foil target consisting of alternating layers of 197Au and 27Al. Production cross sections, over an energy range of 56 to 129 MeV, for seven gold isotopes and two gold isomers were determined through activation analysis. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model with a modified version of the recoil formula and a standard evaporation model, we were able to reproduce the isotopic production cross sections at high beam energy, with some disagreement at lower beam energies. Finally, thismore » limiting angular momentum model does not predict the transfer of sufficient angular momentum to reproduce the observed isomeric populations.« less

  2. Neutron transfer in the 13C+197Au reaction from gold isotope residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Bleuel, D. L.; Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Brickner, N. M.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Holliday, K. S.; Lundgren, J.; Moody, K.

    2017-08-01

    Residual gold nuclei were produced via neutron transfer at multiple energies using a 130-MeV 13C beam incident on a stacked-foil target consisting of alternating layers of 197Au and 27Al. Production cross sections, over an energy range of 56 to 129 MeV, for seven gold isotopes and two gold isomers were determined through activation analysis. By using the Wilczyński binary transfer model with a modified version of the recoil formula and a standard evaporation model, we were able to reproduce the isotopic production cross sections at high beam energy, with some disagreement at lower beam energies. This limiting angular momentum model does not predict the transfer of sufficient angular momentum to reproduce the observed isomeric populations.

  3. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of (196,198)Au production yields by (197)Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of (197)Au(n,γ)(196,198)Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. (197)Au nano-solution, including 20nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E+13n/cm(2)/s for (196,198)Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF2 reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in (197)Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method.

  4. In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of states in /sup 197/Au and /sup 199/Au populated by the (t,2n) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nail, T.W.

    1982-08-01

    The (t,2n) reaction has been used to study /sup 197/Au and /sup 199/Au. Excitation function, pulsed beam and gamma-gamma coincidence experiments were performed on both nuclei, and gamma-ray angular distributions were measured in /sup 199/Au. Level schemes were constructed for each nucleus. The resulting levels indicate that the systematic trends seen in the lighter odd-mass gold nuclei, for both the positive-parity states and for the negative-partiy band built on the h/sub 11/2/ shell-model orbital, appear to continue in /sup 197/Au; but significant deviations occur in /sup 199/Au. A 6 +- 2 ns isomer was observed in /sup 197/Au. The cluster-vibration coupling model seems to give the best qualitative agreement with the observed levels.

  5. BEAM LIFETIME AND EMITTANCE GROWTH MEASUREMENTS OF GOLD BEAMS IN RHIC AT STORAGE.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; DREES,A.; BRENNAN,J.M.; CONNOLLY,R.; FLILLER,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    During stores of gold beams, longitudinal and transverse beam sizes were recorded. Longitudinal profiles were obtained with a wall current monitor. Transverse profiles were reconstructed from gold-gold collision rates at various relative transverse beam positions. The total beam lifetime was measured with a beam current transformer, the bunched beam lifetime with the wall current monitor. Diffusion rates in the beam halo were determined from the change in the loss rate when a scraper is retracted. The measurements are used to determine the lifetime limiting effects. Beam growth measurements are compared with computations of beam-growth times from intra-beam scattering.

  6. Radiation damage in single crystal CVD diamond material investigated with a high current relativistic 197Au beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietraszko, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Grilj, V.; Koenig, W.; Spataro, S.; Träger, M.

    2014-11-01

    Single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition (ScCVD) diamond based prototype detectors have been constructed for the high intensity heavy ion experiments HADES and CBM at the future FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. Their properties have been studied with a high current density beam (about 2-3×106/s/mm2) of 1.25A GeV Au69+197 ions. Details of the design, the intrinsic properties of the detectors and their performance after irradiation with such a beam are reported.

  7. Notes on dumping gold beam in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.J.; Ahrens, L.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-08-01

    Localized losses of gold beam in the AGS during RHIC Run 8 produced vacuum leaks which required the replacement of several vacuum chambers. A review of what happened and why was given by Leif Ahrens at the Run 8 Retreat. The following notes trace the subsequent development of clean dumping of gold beam on the beam dump in the J10 straight. The novel idea of stripping Au77+ ions in order to put them directly into the upstream face of the dump was introduced by Leif Ahrens and developed by all three of us. George Mahler made the actual stripping device and Dave Gassner developed its control. Leif Ahrens successfully commissioned the device with gold beam during Run 10. The reader may find it helpful to first view the figures herein and then refer to the text for details.

  8. Molecular Beam Optical Study of Gold Sulfide and Gold Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Gold-sulfur and gold-oxygen bonds are key components to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. A major theoretical challenge for describing this bonding is correctly accounting for the large relativistic and electron correlation effects. Such effects are best studied in diatomic, AuX, molecules. Recently, the observed AuS electronic state energy ordering was measured and compared to a simple molecular orbital diagram prediction. Here we more thoroughly investigate the nature of the electronic states of both AuS and AuO from the analysis of high-resolution (FWHM\\cong35MHz) optical Zeeman spectroscopy of the (0,0){B}2Σ--{X}2Π3/2 bands. The determined fine and hyperfine parameters for the {B}2Σ- state of AuO differ from those extracted from the analysis of a hot, Doppler-limited, spectrum. It is demonstrated that the nature of the {B}2Σ- states of AuO and AuS are radically different. The magnetic tuning of AuO and AuS indicates that the {B}2Σ- states are heavily contaminated. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1265885. D. L. Kokkin, R. Zhang, T. C. Steimle, I. A. Wyse, B. W. Pearlman and T. D. Varberg, J. Phys. Chem. A., 119(48), 4412, 2015. L. C. O'Brien, B. A. Borchert, A. Farquhar, S. Shaji, J. J. O'Brien and R. W. Field, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 252(2), 136, 2008

  9. Ion beam analysis of gold jewelry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, Guy

    1992-02-01

    PIXE milliprobe in a nonvacuum assembly has been proven to be a very rapid and accurate method for the elemental analysis of gold jewelry artefacts. Using protons whose energy is lower than 3 MeV, it is possible to obtain, in a few minutes, the actual composition (copper, iron, gold, silver, etc.) of narrow parts of artefacts, without any sampling, even at microscopic level. Most of the studies of our group in this field concern solders on these jewelry items. Narrow regions of gold artefacts have also been studied with a PIXE microprobe. They were then irradiated in vacuum. Nuclear reaction analyses induced by 2 MeV deuterons are also performed to identify the presence of light elements and, particularly O, N and S. Traces of these elements are of primary importance to characterize the origin of the ores used in various workmanships. Interferences of X-ray lines of Au with those of traces of Cu and Zn are solved using a method of selective excitation of X-rays of these elements. Analytical results have been interpreted in order to understand the workmanship of goldsmiths from the Antiquity. Fakes and repairs (or ornaments added to original artefacts) may also be identified. The ancient recipes are improved to give new soldering procedures at low temperature.

  10. Interstitial gold and external beam irradiation for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, M.A.; Dowling, R.A.; Gonzales, M.; Handel, P.H.; Benson, G.S.; Corriere, J.N. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    We treated 65 patients with prostatic cancer confined clinically to the prostate or periprostatic area during an 8-year period. Seven patients had stage A2, 38 stage B and 20 stage C disease. All 65 patients underwent staging pelvic lymphadenectomy and implantation of gold grains into the prostate (mean dose 3,167 rad). A total of 64 patients then completed a course of external beam irradiation to a mean total tumor dose of 6,965 rad. Complications of therapy were mild and limited (less than 3 months in duration) in most patients, and they included radiation cystitis (32 per cent), diarrhea (31 per cent), extremity lymphedema (7.7 per cent) and wound infection (3 per cent). Two patients suffered urinary incontinence after therapy and 2 (3 per cent) had diarrhea more than 3 months in duration. The actuarial 5-year survival rate for all patients was 87 per cent and the 5-year survival free of disease was 72 per cent.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENTS FOR THE BEAM GAS INTERACTIONS DURING THE LAST GOLD AND PROTON RUNS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; HSEUH,H.C.; FISCHER,W.; ZHANG,S.Y.; MACKAY,W.W.

    2002-06-02

    The last gold-gold and polarized proton-proton collision runs were performed at energies of 100 GeV/nucleon. The beam gas interactions in RHIC are very important for the beam lifetime in RHIC. In this report the lifetime predicted by pressure data differences between the beams ON and beams OFF, at the energies of 100 GeV/nucleon. are compared to the predictions for the beam gas interaction and beam lifetimes.

  12. Single pass electron beam cooling of gold ions between EBIS LINAC and booster is theoretically possible!

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam cooling is examined as an option to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster. Electron beam parameters are based on experimental data (obtained at BNL) of electron beams extracted from a plasma cathode. Many issues, regarding a low energy high current electron beam that is needed for electron beam cooling to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster, were examined. Computations and some experimental data indicate that none of these issues is a show stopper. Preliminary calculations indicate that single pass cooling is feasible; momentum spread can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude in about one meter. Hence, this option cooling deserves further more serious considerations.

  13. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated uniformly by laser-generated ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Santiago Cordoba, M. A.; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    With a laser-generated beam of quasi-monoenergetic ions, a solid density target can be heated uniformly and isochorically. On the LANL Trident laser facility, we have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils. We visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperatures of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. These temperatures are in good agreement with the expected temperatures calculated using the total deposited energy into the cold targets and SESAME equation-of-state tables at solid densities. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. *This work is sponsored by the LANL LDRD Program.

  14. Structural, (197)Au Mössbauer and solid state (31)P CP/MAS NMR studies on bis (cis-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene) gold(I) complexes [Au(dppey)(2)]X for X = PF(6), I.

    PubMed

    Healy, Peter C; Loughrey, Bradley T; Bowmaker, Graham A; Hanna, John V

    2008-07-28

    (197)Au Mössbauer spectra for the d(10) gold(i) phosphine complexes, [Au(dppey)(2)]X (X = PF(6), I; dppey = (cis-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene), and the single crystal X-ray structure and solid state (31)P CPMAS NMR spectrum of [Au(dppey)(2)]I are reported here. In [Au(dppey)(2)]I the AuP(4) coordination geometry is distorted from the approximately D(2) symmetry observed for the PF(6)(-) complex with Au-P bond lengths 2.380(2)-2.426(2) A and inter-ligand P-Au-P angles 110.63(5)-137.71(8) degrees . Quadrupole splitting parameters derived from the Mössbauer spectra are consistent with the increased distortion of the AuP(4) coordination sphere with values of 1.22 and 1.46 mm s(-1) for the PF(6)(-) and I(-) complexes respectively. In the solid state (31)P CP MAS NMR spectrum of [Au(dppey)(2)]I, signals for each of the four crystallographically independent phosphorus nuclei are observed, with the magnitude of the (197)Au quadrupole coupling being sufficiently large to produce a collapse of (1)J(Au-P) splitting from quartets to doublets. The results highlight the important role played by the counter anion in the determination of the structural and spectroscopic properties of these sterically crowded d(10) complexes.

  15. Guided assembly of gold colloidal nanoparticles on silicon substrates prepatterned by charged particle beams.

    PubMed

    Kolíbal, Miroslav; Konečný, Martin; Ligmajer, Filip; Škoda, David; Vystavěl, Tomáš; Zlámal, Jakub; Varga, Peter; Šikola, Tomáš

    2012-11-27

    Colloidal gold nanoparticles represent technological building blocks which are easy to fabricate while keeping full control of their shape and dimensions. Here, we report on a simple two-step maskless process to assemble gold nanoparticles from a water colloidal solution at specific sites of a silicon surface. First, the silicon substrate covered by native oxide is exposed to a charged particle beam (ions or electrons) and then immersed in a HF-modified solution of colloidal nanoparticles. The irradiation of the native oxide layer by a low-fluence charged particle beam causes changes in the type of surface-terminating groups, while the large fluences induce even more profound modification of surface composition. Hence, by a proper selection of the initial substrate termination, solution pH, and beam fluence, either positive or negative deposition of the colloidal nanoparticles can be achieved.

  16. Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    PubMed Central

    Shawrav, Mostafa M.; Taus, Philipp; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D.; Schinnerl, M.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Schwarz, S.; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization. PMID:27666531

  17. Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawrav, Mostafa M.; Taus, Philipp; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D.; Schinnerl, M.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Schwarz, S.; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2016-09-01

    This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.

  18. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  19. Isochoric heating of solid gold targets with the PW-laser-driven ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Sven; Ji, Qing; Bulanov, Stepan; Barnard, John; Schenkel, Thomas; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2016-10-01

    We present an end-to-end simulation for isochoric heating of solid gold targets using ion beams produced with the BELLA PW laser at LBNL: (i) 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are applied to study the ion source characteristics of the PW laser-target interaction at the long focal length (f/#65) beamline at laser intensities of 5x1019W/cm2 at spot size of ω0 = 52 μm on a CH target. (ii) In order to transport the ion beams to an EMP-free environment, an active plasma lens will be used. This was modeled by calculating the Twiss parameters of the ion beam from the appropriate transport matrixes using the source parameters obtained from the PIC simulation. Space charge effects were considered as well. (iii) Hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these ion beams can isochorically heat a 1 mm3 gold target to the Warm Dense Matter state. This work was supported by Fusion Energy Science, and LDRD funding from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, provided by the Director, Office of Science, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Isochoric heating of solid gold targets with the PW-laser-driven ion beams (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Sven; Ji, Qing; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Barnard, John; Vincenti, Henri; Schenkel, Thomas; Esarey, Eric H.; Leemans, Wim P.

    2017-05-01

    We present first results on ion acceleration with the BELLA PW laser as well as end-to-end simulation for isochoric heating of solid gold targets using PW-laser generated ion beams: (i) 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are applied to study the ion source characteristics of the PW laser-target interaction at the long focal length (f/65) beamline at laser intensities of ˜[5×10]^19 Wcm-2 at spot size of 0=53 μm on a CH target. (ii) In order to transport the ion beams to an EMP-free environment, an active plasma lens will be used. This was modeled [1] by calculating the Twiss parameters of the ion beam from the appropriate transport matrixes taking the source parameters obtained from the PIC simulation. (iii) Hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these ion beams can isochorically heat a 1 mm3 gold target to the Warm Dense Matter state. Reference: J. van Tilborg et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015). This work was supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, provided by the Director, Office of Science, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. Nanoscale radiation transport and clinical beam modeling for gold nanoparticle dose enhanced radiotherapy (GNPT) using X-rays.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    We review radiation transport and clinical beam modelling for gold nanoparticle dose-enhanced radiotherapy using X-rays. We focus on the nanoscale radiation transport and its relation to macroscopic dosimetry for monoenergetic and clinical beams. Among other aspects, we discuss Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and their applications to predicting dose enhancement using various metrics.

  2. Nanoscale radiation transport and clinical beam modeling for gold nanoparticle dose enhanced radiotherapy (GNPT) using X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    We review radiation transport and clinical beam modelling for gold nanoparticle dose-enhanced radiotherapy using X-rays. We focus on the nanoscale radiation transport and its relation to macroscopic dosimetry for monoenergetic and clinical beams. Among other aspects, we discuss Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and their applications to predicting dose enhancement using various metrics. PMID:26642305

  3. Formation of silicon nanodots via ion beam sputtering of ultrathin gold thin film coatings on Si

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering of ultrathin film Au coatings used as a physical catalyst for self-organization of Si nanostructures has been achieved by tuning the incident particle energy. This approach holds promise as a scalable nanomanufacturing parallel processing alternative to candidate nanolithography techniques. Structures of 11- to 14-nm Si nanodots are formed with normal incidence low-energy Ar ions of 200 eV and fluences above 2 × 1017 cm-2. In situ surface characterization during ion irradiation elucidates early stage ion mixing migration mechanism for nanodot self-organization. In particular, the evolution from gold film islands to the formation of ion-induced metastable gold silicide followed by pure Si nanodots formed with no need for impurity seeding. PMID:21711934

  4. Monte Carlo simulation on a gold nanoparticle irradiated by electron beams.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L; Leung, Michael K K; Jaffray, David A

    2012-06-07

    This study investigated the secondary electron production from a gold nanoparticle (GNP) irradiated by monoenergetic electron beams using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Spherical GNPs with diameters of 2, 50 and 100 nm in water were irradiated by monoenergetic electron beams with energies equal to 50 keV, 250 keV, 1 MeV and 4 MeV. MC simulations were performed using the Geant4 toolkit to determine the energy of the secondary electrons emitted from the GNPs. The mean effective range and deflection angle of the secondary electrons were tracked. Energy depositions inside and outside the nanoparticles due to the secondary electrons were also calculated. For comparisons, simulations were repeated by replacing the GNPs with water. Our results show that the mean effective range of secondary electrons increased with an increase of the GNP size and electron beam energy. For the electron beam energy and GNP size used in this study, the mean effective range was 0.5-15 µm outside the nanoparticle, which is approximately within the dimension of a living cell. The mean deflection angles varied from 78 to 83 degrees as per our MC results. The proportion of energy deposition inside the GNP versus that outside increased with the GNP size. This is different from the results obtained from a previous study using photon beams. The secondary electron energy deposition ratio (energy deposition for GNP/energy deposition for water) was found to be highest for the smallest GNP of 2 nm diameter in this study. For the energy deposited by the secondary electron, we concluded that the addition of GNPs can increase the secondary electron energy deposition in water, though most of the energy was self-absorbed by the large nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm). In addition, an electron source in the presence of GNPs does not seem to be better than photons as the yield of secondary electrons per unit mass of gold is less than water.

  5. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; ...

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  6. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  7. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-21

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.

  8. High speed e-beam lithography for gold nanoarray fabrication and use in nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    François, Marc; Romijn, Hans; Codron, Jean-Louis; Vuillaume, Dominique; Théron, Didier; Clément, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Summary E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF) technique but not optimized for sub-15 nm dots dimension. This prevents use of this technology for some applications and characterization techniques. Here, we show that the DOTF technique can be used without degradation in dots dimension. In addition, we propose two other techniques. The first one is an advanced conventional technique that goes five times faster than the conventional one. The second one relies on sequences defined before writing which enable versatility in e-beam patterns compared to the DOTF technique with same writing speed. By comparing the four different techniques, we evidence the limiting parameters for the writing speed. Wafer-scale fabrication of such arrays with 50 nm pitch allowed XPS analysis of a ferrocenylalkyl thiol self-assembled monolayer coated gold nanoarray. PMID:25383303

  9. Direct patterning of self-assembled monolayers on gold using a laser beam.

    PubMed

    Shadnam, Mohammad R; Kirkwood, Sean E; Fedosejevs, Robert; Amirfazli, A

    2004-03-30

    The development of a methodology to manipulate surface properties of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkanethiol on a gold film using direct laser patterning is the objective of this paper. The present study demonstrates proof of the concept for the feasibility of laser patterning monolayers and outlines theoretical modeling of the process to predict the resulting feature size. This approach is unique in that it eliminates the need for photolithography, is noncontact, and can be extended to other systems such as SAMs on silicon wafers or potentially polymeric substrates. A homogeneous SAM made of 1-hexadecanethiol is formed on a 300-A sputtered film of gold (supported by a soda lime glass substrate). Localized regions are then desorbed by scanning the focal spot of a 488-nm continuous-wave argon ion laser beam under a nitrogen atmosphere. The desorption occurs as a result of a high substrate temperature produced by the moving laser beam with a Gaussian spatial profile at a constant speed of 200 microm/s. After completing the scans, the sample is dipped into a dilute solution of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and a hydrophilic monolayer self-assembles along the previously irradiated regions. The resultant lines are viewed, and line widths are measured using both wetting with tridecane under a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Using the direct laser patterning method, we have produced straight line patterns with widths of 28-170 microm. A thermal model was constructed to predict the line width of the desorbed monolayer. The effect of the laser power, beam waist, and temperature dependence of the substrate conductivity on the theoretical predictions is considered. It is shown that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results, and, thus, the model can effectively be used to predict experimental results.

  10. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  11. Evaluation of femtosecond laser damage to gold pulse compression gratings fabricated by magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leilei; Kong, Fanyu; Xia, Zhilin; Jin, Yunxia; Huang, Haopeng; Li, Linxin; Chen, Junming; Cui, Yun; Shao, Jianda

    2017-04-10

    In this study, two kinds of Au-coated gratings (ACGs) with a period of 1740 lines/mm were fabricated and evaluated. For these ACG samples, magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation were used as the gold deposition process, and the samples had a bandwidth of at least 170 nm, with the -1st-order diffraction efficiency exceeding 90% around the center wavelength of 800 nm. The one-on-one damage threshold of ACGs fabricated by magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation measured at a pulse width of 60 fs was 0.59  J/cm2 and 0.43  J/cm2 in the case of the beam normal fluence, respectively. The typical damage morphology of the former type of samples was melting of the gold film, whereas those of the latter type were blisters and peeling off of the gold film. In theory, the electromagnetic field, temperature field, and thermal stress field distribution in the ACGs were calculated using the finite element method. We demonstrated that the adhesion between the gold film and the photoresist played an important role in determining the damage behavior. Thus, the laser resistance of ACG can be improved by enhancing the adhesion between the gold film and the photoresist, and magnetron sputtering was an alternative method to obtain ACGs with much better adhesion.

  12. Effect of geometrical dimensions on the tribomechanical response of a gold micromembrane with bent beam hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustan, M.; Dudescu, C.; Birleanu, C.; Rusu, F.; Chiorean, R.; Craciun, S.

    2016-08-01

    The scope of this paper is experimental and numerical analysis of micromembranes supported by bent beam hinges fabricated from gold in different geometrical dimensions. The experimental tests are performed using an atomic force microscope in order to determine the micromembrane behaviour under a mechanical force. One of the main application of movable microcomponents is MEMS switching application where the flexible plate is directly deflected to substrate in order to close a circuit. Adhesion between the mobile plate and substrate depends on the roughness of the contact surfaces and is influenced by the micromembrane stiffness based on the restoring force. As the dimensions of hinges increases, the stiffness of micromembrane increases and the adhesion between mobile plate and substrate decreases, respectively.

  13. Direct-write deposition and focused-electron-beam-induced purification of gold nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Belić, Domagoj; Shawrav, Mostafa M; Gavagnin, Marco; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2015-02-04

    Three-dimensional gold (Au) nanostructures offer promise in nanoplasmonics, biomedical applications, electrochemical sensing and as contacts for carbon-based electronics. Direct-write techniques such as focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) can provide such precisely patterned nanostructures. Unfortunately, FEBID Au traditionally suffers from a high nonmetallic content and cannot meet the purity requirements for these applications. Here we report exceptionally pure pristine FEBID Au nanostructures comprising submicrometer-large monocrystalline Au sections. On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results and Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories in the deposited nanostructures, we propose a curing mechanism that elucidates the observed phenomena. The in situ focused-electron-beam-induced curing mechanism was supported by postdeposition ex situ curing and, in combination with oxygen plasma cleaning, is utilized as a straightforward purification method for planar FEBID structures. This work paves the way for the application of FEBID Au nanostructures in a new generation of biosensors and plasmonic nanodevices.

  14. Electron beam/γ-ray irradiation synthesis of gold nanoparticles and investigation of antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Phu Dang, Van; Le, Anh Quoc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal solutions of 1 mM gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by γ-ray Co-60 and electron beam irradiation using 1% water soluble chitosan (WSC) with different molecular weight (Mw) as stabilizer. The AuNPs size measured from TEM images was of 7.1 and 15.1 nm for electron beam and γ-ray Co-60, respectively. The AuNPs sizes of 9.8, 15.1 and 22.4 nm stabilized by different WSC Mw of 155 × 103, 78 × 103 and 29 × 103 g mol-1, respectively, were also synthesized by γ-ray Co-60 irradiation. Antioxidant activity of AuNPs with different size from 7.1 to 20.0 nm was investigated using free radical 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+). Results indicated that the smaller size of AuNPs exhibited higher antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant efficiency was of nearly 100, 75, 65, 52 and 30% for 7.1, 9.8, 15.1, 20.0 nm AuNPs and WSC 0.1%, respectively, at the same reaction time of 270 min. Thus, due to the compatibility of WSC and the unique property of AuNPs, the pure colloidal AuNPs/WSC solutions synthesized by irradiation method can be potentially applied in biomedicine, cosmetics and in other fields as well.

  15. Optimization of photon beam energies in gold nanoparticle enhanced arc radiation therapy using Monte Carlo methods.

    PubMed

    Koger, B; Kirkby, C

    2016-12-02

    As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0.8 mg Au g(-1) normal tissue) in a cylinder of tissue. Several monoenergetic photon beams, with energies ranging from 20 keV to 6 MeV, as well as 100, 200, and 300 kVp spectral beams, were used to irradiate the tumour in a 360° arc treatment. A dose metric was then used to compare tumour and tissue doses from GEART treatments to a similar treatment from a 6 MV spectrum. This was also performed on a simulated brain tumour using patient computed tomography data. GEART treatments showed potential over the 6 MV treatment for many of the simulated geometries, delivering up to 88% higher mean dose to the tumour for a constant tissue dose, with the effect greatest near a source energy of 50 keV. This effect is also seen with the inclusion of bone in a brain treatment, with a 14% increase in mean tumour dose over 6 MV, while still maintaining acceptable levels of dose to the bone and brain.

  16. Optimization of photon beam energies in gold nanoparticle enhanced arc radiation therapy using Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koger, B.; Kirkby, C.

    2016-12-01

    As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g-1 tumour, 0.8 mg Au g-1 normal tissue) in a cylinder of tissue. Several monoenergetic photon beams, with energies ranging from 20 keV to 6 MeV, as well as 100, 200, and 300 kVp spectral beams, were used to irradiate the tumour in a 360° arc treatment. A dose metric was then used to compare tumour and tissue doses from GEART treatments to a similar treatment from a 6 MV spectrum. This was also performed on a simulated brain tumour using patient computed tomography data. GEART treatments showed potential over the 6 MV treatment for many of the simulated geometries, delivering up to 88% higher mean dose to the tumour for a constant tissue dose, with the effect greatest near a source energy of 50 keV. This effect is also seen with the inclusion of bone in a brain treatment, with a 14% increase in mean tumour dose over 6 MV, while still maintaining acceptable levels of dose to the bone and brain.

  17. Influence of photon beam energy on the dose enhancement factor caused by gold and silver nanoparticles: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guidelli, Eder José Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Noble metal nanoparticles have found several medical applications in the areas of radiation detection; x-ray contrast agents and cancer radiation therapy. Based on computational methods, many papers have reported the nanoparticle effect on the dose deposition in the surrounding medium. Here the authors report experimental results on how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters containing several concentrations of silver and gold nanoparticles, for five different beam energies, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Methods: The authors produced alanine dosimeters containing several mass percentage of silver and gold nanoparticles. Nanoparticle sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering and by transmission electron microscopy. The authors determined the dose enhancement factor (DEF) theoretically, using a widely accepted method, and experimentally, using ESR spectroscopy. Results: The DEF is governed by nanoparticle concentration, size, and position in the alanine matrix. Samples containing gold nanoparticles afford a DEF higher than 1.0, because gold nanoparticle size is homogeneous for all gold concentrations utilized. For samples containing silver particles, the silver mass percentage governs the nanoparticles size, which, in turns, modifies nanoparticle position in the alanine dosimeters. In this sense, DEF decreases for dosimeters containing large and segregated particles. The influence of nanoparticle size-position is more noticeable for dosimeters irradiated with higher beam energies, and dosimeters containing large and segregated particles become less sensitive than pure alanine (DEF < 1). Conclusions: ESR dosimetry gives the DEF in a medium containing metal nanoparticles, although particle concentration, size, and position are closely related in the system. Because this is also the case as in many real systems of materials containing inorganic nanoparticles, ESR is a valuable tool for

  18. Influence of photon beam energy on the dose enhancement factor caused by gold and silver nanoparticles: An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have found several medical applications in the areas of radiation detection; x-ray contrast agents and cancer radiation therapy. Based on computational methods, many papers have reported the nanoparticle effect on the dose deposition in the surrounding medium. Here the authors report experimental results on how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters containing several concentrations of silver and gold nanoparticles, for five different beam energies, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The authors produced alanine dosimeters containing several mass percentage of silver and gold nanoparticles. Nanoparticle sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering and by transmission electron microscopy. The authors determined the dose enhancement factor (DEF) theoretically, using a widely accepted method, and experimentally, using ESR spectroscopy. The DEF is governed by nanoparticle concentration, size, and position in the alanine matrix. Samples containing gold nanoparticles afford a DEF higher than 1.0, because gold nanoparticle size is homogeneous for all gold concentrations utilized. For samples containing silver particles, the silver mass percentage governs the nanoparticles size, which, in turns, modifies nanoparticle position in the alanine dosimeters. In this sense, DEF decreases for dosimeters containing large and segregated particles. The influence of nanoparticle size-position is more noticeable for dosimeters irradiated with higher beam energies, and dosimeters containing large and segregated particles become less sensitive than pure alanine (DEF < 1). ESR dosimetry gives the DEF in a medium containing metal nanoparticles, although particle concentration, size, and position are closely related in the system. Because this is also the case as in many real systems of materials containing inorganic nanoparticles, ESR is a valuable tool for investigating DEF. Moreover, these results alert

  19. Gold nanopillar arrays as biosensors fabricated by electron beam lithography combined with electroplating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianpeng; Zhang, Sichao; Ma, Yaqi; Shao, Jinhai; Lu, Bingrui; Chen, Yifang

    2015-03-20

    We report our work on the development of subwavelength gold pillar arrays as local surface plasmonic (LSP) resonators for sensor applications. These arrays are fabricated by electron beam lithography combined with electroplating. The conical shape, instead of flat one, on the top of Au pillars, induced by uneven current density in the plating, may affect the LSP resonance (LSPR). This paper aims to carry out a systematic study of LSPR behavior in nanopillar arrays with both flat and conical shapes on the top, trying to prove the feasibility of the developed nanoprocess. Both numerical simulations by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and experimental characterization on fabricated LSP resonators for reflectance spectra were carried out. Our experiments indicate that the fabricated nanopillar arrays in Au demonstrate the promising capability of refractive index sensing with sensitivity of 270 nm/refractive index unit. FDTD simulation of electric field density in the gap between pillars reveals the correlation between the resonant absorption of the incident light and the standing waves of localized surface plasmon polaritons in the gaps of the pillar array, despite the conical shape of the pillars. Moreover, it was discovered that the resonant absorption becomes stronger when the light incident angle is increased. The proposed nanoprocess for pillar arrays should possess great prospects for manufacturing Au pillars with high aspect ratio for achieving higher sensitivity at an economical cost.

  20. Moving metal artifact reduction in cone-beam CT scans with implanted cylindrical gold markers

    SciTech Connect

    Toftegaard, Jakob Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben S.; Poulsen, Per R.; Seghers, Dieter; Huber, Michael; Brehm, Marcus; Elstrøm, Ulrik V.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Implanted gold markers for image-guided radiotherapy lead to streaking artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans. Several methods for metal artifact reduction (MAR) have been published, but they all fail in scans with large motion. Here the authors propose and investigate a method for automatic moving metal artifact reduction (MMAR) in CBCT scans with cylindrical gold markers. Methods: The MMAR CBCT reconstruction method has six steps. (1) Automatic segmentation of the cylindrical markers in the CBCT projections. (2) Removal of each marker in the projections by replacing the pixels within a masked area with interpolated values. (3) Reconstruction of a marker-free CBCT volume from the manipulated CBCT projections. (4) Reconstruction of a standard CBCT volume with metal artifacts from the original CBCT projections. (5) Estimation of the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory during CBCT acquisition for each marker based on the segmentation in Step 1, and identification of the smallest ellipsoidal volume that encompasses 95% of the visited 3D positions. (6) Generation of the final MMAR CBCT reconstruction from the marker-free CBCT volume of Step 3 by replacing the voxels in the 95% ellipsoid with the corresponding voxels of the standard CBCT volume of Step 4. The MMAR reconstruction was performed retrospectively using a half-fan CBCT scan for 29 consecutive stereotactic body radiation therapy patients with 2–3 gold markers implanted in the liver. The metal artifacts of the MMAR reconstructions were scored and compared with a standard MAR reconstruction by counting the streaks and by calculating the standard deviation of the Hounsfield units in a region around each marker. Results: The markers were found with the same autosegmentation settings in 27 CBCT scans, while two scans needed slightly changed settings to find all markers automatically in Step 1 of the MMAR method. MMAR resulted in 15 scans with no streaking artifacts, 11 scans with 1–4 streaks, and 3 scans

  1. Excitation functions for complete-fusion and transfer reactions in {sup 4}He interaction with {sup 197}Au nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-04-15

    Excitation functions are measured for the fusion reactions {sup 197}Au({sup 4}He, xn){sup 201-xn}Tl that are induced by alpha-particle interaction with gold nuclei in the energy range 14-36 MeV and in which x neutrons (0 {<=} x {<=} 3) are evaporated. The stack-activation technique was used to record and separate reaction products. Experimental data on the fusion reactions followed by evaporation of one to three neutrons agree with results of previous studies. For the radiative-capture reaction {sup 197}Au({sup 4}He,{gamma}){sup 201}Tl, the upper limit on the cross section proved to be much lower. The excitation functions for the reactions subjected to measurements are compared with the results of calculations based on the statistical model and with the results of an experiment performed previously in a {sup 6}He beam.

  2. Excitation functions for complete-fusion and transfer reactions in 4He interaction with 197Au nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-04-01

    Excitation functions are measured for the fusion reactions 197Au(4He, xn)201-xn Tl that are induced by alpha-particle interaction with gold nuclei in the energy range 14 36 MeV and in which x neutrons (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) are evaporated. The stack-activation technique was used to record and separate reaction products. Experimental data on the fusion reactions followed by evaporation of one to three neutrons agree with results of previous studies. For the radiative-capture reaction 197Au(4He,γ)201Tl, the upper limit on the cross section proved to be much lower. The excitation functions for the reactions subjected to measurements are compared with the results of calculations based on the statistical model and with the results of an experiment performed previously in a 6He beam.

  3. The validity of cone-beam computed tomography in measuring root canal length using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Chen; Gao, Xue-Jun; Wesselink, Paul R; Wu, Min-Kai; Shemesh, Hagay

    2013-12-01

    The distance between a coronal reference point and the major apical foramen is important for working length determination. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the accuracy of root canal length measurements performed with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans using a gold standard. A total of 162 teeth (198 root canals) in 16 dry human dentulous mandibles were scanned using a 3DX-Accuitomo CBCT scanner (Morita 3DX; J Morita Mfg Corp, Kyoto, Japan). The root canal length was measured with CBCT data. All teeth were extracted atraumatically and endodontically accessed; the root canal length was measured blindly using a #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and served as the gold standard. The mean absolute difference of the CBCT-based root canal length from the gold standard was 0.46 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.50 mm). Only in 9 of 198 (4.5%) roots did the difference between the CBCT-based root canal length and the gold standard exceed 1 mm. CBCT-based root canal length measurements are accurate and reliable when compared with a gold standard. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clustering of optically trapped large diameter plasmonic gold nanoparticles by laser beam of hybrid-TEM11* mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Mehta, Dalip Singh; Shakher, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Multiple trapping and clustering of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) of 254- and 150-nm diameter was affected using optical tweezers near the plasmon excitation wavelength. To ensure that the gradient force exceeded the sum of multiply-enhanced destabilizing absorption and scattering forces originating from plasmon excitation, embedded intensity gradient regions of a spatially featured asymmetric (SFA) laser beam were exploited. Thus, an intra-cavity generated SFA beam, also referred as hybrid TEM11* mode, is an intermediate between pure TEM00 and TEM11 beams and was directly obtained from a diode-pumped solid state (Nd:YAG) laser resonator without introducing any external beam modulation devices. The parabolic Gaussian-ray model of a tightly focused laser beam was adopted to evaluate the radiation forces including the volume-correction factor raised from fractional polarization of such large diameter Au-NPs under laser illumination. Temperature rise of Au-NPs and its dissipation profile in surrounding medium has also been presented. This multiple trapping and clustering of Au-NPs at plasmon excitation wavelength using sufficiently low power could be realized due to embedded intensity gradients of the SFA beam. The study might be useful for understanding the light-matter interaction, improving the sensitivity of diagnostics, and safety and efficacy of therapeutic nanotechnologies in medicine, photothermolysis, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, etc.

  5. Plasmonic gold helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Höflich, Katja; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-02-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most notably, electromagnetic modeling of the corresponding scattering spectra verified that the thickness and quality of the resulting gold shell ensures an optical response equal to that of pure gold nanostructures.

  6. Plasmonic gold helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Höflich, Katja; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-02-03

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most notably, electromagnetic modeling of the corresponding scattering spectra verified that the thickness and quality of the resulting gold shell ensures an optical response equal to that of pure gold nanostructures.

  7. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30-100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects

  8. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30–100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the

  9. Inhomogeneous Si-doping of gold-seeded InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Chloé; Caroff, Philippe; Coinon, Christophe; Wallart, Xavier; Leturcq, Renaud

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated in situ Si doping of InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy from gold seeds. The effectiveness of n-type doping is confirmed by electrical measurements showing an increase of the electron density with the Si flux. We also observe an increase of the electron density along the nanowires from the tip to the base, attributed to the dopant incorporation on the nanowire facets whereas no detectable incorporation occurs through the seed. Furthermore, the Si incorporation strongly influences the lateral growth of the nanowires without giving rise to significant tapering, revealing the complex interplay between axial and lateral growth.

  10. Far- and near-field electron beam detection of hybrid cavity-plasmonic modes in gold microholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, I.; Itskovsky, M. A.; Kauffmann, Y.; Shaked, Y.; Richter, S.; Maniv, T.; Cohen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic far- and near-field excitations of rectangular microholes in gold films are investigated by means of a focused e beam. Radiative cavity modes, well below the surface plasmon (SP) frequency, are detected at exceptionally large distances and are shown to be strongly enhanced at near-field regions of selected slit walls due to hybridization with metal-supported SP polaritons. The proposed enhancement mechanism of such hybridized modes, found here to preserve the cutoff frequencies and symmetry characteristics of the pure waveguide modes, sheds light on the intriguing phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength apertures in metallic films.

  11. SU-E-T-63: A Preliminary Study of Gold Nanoparticles Enhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K; Sha, H; Yang, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have potential of being used as a new-generation contrast agent to enhance CT imaging of cancer. This feasibility study is to determine the GNP concentration required to provide sufficient image contrast in small animal cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods: The GNPs used are nanorods with 10nm diameter and 44nm length. A 50µl GNP colloid with an original GNP concentration of 3.6mg/ml was diluted to five different concentrations at 2.4, 2.1, 2.0, 1.9 and 1.8mg/ml, respectively. The GNP colloid was enclosed in a 150µl vial, and the GNP colloid vial was submerged in a water bottle for CBCT. CBCTs were acquired with x-ray energy of 65kVp and tube current of 1.5mA. In addition, to evaluate the optimal x-ray energy for GNP detection in CBCT, the GNP colloid of 1.8mg/ml was also imaged at x-ray energy of 45kVp and 85kVp. Regions of interest were placed in axial CBCT slices contouring the GNP colloid volume and a same volume in the surrounding water to calculate the signal and contrast. Results: For the GNP colloid at concentrations of 3.6, 2.4, 2.1, 2.0, 1.9 and 1.8mg/ml, the image contrasts between GNP colloid and water were 68±4, 33±4, 23±3, 20±3, 13±4, and 10±3 HU, respectively. At 1.8mg/ml concentration level, the image contrasts were 16±3 and 7±4 HU, respectively, when the x-ray energy was set at 45kVp and 85kVp. Conclusion: The minimal GNP concentration required on our small animal CBCT was estimated to be around 1.8mg/ml due to the fact that the minimum image contrast for adequate differentiation in CT is about 8 HU. CBCT at lower x-ray energy, i.e. 45kVp, can provide better image contrast than at higher energies, i.e., 65kVp and 85kVp. A study of GNP enhanced CBCT for in vivo small animal imaging is ongoing efforts in our group.

  12. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, T.; Guidelli, E. J.; Gómez, J. A.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material. We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves. Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals. 2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both

  13. Postprostatectomy ultrasound-guided transrectal implantation of gold markers for external beam radiotherapy. Technique and complications rate.

    PubMed

    Langenhuijsen, J F; Donker, R; McColl, G M; Kiemeney, L A L M; Witjes, J A; van Lin, E N J T

    2013-06-01

    Postprostatectomy radiotherapy (RT) improves survival in adjuvant and salvage settings. The implantation technique and complications rate of gold markers in the prostate bed for high-precision RT were analyzed. Patients undergoing postprostatectomy RT for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse or high-risk disease were enrolled in the study. Under transrectal ultrasound guidance, three fine gold markers were implanted in the prostate bed and the technical difficulties of insertion were documented. Patients received our self-designed questionnaires concerning complications and pain. The influence of anticoagulants and coumarins on bleeding was analyzed, as was the effect of potential risk factors on pain. In 77 consecutive patients, failure of marker implantation or marker migration was seen in six cases. Rectal bleeding was reported by 10 patients and 1 had voiding complaints. No macroscopic hematuria persisting for more than 3 days was observed. Other complications included rectal discomfort (n = 2), nausea (n = 1), abdominal discomfort (n = 1), and pain requiring analgesics (n = 4). No major complications were reported. On a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS), the mean pain score was 3.7. No clinically significant risk factors for complications were identified. Transrectal implantation of gold markers in the prostate bed is feasible and safe. Alternatives like cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) should be considered, but the advantages of gold marker implantation for high-precision postprostatectomy RT would seem to outweigh the minor risks involved.

  14. Gold nano-particle formation from crystalline AuCN: Comparison of thermal, plasma- and ion-beam activated decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Mihály T.; Bertóti, Imre; Mohai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Jakab, Emma; Szabó, László; Szépvölgyi, János

    2017-02-01

    In this work, in addition to the conventional thermal process, two non-conventional ways, the plasma and ion beam activations are described for preparing gold nanoparticles from microcrystalline AuCN precursor. The phase formation at plasma and ion beam treatments was compared with that at thermal treatments and the products and transformations were characterized by thermogravimetry-mass-spectrometry (TG-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TG-MS measurements in Ar atmosphere revealed that AuCN decomposition starts at 400 °C and completes at ≈700 °C with evolution of gaseous (CN)2. XPS and TEM show that in heat treatment at 450 °C for 1 h in Ar, loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs and small, 5-30 nm gold particles forms. Heating at 450 °C for 10 h in sealed ampoule, much larger, 60-200 nm size and well faceted Au particles develop together with a fibrous (CN)n polymer phase, and the Au crystallites are covered by a 3-5 nm thick polymer shell. Low pressure Ar plasma treatment at 300 eV energy results in 4-20 nm size Au particles and removes most of the nitrogen and part of carbon. During Ar+ ion bombardment with 2500 eV energy, 5-30 nm size Au crystallites form already in 10 min, with preferential loss of nitrogen and with increased amount of carbon residue. The results suggest that plasma and ion beam activation, acting similarly to thermal treatment, may be used to prepare Au nanoparticles from AuCN on selected surface areas either by depositing AuCN precursors on selected regions or by focusing the applied ionized radiation. Thus they may offer alternative ways for preparing tailor-made catalysts, electronic devices and sensors for different applications.

  15. Enhancing the effect of 4MeV electron beam using gold nanoparticles in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mehrnia, Somayeh Sadat; Hashemi, Bijan; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Arbabi, Azim

    2017-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been applied as radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. Limited reports have shown that GNPs may be effective as a dose enhancer agent for electron radiation therapy. Some Monte Carlo Simulation studies have shown that selecting suitable size of GNPs and electron energies are critical for effective dose enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess possible radiosensitization effect of GNPs on cancer cell treated with 4MeV electron beams. Approximately 10nm GNPs were synthesized and characterized by electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used and their viability was measured by MTT assay. Radiosensitization effect of GNPs under 4MeV electron beams was measured by clonogenic assay. The result showed a concentration dependent uptake of GNPs without reducing cell viability at concentrations ≤50mg/L. Incubation of cancer cells with GNPs caused a significant decrease in their viability following exposure to electron beams as well as a decrease in their survival fraction when compared to control. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) by electron beams in MCF-7 cells was 1.43 and 1.40 in presence of 25 and 50mg/L GNPs, respectively. For MDA-MB-231 cells, it was 1.62 in presence of 25mg/L GNPs. Our data demonstrated the significant dose enhancement of the GNPs in combination with 4MeV electron beams that could be applicable for the treatment of superficial tumors and intra operative radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Formation of uniformly sized gold nanoparticles over graphene by MeV electron beam irradiation for transparent conducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yooseok; Lee, Su-il; Youb Lee, Seung; Cha, Myoung-Jun; Song, Wooseok; Sung Jung, Dae; Park, Chong-Yun

    2013-06-03

    Highly flexible, transparent, and conducting sheet was fabricated by decoration of uniformly sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with high-density on large-area graphene by MeV electron beam irradiation (MEBI) at room temperature under ambient conditions. The Au NPs with an average size of 13.6 ± 3.5 nm were clearly decorated on the graphene after MEBI with an irradiation energy of 1.0 MeV. The sheet resistances of the Au NPs/graphene significantly decreased. For the Au NPs/trilayer graphene, the sheet resistance reached to ∼45 Ω/sq, and the optical transmittance was ∼90.2% which is comparable to that of conventional indium tin oxide film.

  17. Comparison of the uniformity of soft and hard x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, John F.; Holland, Glenn E.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Pien, G.; Bradley, David K.

    1997-10-01

    A comparison of the uniformity of the soft and hard x-ray emissions from planar gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams has been performed. A normal-incidence microscope with two multilayer coated mirrors formed 2D images at a wavelength of 48.3 angstroms (257 eV energy). The X5.8 magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3 nsec laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range > 2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 micrometers , it was found that the soft x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard x-ray images in the energy range > 2 keV were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 100 - 150 micrometers .

  18. Z-scan studies of the nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition.

    PubMed

    Mezher, M H; Nady, A; Penny, R; Chong, W Y; Zakaria, R

    2015-11-20

    This paper details the fabrication process for placing single-layer gold (Au) nanoparticles on a planar substrate, and investigation of the resulting optical properties that can be exploited for nonlinear optics applications. Preparation of Au nanoparticles on the substrate involved electron beam deposition and subsequent thermal dewetting. The obtained thin films of Au had a variation in thicknesses related to the controllable deposition time during the electron beam deposition process. These samples were then subjected to thermal annealing at 600°C to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au nanoparticles. Observation from field-effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images indicated the size of Au nanoparticles ranges from ∼13 to ∼48  nm. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear effects on the fabricated Au nanoparticle layers where it strongly relates LSPR and nonlinear optical properties.

  19. Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Espada, L.; Chen, C. D.

    2009-09-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

  20. The feasibility of polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-06-21

    A recent study investigated the feasibility to develop a bench-top x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) system capable of determining the spatial distribution and concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in vivo using a diagnostic energy range polychromatic (i.e. 110 kVp) pencil-beam source. In this follow-up study, we examined the feasibility of a polychromatic cone-beam implementation of XFCT by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the MCNP5 code. In the current MC model, cylindrical columns with various sizes (5-10 mm in diameter) containing water loaded with GNPs (0.1-2% gold by weight) were inserted into a 5 cm diameter cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. The phantom was then irradiated by a lead-filtered 110 kVp x-ray source, and the resulting gold fluorescence and Compton-scattered photons were collected by a series of energy-sensitive tallies after passing through lead parallel-hole collimators. A maximum-likelihood iterative reconstruction algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the image of GNP-loaded objects within the phantom. The effects of attenuation of both the primary beam through the phantom and the gold fluorescence photons en route to the detector were corrected during the image reconstruction. Accurate images of the GNP-containing phantom were successfully reconstructed for three different phantom configurations, with both spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs well identified. The pixel intensity of regions containing GNPs was linearly proportional to the gold concentration. The current MC study strongly suggests the possibility of developing a bench-top, polychromatic, cone-beam XFCT system for in vivo imaging.

  1. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  2. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  3. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  4. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  5. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  6. 32 CFR 197.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 197.4 Section 197.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.4 Policy. It is DoD policy...

  7. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  8. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  9. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  10. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  11. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  12. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the no...

  13. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  14. 32 CFR 197.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 197.5 Section 197.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.5 Responsibilities....

  15. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remanufactured OTRBs. 37.197 Section 37.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.197 Remanufactured OTRBs. (a) This section applies to...

  16. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remanufactured OTRBs. 37.197 Section 37.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.197 Remanufactured OTRBs. (a) This section applies to...

  17. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  18. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remanufactured OTRBs. 37.197 Section 37.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.197 Remanufactured OTRBs. (a) This section applies to...

  19. 46 CFR 197.346 - Diver's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  20. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  1. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  2. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  3. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  4. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197 ...

  6. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197 ...

  7. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197 ...

  8. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197 ...

  9. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197 ...

  10. 46 CFR 197.400 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 197.400 Section 197.400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.400 Applicability. Diving operations...

  11. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  12. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  13. 27 CFR 41.197 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., § 41.197 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 41.197 Section 41.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  14. 46 CFR 197.420 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations manual. 197.420 Section 197.420 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.420 Operations manual. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Provide an operations manual to the person-in-charge prior to commencement of...

  15. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 197.300 Section 197.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.300 Applicability. (a) Each...

  16. Interface-state-controlled segregation of gold during ion-beam-induced epitaxy of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, J.S.; Thompson, M.O. ); Jacobson, D.C.; Poate, J.M. )

    1991-10-15

    Segregation coefficients and velocity enhancements for Au in amorphous Si during ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization were measured. At 320 {degree}C, velocity enhancements of up to 2.5 times were observed, and interface breakdown occurred at interfacial Au concentrations of 11 at. %. Although qualitatively similar to thermal solid-phase epitaxy, these velocity enhancements are substantially reduced in magnitude while the interface breakdown occurs at much higher concentrations. Between 250 {degree}C and 400 {degree}C, Au is trapped at the moving interface with segregation coefficients {ital k}, which are approximately velocity and concentration independent and vary between 0.001 and 0.012. In contrast with classical segregation, however, {ital k} increases linearly with interface position during the initial stages of growth to a temperature-dependent steady-state value. At 250 {degree}C, for example, {ital k} increases by at least a factor of 4 to 0.012 during growth. These results suggest an evolving interface structure from the initial thermal configuration to an irradiation-induced steady-state configuration with a higher trapping efficiency.

  17. Gold diffusion in mercury cadmium telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamet, Yusuf; Singh, Rasdip; Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Yong D.; Sivananthan, Sivalingam; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2003-12-01

    The growth and characterization of Au-doped HgCdTe layers on (211)B CdTe/Si substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy reported. The electrical properties of these layers studied for diffusion are presented. For ex-situ experiments, thin Au layers were deposited by evaporation and annealed at various temperatures and times to investigate the p-type doping properties and diffusion of Au in HgCdTe. The atomic distribution of the diffused Au was determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. We found clear evidence for p-type doping of HgCdTe:Au by in-situ and ex-situ methods. For in-situ doped layers, we found that, the Au cell temperature needs to be around 900°C to get p-type behavior. The diffusion coefficient of Au in HgCdTe was calculated by fitting SIMS profiles after annealing. Both complementary error functions and gaussian fittings were used, and were in full agreement. Diffusion coefficient as low as 8x10-14cm2/s observed for a sample annealed at 250°C and slow component of a diffusion coefficient as low as 2x10-15 cm2/s observed for a sample annealed at 300°C. Our preliminary results indicate no appreciable diffusion of Au in HgCdTe under the conditions used in these studies. Further work is in progress to confirm these results and to quantify our SIMS profiles.

  18. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any statement...

  19. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any statement...

  20. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any statement...

  1. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any statement...

  2. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  3. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  4. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  5. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  6. 46 CFR 197.400 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 197.400 Section 197.400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS... only be conducted from a vessel or facility subject to the subpart if the regulations in this...

  7. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any statement...

  8. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  9. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  10. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  11. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  12. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  13. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  14. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  15. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  16. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  17. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  18. Electron beam induced water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles as a natural antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanocolloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongkrongsak, Soraya; Tangthong, Theeranan; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2016-01-01

    The research proposes a novel water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles (WSSF-NPs) created by electron beam irradiation. In this report, we demonstrate the effects of electron beam irradiation doses ranging from 1 to 30 kGy on the molecular weight (MW), nanostructure formation, antioxidant activity and reducing power of the WSSF-NPs. Electron beam-induced degradation of SF causing MW reduction from 250 to 37 kDa. Chemical characteristic functions of SF still remained after exposing to electron beam. The WSSF-NPs with the MW of 37 kDa exhibited spherical morphology with a nanoscaled size of 40 nm. Antioxidant activities and reducing powers were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhryl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. The WSSF-NPs showed greater antioxidant activity and reducing power than non-irradiated SF. By increasing their antioxidant and reducing power efficiencies, WSSF-NPs potentially created gold nanocolloid. WSSF-NPs produced by electron beam irradiation would be a great merit for the uses as a natural antioxidant additive and a green reducing agent in biomedical, cosmetic and food applications.

  19. {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 197}At

    SciTech Connect

    Andgren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Baeck, T.; Hadinia, B.; Johnson, A.; Khaplanov, A.; Sandzelius, M.; Wyss, R.; Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P. M.; Juutinen, S.; Julin, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.

    2008-10-15

    Excited states of the extremely neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 197}At have been studied in an in-beam experiment using the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 118}Sn({sup 82}Kr,p2n){sup 197}At. {gamma} rays belonging to {sup 197}At feeding the I{sup {pi}}=(9/2{sup -}) ground state, as well as {gamma} rays feeding the 311-keV I{sup {pi}}=(13/2{sup +}) isomer, decaying via the emission of {gamma} rays, and the 52-keV I{sup {pi}}=(1/2{sup +}){alpha}-decaying isomer have been identified using the recoil-{alpha}-decay tagging technique. Total Routhian surface calculations predict a near-spherical shape for the (9/2{sup -}) ground state and oblate shapes with {beta}{sub 2} around -0.2 for the (1/2{sup +}) and the (13/2{sup +}) states. These predictions agree with our experimental findings.

  20. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  1. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  2. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  3. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  4. 46 CFR 197.480 - Logbooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.480 Logbooks. (a) The person-in-charge of a vessel or... subpart. (c) The diving supervisor conducting commercial diving operations from a vessel or...

  5. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  6. 12 CFR 197.9 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 197.9 Section 197.9 Banks... Escrow requirement. (a) Any funds received in an offering which is offered and sold on a best efforts all-or-none condition or with a minimum-maximum amount to be sold shall be held in an escrow or similar...

  7. 12 CFR 197.9 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 197.9 Section 197.9 Banks... Escrow requirement. (a) Any funds received in an offering which is offered and sold on a best efforts all-or-none condition or with a minimum-maximum amount to be sold shall be held in an escrow or similar...

  8. 12 CFR 197.9 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 197.9 Section 197.9 Banks... Escrow requirement. (a) Any funds received in an offering which is offered and sold on a best efforts all-or-none condition or with a minimum-maximum amount to be sold shall be held in an escrow or similar...

  9. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.488 Retention of records...)(2)(ii), § 197.404(a)(4), § 197.410(a)(9). (c) The owner, agent, person-in-charge, or...

  10. SU-E-J-247: A Simulation of X-Ray Emission with Gold Nanoparticle Irradiated by Energetic Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Newpower, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the proton induced X-ray emissions in gold-water mixture materials. Methods: In this study a Monte Carlo simulation was created using the GEANT4 toolkit (version 4.9.6). The geometry in this setup includes a 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm target, a scoring sphere (radius = 10 cm) and a 65 MeV planar proton source (2 cm × 2 cm). Four concentrations of a gold-water solution were irradiated with 5×10{sup 5} incident protons at a distance of 0.5 cm perpendicular to the surface of the target. The solutions of gold-water mixture had 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.5% of gold by mass, respectively. The number of photon emitting for the target was counted in the scoring sphere for the energy range of 0-86.0 keV in 0.1 keV bins. For this study the reference physics list PhysListEmStandard was used together with the x-ray fluorescence, Auger electron and PIXE (particle induced xray emission) options enabled. The range cuts for photons and electrons were set at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. Results: In the energy spectra of emitting X-ray fluorescence, peaks from gold K shell characteristic x-rays (68.8 and 66.9 keV) were observed. The number of counts under the peaks of Ka1 and Ka2 was found to increase with the increasing of the gold concentrations in the mixture materials. The X-ray yields (for both Ka1 and Ka2) when fitted with least-square method as a function of gold concentration demonstrate a linear dependency with R{sup 2} > 0.96. The Ka1yield per incident proton was found to be 0.0016 for 10% gold-water mixture solutions. Conclusion: This preliminary study with PIXE technique with gold nanoparticle has demonstrated potentials for its utilization in the development of range and dose verification methodology that is currently of great interest in the field of proton radiation therapy.

  11. Target rapidity baryon distributions in {sup 28}Si + {sup 197}Au and {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at 14.6 and 11.7 A{center_dot}GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Costales, J.B.; Namboodiri, M.N.; E802 Collaboration

    1993-02-25

    Proton and deuteron kinetic energy spectra have been measured at target rapidities for both minimum bias and central collisions of 14.6 A{center_dot}GeV/c {sup 28}Si and 11.7 A{center_dot}GeV/c {sup 197}Au beams with a {sup 197}Au target. The spectra were measured from a low energy threshold of approximately E{sub kin}=35 MeV to well over 200 MeV for laboratory angles of 50{degree} to 130{degree} ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {le}0.76). The acceptance-corrected spectra have been fit over a limited range of kinetic energies using a Boltzmann distribution. The integrated yields and the inverse slope parameters are presented as a function of centrality for the {sup 28}Si + {sup 197}Au reaction and as a function of trigger for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reaction. These quantities are also compared with the proton spectra generated using both the ARC and RQMD codes.

  12. Experimental demonstration of benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using lead- and tin-filtered polychromatic cone-beams.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bernard L; Manohar, Nivedh; Reynoso, Francisco; Karellas, Andrew; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2012-12-07

    This report presents the first experimental demonstration, to our knowledge, of benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for a simultaneous determination of the spatial distribution and amount of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within small-animal-sized objects. The current benchtop experimental setup successfully produced XFCT images accurately showing the regions containing small amount of GNPs (on the order of 0.1 mg) within a 3 cm diameter plastic phantom. In particular, the performance of the current XFCT setup was improved remarkably (e.g., at least a factor of 3 reduction in XFCT scan time) using a tin-filtered polychromatic beam in comparison with a lead-filtered beam. The results of this study strongly suggest that the current benchtop XFCT configuration can be made practical with a few modifications such as the deployment of array detectors, while meeting realistic constraints on x-ray dose, scan time and image resolution for routine pre-clinical in vivo imaging with GNPs.

  13. Experimental demonstration of benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using lead- and tin-filtered polychromatic cone-beams

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bernard L.; Manohar, Nivedh; Reynoso, Francisco; Karellas, Andrew; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the first experimental demonstration, to our knowledge, of benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for a simultaneous determination of the spatial distribution and amount of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within small-animal-sized objects. The current benchtop experimental setup successfully produced XFCT images accurately showing the regions containing small amount of GNPs (on the order of 0.1 mg) within a 3-cm diameter plastic phantom. In particular, the performance of the current XFCT setup was improved remarkably (e.g., at least a factor of 3 reduction in XFCT scan time) using a tin-filtered polychromatic beam in comparison with a lead-filtered beam. The results of this study strongly suggest the current benchtop XFCT configuration can be made practical with a few modifications such as the deployment of array detectors, while meeting realistic constraints on x-ray dose, scan time, and image resolution for routine pre-clinical in-vivo imaging with GNPs. PMID:23135315

  14. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 197

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 197 have been updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies leading to nuclides in the A = 197 mass chain since December 1989 (cutoff date of the last evaluation). The updated level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 197. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  15. Romanian ancient gold objects provenance studies using micro-beam methods: the case of “Pietroasa” hoard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Cojocaru, V.; Voiculescu, D.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Ceccato, D.

    2005-04-01

    Five fragments of ancient gold objects belonging to Pietroasa "Cloşca cu Puii de Aur" ("The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens") Romanian hoard were analysed using the micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique. The purpose of the study was to gain some more knowledge regarding the metal provenance by determining the presence of PGE (Platinum Group Elements) and other high-temperature melting point trace elements (Ta, Nb, Cr) at a micrometric scale. Ta and Nb inclusions (micrometric areas of composition different from the surroundings) on three samples and Pd inclusions on one sample were found. The measurements led to some conclusions for the possible gold ore sources of Pietroasa treasury: the South-Ural Mountains, Nubia (Sudan) and/or Anatolian deposits and Roman imperial coins.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Transrectal Implantation of Gold Markers for Prostate Localization During External Beam Radiotherapy: Complication Rate and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenhuijsen, Johan F.; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Vight, Lisette P. van der; McColl, Gill; Visser, Andries G.; Witjes, J. Alfred

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report the complication rate and risk factors of transrectally implanted gold markers, used for prostate position verification and correction procedures. Methods and Materials: In 209 consecutive men with localized prostate cancer, four gold markers (1 x 7 mm) were inserted under ultrasound guidance in an outpatient setting, and the toxicity was analyzed. All patients received a questionnaire regarding complications after marker implantation. The complications and risk factors were further evaluated by reviewing the medical charts. Results: Of the 209 men, 13 (6.2%) had a moderate complication, consisting of pain and fever that resolved after treatment with oral medication. In 1.9% of the men, minor voiding complaints were observed. Other minor transient complications, defined as hematuria lasting >3 days, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding, occurred in 3.8%, 18.5%, and 9.1% of the patients, respectively. These complications were seen more often in patients with advanced tumor stage, younger age, and shorter duration of hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Transrectal gold marker implantation for high-precision prostate radiotherapy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  17. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  18. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  19. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  20. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  1. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  2. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  3. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  4. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  5. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  6. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  7. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  8. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  9. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  10. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  11. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  12. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  13. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  14. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  15. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  16. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  17. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater and surface conditions (weather, visibility, temperatures, and currents). (3) Name of the diving... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in-charge shall insure that the following information is recorded in the logbook for each commercial diving...

  18. 46 CFR 197.480 - Logbooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.480 Logbooks. (a) The person-in-charge of a vessel or... form CG-706. (b) The person-in-charge of a vessel or facility not required by 46 U.S.C. 11301 to...

  19. 32 CFR 197.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.3 Definition. Historical researcher or researcher. A person desiring to conduct research in OSD files for historical information to use in any project (e.g. agency historical office projects, books, articles, studies, or reports...

  20. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.300 Applicability. (a) Each diving... vessels and is part of the diving installation must meet Subchapters F and J of this chapter. (c) All repairs and modifications to pressure vessels used for commercial diving operations must be made...

  1. Transverse expansion in 197> Au + 197> Au collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, K.; Schweda, K.; Xu, N.

    2003-06-24

    Using the RQMD model, transverse momentum distributions and particle ratios are studied for {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. In particular, they present results on the mean transverse momentum of charged pions, charged kaons, protons and anti-protons and compare with experimental measurements. They discuss an approach to study early partonic collectivity in high energy nuclear collisions.

  2. Spectroscopy of {sup 193,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J.A.; McNabb, D.P.; Ding, K.Y.; Davids, C.N.; Janssens, R.V.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Amro, H.; Decrock, P.; Reiter, P.; Nisius, D.; Brown, L.T.; Fischer, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Wauters, J.; Bingham, C.R.; Huyse, M.; Andreyev, A.; Seweryniak, D.; Conticchio, L.F.; Brown, L.T.

    1997-08-01

    Excited states built on the 13/2{sup +} isomers of the odd-mass {sup 193,195,197}Po isotopes have been observed via in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The {alpha} radioactivity of these isotopes has been used to tag {gamma}-ray transitions following the {sup A}Er+164 MeV {sup 32}S reactions, where A=164, 166, 167, 168, and 170. Prompt {gamma} radiation was measured by ten Compton-suppressed Ge detectors at the target position and the Fragment Mass Analyzer was used to select evaporation residues. The results are compared with the first excited states of the heavier odd-mass polonium isotopes and of the even-mass cores. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Studies of {sup 194,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    The energy systematics of low-lying polonium states show sudden changes near N = 114. The observed drops in the low-lying levels of {sup 196,198}Po relative to the heavier isotopes indicate significant changes in the underlying structure of these nuclei. It is thought that this change is due to the onset of vibrational collectivity brought about by the quadrupole interaction between neutron and proton-pairs. In order to extend the Po systematics even further, we measured, for the first time, states in {sup 194,195,197}Po using the {sup 28}Si + {sup 170}Yb reaction at a beam energy of 142 MeV. The beam was supplied by ATLAS, and the data were taken with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors placed at the target position of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Preliminary level schemes were constructed for {sup 194,195,197}Po based on {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-FMA coincidences. The results for {sup 194}Po show that the 2{sup +} - 0{sup +} transition energy decreased in energy by 140 keV relative to {sup 196}Po suggesting that this nucleus moved beyond the vibrational limit to more collective motion. An extrapolation of the systematics predicts that the 2{sup +} energy could drop another 140 keV between {sup 194}Po and {sup 192}Po which would indicate the onset of rotational motion. Currently, we have an approved experiment to investigate the decay of yrast isomers in {sup 194}Po which will allow us to (1) confirm our earlier level scheme of {sup 194}Po, and (2) assess the experimental conditions needed for a future study of {sup 192}Po.

  4. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 197.510 Section 197.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  5. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  6. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 197.510 Section 197.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  7. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 197.510 Section 197.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  8. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  9. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  12. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 197.510 Section 197.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  14. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  15. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  16. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  19. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  20. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 197.510 Section 197.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  1. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  2. 47 CFR 87.197 - ELT test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ELT test procedures. 87.197 Section 87.197... Aircraft Stations Emergency Locator Transmitters § 87.197 ELT test procedures. ELT testing must avoid... with the ELT terminated into a dummy load. ...

  3. 47 CFR 87.197 - ELT test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ELT test procedures. 87.197 Section 87.197... Aircraft Stations Emergency Locator Transmitters § 87.197 ELT test procedures. ELT testing must avoid... with the ELT terminated into a dummy load. ...

  4. 47 CFR 87.197 - ELT test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ELT test procedures. 87.197 Section 87.197... Aircraft Stations Emergency Locator Transmitters § 87.197 ELT test procedures. ELT testing must avoid... with the ELT terminated into a dummy load. ...

  5. 47 CFR 87.197 - ELT test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ELT test procedures. 87.197 Section 87.197... Aircraft Stations Emergency Locator Transmitters § 87.197 ELT test procedures. ELT testing must avoid... with the ELT terminated into a dummy load. ...

  6. 47 CFR 87.197 - ELT test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ELT test procedures. 87.197 Section 87.197... Aircraft Stations Emergency Locator Transmitters § 87.197 ELT test procedures. ELT testing must avoid... with the ELT terminated into a dummy load. ...

  7. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each...

  8. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in benzene.... (b) When observation of monitoring requires entry into regulated areas, the observers shall use...

  9. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written...

  10. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  11. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  12. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... per cubic meter of solid and liquid particulates including oil; and (iv) 25 parts per million of... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary...

  13. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders. Each compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat; (c...

  14. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders. Each compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat; (c...

  15. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in... correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the certificate should have...

  16. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety... diver's body; and (2) Prevents strain on the mask or helmet. ...

  17. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  18. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  19. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  20. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  1. 12 CFR 197.12 - Securities sale report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Securities sale report. 197.12 Section 197.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.12... the proceeds, which shall include all of the information required by Form G-12 set forth appendix A...

  2. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  3. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  4. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  5. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  8. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  9. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  10. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  11. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  12. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  13. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  14. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37 Section 197.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.37 Can EPA amend this...

  15. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buoyancy-changing devices. 197.342 Section 197.342... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices. (a) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing device not directly connected to the exhaust valve of the...

  16. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buoyancy-changing devices. 197.342 Section 197.342... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices. (a) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing device not directly connected to the exhaust valve of the...

  17. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyancy-changing devices. 197.342 Section 197.342... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices. (a) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing device not directly connected to the exhaust valve of the...

  18. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buoyancy-changing devices. 197.342 Section 197.342... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices. (a) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing device not directly connected to the exhaust valve of the...

  19. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buoyancy-changing devices. 197.342 Section 197.342... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices. (a) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing device not directly connected to the exhaust valve of the...

  20. 46 CFR 197.318 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.318 Section 197.318 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.318 Gages and timekeeping...

  1. 46 CFR 197.210 - Designation of diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of diving supervisor. 197.210 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.210 Designation of diving supervisor. The name of the diving supervisor for each commercial diving operation shall be— (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open diving bells. 197.334 Section 197.334 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.334 Open diving bells. Each open...

  3. 36 CFR 223.197 - Civil penalty assessment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty assessment procedures. 223.197 Section 223.197 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.197 Civil...

  4. 36 CFR 223.197 - Civil penalty assessment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil penalty assessment procedures. 223.197 Section 223.197 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.197 Civil...

  5. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  6. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  7. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  8. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  9. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written...

  10. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written...

  11. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written...

  12. 12 CFR 19.7 - Good faith certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good faith certification. 19.7 Section 19.7... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.7 Good faith certification. (a) General requirement... warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of...

  13. 12 CFR 19.7 - Good faith certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good faith certification. 19.7 Section 19.7... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.7 Good faith certification. (a) General requirement... warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of...

  14. 12 CFR 19.7 - Good faith certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good faith certification. 19.7 Section 19.7... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.7 Good faith certification. (a) General requirement... warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of...

  15. 46 CFR 197.203 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of appeal. 197.203 Section 197.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.203 Right of appeal. Any person directly...

  16. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansilla, C.; Mehendale, S.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, ‘in situ’ purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for ‘in situ’ Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  17. Enhancement of laser to X-ray conversion by counter-propagating laser beams irradiating thin gold targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ge, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Xu, B. B.; Ramis, R.

    2017-03-01

    X-ray emission from laser irradiating solid target is an important X-ray source for various potential applications. Counter-propagating (C-P) laser beams configuration is proposed to enhance the laser to X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) from laser irradiating solid targets. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations show that the total X-ray CE for the C-P lasers case is as high as 65%, which has a 13% improvement compared with the single laser case. The improvement is mainly caused by the enlarged radiation region, and the enhancement of X-ray emission is from soft X-ray. Detailed energy term distributions and influences of the foil thickness on the X-ray CEs for both cases are presented. It is found that the enhancement of radiation is attributed to lower thermal and kinetic energy of the C-P lasers scheme.

  18. Onset of nuclear vaporization in [sup 197]Au+[sup 197]Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, M.B.; Hsi, W.C.; Lynch, W.G.; Bowman, D.R.; Gelbke, C.K.; Lisa, M.A.; Peaslee, G.F. ); Kunde, G.J.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Hofmann, T.; Hubele, J.; Kempter, J.; Kreutz, P.; Kunze, W.D.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mang, M.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Neumann, M.; Ocker, B.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rosenberger, F.; Sann, H.; Schuettauf, A.; Serfling, V.; Stroth, J.; Trautmann, W.; Tucholski, A.; Woerner, A.; Zude, E.; Zwieglinski, B. ); Aiello, S.; Imme, G.; Pappalardo, V.; Raciti, G. ); Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G. ); Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Scardoni, R.; Ferr

    1993-09-06

    Multifragmentation has been measured for [sup 197]Au+[sup 197]Au collisions at [ital E]/[ital A]=100, 250, and 400 MeV. The mean fragment multiplicity increases monotonically with the charged particle multiplicity at [ital E]/[ital A]=100 MeV, but decreases for central collisions with incident energy, consistent with the onset of nuclear vaporization. Molecular dynamics calculations follow some trends but underpredict the observed fragment multiplicities. Including the statistical decay of excited residues improves the agreement for peripheral collisions but worsens it for central collisions.

  19. Gold Rush!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahier, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  20. Localized Dose Enhancement to Tumor Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells via Megavoltage X-rays and Targeted Gold Nanoparticles: New Potential for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Tumor endothelial cell damage during radiation therapy may contribute significantly to tumor eradication and treatment efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) delivered preferentially to the walls of tumor blood vessels produce low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiotherapy, boosting dose to the tumor microvasculature. In this study dosimetry at the single-cell level is used to estimate the anticipated AuNP-mediated dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells during 6-MV X-ray irradiation. Methods and Materials: Endothelial cells are modeled as thin slabs with 100-nm-diameter AuNPs attached within the blood vessel. The number of photoelectrons emitted per AuNP per gray of X-rays is computed at multiple points along the external beam central axis by use of a Monte Carlo-generated energy fluence spectrum. The energy deposited from AuNP emissions to the endothelium is calculated based on an analytic method incorporating the energy-loss formula of Cole. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF) is the ratio of the overall (externally plus internally generated) dose to endothelial cells in the presence of AuNPs to the dose without AuNPs (from the external beam only). Results: At 20-cm depth, the EDEF is 1.7 (70% dose increase) for an intravascular AuNP concentration of 30 mg/g. Most of this dose enhancement arises from the low-energy (approximately 100 keV) portion of the linear accelerator X-ray spectrum. Furthermore, for AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 140 mg/g, EDEF values of 1.2 to 4.4 (20-340% dose increase) are calculated. Conclusions: In contrast to calculations assuming that AuNPs distributed homogeneously throughout the target volume (macrodosimetry), our cellular microdosimetry calculations predict a major dose enhancement to tumor microvasculature from conventional linear accelerator X-rays. This effect may enable the delivery of ablative therapeutic doses to these sensitive microstructures while maintaining

  1. Combined Photoacoustic Ultrasound and Beam Deflection Signal Monitoring of Gold Nanoparticle Agglomerate Concentrations in Tissue Phantoms Using a Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss the effects of the gold nanoparticle (Au-NPs) concentration inside a tissue phantom using a combined system of photoacoustics (PA) and optical beam deflection and their applications particularly to photoacoustic imaging. It was found that the PA signal from aggregated Au nanoparticles is significantly enhanced. The stock concentration of 100 nm Au-NPs was particles/mL from which three samples with 30 %, 70 %, and 90 % concentration were prepared using polyvinyl chloride-plastisol. Each sample was then irradiated across a line scan using a 10 ns pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a 1 Hz repetition rate and so that no physical ablation was observed. The corresponding photoacoustic pressure was found to approximately cover a range between 10 kPa and 51 kPa. This corresponds to approximately 130 pJ to 315 pJ of acoustic energy radiated by Au-NPs into the tissue. The maximal efficacy of the transformation of optical energy into thermal energy was . Time-resolved photoacoustic deflection was also used to monitor the laser-interaction process. The results clearly indicated that (i) the photoacoustic signal amplitude varies in a given sample as a result of the non-uniform concentration distribution of embedded Au-NPs; (ii) an increase of the concentration increased the signal amplitude linearly; and (iii) at higher nanoparticle concentrations, the probe deflection was found to increase due to a steeper thermoelastic gradient as a result of a higher absorption by particle agglomerates and particle size-dependent dispersions.

  2. Gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for treatment of prostate cancer: A prospective cone beam computed tomography and kilovoltage on-board imaging (kV-OBI) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for therapy of prostate cancer. Patients and methods 18 patients entered into this prospective evaluation. Three gold markers were implanted into the prostate during the first HDR-brachytherapy procedure after the irradiation was administered. Three days after marker implantation all patients had a CT-scan for planning purpose of the percutaneous irradiation. Marker localization was defined on the digitally-reconstructed-radiographs (DRR) for daily (VMAT technique) or weekly (IMRT) set-up error correction. Percutaneous therapy started one week after first HDR-brachytherapy. After the second HDR-brachytherapy, two weeks after first HDR-brachtherapy, a cone-beam CT-scan was done to evaluate marker displacement due to needle insertion. In case of marker displacement, the actual positions of the gold markers were adjusted on the DRR. Results The value of the gold marker displacement due to the second HDR-brachytherapy was analyzed in all patients and for each gold marker by comparison of the marker positions in the prostate after soft tissue registration of the prostate of the CT-scans prior the first and second HDR-brachytherapy. The maximum deviation was 5 mm, 7 mm and 12 mm for the anterior-posterior, lateral and superior-inferior direction. At least one marker in each patient showed a significant displacement and therefore new marker positions were adjusted on the DRRs for the ongoing percutaneous therapy. Conclusions Needle insertion in the prostate due to HDR-brachytherapy can lead to gold marker displacements. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the actual position of markers after the second HDR-brachytherapy. In case of significant deviations, a new DRR with the adjusted marker positions should be generated for precise positioning during the ongoing percutaneous irradiation. PMID:22348595

  3. Gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for treatment of prostate cancer: a prospective cone beam computed tomography and kilovoltage on-board imaging (kV-OBI) study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus K A; Kertesz, Tereza; Gsänger, Tammo; Bloch, Eugen; Pollul, Gerhard; Bouabdallaoui, Mohamed; Strauss, Arne; Herrmann, Mareike; Christiansen, Hans; Wolff, Hendrik A; Hess, Clemens F; Hille, Andrea

    2012-02-20

    To evaluate gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for therapy of prostate cancer. 18 patients entered into this prospective evaluation. Three gold markers were implanted into the prostate during the first HDR-brachytherapy procedure after the irradiation was administered. Three days after marker implantation all patients had a CT-scan for planning purpose of the percutaneous irradiation. Marker localization was defined on the digitally-reconstructed-radiographs (DRR) for daily (VMAT technique) or weekly (IMRT) set-up error correction. Percutaneous therapy started one week after first HDR-brachytherapy. After the second HDR-brachytherapy, two weeks after first HDR-brachtherapy, a cone-beam CT-scan was done to evaluate marker displacement due to needle insertion. In case of marker displacement, the actual positions of the gold markers were adjusted on the DRR. The value of the gold marker displacement due to the second HDR-brachytherapy was analyzed in all patients and for each gold marker by comparison of the marker positions in the prostate after soft tissue registration of the prostate of the CT-scans prior the first and second HDR-brachytherapy. The maximum deviation was 5 mm, 7 mm and 12 mm for the anterior-posterior, lateral and superior-inferior direction. At least one marker in each patient showed a significant displacement and therefore new marker positions were adjusted on the DRRs for the ongoing percutaneous therapy. Needle insertion in the prostate due to HDR-brachytherapy can lead to gold marker displacements. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the actual position of markers after the second HDR-brachytherapy. In case of significant deviations, a new DRR with the adjusted marker positions should be generated for precise positioning during the ongoing percutaneous irradiation.

  4. 46 CFR 197.200 - Purpose of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.200 Purpose of subpart. This subpart... and health standards for commercial diving operations taking place from vessels and facilities...

  5. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. (a) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made...

  6. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. (a) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made...

  7. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. (a) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made...

  8. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. (a) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made...

  9. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. (a) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made...

  10. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat; (c... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  11. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat; (c... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  12. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compressed gas cylinder must— (a) Be stored in a ventilated area; (b) Be protected from excessive heat; (c... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  14. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  15. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  16. 26 CFR 1.197-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.197-0 Section 1.197-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...) Mortgage servicing rights. (7) Computer software acquired for internal use. (f) Computation of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.197-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.197-0 Section 1.197-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...) Mortgage servicing rights. (7) Computer software acquired for internal use. (f) Computation of...

  18. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special flight permits. 21.197 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.197 Special flight permits. (a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable...

  19. 40 CFR 197.14 - What is a reasonable expectation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a reasonable expectation? 197... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal § 197.14 What is a reasonable expectation? Reasonable expectation means that NRC is satisfied that compliance will be achieved based upon the...

  20. 40 CFR 197.11 - What does subpart B cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What does subpart B cover? 197.11 Section 197.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  1. 40 CFR 197.11 - What does subpart B cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What does subpart B cover? 197.11 Section 197.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  2. 40 CFR 197.11 - What does subpart B cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What does subpart B cover? 197.11 Section 197.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  3. 40 CFR 197.11 - What does subpart B cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does subpart B cover? 197.11 Section 197.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  4. 40 CFR 197.11 - What does subpart B cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does subpart B cover? 197.11 Section 197.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  5. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  6. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  7. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  8. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  9. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  10. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  11. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  12. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  13. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37 Section 197.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  14. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  15. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  16. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  17. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  18. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  19. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  20. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  1. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  2. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37 Section 197.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  3. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37 Section 197.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  4. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  5. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  6. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each decompression chamber must— (a) Meet the requirements of § 197.328; (b) Have internal dimensions... (m) Have a sound-powered headset or telephone as a backup to the communications system required by § 197.328(c) (5) and (6), except when that communications system is a sound-powered system. ...

  7. 46 CFR 197.404 - Responsibilities of the diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. 197.404... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.404 Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Be fully cognizant of...

  8. 12 CFR 197.7 - Form, content, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form, content, and accounting. 197.7 Section... § 197.7 Form, content, and accounting. (a) Form and content. Any offering circular or amendment filed... misleading. (b) Accounting requirements. To be declared effective an offering circular or amendment...

  9. 36 CFR 223.197 - Civil penalty assessment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil penalty assessment procedures. 223.197 Section 223.197 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  10. 36 CFR 223.197 - Civil penalty assessment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty assessment procedures. 223.197 Section 223.197 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  11. 36 CFR 223.197 - Civil penalty assessment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty assessment procedures. 223.197 Section 223.197 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage...

  12. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  13. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  14. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  15. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the Exchange...

  16. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the Exchange...

  17. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the Exchange...

  18. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.37 Can EPA amend this rule? Yes. We can amend this rule by conducting another notice-and-comment rulemaking. Such a rulemaking...

  19. SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, D B; O’Brien, D J; McFadden, C H; Wolfe, T; Krishnan, S; Sawakuchi, G O; Hallacy, T M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) on energy deposition in water for different irradiation conditions. Methods: TOPAS version B12 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate energy deposition in water from monoenergetic 40 keV and 85 keV photon beams and a 6 MV Varian Clinac photon beam (IAEA phase space file, 10x10 cm{sup 2}, SSD 100 cm). For the 40 and 85 keV beams, monoenergetic 2x2 mm{sup 2} parallel beams were used to irradiate a 30x30x10 µm {sup 3} water mini-phantom located at 1.5 cm depth in a 30x30x50 cm{sup 3} water phantom. 5000 AuNPs of 50 nm diameter were randomly distributed inside the mini-phantom. Energy deposition was scored in the mini-phantom with the AuNPs’ material set to gold and then water. For the 6 MV beam, we created another phase space (PHSP) file on the surface of a 2 mm diameter sphere located at 1.5 cm depth in the water phantom. The PHSP file consisted of all particles entering the sphere including backscattered particles. Simulations were then performed using the new PHSP as the source with the mini-phantom centered in a 2 mm diameter water sphere in vacuum. The g4em-livermore reference list was used with “EMRangeMin/EMRangeMax = 100 eV/7 MeV” and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 990 eV” to create the new PHSP, and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 100 eV” for the mini-phantom simulations. All other parameters were set as defaults (“finalRange = 100 µm”). Results: The addition of AuNPs resulted in an increase in the mini-phantom energy deposition of (7.5 ± 8.7)%, (1.6 ± 8.2)%, and (−0.6 ± 1.1)% for 40 keV, 85 keV and 6 MV beams respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced energy deposition was seen at low photon energies, but decreased with increasing energy. No enhancement was observed for the 6 MV beam. Future work is required to decrease the statistical uncertainties in the simulations. This research is partially supported from institutional funds from the Center for Radiation Oncology Research, The

  20. 197Au Mössbauer study of copper refinery anode slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, J. A.; Dutrizac, J. E.; Friedl, J.; Wagner, F. E.; Chen, T. T.

    1993-06-01

    Copper refinery anode slimes are abundantly produced during the electrolytic refining of copper. Although the slimes contain significant and economically recoverable amounts of gold and silver, the chemical state of the gold has not been fully identified. In the present work, the chemical form of gold in a copper anode, in a raw slime, and in slimes treated by different leaching procedures has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy with the 77.3 keV γ-rays of197Au. The Mössbauer spectrum of the anode is typical of a dilute Au:Cu alloy. The spectrum of the raw slime consists of two components, namely, a single, rather broad line with an isomer shift (IS) of about -0.3 mm/s relative to a Pt metal source and a quadrupole doublet with an IS of + 1.2 mm/s and a quadrupole splitting of 5.0 mm/s. The single line component can be attributed to a gold-rich alloy, with an approximate composition of Au60Ag{n40} or Au80Cu20 if it is a binary alloy, or to a ternary Au-Ag-Cu alloy of appropriate composition. The parameters of the quadrupole doublet match those of Ag3AuSe2 (fischesserite) or related Ag2-xAuxSe compounds. In these compounds, the gold atoms are coordinated by two selenium atoms in a linear arrangement, as is typical for Au(I). It was found that the ratio between the concentrations of the metallic phase and the selenide strongly depends on the leaching conditions. The measurement of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor of fischesserite is also reported.

  1. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  2. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  3. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  4. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  5. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  6. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  7. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  8. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  9. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  10. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  11. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  12. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  13. 26 CFR 1.197-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other intangibles. (a) Overview. (1) In general. (2) Section 167(f) property. (3) Amounts otherwise deductible. (b) Section 197 intangibles; in general. (1) Goodwill. (2) Going concern value. (3) Workforce in place. (4) Information base. (5) Know-how, etc. (6) Customer-based intangibles. (7) Supplier-based...

  14. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.530 Persons other than employees. (a) Before a nonemployee (other than Federal, state, and local government personnel) engages in a benzene operation on a vessel in which the person is likely to be exposed to benzene in excess of the PELs, that person must certify...

  15. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  16. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.530 Persons other than employees. (a) Before a nonemployee (other than Federal, state, and local government personnel) engages in a benzene operation on a vessel in which the person is likely to be exposed to benzene in excess of the PELs, that person must certify...

  17. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.530 Persons other than employees. (a) Before a nonemployee (other than Federal, state, and local government personnel) engages in a benzene operation on a vessel in which the person is likely to be exposed to benzene in excess of the PELs, that person must certify...

  18. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.530 Persons other than employees. (a) Before a nonemployee (other than Federal, state, and local government personnel) engages in a benzene operation on a vessel in which the person is likely to be exposed to benzene in excess of the PELs, that person must certify...

  19. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  20. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  1. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  2. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.530 Persons other than employees. (a) Before a nonemployee (other than Federal, state, and local government personnel) engages in a benzene operation on a vessel in which the person is likely to be exposed to benzene in excess of the PELs, that person must certify...

  3. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  4. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers... dogs, from both sides of a closed hatch; (e) Have interior illumination sufficient to allow visual... the dive, when used for diving operations deeper than 300 fsw, unless a closed bell meeting the...

  5. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers... dogs, from both sides of a closed hatch; (e) Have interior illumination sufficient to allow visual... the dive, when used for diving operations deeper than 300 fsw, unless a closed bell meeting the...

  6. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers... dogs, from both sides of a closed hatch; (e) Have interior illumination sufficient to allow visual... the dive, when used for diving operations deeper than 300 fsw, unless a closed bell meeting the...

  7. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers... dogs, from both sides of a closed hatch; (e) Have interior illumination sufficient to allow visual... the dive, when used for diving operations deeper than 300 fsw, unless a closed bell meeting the...

  8. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 197.462 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (c) The following tests shall be... shall be submitted to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (d) Unless otherwise noted, pressure...

  9. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 197.462 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (c) The following tests shall be... shall be submitted to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (d) Unless otherwise noted, pressure...

  10. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from an aquifer containing less than 10,000 milligrams of total dissolved solids per liter of water...

  11. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as...) Have underwater breathing apparatus for each occupant stored inside each separately pressurized... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required by...

  12. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as...) Have underwater breathing apparatus for each occupant stored inside each separately pressurized... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required by...

  13. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.197...

  14. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.197...

  15. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... minute in a 4-hour period between any two timekeeping devices; and (d) Each depth gage and timekeeping...

  16. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... minute in a 4-hour period between any two timekeeping devices; and (d) Each depth gage and timekeeping...

  17. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... minute in a 4-hour period between any two timekeeping devices; and (d) Each depth gage and timekeeping...

  18. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... minute in a 4-hour period between any two timekeeping devices; and (d) Each depth gage and timekeeping...

  19. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... minute in a 4-hour period between any two timekeeping devices; and (d) Each depth gage and timekeeping...

  20. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... (2) Occurs outside of the Yucca Mountain repository but within the Yucca Mountain site; and (b) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  1. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... (2) Occurs outside of the Yucca Mountain repository but within the Yucca Mountain site; and (b) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  2. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... (2) Occurs outside of the Yucca Mountain repository but within the Yucca Mountain site; and (b) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  3. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... (2) Occurs outside of the Yucca Mountain repository but within the Yucca Mountain site; and (b) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  4. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public... (2) Occurs outside of the Yucca Mountain repository but within the Yucca Mountain site; and (b) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  5. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....197 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight, for the following purposes: (1) Flying the aircraft...

  6. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 37 CFR 1.197 - Termination of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Patent Trial and Appeal Board § 1.197 Termination of proceedings. (a) Proceedings on an application are... application is the date on which the appeal is dismissed or the date on which the time for appeal to the U.S... appeal or civil action is terminated. A civil action is terminated when the time to appeal the judgment...

  8. Excitation Functions for Complete Fusion and Transfer Reactions in the Interaction of 4He Nuclei with 197Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for the fusion reaction 197Au(αxn)201-xnTl with the evaporation of x neutrons (0⩽x⩽3) in the energy range 14-36 MeV. The induced-activation method was used for registration and identification of the reaction products. The experimental cross sections for the (1-3)-neutron evaporation residues are in good agreement with the results known from literature. For the radiation capture reaction 197Au(α,γ)201Tl, the upper limit was obtained essentially lower. The excitation functions for the measured reactions are compared with calculations in the frame of the statistical model, as well as with formerly measured similar data with a 6He beam.

  9. Excitation Functions for Complete Fusion and Transfer Reactions in the Interaction of 4He Nuclei with 197Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-05-22

    Excitation functions have been measured for the fusion reaction 197Au({alpha}xn)201-xnTl with the evaporation of x neutrons (0{<=}x{<=}3) in the energy range 14-36 MeV. The induced-activation method was used for registration and identification of the reaction products. The experimental cross sections for the (1-3)-neutron evaporation residues are in good agreement with the results known from literature. For the radiation capture reaction 197Au({alpha},{gamma})201Tl, the upper limit was obtained essentially lower. The excitation functions for the measured reactions are compared with calculations in the frame of the statistical model, as well as with formerly measured similar data with a 6He beam.

  10. Heat- and electron-beam-induced transport of gold particles into silicon oxide and silicon studied by in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Falk, Fritz

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we describe the transport of gold (Au) nanoparticles from the surface into crystalline silicon (Si) covered by silicon oxide (SiO(2)) as revealed by in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Complete crystalline Au nanoparticles sink through the SiO(2) layer into the Si substrate when high-dose electron irradiation is applied and temperature is raised above 150 degrees C. Above temperatures of 250 degrees C, the Au nanoparticles finally dissolve into fragments accompanied by crystallization of the amorphized Si substrate around these fragments. The transport process is explained by a wetting process followed by Stokes motion. Modelling this process yields boundaries for the interface energies involved.

  11. Experimental study of isomeric intruder 12+ states in At197,203

    DOE PAGES

    Auranen, K.; Uusitalo, J.; Juutinen, S.; ...

    2017-04-10

    A newly observed isomeric intruder ½+ state [T½=3.5(6)ms] is identified in 203At using a gas-filled recoil separator and fusion-evaporation reactions. The isomer is depopulated through a cascade of E3 and mixed M1/E2 transitions to the 9/2– ground state, and it is suggested to originate from the π(s½)–1 configuration. In addition, the structures above the ½+ state in 203At and 197At are studied using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy, recoil-decay tagging, and recoil-isomer decay tagging methods. As a result, the ½+ state is fed from 3/2+ and 5/2+ states, and the origin of these states are discussed.

  12. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  13. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites

    PubMed Central

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  14. Gold Nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    An array of gold nanoantennas laced into an artificial membrane enhances the fluorescence intensity of three different molecules when they pass through plasmonic hot spots in the array. Watch for the blue, green and red flashes. The photobleaching at the end of each fluorescence event (white flashes) is indicative of single molecule observations.

  15. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  16. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  17. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  18. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  19. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  20. 40 CFR 197.26 - What are the circumstances of the human intrusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... human intrusion? 197.26 Section 197.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.26 What are the circumstances of the human intrusion? For the purposes of the analysis of...

  1. 46 CFR 197.206 - Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests. 197.206 Section 197.206 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.206...

  2. 46 CFR 197.434 - Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. 197.434 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.434 Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) When mixed-gas...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at...

  4. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable. ...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  9. 27 CFR 28.197 - Return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. 28.197 Section 28.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Exportation of Distilled Spirits With Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.197 Return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. When notice is filed by an exporter as provided in...

  10. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification. 61.197 Section 61.197 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight...

  11. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  12. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  13. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  14. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  15. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  16. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  17. 46 CFR 197.208 - Designation of person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of person-in-charge. 197.208 Section 197.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.208 Designation of...

  18. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at that...

  20. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities...

  1. Accuracy of Bolton analysis measured in laser scanned digital models compared with plaster models (gold standard) and cone-beam computer tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooseong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Bolton analysis obtained from digital models scanned with the Ortho Insight three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner system to those obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and traditional plaster models. Methods CBCT scans and plaster models were obtained from 50 patients. Plaster models were scanned using the Ortho Insight 3D laser scanner; Bolton ratios were calculated with its software. CBCT scans were imported and analyzed using AVIZO software. Plaster models were measured with a digital caliper. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Anterior and overall Bolton ratios obtained by the three different modalities exhibited excellent agreement (> 0.970). The mean differences between the scanned digital models and physical models and between the CBCT images and scanned digital models for overall Bolton ratios were 0.41 ± 0.305% and 0.45 ± 0.456%, respectively; for anterior Bolton ratios, 0.59 ± 0.520% and 1.01 ± 0.780%, respectively. ICC results showed that intraexaminer error reliability was generally excellent (> 0.858 for all three diagnostic modalities), with < 1.45% discrepancy in the Bolton analysis. Conclusions Laser scanned digital models are highly accurate compared to physical models and CBCT scans for assessing the spatial relationships of dental arches for orthodontic diagnosis. PMID:26877978

  2. Accuracy of Bolton analysis measured in laser scanned digital models compared with plaster models (gold standard) and cone-beam computer tomography images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooseong; Lagravére, Manuel O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Bolton analysis obtained from digital models scanned with the Ortho Insight three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner system to those obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and traditional plaster models. CBCT scans and plaster models were obtained from 50 patients. Plaster models were scanned using the Ortho Insight 3D laser scanner; Bolton ratios were calculated with its software. CBCT scans were imported and analyzed using AVIZO software. Plaster models were measured with a digital caliper. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Anterior and overall Bolton ratios obtained by the three different modalities exhibited excellent agreement (> 0.970). The mean differences between the scanned digital models and physical models and between the CBCT images and scanned digital models for overall Bolton ratios were 0.41 ± 0.305% and 0.45 ± 0.456%, respectively; for anterior Bolton ratios, 0.59 ± 0.520% and 1.01 ± 0.780%, respectively. ICC results showed that intraexaminer error reliability was generally excellent (> 0.858 for all three diagnostic modalities), with < 1.45% discrepancy in the Bolton analysis. Laser scanned digital models are highly accurate compared to physical models and CBCT scans for assessing the spatial relationships of dental arches for orthodontic diagnosis.

  3. Biomineralization of gold: biofilms on bacterioform gold.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Rogers, Stephen L; McPhail, D C; Webb, Daryl

    2006-07-14

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with secondary gold grains from two sites in Australia. 16S ribosomal DNA clones of the genus Ralstonia that bear 99% similarity to the bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans-shown to precipitate gold from aqueous gold(III) tetrachloride-were present on all DNA-positive gold grains but were not detected in the surrounding soils. These results provide evidence for the bacterial contribution to the authigenic formation of secondary bacterioform gold grains and nuggets.

  4. O:2-CRM(197) conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A.

    PubMed

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and clinical data have previously demonstrated the potential of using O:2 conjugate vaccines. Here we describe a new conjugation chemistry to link O:2 and the carrier protein CRM(197), using the terminus 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO), thus leaving the O:2 chain unmodified. The new conjugates were tested in mice and compared with other O:2-antigen conjugates, synthesized adopting previously described methods that use CRM(197) as carrier protein. The newly developed conjugation chemistry yielded immunogenic conjugates with strong serum bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A.

  5. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions.…

  6. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions.…

  7. Determination of Impact Parameters in Aligned Breakup of Projectile-like Fragments in $^{197}$Au + $^{197}$Au Collisions at 23$A$MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; Auditore, L.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.; Grzeszczuk, A.; La Guidara, E.; Han, J.; Kozik, T.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Najman, R.; Nicolis, N. G.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Planeta, R.; Politi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Zipper, W.

    2016-03-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric aligned breakup of projectile-like fragments in $^{197}$Au + $^{197}$Au collisions at 23$A$,MeV was studied. Independently of the asymmetry, the reaction yields have been found peaked at a common, very narrow range of impact parameters.

  8. Determination of Impact Parameters in Aligned Breakup of Projectile-like Fragments in $$^{197}$$Au + $$^{197}$$Au Collisions at 23$A$MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric aligned breakup of projectile-like fragments inmore » $$^{197}$$Au + $$^{197}$$Au collisions at 23$A$,MeV was studied. Independently of the asymmetry, the reaction yields have been found peaked at a common, very narrow range of impact parameters.« less

  9. Measurements of Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Chromium and Yttrium Targets at 197 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, S.; Suzuki, H.; Yashima, H.; Ninomiya, K.; Kasamatsu, Y.; Shima, T.; Takahashi, N.; Shinohara, A.; Matsumura, H.; Hagiwara, M.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Shibata, S.

    2014-05-01

    Reaction cross sections for Cr and Y induced by neutrons at 197 MeV were measured by using 7Li(p,n) reaction at N0 beam line in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. To estimate quasi-monoenergetic neutron cross sections, Cr and Y samples were irradiated on the two angles of 0∘ and 25∘ relative to the axis of the primary proton beam. The measured cross section data in the natCr(n,x) and 89Y(n,x) reactions are compared to the JENDL high-energy file and the literature proton values, respectively. The results obtained are also compared to the cross section data for the same target materials with 287 and 386 MeV neutrons in our previous work.

  10. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  11. INTRA - BEAM SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; CONNOLLY,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; ZENO,K.

    2002-06-02

    RHIC in gold operation shows significant intra-beam scattering due to the high charge state of the stored ions. Intra-beam scattering leads to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth. The longitudinal emittance growth causes debunching in operation; the transverse emittance growth contributes to the reduction of the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The longitudinal and transverse beam growth was measured. Beam growth measurement are compared with computations.

  12. Discovery of a Transient Magnetar: XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Ransom, Scott; Roberts, Mallory; Kaspi, Victoria; Woods, Peter M.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Balman, Solen; Parke, William C.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new X-ray pulsar, XTE J1810-197, that was serendipitously discovered on 2003 July 15 by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) while observing the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20. The pulsar has a 5.54 s spin period, a soft X-ray spectrum (with a photon index of approx. = 4). and is detectable in earlier RXTE observations back to 2003 January but not before. These show that a transient outburst began between 2002 November 17 and 2003 January 23 and that the source's persistent X-ray flux has been declining since then. The pulsar exhibits a high spin-down rate P approx.= l0(exp -11) s/s with no evidence of Doppler shifts due to a binary companion. The rapid spin-down rate and slow spin period imply a supercritical characteristic magnetic field B approx. = 3 x l0(exp 14) G and a young age tau less than or = 7600 yr. Follow-up Chandra observations provided an accurate position of the source. Within its error radius, the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish Optical Telescope found a limiting magnitude R(sub c) = 21.5. All such properties are strikingly similar to those of anomalous X-ray pulsars ad soft gamma repeaters, providing strong evidence that the source is a new magnetar. However, archival ASCA and ROSAT observations found the source nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter. This transient behavior and the observed long-term flux variability of the source in absence of an observed SGR-like burst activity make it the first confirmed transient magnetar and suggest that other neutron stars that share the properties of XTE 51810- 197 during its inactive phase may be unidentified transient magnetars awaiting detection via a similar activity. This implies a larger population of magnetars than previously surmised and a possible evolutionary connection between magnetars and other neutron star families. Subject headings: pulsars: general -pulsars: individual (XTE 51810- 197) - stars: magnetic fields -

  13. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W; Brennan, J M; Cameron, P; Connolly, R; Montag, C; Peggs, S; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Tepikian, S; Trbojevic, D; Van Zeijts, J

    2003-05-12

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far.

  14. Effects of CRM197, a specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Dateoka, Suguru; Ohnishi, Yuichi; Kakudo, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    CRM197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, is a specific inhibitor of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF), which belongs to the EGF family that has been implicated in the increased progression, proliferation, and metastasis of oral cancer. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effects of CRM197, which represent possible chemotherapeutic agents for oral cancer. In the experiment, we used the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines HSC3 and SAS. Cells treated with CRM197 were analyzed based on cell viability, MTT assay, invasion assay, Western blot, and zymography. HSC3 cells were injected subcutaneously into female BALB/c nu/nu mice at 5 weeks of age. CRM197 and/or CDDP were injected intraperitoneally into tumor-bearing mice, and tumor volume was measured over time. HB-EGF expression in HSC3 and SAS cells treated with CRM197 was significantly reduced and cell proliferation was inhibited. The invasiveness of CRM197-treated cells was relatively low. MMP-9 and VEGF were suppressed in HSC3 treated with CRM197 on zymography and Western blot. Further, tumor growth in xenografted mice was suppressed by CRM197 or CDDP at 1 mg/kg/day. Also, the coadministration of CDDP and CRM197 at 1 mg/kg/day completely inhibited tumor formation. These results suggest that HB-EGF is a target for oral cancer and that CRM197 is effective in oral cancer therapy.

  15. {sup 63}Cu and {sup 197}Au nuclear quadrupole moments from four-component relativistic density-functional calculations using correct long-range exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Thierfelder, Christian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Saue, Trond

    2007-09-15

    The electric field gradient in late transition metal compounds is incorrectly determined by most density functionals. We show that the coupling of short-range density functional based with long-range wave function based methods using a reparametrization of the Coulomb-attenuated Becke three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr approximation gives reliable results for the electric field gradients of copper and gold for a series of compounds. This results in nuclear quadrupole moments of -0.208 b for {sup 63}Cu and +0.526 b for {sup 197}Au in good agreement with experimental values of -0.220(15) and +0.547(16)b, respectively.

  16. Beam-beam experience in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Heimerle, M.

    2010-07-29

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC consists of two superconducting storage rings that intersect at six locations around the ring circumference. Two of these interaction regions are currently equipped with experiment detectors, namely STAR at the “6 o’clock” interaction point (IP), and PHENIX at “8 o’clock”. The two beams collide only at these two interaction regions, while they are vertically separated by typically 6-10mm at the other IPs. Together with the separator dipoles located at roughly 10m from the IP, and a distance between bunches of 30m, this avoids any parasitic beam-beam collisions. RHIC is capable of colliding any ion species at magnetic rigidities up to B × r = 830T × m , corresponding to 250 GeV for proton beams, or 100 GeV/n for fully stripped gold ions.

  17. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.; Albrow, M. D.; Kubas, D.; Bond, I. A.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Bennett, D. P.; Dominik, M.; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P.; Gould, A.; Greenhill, J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kains, N.; Menzies, J.; Sumi, T.; Bachelet, E.; Coutures, C.; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lee, C.-U.; Marquette, J.-B.; Park, B.-G.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Street, R.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and μFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived basic parameters such as, the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s ≃ 1.13), the mass ratio q = (4.732 ± 0.020) × 10-2 and the Einstein radius crossing time (tE ≃ 82 d). Because of this long time scale, we took annual parallax and orbital motion of the lens in the models into account, as well as finite source effects that were clearly detected during the source caustic exit. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. From this analysis, we derived a lens total mass of 0.86 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a lens distance of DL = 4.2 ± 0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41 ± 2 MJ observed at a projected separation of a⊥ = 4.3 ± 0.1 AU, and orbits a 0.82 ± 0.04 M⊙ G-K dwarf star. We then placed the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L in a mass-period diagram consisting of all brown dwarf companions detected so far through different techniques, including microlensing, transit, radial velocity, and direct imaging (most of these objects orbit solar-type stars). To study the statistical properties of this population, we performed a two-dimensional, non-parametric probability density distribution fit to the data, which draws a structured brown dwarf landscape. We confirm the existence of a region that is strongly depleted in objects at short periods and intermediate masses (P ≲ 30 d, M ~ 30-60 MJ), but also find an accumulation of objects around P ~ 500 d and M ~ 20

  18. Cross section of the 197Au(n,2n)196Au reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamara, A.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Serris, M.; Patronis, N.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2017-09-01

    The 197Au(n,2n)196Au reaction cross section has been measured at two energies, namely at 17.1 MeV and 20.9 MeV, by means of the activation technique, relative to the 27Al(n,α)24Na reference reaction cross section. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 accelerator laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos", by means of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction, implementing a new Ti-tritiated target of ˜ 400 GBq activity. The induced γ-ray activity at the targets and reference foils has been measured with HPGe detectors. The cross section for the population of the second isomeric (12-) state m2 of 196Au was independently determined. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP code. The present results are in agreement with previous experimental data and with theoretical calculations of the measured reaction cross sections, which were carried out with the use of the EMPIRE code.

  19. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  20. Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 &#197 and 840 &#197

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 119 Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 &#197 and 840 &#197 (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  1. Entrance channel effects in fission of {sup 197}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Hardev; Kumar, Ajay; Behera, Bivash R.; Govil, I. M.; Golda, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Jhingan, Akhil; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Datta, S. K.; Ranjeet,; Pal, Santanu; Viesti, G.

    2007-10-15

    The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities are measured for {sup 16}O+{sup 181}Ta and {sup 19}F+{sup 178}Hf systems where the same compound nucleus {sup 197}Tl is formed at the same excitation energies (E*=72, 76, and 81 MeV). The measured pre-scission neutron multiplicities are found to be different for the two reactions and this difference in neutron yield increases with the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The experimental pre-scission neutron yield is compared with predictions from the statistical model of compound nuclear decay containing the strength of nuclear viscosity as a free parameter. The magnitude of nuclear viscosity required to fit the experimental yield is found to be different for the two reactions. Because the two systems under consideration lie on the two sides of the Businaro-Gallone point, this observation indicates that the entrance channel mass asymmetry plays an important role in determining the number of neutrons emitted prior to scission in fusion-fission reactions.

  2. Gold and iron oxide associations under supergene conditions: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greffié, Catherine; Benedetti, Marc F.; Parron, Claude; Amouric, Marc

    1996-05-01

    Abstract-The interaction of gold hydroxo-chloro complexes with iron oxides (ferrihydrites, goethites) during coprecipitation experiments is investigated. Chemical analyses of solids and solutions are coupled with a detailed characterization of the iron oxides with various methods, including X-ray diffraction, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. HCl solutions containing varying amounts of AuCl 4- and ferric nitrate were titrated to neutral or alkaline pH, resulting in the coprecipitation of gold and iron oxide phases (ferrihydrite or goethite). Reference titrations were performed in the absence of iron. Most of the gold was removed from solution in the presence of iron oxides whereas gold remained dissolved in the reference samples. In association with iron oxides two forms of gold have been identified by HRTEM and 197Au Mössbauer spectroscopy: metallic gold as well as chloro and/or hydroxo combined gold. This combined gold is in a trivalent state as the primary product which means that a reduction process is not a necessary step for the adsorption of gold species on iron oxides. Metallic gold characterized in these products by means of HRTEM consists mainly of colloids ranging from 3-60 nm in diameter embedded in the ferrihydrite matrix, as isolated particles or as particles associated with goethite laths. The smallest metallic gold particles detected would be almost invisible to classical observation techniques used for solid phases. In our experiments, oxidation-reduction reactions between Fe 2+ and Au 3+ are responsible for the presence of metallic gold observed on the iron phases. Photochemical reactions may also take part in the reduction process. Colloidal gold and gold complexes could be associated to the iron oxides by strong electrostatic interactions. Our results suggest that poorly ordered iron oxides are highly efficient in trapping gold from solutions thanks to their high surface area, and favor gold

  3. The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš, Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2010-04-09

    Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  4. Beam-beam collisions and crossing angles in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1999-06-01

    This paper evaluates the strength of head on and parasitic beam-beam collisions in RHIC when the crossing angle is zero. A non-zero crossing angle is not required in normal operation with 120 bunches, thanks to the early separation of the two beams. The RHIC lattice is shown to easily accommodate even conservatively large crossing angles, for example in beam dynamics studies, or in future operational upgrades to as many as 360 bunches per ring. A modest loss in luminosity is incurred when gold ions collide at an angle after 10 hours of storage.

  5. g factors of the lowest (5/2)+ and (7/2)+ states in 197Au and calibration of the transient magnetic field in Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Loewenich, K.; Pavan, P.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Zannoni, R.; de Poli, M.

    1986-05-01

    The angular precessions of the lowest (5/2)+ and (7/2)+ states in 197Au have been measured employing the transient field method. The 197Au nuclei, Coulomb-excited by a 180 MeV 63Cu beam, traversed the Gd foil with velocities between 5v0 and 2v0 (v0=c/137). We have obtained the values g((5/2)+)=0.21(2) and g((7/2)+)=0.15(2), which are consistent with the predictions of the particle-core weak-coupling model. The field has been calibrated with the Chalk River parametrization, which has been checked using the known g factors of the lowest 2+ states in 184W, 186W, 194Pt, and 196Pt as probes.

  6. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the following...

  7. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  8. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  9. 26 CFR 1.197-2 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... due to the name or reputation of a trade or business or any other factor. (2) Going concern value. Section 197 intangibles include going concern value. Going concern value is the additional value that... exception applies: (1) Goodwill. Section 197 intangibles include goodwill. Goodwill is the value of a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.197-2 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... due to the name or reputation of a trade or business or any other factor. (2) Going concern value. Section 197 intangibles include going concern value. Going concern value is the additional value that... exception applies: (1) Goodwill. Section 197 intangibles include goodwill. Goodwill is the value of a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.197-2 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... due to the name or reputation of a trade or business or any other factor. (2) Going concern value. Section 197 intangibles include going concern value. Going concern value is the additional value that... exception applies: (1) Goodwill. Section 197 intangibles include goodwill. Goodwill is the value of a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.197-2 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... due to the name or reputation of a trade or business or any other factor. (2) Going concern value. Section 197 intangibles include going concern value. Going concern value is the additional value that... exception applies: (1) Goodwill. Section 197 intangibles include goodwill. Goodwill is the value of a...

  13. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the following... VHF-FM channels 12 (156.60 MHz) or 13 (156.65 MHz). (3) No vessel with a draft of less than 22...

  14. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above the highest concentration of radionuclides in the plume of contamination; (b) Has a diet and... assessments conducted for §§ 197.20 and 197.25; and (c) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground water at the location specified in paragraph (a) of this section....

  15. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  16. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  17. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  18. 10 CFR 431.197 - Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers. 431.197 Section 431.197 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... has a configuration of windings which allows for more than one nominal rated voltage, the manufacturer...

  19. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec. 19-7 Section 19-7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... more flight coupons for passenger travel in a city-pair market, plus a passenger coupon (the traveler's...

  20. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  1. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  2. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  3. 9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certificates required. 381.197 Section 381.197 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... such poultry products are sound, healthful, wholesome, clean and otherwise fit for human food, and are not adulterated and have not been treated with and do not contain any dye, chemical, preservative,...

  4. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  6. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? 197.21 Section 197.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS...

  7. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  8. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  9. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? 197.21 Section 197.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR...

  10. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  11. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  12. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  13. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  14. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  15. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  16. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  17. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  18. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  19. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  20. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  1. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  2. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  3. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  4. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal hazardous material transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) except as delegated by §§ 1.83(d)(2... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation...

  5. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal hazardous material transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) except as delegated by §§ 1.83(d)(2... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation...

  6. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal hazardous material transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) except as delegated by §§ 1.83(d)(2... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation...

  7. The geomicrobiology of gold.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Lengke, Maggy F; Falconer, Donna; Craw, David; Southam, Gordon

    2007-11-01

    Microorganisms capable of actively solubilizing and precipitating gold appear to play a larger role in the biogeochemical cycling of gold than previously believed. Recent research suggests that bacteria and archaea are involved in every step of the biogeochemical cycle of gold, from the formation of primary mineralization in hydrothermal and deep subsurface systems to its solubilization, dispersion and re-concentration as secondary gold under surface conditions. Enzymatically catalysed precipitation of gold has been observed in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea (for example, Thermotoga maritime, Pyrobaculum islandicum), and their activity led to the formation of gold- and silver-bearing sinters in New Zealand's hot spring systems. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), for example, Desulfovibrio sp., may be involved in the formation of gold-bearing sulphide minerals in deep subsurface environments; over geological timescales this may contribute to the formation of economic deposits. Iron- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (for example, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, A. thiooxidans) are known to breakdown gold-hosting sulphide minerals in zones of primary mineralization, and release associated gold in the process. These and other bacteria (for example, actinobacteria) produce thiosulphate, which is known to oxidize gold and form stable, transportable complexes. Other microbial processes, for example, excretion of amino acids and cyanide, may control gold solubilization in auriferous top- and rhizosphere soils. A number of bacteria and archaea are capable of actively catalysing the precipitation of toxic gold(I/III) complexes. Reductive precipitation of these complexes may improve survival rates of bacterial populations that are capable of (1) detoxifying the immediate cell environment by detecting, excreting and reducing gold complexes, possibly using P-type ATPase efflux pumps as well as membrane vesicles (for example, Salmonella enterica

  8. Kilovoltage radiosurgery with gold nanoparticles for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a Monte Carlo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, D.; Zygmanski, P.; Arnoldussen, M.; Hanlon, J.; Chell, E.; Sajo, E.; Makrigiorgos, G. M.; Ngwa, W.

    2015-12-01

    This work uses Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to assess the potential benefits of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with stereotactic radiosurgery. Clinically, a 100 kVp x-ray beam of 4 mm diameter is aimed at the macula to deliver an ablative dose in a single fraction. In the transport model, AuNP accumulated at the bottom of the macula are targeted with a source representative of the clinical beam in order to provide enhanced dose to the diseased macular endothelial cells. It is observed that, because of the AuNP, the dose to the endothelial cells can be significantly enhanced, allowing for greater sparing of optic nerve, retina and other neighboring healthy tissue. For 20 nm diameter AuNP concentration of 32 mg g-1, which has been shown to be achievable in vivo, a dose enhancement ratio (DER) of 1.97 was found to be possible, which could potentially be increased through appropriate optimization of beam quality and/or AuNP targeting. A significant enhancement in dose is seen in the vicinity of the AuNP layer within 30 μm, peaked at the AuNP-tissue interface. Different angular tilting of the 4 mm beam results in a similar enhancement. The DER inside and in the penumbra of the 4 mm irradiation-field are almost the same while the actual delivered dose is more than one order of magnitude lower outside the field leading to normal tissue sparing. The prescribed dose to macular endothelial cells can be delivered using almost half of the radiation allowing reduction of dose to the neighboring organs such as retina/optic nerve by 49% when compared to a treatment without AuNP.

  9. Seismic Stratigraphy of Detroit Seamount: Observations From ODP Leg 197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, B. C.; Scholl, D. W.

    2002-12-01

    In July-August of 2001, ODP Leg 197 drilled Detroit Seamount of the Emperor seamount chain to obtain cores of basaltic lava flows. Prior to drilling, the JOIDES Resolution, performed high-resolution single-channel seismic surveys in the vicinity of preliminary site locations to help confirm suitability for drilling, and to collect digital seismic data. At least two seismic lines (about 10 km in length) cross directly over each of the two drill sites. On Detroit Seamount, a significant west-northwest-striking normal fault occurs in the basement with the hanging wall to the northeast. The apparent offset in the basement increases to the northwest from approximately 160 m to nearly 450 m. Normal faults with offsets on the order of tens of meters occur to the north east of the primary basement escarpment. Upward termination of sediment reflections near the escarpment suggests concurrent faulting and deposition. The lower section of the Meiji sediment drift sequence appears to have been blown over the basement topography, suggesting the faulted basement could have been channeling flow of the Meiji current. A channel in sea floor topography coincides with the faulted basement. The topography of the sediment bedforms also exhibit large amplitudes deep in the section, which decrease in amplitude higher up in section, indicating that the sediment is not simply settling to the ocean floor, but is being transported and deposited along the sea floor. Currently, we are generating synthetic seismograms using physical properties and logging tool measurements from ODP Sites 883, 1203, and 1204. The synthetic seismograms will help correlate reflections from sedimentary and volcanic units with the stratigraphy observed at the drill sites.

  10. Beam-Beam Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sramek, Christopher

    2003-09-05

    At the interaction point of a particle accelerator, various phenomena occur which are known as beam-beam effects. Incident bunches of electrons (or positrons) experience strong electromagnetic fields from the opposing bunches, which leads to electron deflection, beamstrahlung and the creation of electron/positron pairs and hadrons due to two-photon exchange. In addition, the beams experience a ''pinch effect'' which focuses each beam and results in either a reduction or expansion of their vertical size. Finally, if a beam's disruption parameter is too large, the beam can develop a sinusoidal distortion, or two-stream (kink) instability. This project simulated and studied these effects as they relate to luminosity, deflection angles and energy loss in order to optimize beam parameters for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Using the simulation program Guinea-Pig, luminosity, deflection angle and beam energy data was acquired for different levels of beam offset and distortion. Standard deflection curves and luminosity plots agreed with theoretical models but also made clear the difficulties of e-e- feedback. Simulations emphasizing kink instability in modulated and straight beam collisions followed qualitative behavioral predictions and roughly fit recent analytic calculations. Finally, a study of e-e- collisions under design constraints for the NLC provided new estimates of how luminosity, beamstrahlung energy loss, upsilon parameter and deflection curve width scale with beam spotsizes.

  11. Diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197-mediated transcytosis across blood-brain barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yixue; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2010-07-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is specialized to limit brain drug delivery. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, could act as a diphtheria toxin receptor-specific carrier protein and deliver drugs across the BBB. CRM197 has previously been shown to inhibit phospatidyl-3-inositol-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Other studies have demonstrated a link between PI3K/Akt signaling and forkhead transcription factors in endothelial cells. We therefore investigated the effects and mechanisms underlying the potential of CRM197, not only as a carrier protein for targeted drug delivery to the brain, but also for inducing signaling to affect endocytosis in endothelial cells. The hCMEC/D3 cell line had been used to establish a BBB in vitro model; the transport efficiency of CRM197 was analyzed both by association and transcytosis experiments. CRM197 was shown to prefer apical-to-basal transcytosis, which involved the caveolae-mediated pathway. The uptake of CRM197 conjugates by endothelial cells reached equilibrium after 60 min of treatment. The caveolin-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased by CRM197. The up-regulation of caveolin-1 may be mediated by CRM197 via a PI3K/Akt dependent pathway and reduction of the phospho-FOXO1A (forkhead box O) transcription factor. Our results indicate that carrier protein CRM197-mediated delivery across the BBB is involved in the induction of FOXO1A transcriptional activity and upregulation of caveolin-1 expression.

  12. Formation of a necklike structure in 35Cl+12C and 197Au reactions at 43 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Y.; Gingras, L.; Beaulieu, L.; Qian, X.; Saddiki, Z.; Djerroud, B.; Doré, D.; Laforest, R.; Roy, R.; Samri, M.; St-Pierre, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bowman, D. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Hagberg, E.; Horn, D.; López, J. A.; Robinson, T.

    1997-04-01

    The experimental signature of the formation of a necklike structure, with a velocity between that of the projectilelike emitter and that of the targetlike emitter, is investigated with the same beam and experimental setup for targets lighter and heavier than the projectile. The reactions are 35Cl on 12C and on 197Au at 43 MeV/nucleon. Particle velocity distributions are compared with two-source statistical simulations and the presence of a necklike structure is inferred from the data. In the second part of the paper, dynamical model simulations with the formation of a necklike structure are presented for the 35Cl+12C system at 43 MeV/nucleon.

  13. BEAM-BEAM 2003 SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.SEN,T.

    2003-05-19

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions of the Beam-Beam'03 workshop, held in Montauk, Long Island, from May 19 to 23, 2003. Presentations and discussions focused on halo generation from beam-beam interactions; beam-beam limits, especially coherent limits and their effects on existing and future hadron colliders; beam-beam compensation techniques, particularly for long-range interactions; and beam-beam study tools in theory, simulation, and experiment.

  14. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  15. Beam-beam simulations for separated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel A.

    2000-04-10

    We present beam-beam simulation results from a strong-strong gaussian code for separated beams for the LHC and RHIC. The frequency spectrum produced by the beam-beam collisions is readily obtained and offers a good opportunity for experimental comparisons. Although our results for the emittance blowup are preliminary, we conclude that, for nominal parameter values, there is no significant difference between separated beams and center-on-center collisions.

  16. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 197 - Procedures for Historical Researchers Not Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch D Appendix D to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense... THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. D Appendix D to Part 197—Procedures for... recommendations (paragraph 1.a. of this section) for the research to review the classified information. d....

  17. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 197 - Procedures for Historical Researchers Permanently Assigned Within the Executive Branch Working on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permanently Assigned Within the Executive Branch Working on Official Projects B Appendix B to Part 197...) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. B Appendix B to Part 197—Procedures for Historical Researchers Permanently Assigned Within the...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 197 - Procedures for Historical Researchers Not Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch D Appendix D to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense... THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. D Appendix D to Part 197—Procedures for... recommendations (paragraph 1.a. of this section) for the research to review the classified information. d....

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Explanation of Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Exemptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 552) Exemptions A Appendix A to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Explanation of Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Exemptions A. Exemptions Exemption Explanation (b)(1) Applies to...

  20. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary...

  1. Use of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing technique in development of diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197.

    PubMed

    Rustandi, Richard R; Peklansky, Brian; Anderson, Carrie L

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharide based-vaccines have been successful in providing protection in adults from bacterial infections, however they are not as effective in infants or young children. To enhance the immune response in these high risk groups, the polysaccharide is conjugated with a carrier protein such as cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197). The CRM197 protein has been well-characterized biochemically and biophysically using various analytical techniques however, none of these have been CE-based methods. Of the various CE techniques, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF) is a method that has been used extensively in the field of protein-based drug development as a tool for product identification, stability monitoring, and characterization. Applications of icIEF technique using Convergent Bioscience icIEF instrumentation with whole-field imaging technology are presented and discussed in this paper. These applications include rapid method development to establish a CRM197 identity test for product release, a concentration assay for upstream and downstream in-process product development, and CRM197 stability with respect to its charge heterogeneity under accelerated temperature stress. The data presented demonstrates the utility of the icIEF method as a multifunctional assay because it can screen for better product candidates during early stage clonal selection as well as support in-process and final product characterization throughout CRM197 development.

  2. MiR-197 induces Taxol resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by regulating NLK.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dongling; Wang, Dong; Li, Rong; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Li; Long, Xingtao; Zhou, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic approach for the therapy of advanced ovarian cancer, but 5-year survival rate remains low due to the development of drug resistance. Increasing evidence has documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act important roles in drug resistance in a variety types of cancer. However, the roles of miRNA in regulating Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer and the detailed mechanism are less reported. We used Taqman probe stem loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-197 in normal ovarian cells, ovarian cancer cells, and Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and found that miR-197 was significantly increased in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Enforced expression of miR-197 can promote Taxol resistance, cell proliferation, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, repression of miR-197 in ovarian cancer cells can sensitize its response to Taxol and also induced attenuated cell proliferation and invasion ability. Furthermore, investigation of the detailed mechanism showed that the promotion of miR-197 on drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells was partially mediated by downregulating NLK, a negative regulator of WNT signaling pathway. Taken together, our work first demonstrated that miR-197 can confer drug resistance to Taxol, by regulating tumor suppressor, NLK expression in ovarian cancer cells.

  3. Evidence of muonium formation using thin gold foils in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, B. A.; Chang, C. Y.; Steinberg, P.; Yodh, G. B.; Orr, H. D.; Carroll, J. B.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J. R.; Spence, C. B.; Hsieh, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    The production of thermal muonium in a vacuum region has been investigated using an array of 200 thin (about 1000 A thick) gold foils exposed to a stopping positive-muon beam. By examining the observed time dependence of the positive-muon decay spectra in various transverse magnetic field, it is estimated that the lower limit of the probability of muonium formation by these gold foils placed in vacuum was 0.28 plus or minus 0.05.

  4. Fragmentation of gold flowers into nanopetals by high energy electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhumale, Vinayak A.; Shah, Preeti V.; Bhoraskar, Vasant N.; Sharma, Rishi B.

    2010-11-01

    Gold nanoflowers were obtained by reducing chloroauric acid with tri-sodium citrate at a temperature of 95 °C. The UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to monitor the growth of gold nanoflowers. The size and shape of the nanocrystallites of gold in the flowers were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy methods. The 3-dimensional gold nanoflowers got fragmented into 2-dimensional petal-like nanostructures upon irradiation with 6-MeV electrons. The average size of crystallites of gold after electron beam irradiation was found to be ˜10 nm.

  5. Optical Trapping of Gold Nanoparticles in Air.

    PubMed

    Jauffred, Liselotte; Taheri, S Mohammad-Reza; Schmitt, Regina; Linke, Heiner; Oddershede, Lene B

    2015-07-08

    Most progress on optical nanoparticle control has been in liquids, while optical control in air has proven more challenging. By utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a single laser beam with a minimum of aberration, we trapped individual 200 to 80 nm gold nanoparticles in air and quantified the corresponding trapping strengths. These results pave the way for construction of metallic nanostructures in air away from surfaces.

  6. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  7. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  8. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    PubMed

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  9. Effect of Increased CRM197 Carrier Protein Dose on Meningococcal C Bactericidal Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    New multivalent CRM197-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM197 coadministration with CRM197-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM197 carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM197 conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules. PMID:22336285

  10. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 6-92. Implementation of the benzene regulations of title 46, code of Federal Regulations, part 197 (46 cfr 197). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-03

    This Circular provides Coast Guard Captains of the Port (COTPs), Officers in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMIs) and members of industry with guidance on the implementation of the benzene regulations contained in 46 CFR 197. These regulations provide detailed requirements for protecting personnel from breathing harmful concentrations of benzene vapor aboard U.S. flag inspected vessels. This circular outlines a reasonable enforcement scheme given the nature of these regulations.

  11. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51–1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  12. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51–1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond). PMID:27143582

  13. Gold anomaly in soil of the West End Creek area, Yellow Pine District, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, B.F.

    1973-01-01

    A gold anomaly recently found by soil sampling near the Yellow Pine mine is accompanied by a silver anomaly and by conspicuous though minor mercury, antimony, arsenic, and tungsten anomalies. The anomalies are not completely delimited by the sampling, but preliminary results indicate that a gold anomaly extends 600 feet along one fault and 500 feet along a fault that intersects it. The gold content of 128 soil samples ranges from less than 0.05 ppm (part per million) to 8.0 ppm; the median value is 0.70 ppm. Within the area in which gold in the soil samples is equal to or greater than 1 ppm, 23 samples have as the mean 2.91 ppm, equivalent to 0.085 troy ounce of gold per ton. The gold anomaly in soil helps define an attractive exploration target for low-grade gold ore in this area, which overlaps that of the West End Creek gold prospects described by J. R. Cooper in 1951 in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 969-F (p. 151-197).

  14. Prevention of electron beam transmittance for biological cell imaging using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrated the high-spatial-resolution imaging of label-free biological cells using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope without irradiation damage by the electron beam. An EXA microscope can be used to observe a specimen with a nanometric light source excited in the Si3N4 membrane by an electron beam. The incident electron beam penetrates the Si3N4 membrane and damages the specimen. To suppress the irradiation damage of the specimen, we prevented the transmittance of the electron beam by coating the Si3N4 membrane with a gold thin film. To obtain an electron beam transmittance through the Si3N4 of 0%, a gold film of 15 nm thickness was required. By adding the gold layer, a label-free cellular structure was observed with 135-nm spatial resolution.

  15. Prevention of electron beam transmittance for biological cell imaging using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated the high-spatial-resolution imaging of label-free biological cells using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope without irradiation damage by the electron beam. An EXA microscope can be used to observe a specimen with a nanometric light source excited in the Si3N4 membrane by an electron beam. The incident electron beam penetrates the Si3N4 membrane and damages the specimen. To suppress the irradiation damage of the specimen, we prevented the transmittance of the electron beam by coating the Si3N4 membrane with a gold thin film. To obtain an electron beam transmittance through the Si3N4 of 0%, a gold film of 15 nm thickness was required. By adding the gold layer, a label-free cellular structure was observed with 135-nm spatial resolution.

  16. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Proietti, D; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Rappuoli, R; Szu, S; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2011-01-17

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM(197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM(197) proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM(197) appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries.

  17. Cartesian beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2007-12-01

    A new and very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in Cartesian coordinates is presented. We call such a field a Cartesian beam. The complex amplitude of the Cartesian beams is described by either the parabolic cylinder functions or the confluent hypergeometric functions, and the beams are characterized by three parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integration are studied in detail. Applying the general expression of the Cartesian beams, we also derive two new and meaningful beam structures that, to our knowledge, have not yet been reported in the literature. Special cases of the Cartesian beams are the standard, elegant, and generalized Hermite-Gauss beams, the cosine-Gauss beams, the Lorentz beams, and the fractional order beams.

  18. MicroRNA-197 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting GAB2 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Qiang; Liu, En-Qin; Zhu, Xi-De; Wang, Xin-Gong; Li, Jian; Xu, Guang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, and is usually fatal in a short duration. Acquiring a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of glioblastoma is essential to the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Grb2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) is a member of the daughter of sevenless/Gab family of scaffolding adapters, and has been reported to be important in the development and progression of human cancer. Previously, it has been reported that GAB2 is expressed at high levels in glioma, and may serve as a useful prognostic marker for glioma and a novel therapeutic target for glioma invasion intervention. Elucidating why GAB2 is overexpressed in glioma, and investigating how to downregulate it will assist in further understanding the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, and to offer novel targets for therapy. The present study used in situ hybridization to detect microRNA (miR)‑197 expression levels and Targetscan to predict that the 3'-UTR of GAB2 was targeted by miR-197. Northern blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were also conducted in the current study. miR-197 is downregulated in glioblastoma tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues, however it involvement continues to be detected in the disease. The results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑197, as a tumor suppressor gene, inhibited proliferation by regulating GAB2 in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, GAB2 was not only upregulated in glioma, but its expression levels were also associated with the grades of glioma severity. In addition, overexpression of GAB2 suppressed the expression of miR‑197 in glioblastoma cells. Therefore, restoration of miR‑197 and targeting GAB2 may be used, in conjunction with other therapies, to prevent the progression of glioblastoma.

  19. Analysis of Beam-Beam Kink Instability in a Linac-Ring Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    V. Lebedev; J. Bisognano; R. Li; B. Yunn

    2001-06-01

    A linac-ring collision scheme was considered in recent proposals of electron-gold colliders (eRHIC) and polarized-electron light-ion colliders (EPIC). The advantages of using an energy-recovered linac for the electron beam is that it avoids the limitation of beam-beam tune shift inherent in a storage ring, pertains good beam quality and easy manipulation of polarization. However, the interaction of the ion beam in the storage ring with the electron beam from the linac acts analogously to a transverse impedance, and can induce unstable behavior of the ion beam similar to the strong head-tail instability. In this paper, this beam-beam kink instability with head-tail effect is analyzed using the linearized Vlasov equation, and the threshold of transverse mode coupling instability is obtained.

  20. Structure of cyclophilin from Leishmania donovani at 1.97 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V; Sen, Banibrata; Datta, Alok K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2007-02-01

    The crystal structure of cyclophilin from Leishmania donovani (LdCyp) has been determined and refined at 1.97 A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 0.178 (R(free) = 0.197). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using cyclophilin from Trypanosoma cruzi as the search model. LdCyp exhibits complete structural conservation of the cyclosporin-binding site with respect to the homologous human protein, as anticipated from LdCyp-cyclosporin binding studies. Comparisons with other cyclophilins show deviations primarily in the loop regions. The solvent structure encompassing the molecule has also been analyzed in some detail.

  1. Measurement of cross sections for {alpha}-induced reactions on {sup 197}Au and thick-target yields for the ({alpha},{gamma}) process on {sup 64}Zn and {sup 63}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. S.; Smith, A. R.; Shugart, H. A.; Norman, E. B.

    2007-01-15

    We have measured the cross sections for the {sup 197}Au({alpha},{gamma}){sup 201}Tl and {sup 197}Au({alpha},2n){sup 199}Tl reactions in the 17.9- to 23.9-MeV energy range, and {sup 197}Au({alpha},n){sup 200}Tl reaction in the 13.4- to 23.9-MeV energy range using an activation technique. Thick-target yields for the {sup 64}Zn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 68}Ge (7- to 14-MeV) and {sup 63}Cu({alpha},{gamma}){sup 67}Ga (7-MeV) reactions were measured. For all measurements, natural elements were bombarded with He{sup +} beams from the 88 In. Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Irradiated samples were counted using a {gamma}-spectrometry system at LBNL's Low Background Facility. Measured {sup 197}Au({alpha},{gamma}){sup 201}Tl cross sections were compared with the NON-SMOKER theoretical values. The thick-target yields for the {sup 64}Zn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 68}Ge and {sup 63}Cu({alpha},{gamma}){sup 67}Ga reactions are also compared with the theoretical yield, calculated numerically using the energy dependent NON-SMOKER cross section data. In both cases, measured values are found to follow a trend of overlapping the predicted value near the alpha nucleus barrier height and fall below with a slowly widening difference between them in the sub-barrier energy points.

  2. Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 112 Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197 (Web, free access)   Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197 contains wavelengths and intensities for about 5600 lines in the region 4330 &#197. An atlas plot of the spectrum is given, with the spectral lines marked and their intensities, wavelengths, and classifications listed.

  3. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A. Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  4. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-03-29

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED.

  5. Constraints on the Emission and Viewing Geometry of the Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal decay of the flux components of the transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1 810-197 following its 2002 outburst presents a unique opportunity to probe the emission geometry of a magnetar. Toward this goal, we model the magnitude of the pulsar's modulation in narrow spectral bands over time. Following previous work, we assume that the postoutburst flux is produced in two distinct thermal components arising from a hot spot and a warm concentric ring. We include general relativistic effects on the blackbody spectra due to gravitational redshift and light bending near the stellar surface, which strongly depend on radius. This affects the model fits for the temperature and size of the emission regions. For the hot spot, the observed temporal and energy-dependent pulse modulation is found to require an anisotropic, pencil-beamed radiation pattern. We are able to constrain an allowed range for the angles that the line of sight (psi) and the hot spot pole (xi) make with respect to the spin axis. Within errors, this is defined by the locus of points in the xi-psi plane that lie along the line [xi + beta(R)] [psi + [beta(R)] = const, where beta(R) is a function of the radius R of the star. For a canonical value of R = 12 km, the viewing parameters range from psi = xi = 37deg to (psi, xi) = (85deg, 15deg). We discuss our results in the context of magnetar emission models.

  6. Chalcogenide centred gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, M Concepción; Laguna, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Chalcogenide-centred gold complexes are an important class of compounds in which a central chalcogen is surrounded by several gold atoms or gold and other metals. They have special characteristics such as unusual geometries, electron deficiency and properties such as luminescence or non-linear optical properties. The best known species are the trinuclear [E(AuPR3)3]+, 'oxonium' type species, that have high synthetic applicability, not only in other chalcogen-centred species, but in many other organometallic derivatives. The aurophilic interactions play an important role in the stability, preference for a particular geometry and luminescence properties in this type of derivatives (critical review, 117 references).

  7. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) exhibits antitumor activity by directly interacting with tubulin and overcomes ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Aki; Katayama, Ryohei; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeo; Okuno, Yasushi; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    Tivantinib (ARQ197) was first reported as a highly selective inhibitor of c-MET and is currently being investigated in a phase III clinical trial. However, as recently reported by us and another group, tivantinib showed cytotoxic activity independent of cellular c-MET status and also disrupted microtubule dynamics. To investigate if tivantinib exerts its cytotoxic activity by disrupting microtubules, we quantified polymerized tubulin in cells and xenograft tumors after tivantinib treatment. Consistent with our previous report, tivantinib reduced tubulin polymerization in cells and in mouse xenograft tumors in vivo. To determine if tivantinib directly binds to tubulin, we performed an in vitro competition assay. Tivantinib competitively inhibited colchicine but not vincristine or vinblastine binding to purified tubulin. These results imply that tivantinib directly binds to the colchicine binding site of tubulin. To predict the binding mode of tivantinib with tubulin, we performed computer simulation of the docking pose of tivantinib with tubulin using GOLD docking program. Computer simulation predicts tivantinib fitted into the colchicine binding pocket of tubulin without steric hindrance. Furthermore, tivantinib showed similar IC50 values against parental and multidrug-resistant cells. In contrast, other microtubule-targeting drugs, such as vincristine, paclitaxel, and colchicine, could not suppress the growth of cells overexpressing ABC transporters. Moreover, the expression level of ABC transporters did not correlate with the apoptosis-inducing ability of tivantinib different from other microtubule inhibitor. These results suggest that tivantinib can overcome ABC transporter-mediated multidrug-resistant tumor cells and is potentially useful against various tumors. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. 7 CFR 800.197 - Approval as a scale testing and certification organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval as a scale testing and certification... § 800.197 Approval as a scale testing and certification organization. (a) Who may apply. Any State, local government, or person may request approval to perform scale testing and certification under the...

  9. 7 CFR 800.197 - Approval as a scale testing and certification organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval as a scale testing and certification... § 800.197 Approval as a scale testing and certification organization. (a) Who may apply. Any State, local government, or person may request approval to perform scale testing and certification under the...

  10. 7 CFR 800.197 - Approval as a scale testing and certification organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval as a scale testing and certification... § 800.197 Approval as a scale testing and certification organization. (a) Who may apply. Any State, local government, or person may request approval to perform scale testing and certification under the...

  11. 7 CFR 800.197 - Approval as a scale testing and certification organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval as a scale testing and certification... § 800.197 Approval as a scale testing and certification organization. (a) Who may apply. Any State, local government, or person may request approval to perform scale testing and certification under the...

  12. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary..., double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of § 267.195 (a) and (b), except for: (a) Above...

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... include certain computer software and certain other separately acquired rights, such as rights to receive... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general. The amount of the deduction for computer software described in section 167(f)(1) and § 1.197-2(c)(4) is...

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... include certain computer software and certain other separately acquired rights, such as rights to receive... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general. The amount of the deduction for computer software described in section 167(f)(1) and § 1.197-2(c)(4) is...

  15. UK Data from 197 Undergraduates for the Nelson Denny Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Hayes, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    The Nelson Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco & Hanna, 1993) provides measures of comprehension, reading rate and vocabulary. It is widely used in research studies with high school and undergraduate students and for assessment purposes in the USA. No widely used test of this kind exists for adults in the UK. The present paper reports data from 197

  16. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.197 Galveston Harbor, Bolivar... than 48 hours unless expressly authorized by the Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston. Permission to...

  17. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.197 Galveston Harbor, Bolivar... than 48 hours unless expressly authorized by the Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston. Permission to...

  18. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.197 Galveston Harbor, Bolivar... than 48 hours unless expressly authorized by the Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston. Permission to...

  19. 46 CFR 197.206 - Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus... Operations General § 197.206 Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests. (a) The Coast Guard may accept substitutes for equipment, materials, apparatus...

  20. 46 CFR 197.206 - Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus... Operations General § 197.206 Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests. (a) The Coast Guard may accept substitutes for equipment, materials,...