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Sample records for gold 197 beams

  1. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of (196,198)Au production yields by (197)Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of (197)Au(n,γ)(196,198)Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. (197)Au nano-solution, including 20nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E+13n/cm(2)/s for (196,198)Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF2 reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in (197)Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method.

  2. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of (196,198)Au production yields by (197)Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of (197)Au(n,γ)(196,198)Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. (197)Au nano-solution, including 20nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E+13n/cm(2)/s for (196,198)Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF2 reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in (197)Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method. PMID:27524041

  3. BEAM LIFETIME AND EMITTANCE GROWTH MEASUREMENTS OF GOLD BEAMS IN RHIC AT STORAGE.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; DREES,A.; BRENNAN,J.M.; CONNOLLY,R.; FLILLER,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    During stores of gold beams, longitudinal and transverse beam sizes were recorded. Longitudinal profiles were obtained with a wall current monitor. Transverse profiles were reconstructed from gold-gold collision rates at various relative transverse beam positions. The total beam lifetime was measured with a beam current transformer, the bunched beam lifetime with the wall current monitor. Diffusion rates in the beam halo were determined from the change in the loss rate when a scraper is retracted. The measurements are used to determine the lifetime limiting effects. Beam growth measurements are compared with computations of beam-growth times from intra-beam scattering.

  4. Notes on dumping gold beam in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.J.; Ahrens, L.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-08-01

    Localized losses of gold beam in the AGS during RHIC Run 8 produced vacuum leaks which required the replacement of several vacuum chambers. A review of what happened and why was given by Leif Ahrens at the Run 8 Retreat. The following notes trace the subsequent development of clean dumping of gold beam on the beam dump in the J10 straight. The novel idea of stripping Au77+ ions in order to put them directly into the upstream face of the dump was introduced by Leif Ahrens and developed by all three of us. George Mahler made the actual stripping device and Dave Gassner developed its control. Leif Ahrens successfully commissioned the device with gold beam during Run 10. The reader may find it helpful to first view the figures herein and then refer to the text for details.

  5. Heating {sup 197}Au nuclei with 8 GeV antiproton and {pi}- beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Viola, V. E.

    1999-05-03

    This contribution stresses results recently obtained from experiment E900 performed at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator with 8 GeV/c antiproton and negative pion beams using the Indiana Silicon Sphere detector array. An investigation of the reaction mechanism is presented, along with source characteristics deduced from a two-component fit to the spectra. An enhancement of deposition energy with the antiproton beam with respect to the pion beam is observed. The results are qualitatively consistent with predictions of an intranuclear cascade code.

  6. Molecular Beam Optical Study of Gold Sulfide and Gold Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Gold-sulfur and gold-oxygen bonds are key components to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. A major theoretical challenge for describing this bonding is correctly accounting for the large relativistic and electron correlation effects. Such effects are best studied in diatomic, AuX, molecules. Recently, the observed AuS electronic state energy ordering was measured and compared to a simple molecular orbital diagram prediction. Here we more thoroughly investigate the nature of the electronic states of both AuS and AuO from the analysis of high-resolution (FWHM\\cong35MHz) optical Zeeman spectroscopy of the (0,0){B}2Σ--{X}2Π3/2 bands. The determined fine and hyperfine parameters for the {B}2Σ- state of AuO differ from those extracted from the analysis of a hot, Doppler-limited, spectrum. It is demonstrated that the nature of the {B}2Σ- states of AuO and AuS are radically different. The magnetic tuning of AuO and AuS indicates that the {B}2Σ- states are heavily contaminated. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1265885. D. L. Kokkin, R. Zhang, T. C. Steimle, I. A. Wyse, B. W. Pearlman and T. D. Varberg, J. Phys. Chem. A., 119(48), 4412, 2015. L. C. O'Brien, B. A. Borchert, A. Farquhar, S. Shaji, J. J. O'Brien and R. W. Field, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 252(2), 136, 2008

  7. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using 197Au(p, pn)196Au and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2016-05-01

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using 197Au(p, pn)196Au and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  8. Ion beam analysis of gold jewelry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, Guy

    1992-02-01

    PIXE milliprobe in a nonvacuum assembly has been proven to be a very rapid and accurate method for the elemental analysis of gold jewelry artefacts. Using protons whose energy is lower than 3 MeV, it is possible to obtain, in a few minutes, the actual composition (copper, iron, gold, silver, etc.) of narrow parts of artefacts, without any sampling, even at microscopic level. Most of the studies of our group in this field concern solders on these jewelry items. Narrow regions of gold artefacts have also been studied with a PIXE microprobe. They were then irradiated in vacuum. Nuclear reaction analyses induced by 2 MeV deuterons are also performed to identify the presence of light elements and, particularly O, N and S. Traces of these elements are of primary importance to characterize the origin of the ores used in various workmanships. Interferences of X-ray lines of Au with those of traces of Cu and Zn are solved using a method of selective excitation of X-rays of these elements. Analytical results have been interpreted in order to understand the workmanship of goldsmiths from the Antiquity. Fakes and repairs (or ornaments added to original artefacts) may also be identified. The ancient recipes are improved to give new soldering procedures at low temperature.

  9. (. mu. -1,1 prime -Bis(diphenylphosphine)ferrocene)bis(chlorogold): Synthesis, iron-57 and gold-197 Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray crystal structure, and antitumor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.T.; Girard, G.R.; McCabe, F.L.; Johnson, R.K.; Eggleston, D.S. ); Stupik, P.D.; Zhang, J.H.; Reiff, W.M. )

    1989-09-06

    The title compound 2, Fdpp(AuCl){sub 2}, synthesized via the addition of Fdpp (1) to an aqueous solution of ((HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S)AuCl generated in situ by the thiodiglycol reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} showed a {sup 31}P({sup 1}H) NMR chemical shift at {delta} 27.39, which was downfield from that of 1 at {delta} -17.34 relative to (CH{sub 3}O)PO. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrum of 2 is a doublet with parameters (IS = 0.50 mm/s relative to Fe, QS = 2.33 mm/s) similar to those of ferrocene. The {sup 197}Au Moessbauer spectrum of 2 is an asymmetric doublet (QS = 6.93 mm/s) with an IS of 3.81 mm/s relative to Au metal. Fdpp(AuCl){sub 2} crystallized in space group P{bar 1} with lattice constants a = 16.192 (4) {angstrom}, b = 16.921 (4) {angstrom}, and c = 10.878 (5) {angstrom} with Z = 3. Two crystallographically independent molecules, A and B, were observed in the structure of 2 with a chloroform solvate molecule per 1.5 formula units of the gold complex. For A, the P atoms are 180{degree} opposed and the rings exactly staggered, while in B the P atoms are 150{degree} apart and the rings are partially staggered. The P-Au-Cl linkage is nearly linear, and the bond distances fall within normal ranges. Evaluation in an ip P388 leukemia mouse model showed 1 and 2 to have only marginal activity with an increased life span (ILS) relative to untreated controls of 30% at a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of 231 {mu}mol/kg and 40% ILS at 4 {mu}mol/kg, respectively. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Batch fabrication of gold-gold nanogaps by E-beam lithography and electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yexian; Hong, Wenjing; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gautsch, Sebastian; Kolivoska, Viliam; Wandlowski, Thomas; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the successful development of a well-controlled two-step batch nano-fabrication process to achieve nanometer-size gaps at the wafer scale. The technique is based on an optimized electron-beam lithography process, which enables the fabrication of nanogaps in the range (15 ± 4) nm. Following this first step, the feedback-controlled electrochemical deposition of gold from an aqueous HAuCl4-based electrolyte is applied to further reduce the size of the gap down to about 0.3-1.0 nm. This protocol was successfully demonstrated by fabricating more than 385 nanogaps on a 4 inch wafer. The reproducible fabrication of nanogaps in the range between 0.3 and 1.0 nm opens up new perspectives for addressing the electrical and reactivity properties of single molecules and clusters in confined space under well-controlled conditions.

  11. Enhanced photothermal therapy assisted with gold nanorods using a radially polarized beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hong; Jia, Baohua; Li, Jingliang; Morrish, Dru; Gu, Min

    2010-02-01

    We report on the use of a radially polarized beam for photothermal therapy of cancer cells labeled with gold nanorods. Due to a three-dimensionally distributed electromagnetic field in the focal volume, the radially polarized beam is proven to be a highly efficient laser mode to excite gold nanorods randomly oriented in cancer cells. As a result, the energy fluence for effective cancer cell damage is reduced to one fifth of that required for a linearly polarized beam, which is only 9.3% of the medical safety level.

  12. Single pass electron beam cooling of gold ions between EBIS LINAC and booster is theoretically possible!

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam cooling is examined as an option to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster. Electron beam parameters are based on experimental data (obtained at BNL) of electron beams extracted from a plasma cathode. Many issues, regarding a low energy high current electron beam that is needed for electron beam cooling to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster, were examined. Computations and some experimental data indicate that none of these issues is a show stopper. Preliminary calculations indicate that single pass cooling is feasible; momentum spread can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude in about one meter. Hence, this option cooling deserves further more serious considerations.

  13. Absolute beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.

    2011-04-01

    We report on an alternative way to measure the absolute beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical emission from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.

  14. Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    PubMed Central

    Shawrav, Mostafa M.; Taus, Philipp; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D.; Schinnerl, M.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Schwarz, S.; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization. PMID:27666531

  15. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  16. Tunable SERS-Tags-Hidden Gold Nanorattles for Theranosis of Cancer Cells with Single Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaolong; Yu, Dexin; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Zhengjun; Liu, Ting; Zhan, Jinhua

    2014-10-01

    With the use of gold nanostructures, photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer has great advantages compared to conventional methods, such as noninvasive targeted destruction and easily operation. Generally speaking, respective diagnosis and therapy of tumor require at least two instruments, leading to incongruence of tumor borders between diagnosis and therapy. To tackle this problem, tunable SERS-tags-hidden gold nanorattles (STHGNRs) have been designed and developed here for theranosis of cancer with single laser beam. The surface plasma resonance peak of STHGNRs can be tuned from visible region to near-infrared region by controlling the cavity size and shell thickness. The outer shells not only improve the stability of the SERS reporters but also enhance the brightness by more than two order magnitude compared to gold nanoparticles. In vitro study, immuno STHGNRs can serve as theranosis agents simultaneously for sensitive and efficient theranosis of cancer cells.

  17. Ion beam lithography with gold and silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Nadzeyka, Achim; Bauerdick, Sven; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-04-01

    Different ion species deliver a different material sputtering yield and implantation depth, thus enabling focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication for diverse applications. Using newly developed FIB milling with double charged hbox {Au}^{2+} and hbox {Si}^{2+} ions, fabrication has been carried out on Au-sputtered films to define arrays of densely packed nanoparticles supporting optical extinction peaks at visible-IR wavelengths determined by the size, shape, and proximity of nanoparticles. Results are qualitatively compared with hbox {Ga}+ milling. A possibility to use such ion implantation to tailor the etching rate of silicon is also demonstrated.

  18. Nanoscale radiation transport and clinical beam modeling for gold nanoparticle dose enhanced radiotherapy (GNPT) using X-rays.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    We review radiation transport and clinical beam modelling for gold nanoparticle dose-enhanced radiotherapy using X-rays. We focus on the nanoscale radiation transport and its relation to macroscopic dosimetry for monoenergetic and clinical beams. Among other aspects, we discuss Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and their applications to predicting dose enhancement using various metrics.

  19. Direct patterning of gold oxide thin films by focused ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, F.; Edinger, K.; Melngailis, J.; Diegel, M.; Steenbeck, K.; Steinbeiss, E.

    For direct writing of electrically conducting connections and areas into insulating gold oxide thin films a scanning Ar+ laser beam and a 30 keV Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) have been used. The gold oxide films are prepared by magnetron sputtering under argon/oxygen plasma. The patterning of larger areas (dimension 10-100 μm) has been carried out with the laser beam by local heating of the selected area above the decomposition temperature of AuOx (130-150 °C). For smaller dimensions (100 nm to 10 μm) the FIB irradiation could be used. With both complementary methods a reduction of the sheet resistance by 6-7 orders of magnitude has been achieved in the irradiated regions (e.g. with FIB irradiation from 1.5×107 Ω/□ to approximately 6 Ω/□). The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) show a considerably reduced oxygen content in the irradiated areas, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations, indicate that the FIB patterning in the low-dose region (1014 Ga+/cm2) is combined with a volume reduction, which is caused by oxygen escape rather than by sputtering.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation on a gold nanoparticle irradiated by electron beams.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L; Leung, Michael K K; Jaffray, David A

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the secondary electron production from a gold nanoparticle (GNP) irradiated by monoenergetic electron beams using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Spherical GNPs with diameters of 2, 50 and 100 nm in water were irradiated by monoenergetic electron beams with energies equal to 50 keV, 250 keV, 1 MeV and 4 MeV. MC simulations were performed using the Geant4 toolkit to determine the energy of the secondary electrons emitted from the GNPs. The mean effective range and deflection angle of the secondary electrons were tracked. Energy depositions inside and outside the nanoparticles due to the secondary electrons were also calculated. For comparisons, simulations were repeated by replacing the GNPs with water. Our results show that the mean effective range of secondary electrons increased with an increase of the GNP size and electron beam energy. For the electron beam energy and GNP size used in this study, the mean effective range was 0.5-15 µm outside the nanoparticle, which is approximately within the dimension of a living cell. The mean deflection angles varied from 78 to 83 degrees as per our MC results. The proportion of energy deposition inside the GNP versus that outside increased with the GNP size. This is different from the results obtained from a previous study using photon beams. The secondary electron energy deposition ratio (energy deposition for GNP/energy deposition for water) was found to be highest for the smallest GNP of 2 nm diameter in this study. For the energy deposited by the secondary electron, we concluded that the addition of GNPs can increase the secondary electron energy deposition in water, though most of the energy was self-absorbed by the large nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm). In addition, an electron source in the presence of GNPs does not seem to be better than photons as the yield of secondary electrons per unit mass of gold is less than water.

  1. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    PubMed Central

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. Here we have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. PMID:26392208

  2. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  3. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  4. Stress and DNA assembly differences on cantilevers gold coated by resistive and e-beam evaporation techniques.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Tamayo, J; Costa-Krämer, J L

    2009-09-15

    Changes in the sign of differential surface stress of gold-coated cantilevers produced by thiol-derivatized single-stranded DNA immobilization are observed, depending on the method used to deposit the gold. While the DNA immobilization on e-beam gold-coated cantilevers produces a compressive differential surface stress in the metallic layer, the opposite is observed for resistively coated cantilevers under the same immobilization conditions. The gold films exhibit quite a similar morphology, and the immobilization differences seem to be related to the charge state of the metallic layer surface. This in turn produces a different distribution of the orientation of the DNA strands on the gold layer. A tentative explanation for the observed effect is proposed.

  5. High speed e-beam lithography for gold nanoarray fabrication and use in nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    François, Marc; Romijn, Hans; Codron, Jean-Louis; Vuillaume, Dominique; Théron, Didier; Clément, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Summary E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF) technique but not optimized for sub-15 nm dots dimension. This prevents use of this technology for some applications and characterization techniques. Here, we show that the DOTF technique can be used without degradation in dots dimension. In addition, we propose two other techniques. The first one is an advanced conventional technique that goes five times faster than the conventional one. The second one relies on sequences defined before writing which enable versatility in e-beam patterns compared to the DOTF technique with same writing speed. By comparing the four different techniques, we evidence the limiting parameters for the writing speed. Wafer-scale fabrication of such arrays with 50 nm pitch allowed XPS analysis of a ferrocenylalkyl thiol self-assembled monolayer coated gold nanoarray. PMID:25383303

  6. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  7. Anomalous patterns and nearly defect-free ripples produced by bombarding silicon and germanium with a beam of gold ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mollick, Safiul Alam; Ghose, Debabrata; Shipman, Patrick D.; Mark Bradley, R.

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate that surface ripples with an exceptionally high degree of order can develop when germanium is bombarded with a broad beam of gold ions. In contrast, if silicon is sputtered with an Au{sup −} beam, patches of ripples with two distinct wave vectors can emerge. These types of order can be understood if the coupling between the surface morphology and composition is taken into account.

  8. Effect of geometrical dimensions on the tribomechanical response of a gold micromembrane with bent beam hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustan, M.; Dudescu, C.; Birleanu, C.; Rusu, F.; Chiorean, R.; Craciun, S.

    2016-08-01

    The scope of this paper is experimental and numerical analysis of micromembranes supported by bent beam hinges fabricated from gold in different geometrical dimensions. The experimental tests are performed using an atomic force microscope in order to determine the micromembrane behaviour under a mechanical force. One of the main application of movable microcomponents is MEMS switching application where the flexible plate is directly deflected to substrate in order to close a circuit. Adhesion between the mobile plate and substrate depends on the roughness of the contact surfaces and is influenced by the micromembrane stiffness based on the restoring force. As the dimensions of hinges increases, the stiffness of micromembrane increases and the adhesion between mobile plate and substrate decreases, respectively.

  9. Liquid-like instabilities in gold nanowires fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, J. P.; Das, K.; Prewett, P. D.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Chen, Yifang

    2012-10-01

    Observation of liquid-like instabilities is reported in Au nanowires formed by nanopatterning of Au films using focused ion beam (FIB) on different types of Si substrates including those passivated with SiO2 or Si3N4 surfaces. The onset of the instability, which can ultimately lead to break up of the FIB patterned nanowires into gold islands, occurs when the diameter of the nanowire is below a critical range, which depends on the conductivity of the substrate and the extent of native oxide present on it. We also observe the formation of Taylor cones on very narrow nanowires grown on insulating substrates at the onset of instabilities. This effect is further strong evidence of liquid behaviour and is the result of charging of the wires during FIB nanofabrication.

  10. Direct-write deposition and focused-electron-beam-induced purification of gold nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Belić, Domagoj; Shawrav, Mostafa M; Gavagnin, Marco; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional gold (Au) nanostructures offer promise in nanoplasmonics, biomedical applications, electrochemical sensing and as contacts for carbon-based electronics. Direct-write techniques such as focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) can provide such precisely patterned nanostructures. Unfortunately, FEBID Au traditionally suffers from a high nonmetallic content and cannot meet the purity requirements for these applications. Here we report exceptionally pure pristine FEBID Au nanostructures comprising submicrometer-large monocrystalline Au sections. On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results and Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories in the deposited nanostructures, we propose a curing mechanism that elucidates the observed phenomena. The in situ focused-electron-beam-induced curing mechanism was supported by postdeposition ex situ curing and, in combination with oxygen plasma cleaning, is utilized as a straightforward purification method for planar FEBID structures. This work paves the way for the application of FEBID Au nanostructures in a new generation of biosensors and plasmonic nanodevices.

  11. Influence of photon beam energy on the dose enhancement factor caused by gold and silver nanoparticles: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guidelli, Eder José Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Noble metal nanoparticles have found several medical applications in the areas of radiation detection; x-ray contrast agents and cancer radiation therapy. Based on computational methods, many papers have reported the nanoparticle effect on the dose deposition in the surrounding medium. Here the authors report experimental results on how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters containing several concentrations of silver and gold nanoparticles, for five different beam energies, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Methods: The authors produced alanine dosimeters containing several mass percentage of silver and gold nanoparticles. Nanoparticle sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering and by transmission electron microscopy. The authors determined the dose enhancement factor (DEF) theoretically, using a widely accepted method, and experimentally, using ESR spectroscopy. Results: The DEF is governed by nanoparticle concentration, size, and position in the alanine matrix. Samples containing gold nanoparticles afford a DEF higher than 1.0, because gold nanoparticle size is homogeneous for all gold concentrations utilized. For samples containing silver particles, the silver mass percentage governs the nanoparticles size, which, in turns, modifies nanoparticle position in the alanine dosimeters. In this sense, DEF decreases for dosimeters containing large and segregated particles. The influence of nanoparticle size-position is more noticeable for dosimeters irradiated with higher beam energies, and dosimeters containing large and segregated particles become less sensitive than pure alanine (DEF < 1). Conclusions: ESR dosimetry gives the DEF in a medium containing metal nanoparticles, although particle concentration, size, and position are closely related in the system. Because this is also the case as in many real systems of materials containing inorganic nanoparticles, ESR is a valuable tool for

  12. Structural Modification of Single Wall and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Carbon, Nickel and Gold Ion Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeet, Kiran; Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya; Bharadwaj, L. M.

    2011-12-12

    Thin film samples of carbon nanotubes were irradiated with ion beam of carbon, nickel and gold. The irradiation results were characterized using Raman Spectroscopy. Modifications of the disorder mode (D mode) and the tangential mode (G mode) under different irradiation fluences were studied in detail. Raman results of carbon ion beam indicate the interesting phenomenon of ordering of the system under irradiation. Under the effect of nickel and gold ion irradiation, the structural evolution of CNTs occurs in three different stages. At lower fluences the process of healing occurs; at intermediate fluences damages on the surface of CNTs occurs and finally at very high fluences of the order of 1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} the system gets amorphised.

  13. Laser-induced Bessel beams can realize fast all-optical switching in gold nanosol prepared by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Santhi Ani; Hari, Misha; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the possibility of realizing, all-optical switching in gold nanosol. Two overlapping laser beams are used for this purpose, due to which a low-power beam passing collinear to a high-power beam will undergo cross phase modulation and thereby distort the spatial profile. This is taken to advantage for performing logic operations. We have also measured the threshold pump power to obtain a NOT gate and the minimum response time of the device. Contrary to the general notion that the response time of thermal effects used in this application is of the order of milliseconds, we prove that short pump pulses can result in fast switching. Different combinations of beam splitters and combiners will lead to the formation of other logic functions too.

  14. Moving metal artifact reduction in cone-beam CT scans with implanted cylindrical gold markers

    SciTech Connect

    Toftegaard, Jakob Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben S.; Poulsen, Per R.; Seghers, Dieter; Huber, Michael; Brehm, Marcus; Elstrøm, Ulrik V.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Implanted gold markers for image-guided radiotherapy lead to streaking artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans. Several methods for metal artifact reduction (MAR) have been published, but they all fail in scans with large motion. Here the authors propose and investigate a method for automatic moving metal artifact reduction (MMAR) in CBCT scans with cylindrical gold markers. Methods: The MMAR CBCT reconstruction method has six steps. (1) Automatic segmentation of the cylindrical markers in the CBCT projections. (2) Removal of each marker in the projections by replacing the pixels within a masked area with interpolated values. (3) Reconstruction of a marker-free CBCT volume from the manipulated CBCT projections. (4) Reconstruction of a standard CBCT volume with metal artifacts from the original CBCT projections. (5) Estimation of the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory during CBCT acquisition for each marker based on the segmentation in Step 1, and identification of the smallest ellipsoidal volume that encompasses 95% of the visited 3D positions. (6) Generation of the final MMAR CBCT reconstruction from the marker-free CBCT volume of Step 3 by replacing the voxels in the 95% ellipsoid with the corresponding voxels of the standard CBCT volume of Step 4. The MMAR reconstruction was performed retrospectively using a half-fan CBCT scan for 29 consecutive stereotactic body radiation therapy patients with 2–3 gold markers implanted in the liver. The metal artifacts of the MMAR reconstructions were scored and compared with a standard MAR reconstruction by counting the streaks and by calculating the standard deviation of the Hounsfield units in a region around each marker. Results: The markers were found with the same autosegmentation settings in 27 CBCT scans, while two scans needed slightly changed settings to find all markers automatically in Step 1 of the MMAR method. MMAR resulted in 15 scans with no streaking artifacts, 11 scans with 1–4 streaks, and 3 scans

  15. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30-100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects

  16. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, T; Guidelli, E J; Gómez, J A; Baffa, O; Nicolucci, P

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material.We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves.Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals.2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both kilo

  17. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, T.; Guidelli, E. J.; Gómez, J. A.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material. We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves. Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals. 2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both

  18. High-temperature tribological characteristics of silver and gold coatings on ceramics prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    An ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) system was used to deposit silver and gold coatings on polycrystalline {alpha}-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates for tribological studies at temperatures to 400{degrees}C. The wear tests were performed with an oscillating ball-on-flat type of test apparatus as a partial simulation of ring/liner motion and contact geometry in actual engine systems. The test results showed that without a surface coating, both the wear rates and the friction coefficients of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test pairs were quite high, and increased substantially with temperature. In contract, the wear of flats coated with silver and gold was at unmeasurable levels, even after sliding tests of 110,000 passes. The wear of balls (uncoated) sliding against the Ag- and Au-coated flats was reduced by factors of 45 to more than 500 depending on coating type and ambient temperature. The friction coefficients of pairs with an IBAD-Ag or Au coating were in the range of 0.32--0.5.

  19. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  20. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  1. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  2. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  3. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that are not an integral part of the vessel or facility, carrying fluids under pressures exceeding 15...

  4. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  5. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  6. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  7. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  8. 46 CFR 197.430 - SCUBA diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SCUBA diving. 197.430 Section 197.430 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.430 SCUBA diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) SCUBA diving is not conducted— (1) Outside the...

  9. 46 CFR 197.400 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 197.400 Section 197.400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.400 Applicability. Diving operations...

  10. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  11. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  12. 46 CFR 197.400 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 197.400 Section 197.400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.400 Applicability. Diving operations...

  13. 32 CFR 197.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 197.5 Section 197.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.5 Responsibilities....

  14. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197...

  15. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197...

  16. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197...

  17. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197...

  18. 40 CFR 421.197 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.197 Section 421.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.197...

  19. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remanufactured OTRBs. 37.197 Section 37.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.197 Remanufactured OTRBs. (a) This section applies to...

  20. 49 CFR 37.197 - Remanufactured OTRBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remanufactured OTRBs. 37.197 Section 37.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.197 Remanufactured OTRBs. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  2. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  3. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  4. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  5. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a...

  6. 46 CFR 197.420 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operations manual. 197.420 Section 197.420 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.420 Operations manual. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Provide an operations manual to the person-in-charge prior to commencement of...

  7. 46 CFR 197.420 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operations manual. 197.420 Section 197.420 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.420 Operations manual. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Provide an operations manual to the person-in-charge prior to commencement of...

  8. 46 CFR 197.420 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operations manual. 197.420 Section 197.420 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.420 Operations manual. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Provide an operations manual to the person-in-charge prior to commencement of...

  9. 46 CFR 197.420 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operations manual. 197.420 Section 197.420 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.420 Operations manual. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Provide an operations manual to the person-in-charge prior to commencement of...

  10. 34 CFR 300.197 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Judicial review. 300.197 Section 300.197 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.197 Judicial review. If... petition for review with the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the State is...

  11. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  16. Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Espada, L.; Chen, C. D.

    2009-09-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

  17. Fluorescent biorecognition of gold nanoparticle-IgG conjugates self-assembled on E-beam patterns.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tremaine; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2006-01-01

    A new concept for line patterning of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in nanometer scale using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) self-assembled in a nanochannel written with an electron beam is proposed and demonstrated. AuNPs are synthesized by reducing KAuCl4 with NaBH4, producing AuNPs 40-70 nm in size, where Cl- ions are capping AuNPs thus making them negatively charged and subsequently stabilized. IgG is conjugated to these AuNPs by simple adsorption. Single or multiple nanochannels are written with an electron beam using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in a layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is spin-coated on a p-doped Si wafer. AuNPs bind into the etched nanochannel where the Si surface is exposed, while the relatively hydrophobic PMMA area repels the particles. The particles with a diameter larger than the channel width are not able to go inside of it. Anti-IgG, conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), is then exposed to the patterned surface, binding specifically to the IgG-AuNP conjugates within the line patterns. These antibody-antigen bindings can be visualized with a fluorescent microscope, showing the fluorescent signal only along with the nanometer line pattern. These initial steps will lead to the formation of complex protein nanoarrays, based on the size-dependent self-assembly of AuNPs within variously sized nanopatterns.

  18. Laser beam controlled drug release from Ce6-gold nanorod composites in living cells: a FLIM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongkui; He, Ruoyu; Lin, Dongdong; Ji, Minbiao; Chen, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    A new method to image drug release from drug-nanoparticle composites in living cells was established. The composites of silica coated gold nanorods (AuNR@SiO2) and chlorine e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers (AuNR@SiO2-Ce6) were formed by electrostatic force with a Ce6 loading efficiency of 80%. The strong resonance absorptions of AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 in the near-infrared (NIR) region enabled the effective release of Ce6 from AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 by 780 nm CW laser irradiation. The 780 nm laser beam was applied to not only control the releasing amount of Ce6 from cellular AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 by adjusting the irradiation dose (time), but also to spatially confine the Ce6 release in cells by focusing the laser beam on the target sites. Furthermore, the fluorescence lifetime of Ce6 was found to change drastically from 0.9 ns in the AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 complex to 6 ns after release, and therefore fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was introduced to image the photo-induced Ce6 release in living cells. Finally, the controllable killing effect of photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) using AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 was demonstrated by changing the released amount of Ce6, which indicates that AuNR@SiO2-Ce6 is promising for targeted tumour PDT.

  19. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Respaldiza, M. Á.; Luisa de la Bandera, M.; Ovejero Zappino, G.; Bouzas, A.; Gómez-Morón, A.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cádiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  20. 21 CFR 1.97 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonds. 1.97 Section 1.97 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... rendering it other than a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, in such manner as is prescribed for such bond in... this regulation in any case unless the district director is in full agreement with the action....

  1. 21 CFR 1.97 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonds. 1.97 Section 1.97 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... rendering it other than a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, in such manner as is prescribed for such bond in... this regulation in any case unless the district director is in full agreement with the action....

  2. 40 CFR 197.35 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 197.35 Section 197.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  3. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any...

  4. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any...

  5. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any...

  6. 38 CFR 19.7 - The decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The decision. 19.7... VETERANS' APPEALS: APPEALS REGULATIONS Operation of the Board of Veterans' Appeals § 19.7 The decision. (a) Decisions based on entire record. The appellant will not be presumed to be in agreement with any...

  7. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  8. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  9. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  10. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  11. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  12. {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 197}At

    SciTech Connect

    Andgren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Baeck, T.; Hadinia, B.; Johnson, A.; Khaplanov, A.; Sandzelius, M.; Wyss, R.; Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P. M.; Juutinen, S.; Julin, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.

    2008-10-15

    Excited states of the extremely neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 197}At have been studied in an in-beam experiment using the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 118}Sn({sup 82}Kr,p2n){sup 197}At. {gamma} rays belonging to {sup 197}At feeding the I{sup {pi}}=(9/2{sup -}) ground state, as well as {gamma} rays feeding the 311-keV I{sup {pi}}=(13/2{sup +}) isomer, decaying via the emission of {gamma} rays, and the 52-keV I{sup {pi}}=(1/2{sup +}){alpha}-decaying isomer have been identified using the recoil-{alpha}-decay tagging technique. Total Routhian surface calculations predict a near-spherical shape for the (9/2{sup -}) ground state and oblate shapes with {beta}{sub 2} around -0.2 for the (1/2{sup +}) and the (13/2{sup +}) states. These predictions agree with our experimental findings.

  13. 46 CFR 197.480 - Logbooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.480 Logbooks. (a) The person-in-charge of a vessel or... subpart. (c) The diving supervisor conducting commercial diving operations from a vessel or...

  14. 46 CFR 197.480 - Logbooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.480 Logbooks. (a) The person-in-charge of a vessel or... subpart. (c) The diving supervisor conducting commercial diving operations from a vessel or...

  15. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  16. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  17. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  18. 46 CFR 197.580 - Appendices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.580 Appendices. (a) Appendices A through D and F of this subpart contain technical information on benzene and its effects and provide guidance for medical surveillance, monitoring,...

  19. 32 CFR 197.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.6 Procedures. The procedures for processing and/or researching for access to OSD Component files are in appendices B, C, and D...

  20. Electron beam induced water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles as a natural antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanocolloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongkrongsak, Soraya; Tangthong, Theeranan; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2016-01-01

    The research proposes a novel water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles (WSSF-NPs) created by electron beam irradiation. In this report, we demonstrate the effects of electron beam irradiation doses ranging from 1 to 30 kGy on the molecular weight (MW), nanostructure formation, antioxidant activity and reducing power of the WSSF-NPs. Electron beam-induced degradation of SF causing MW reduction from 250 to 37 kDa. Chemical characteristic functions of SF still remained after exposing to electron beam. The WSSF-NPs with the MW of 37 kDa exhibited spherical morphology with a nanoscaled size of 40 nm. Antioxidant activities and reducing powers were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhryl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. The WSSF-NPs showed greater antioxidant activity and reducing power than non-irradiated SF. By increasing their antioxidant and reducing power efficiencies, WSSF-NPs potentially created gold nanocolloid. WSSF-NPs produced by electron beam irradiation would be a great merit for the uses as a natural antioxidant additive and a green reducing agent in biomedical, cosmetic and food applications.

  1. Target rapidity baryon distributions in {sup 28}Si + {sup 197}Au and {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at 14.6 and 11.7 A{center_dot}GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Costales, J.B.; Namboodiri, M.N.; E802 Collaboration

    1993-02-25

    Proton and deuteron kinetic energy spectra have been measured at target rapidities for both minimum bias and central collisions of 14.6 A{center_dot}GeV/c {sup 28}Si and 11.7 A{center_dot}GeV/c {sup 197}Au beams with a {sup 197}Au target. The spectra were measured from a low energy threshold of approximately E{sub kin}=35 MeV to well over 200 MeV for laboratory angles of 50{degree} to 130{degree} ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {le}0.76). The acceptance-corrected spectra have been fit over a limited range of kinetic energies using a Boltzmann distribution. The integrated yields and the inverse slope parameters are presented as a function of centrality for the {sup 28}Si + {sup 197}Au reaction and as a function of trigger for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reaction. These quantities are also compared with the proton spectra generated using both the ARC and RQMD codes.

  2. SU-E-J-247: A Simulation of X-Ray Emission with Gold Nanoparticle Irradiated by Energetic Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Newpower, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the proton induced X-ray emissions in gold-water mixture materials. Methods: In this study a Monte Carlo simulation was created using the GEANT4 toolkit (version 4.9.6). The geometry in this setup includes a 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm target, a scoring sphere (radius = 10 cm) and a 65 MeV planar proton source (2 cm × 2 cm). Four concentrations of a gold-water solution were irradiated with 5×10{sup 5} incident protons at a distance of 0.5 cm perpendicular to the surface of the target. The solutions of gold-water mixture had 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.5% of gold by mass, respectively. The number of photon emitting for the target was counted in the scoring sphere for the energy range of 0-86.0 keV in 0.1 keV bins. For this study the reference physics list PhysListEmStandard was used together with the x-ray fluorescence, Auger electron and PIXE (particle induced xray emission) options enabled. The range cuts for photons and electrons were set at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. Results: In the energy spectra of emitting X-ray fluorescence, peaks from gold K shell characteristic x-rays (68.8 and 66.9 keV) were observed. The number of counts under the peaks of Ka1 and Ka2 was found to increase with the increasing of the gold concentrations in the mixture materials. The X-ray yields (for both Ka1 and Ka2) when fitted with least-square method as a function of gold concentration demonstrate a linear dependency with R{sup 2} > 0.96. The Ka1yield per incident proton was found to be 0.0016 for 10% gold-water mixture solutions. Conclusion: This preliminary study with PIXE technique with gold nanoparticle has demonstrated potentials for its utilization in the development of range and dose verification methodology that is currently of great interest in the field of proton radiation therapy.

  3. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PVHO-Decompression chambers. 197.332 Section 197.332... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers. Each decompression chamber must— (a) Meet the requirements of § 197.328; (b) Have internal...

  4. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false PVHO-Closed bells. 197.330 Section 197.330 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each closed bell must meet the requirements of § 197.328 and—...

  5. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false PVHO-Closed bells. 197.330 Section 197.330 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each closed bell must meet the requirements of § 197.328 and—...

  6. Yields of photoneutron reactions on {sup 197}Au nuclei in the giant-dipole-resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ermakov, A. N.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kurilik, A. S.; Stopani, K. A.; Troschiev, S. Yu.

    2011-11-15

    Yields of photonuclear reactions on 197Au nuclei were measured in a beam of bremsstrahlung photons, the endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung spectrum being 29.1 MeV. These measurements were performed by means of the gamma-activation procedure. The results obtained in this way were compared with the results of earlier experiments and theoretical calculations.

  7. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 197

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 197 have been updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies leading to nuclides in the A = 197 mass chain since December 1989 (cutoff date of the last evaluation). The updated level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 197. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  8. LUMINOSITY INCREASES IN GOLD-GOLD OPERATION IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.AHERNS,L.BAI,M.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    After an exploratory phase, during which a number of beam parameters were varied, the RHIC experiments now demand higher luminosity to study heavy ion collisions in detail. In gold-gold, operation, RHIC delivers now twice the design luminosity. During the last gold-gold operating period (Run-4) the machine delivered 15 times more luminosity than during the previous gold-gold operating period (Run-2), two years ago. We give an overview of the changes that increased the instantaneous luminosity and luminosity lifetime, raised the reliability, and improved the operational efficiency.

  9. 46 CFR 197.346 - Diver's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.346 Diver's equipment. (a) Each diver using SCUBA must have— (1) Self-contained underwater breathing equipment including— (i) A primary... weight belt capable of quick release; (5) A knife; (6) Swim fins or shoes; (7) A diving wristwatch;...

  10. 46 CFR 197.346 - Diver's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.346 Diver's equipment. (a) Each diver using SCUBA must have— (1) Self-contained underwater breathing equipment including— (i) A primary... weight belt capable of quick release; (5) A knife; (6) Swim fins or shoes; (7) A diving wristwatch;...

  11. 46 CFR 197.410 - Dive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.410 Dive procedures. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Before commencing diving operations, dive team members are briefed on— (i... safety of the diving operation; and (iii) Any modifications to the operations manual or...

  12. 46 CFR 197.410 - Dive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.410 Dive procedures. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Before commencing diving operations, dive team members are briefed on— (i... safety of the diving operation; and (iii) Any modifications to the operations manual or...

  13. 46 CFR 197.410 - Dive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.410 Dive procedures. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Before commencing diving operations, dive team members are briefed on— (i... safety of the diving operation; and (iii) Any modifications to the operations manual or...

  14. 46 CFR 197.346 - Diver's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.346 Diver's equipment. (a) Each diver using SCUBA must have— (1) Self-contained underwater breathing equipment including— (i) A primary... weight belt capable of quick release; (5) A knife; (6) Swim fins or shoes; (7) A diving wristwatch;...

  15. 46 CFR 197.410 - Dive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.410 Dive procedures. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Before commencing diving operations, dive team members are briefed on— (i... safety of the diving operation; and (iii) Any modifications to the operations manual or...

  16. 46 CFR 197.436 - Liveboating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.436 Liveboating. (a) During liveboating operations, the person-in-charge shall insure that— (1) Diving is not conducted in.... (c) During liveboating operations, the diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Diving is...

  17. 46 CFR 197.436 - Liveboating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.436 Liveboating. (a) During liveboating operations, the person-in-charge shall insure that— (1) Diving is not conducted in.... (c) During liveboating operations, the diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Diving is...

  18. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., part 54 of this chapter, or 49 CFR 173.34, as applicable. (d) All repairs and modifications to pressure... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.300 Applicability. (a) Each diving... vessels and is part of the diving installation must meet Subchapters F and J of this chapter. (c)...

  19. 46 CFR 197.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., part 54 of this chapter, or 49 CFR 173.34, as applicable. (d) All repairs and modifications to pressure... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.300 Applicability. (a) Each diving... vessels and is part of the diving installation must meet Subchapters F and J of this chapter. (c)...

  20. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  1. 46 CFR 197.560 - Medical surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.560 Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The employer must provide, and... permitted to enter or continue working in a workplace in which they will be or may be exposed to benzene: (i) Employees who were exposed to more than 10 ppm of benzene as an eight-hour TWA on at least 30 calendar...

  2. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  3. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  4. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  5. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) in compliance with 30 CFR part 11. When filter elements are used, they must include MSHA approval for organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators...

  6. 46 CFR 197.560 - Medical surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.560 Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The employer must provide, and... permitted to enter or continue working in a workplace in which they will be or may be exposed to benzene: (i) Employees who were exposed to more than 10 ppm of benzene as an eight-hour TWA on at least 30 calendar...

  7. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  8. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  9. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  10. 46 CFR 197.560 - Medical surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.560 Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The employer must provide, and... permitted to enter or continue working in a workplace in which they will be or may be exposed to benzene: (i) Employees who were exposed to more than 10 ppm of benzene as an eight-hour TWA on at least 30 calendar...

  11. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  12. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  13. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) in compliance with 30 CFR part 11. When filter elements are used, they must include MSHA approval for organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators...

  14. 46 CFR 197.560 - Medical surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.560 Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The employer must provide, and... permitted to enter or continue working in a workplace in which they will be or may be exposed to benzene: (i) Employees who were exposed to more than 10 ppm of benzene as an eight-hour TWA on at least 30 calendar...

  15. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  16. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  17. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  18. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) in compliance with 30 CFR part 11. When filter elements are used, they must include MSHA approval for organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators...

  19. 46 CFR 197.570 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.570 Recordkeeping. (a) Record of personal exposure monitoring. (1) The...; (iii) A list of medical complaints, if any, by the employee related to exposure to benzene; (iv) A copy... copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to benzene or other...

  20. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  1. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) in compliance with 30 CFR part 11. When filter elements are used, they must include MSHA approval for organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators...

  2. 46 CFR 197.560 - Medical surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.560 Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The employer must provide, and... permitted to enter or continue working in a workplace in which they will be or may be exposed to benzene: (i) Employees who were exposed to more than 10 ppm of benzene as an eight-hour TWA on at least 30 calendar...

  3. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  4. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  5. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  6. 46 CFR 197.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.501 Applicability. (a) Except for vessels satisfying paragraph (b) of... barges, that are carrying benzene or benzene containing liquids in bulk as cargo. (b) This subpart does not apply to vessels that are carrying only liquid cargoes containing less than 0.5% benzene by...

  7. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) in compliance with 30 CFR part 11. When filter elements are used, they must include MSHA approval for organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators...

  8. 46 CFR 197.505 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.505 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 parts of benzene per million parts of air calculated as an eight hour time... specifically authorized by the person in charge of the vessel to enter a regulated area. Benzene...

  9. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or reasonably... inches high (except for the words “DANGER—BENZENE”, which must be printed in letters at least 50...

  10. Kinetic mechanisms of the in situ electron beam-induced self-organization of gold nanoclusters in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Giannazzo, F.; Roccaforte, F.; Raineri, V.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gold nanoclusters (NCs) were produced in thin SiO2 film by a sequential sputtering deposition procedure. In situ time-lapse studies of the NCs size distribution and morphology under 200 keV electron-beam irradiation have been performed using a transmission electron microscopy. Such a study has revealed the microscopic kinetic mechanisms of the NCs growth. In the 0-1620 s irradiation time range, the NCs growth process was found to be formed by two stages: in the 0-720 s time range, the main growth mechanism is demonstrated to be an electron beam-induced ripening of three-dimensional particles controlled by the Au diffusion in the SiO2 matrix. The application of the classical ripening theoretical model allowed us to derive the room-temperature Au diffusion coefficient in SiO2 under the electron-beam irradiation. In the 900-1620 s time range, the main growth mechanism is found to be a particle sintering in which neighbouring NCs form necks, by a partial deformation of their surfaces, through which the Au atomic diffusion occurs from the smaller NCs to the larger one. About the NCs morphology, three main classes of NCs were identified on the basis of their internal atomic structure, as a function of the irradiation time: FCC crystal structure, icosahedral-defect free structure and decahedral multi-twinned structure.

  11. Romanian ancient gold objects provenance studies using micro-beam methods: the case of “Pietroasa” hoard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Cojocaru, V.; Voiculescu, D.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Ceccato, D.

    2005-04-01

    Five fragments of ancient gold objects belonging to Pietroasa "Cloşca cu Puii de Aur" ("The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens") Romanian hoard were analysed using the micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique. The purpose of the study was to gain some more knowledge regarding the metal provenance by determining the presence of PGE (Platinum Group Elements) and other high-temperature melting point trace elements (Ta, Nb, Cr) at a micrometric scale. Ta and Nb inclusions (micrometric areas of composition different from the surroundings) on three samples and Pd inclusions on one sample were found. The measurements led to some conclusions for the possible gold ore sources of Pietroasa treasury: the South-Ural Mountains, Nubia (Sudan) and/or Anatolian deposits and Roman imperial coins.

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Transrectal Implantation of Gold Markers for Prostate Localization During External Beam Radiotherapy: Complication Rate and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenhuijsen, Johan F.; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Vight, Lisette P. van der; McColl, Gill; Visser, Andries G.; Witjes, J. Alfred

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report the complication rate and risk factors of transrectally implanted gold markers, used for prostate position verification and correction procedures. Methods and Materials: In 209 consecutive men with localized prostate cancer, four gold markers (1 x 7 mm) were inserted under ultrasound guidance in an outpatient setting, and the toxicity was analyzed. All patients received a questionnaire regarding complications after marker implantation. The complications and risk factors were further evaluated by reviewing the medical charts. Results: Of the 209 men, 13 (6.2%) had a moderate complication, consisting of pain and fever that resolved after treatment with oral medication. In 1.9% of the men, minor voiding complaints were observed. Other minor transient complications, defined as hematuria lasting >3 days, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding, occurred in 3.8%, 18.5%, and 9.1% of the patients, respectively. These complications were seen more often in patients with advanced tumor stage, younger age, and shorter duration of hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Transrectal gold marker implantation for high-precision prostate radiotherapy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  13. Spectroscopy of {sup 193,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J.A.; McNabb, D.P.; Ding, K.Y.; Davids, C.N.; Janssens, R.V.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Amro, H.; Decrock, P.; Reiter, P.; Nisius, D.; Brown, L.T.; Fischer, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Wauters, J.; Bingham, C.R.; Huyse, M.; Andreyev, A.; Seweryniak, D.; Conticchio, L.F.; Brown, L.T.

    1997-08-01

    Excited states built on the 13/2{sup +} isomers of the odd-mass {sup 193,195,197}Po isotopes have been observed via in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The {alpha} radioactivity of these isotopes has been used to tag {gamma}-ray transitions following the {sup A}Er+164 MeV {sup 32}S reactions, where A=164, 166, 167, 168, and 170. Prompt {gamma} radiation was measured by ten Compton-suppressed Ge detectors at the target position and the Fragment Mass Analyzer was used to select evaporation residues. The results are compared with the first excited states of the heavier odd-mass polonium isotopes and of the even-mass cores. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Studies of {sup 194,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    The energy systematics of low-lying polonium states show sudden changes near N = 114. The observed drops in the low-lying levels of {sup 196,198}Po relative to the heavier isotopes indicate significant changes in the underlying structure of these nuclei. It is thought that this change is due to the onset of vibrational collectivity brought about by the quadrupole interaction between neutron and proton-pairs. In order to extend the Po systematics even further, we measured, for the first time, states in {sup 194,195,197}Po using the {sup 28}Si + {sup 170}Yb reaction at a beam energy of 142 MeV. The beam was supplied by ATLAS, and the data were taken with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors placed at the target position of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Preliminary level schemes were constructed for {sup 194,195,197}Po based on {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-FMA coincidences. The results for {sup 194}Po show that the 2{sup +} - 0{sup +} transition energy decreased in energy by 140 keV relative to {sup 196}Po suggesting that this nucleus moved beyond the vibrational limit to more collective motion. An extrapolation of the systematics predicts that the 2{sup +} energy could drop another 140 keV between {sup 194}Po and {sup 192}Po which would indicate the onset of rotational motion. Currently, we have an approved experiment to investigate the decay of yrast isomers in {sup 194}Po which will allow us to (1) confirm our earlier level scheme of {sup 194}Po, and (2) assess the experimental conditions needed for a future study of {sup 192}Po.

  15. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  16. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  17. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each...

  18. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  19. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  20. 46 CFR 197.210 - Designation of diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of diving supervisor. 197.210 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.210 Designation of diving supervisor. The name of the diving supervisor for each commercial diving operation shall be— (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 197.203 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of appeal. 197.203 Section 197.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.203 Right of appeal. Any person...

  2. 46 CFR 197.318 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.318 Section 197.318 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.318 Gages and timekeeping...

  3. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.432 Surface-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is...

  4. 46 CFR 197.210 - Designation of diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of diving supervisor. 197.210 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.210 Designation of diving supervisor. The name of the diving supervisor for each commercial diving operation shall be— (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  6. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  8. 25 CFR 700.197 - Basic eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basic eligibility requirements. 700.197 Section 700.197 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Incidental Expenses § 700.197 Basic eligibility requirements. A certified eligible head of household...

  9. 25 CFR 700.197 - Basic eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basic eligibility requirements. 700.197 Section 700.197 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Incidental Expenses § 700.197 Basic eligibility requirements. A certified eligible head of household...

  10. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  11. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in... correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the certificate should have...

  12. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in... correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the certificate should have...

  13. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in... correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the certificate should have...

  14. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in... correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the certificate should have...

  15. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  16. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  17. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chapter; or (2) 49 CFR 173.34 and 49 CFR part 178, subpart C. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  18. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... chapter; or (2) 49 CFR 173.34 and 49 CFR part 178, subpart C. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  19. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  20. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chapter; or (2) 49 CFR 173.34 and 49 CFR part 178, subpart C. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  1. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.458 Section 197.458... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage and timekeeping device is tested or calibrated against a master reference gage or time-keeping...

  2. 46 CFR 197.318 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.318 Section 197.318... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.318 Gages and timekeeping devices... timekeeping device must be at each dive location....

  3. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  4. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  5. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  6. 12 CFR 197.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 197.11 Section 197.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be...

  7. 46 CFR 197.203 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right of appeal. 197.203 Section 197.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.203 Right of appeal. Any person...

  8. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... chapter; or (2) 49 CFR 173.34 and 49 CFR part 178, subpart C. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  9. 46 CFR 197.338 - Compressed gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... chapter; or (2) 49 CFR 173.34 and 49 CFR part 178, subpart C. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gas cylinders. 197.338 Section 197.338... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.338 Compressed gas cylinders....

  10. 46 CFR 197.203 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of appeal. 197.203 Section 197.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.203 Right of appeal. Any person...

  11. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  12. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  14. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  15. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  17. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  18. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  20. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  2. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  4. 46 CFR 197.575 - Observation of monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observation of monitoring. 197.575 Section 197.575 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.575 Observation of monitoring. (a) Persons involved in...

  5. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  6. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  7. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  8. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  9. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  10. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  11. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  12. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  13. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  14. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.454 First aid and...

  15. 26 CFR 1.197-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.197-0 Section 1.197-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.197-0 Table... value. (3) Workforce in place. (4) Information base. (5) Know-how, etc. (6) Customer-based...

  16. 26 CFR 1.197-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.197-0 Section 1.197-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.197-0 Table of contents. This section lists the...

  17. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, C; Mehendale, S; Mulders, J J L; Trompenaars, P H F

    2016-10-14

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, 'in situ' purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for 'in situ' Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied. PMID:27587078

  18. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansilla, C.; Mehendale, S.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, ‘in situ’ purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for ‘in situ’ Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  19. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, C; Mehendale, S; Mulders, J J L; Trompenaars, P H F

    2016-10-14

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, 'in situ' purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for 'in situ' Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  20. Anisotropic In-Plane Conductivity and Dichroic Gold Plasmon Resonance in Plasma-Assisted ITO Thin Films e-Beam-Evaporated at Oblique Angles.

    PubMed

    Parra-Barranco, Julián; García-García, Francisco J; Rico, Víctor; Borrás, Ana; López-Santos, Carmen; Frutos, Fabián; Barranco, Angel; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2015-05-27

    ITO thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation at oblique angles (OA), directly and while assisting their growth with a downstream plasma. The films microstructure, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, consisted of tilted and separated nanostructures. In the plasma assisted films, the tilting angle decreased and the nanocolumns became associated in the form of bundles along the direction perpendicular to the flux of evaporated material. The annealed films presented different in-depth and sheet resistivity as confirmed by scanning conductivity measurements taken for the individual nanocolumns. In addition, for the plasma-assisted thin films, two different sheet resistance values were determined by measuring along the nanocolumn bundles or the perpendicular to it. This in-plane anisotropy induces the electrochemical deposition of elongated gold nanostructures. The obtained Au-ITO composite thin films were characterized by anisotropic plasmon resonance absorption and a dichroic behavior when examined with linearly polarized light. PMID:25938593

  1. Localized Dose Enhancement to Tumor Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells via Megavoltage X-rays and Targeted Gold Nanoparticles: New Potential for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Tumor endothelial cell damage during radiation therapy may contribute significantly to tumor eradication and treatment efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) delivered preferentially to the walls of tumor blood vessels produce low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiotherapy, boosting dose to the tumor microvasculature. In this study dosimetry at the single-cell level is used to estimate the anticipated AuNP-mediated dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells during 6-MV X-ray irradiation. Methods and Materials: Endothelial cells are modeled as thin slabs with 100-nm-diameter AuNPs attached within the blood vessel. The number of photoelectrons emitted per AuNP per gray of X-rays is computed at multiple points along the external beam central axis by use of a Monte Carlo-generated energy fluence spectrum. The energy deposited from AuNP emissions to the endothelium is calculated based on an analytic method incorporating the energy-loss formula of Cole. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF) is the ratio of the overall (externally plus internally generated) dose to endothelial cells in the presence of AuNPs to the dose without AuNPs (from the external beam only). Results: At 20-cm depth, the EDEF is 1.7 (70% dose increase) for an intravascular AuNP concentration of 30 mg/g. Most of this dose enhancement arises from the low-energy (approximately 100 keV) portion of the linear accelerator X-ray spectrum. Furthermore, for AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 140 mg/g, EDEF values of 1.2 to 4.4 (20-340% dose increase) are calculated. Conclusions: In contrast to calculations assuming that AuNPs distributed homogeneously throughout the target volume (macrodosimetry), our cellular microdosimetry calculations predict a major dose enhancement to tumor microvasculature from conventional linear accelerator X-rays. This effect may enable the delivery of ablative therapeutic doses to these sensitive microstructures while maintaining

  2. Simulation study of beam-beam effects in ion beams with large space charge tuneshift

    SciTech Connect

    Montag C.

    2012-05-20

    During low-energy operations with gold-gold collisions at 3.85 GeV beam energy, significant beam lifetime reductions have been observed due to the beam-beam interaction in the presence of large space charge tuneshifts. These beam-beam tuneshift parameters were about an order of magnitude smaller than during regular high energy operations. To get a better understanding of this effect, simulations have been performed. Recent results are presented.

  3. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compliance with § 197.560 or 29 CFR 1910.1028; (2) The physician who performed or who supervised the latest... requirements of § 197.550(b) and § 197.555(c) or of 29 CFR 1910.1028; and (4) All respirators that will be used...) and (d) or with 29 CFR 1910.1028. Note: The employer need not furnish the required respirators...

  4. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... compliance with § 197.560 or 29 CFR 1910.1028; (2) The physician who performed or who supervised the latest... requirements of § 197.550(b) and § 197.555(c) or of 29 CFR 1910.1028; and (4) All respirators that will be used...) and (d) or with 29 CFR 1910.1028. Note: The employer need not furnish the required respirators...

  5. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compliance with § 197.560 or 29 CFR 1910.1028; (2) The physician who performed or who supervised the latest... requirements of § 197.550(b) and § 197.555(c) or of 29 CFR 1910.1028; and (4) All respirators that will be used...) and (d) or with 29 CFR 1910.1028. Note: The employer need not furnish the required respirators...

  6. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... compliance with § 197.560 or 29 CFR 1910.1028; (2) The physician who performed or who supervised the latest... requirements of § 197.550(b) and § 197.555(c) or of 29 CFR 1910.1028; and (4) All respirators that will be used...) and (d) or with 29 CFR 1910.1028. Note: The employer need not furnish the required respirators...

  7. 46 CFR 197.530 - Persons other than employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... compliance with § 197.560 or 29 CFR 1910.1028; (2) The physician who performed or who supervised the latest... requirements of § 197.550(b) and § 197.555(c) or of 29 CFR 1910.1028; and (4) All respirators that will be used...) and (d) or with 29 CFR 1910.1028. Note: The employer need not furnish the required respirators...

  8. 46 CFR 197.200 - Purpose of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.200 Purpose of subpart. This subpart... and health standards for commercial diving operations taking place from vessels and facilities...

  9. 46 CFR 197.200 - Purpose of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.200 Purpose of subpart. This subpart... and health standards for commercial diving operations taking place from vessels and facilities...

  10. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  11. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  12. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  13. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  14. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  15. 43 CFR 19.7 - Private contributions and gifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private contributions and gifts. 19.7... National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.7 Private contributions and gifts. (a) The Secretary is... contributions and gifts to be used to further the purposes of the act. The Secretary, under the authorization...

  16. 46 CFR 197.404 - Responsibilities of the diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. 197.404... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.404 Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Be fully cognizant of...

  17. 46 CFR 197.404 - Responsibilities of the diving supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. 197.404... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.404 Responsibilities of the diving supervisor. (a) The diving supervisor shall— (1) Be fully cognizant of...

  18. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... under control number 1625-0001)...

  19. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  20. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the...

  1. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the...

  2. 12 CFR 197.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 197.18 Section... § 197.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular... periodic and current reports on Forms 8-K, 10-Q and 10-K as may be required by section 13 of the...

  3. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air..., supplying mixed-gas to a diver, is checked, prior to commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical...

  4. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air..., supplying mixed-gas to a diver, is checked, prior to commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical...

  5. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must DOE... sufficiently that a human intrusion (see § 197.26) could occur without recognition by the drillers. (b) The DOE... individual will receive an annual committed effective dose equivalent, as a result of the human intrusion,...

  6. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must DOE... sufficiently that a human intrusion (see § 197.26) could occur without recognition by the drillers. (b) The DOE... individual will receive an annual committed effective dose equivalent, as a result of the human intrusion,...

  7. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special flight permits. 21.197 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.197 Special flight permits. (a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet...

  8. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special flight permits. 21.197 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.197 Special flight permits. (a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet...

  9. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special flight permits. 21.197 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.197 Special flight permits. (a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet...

  10. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS... harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  11. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS... harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  12. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS... harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  13. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  14. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  15. 40 CFR 197.37 - Can EPA amend this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can EPA amend this rule? 197.37 Section 197.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  16. 40 CFR 197.13 - How is Subpart B implemented?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is Subpart B implemented? 197.13 Section 197.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  17. 12 CFR 197.12 - Securities sale report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Securities sale report. 197.12 Section 197.12... Securities sale report. (a) Within 30 days after the first sale of the securities, every six months after such 30 day period and not later than 30 days after the later of the last sale of securities in...

  18. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  19. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  20. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  1. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  2. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  3. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must...

  4. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  6. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  7. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  8. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  9. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to being placed into initial service and every 24 months thereafter to...

  10. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  11. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  12. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  13. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  14. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped... commercial designation of the respirator it contains and all appropriate approval labels....

  15. 14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 241. The data to be recorded and reported from selected lifted ticket flight coupons, as... U.S. carrier. The authority for these instructions is found in 14 CFR part 241, section 19-7, and in.... Participating carriers. As defined in section 19-7 of the Department's Economic Regulations (14 CFR part...

  16. Complete and incomplete fusion and emission of preequilibrium nucleons in the interaction of [sup 12]C with [sup 197]Au below 10 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Vergani, P.; Gadioli, E.; Vaciago, E.; Fabrici, E.; Gadioli Erba, E.; Galmarini, M. ); Ciavola, G.; Marchetta, C. )

    1993-10-01

    The excitation functions for production of nineteen isotopes of At, Po, Bi, Pb, and Tl in the interaction of [sup 12]C with [sup 197]Au between 57 and 97 MeV incident energy have been measured with the activation technique. The analysis of these data allows one to estimate the cross sections for complete fusion of [sup 12]C and incomplete fusion of [sup 8]Be and [alpha] fragments with gold, and shows the presence of preequilibrium emissions at incident energies only slightly higher than the Coulomb barrier acting between [sup 12]C and [sup 197]Au.

  17. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... helmet or mask must have an independent exhaust valve. (b) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices....

  18. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  19. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... helmet or mask must have an independent exhaust valve. (b) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices....

  20. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  1. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  2. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... helmet or mask must have an independent exhaust valve. (b) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices....

  3. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... helmet or mask must have an independent exhaust valve. (b) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices....

  4. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  5. 46 CFR 197.342 - Buoyancy-changing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... helmet or mask must have an independent exhaust valve. (b) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.342 Buoyancy-changing devices....

  6. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  7. 46 CFR 197.205 - Availability of standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register under the provisions of 1 CFR part 51. (b... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.205 Availability of standards....

  8. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... device is inspected before diving operations are begun....

  9. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  10. 46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required...

  11. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... storage (as defined in 40 CFR 191.2) of radioactive material that: (1) Is subject to 40 CFR 191.3(a); and...) Storage (as defined in § 197.2) of radioactive material inside the Yucca Mountain repository....

  12. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  13. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  14. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  15. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  16. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  17. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than the one listed in... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  18. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than the one listed in... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  19. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than the one listed in... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  20. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than the one listed in... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  1. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  2. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  3. 46 CFR 197.510 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than the one listed in... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.510 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain materials...

  4. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  5. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  6. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  7. 32 CFR 197.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.2... collectively as the “OSD Components”). (b) All historical researchers. (c) Former OSD Presidential...

  8. Hollow gold nanorectangles: The roles of polarization and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Near, Rachel D.; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2013-07-01

    Dimers of hollow gold nanorectangles ((197 ± 4) × (134 ± 6) nm outside and (109 ± 5) × (53 ± 3) nm inside) were fabricated via electron beam lithography with interparticle separations ranging from 27 ± 2 nm to 596 ± 8 nm. Spectroscopic investigation of these arrays showed multiple peaks under illumination polarized both parallel and perpendicular to the interparticle axis. Discrete dipole approximation theoretical calculations were used to investigate the nature of these multiple peaks. These calculations demonstrate that the multiple peaks arise due to a combination of multiple plasmon modes and interactions with the substrate. The substrate effects are more pronounced for the parallel polarization because parallel polarization (along the long axis) of the nanorectangles results in a much stronger dipole mode than for the perpendicular polarization (along the short axis). Next, we show how these peaks change, as the hollow nanorectangles are brought within coupling range of one another. In this endeavor, we make use of our previously reported method to directly convert scanning electron microscope images of the nanoparticles into the shape files for the theoretical calculations.

  9. Hollow gold nanorectangles: the roles of polarization and substrate.

    PubMed

    Near, Rachel D; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2013-07-28

    Dimers of hollow gold nanorectangles ((197 ± 4) × (134 ± 6) nm outside and (109 ± 5) × (53 ± 3) nm inside) were fabricated via electron beam lithography with interparticle separations ranging from 27 ± 2 nm to 596 ± 8 nm. Spectroscopic investigation of these arrays showed multiple peaks under illumination polarized both parallel and perpendicular to the interparticle axis. Discrete dipole approximation theoretical calculations were used to investigate the nature of these multiple peaks. These calculations demonstrate that the multiple peaks arise due to a combination of multiple plasmon modes and interactions with the substrate. The substrate effects are more pronounced for the parallel polarization because parallel polarization (along the long axis) of the nanorectangles results in a much stronger dipole mode than for the perpendicular polarization (along the short axis). Next, we show how these peaks change, as the hollow nanorectangles are brought within coupling range of one another. In this endeavor, we make use of our previously reported method to directly convert scanning electron microscope images of the nanoparticles into the shape files for the theoretical calculations. PMID:23902009

  10. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... diver. (d) A primary breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to support the diver for...) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to allow the diver... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A...

  11. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diver. (d) A primary breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to support the diver for...) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to allow the diver... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A...

  12. 37 CFR 1.197 - Termination of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Appeal to the Patent Trial and Appeal Board § 1.197 Termination of proceedings. (a) (b) Termination of proceedings. (1) Proceedings on an application are considered terminated by the dismissal of an appeal or the failure to...

  13. 37 CFR 1.197 - Termination of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Appeal to the Patent Trial and Appeal Board § 1.197 Termination of proceedings. (a) Proceedings on an application are considered terminated by the dismissal of an appeal or the failure to timely file an appeal to the court or...

  14. 27 CFR 26.197 - Furnishing formula to consignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furnishing formula to... Custody to Internal Revenue Bond § 26.197 Furnishing formula to consignee. Prior to the first shipment... formula covering such spirits to the appropriate TTB officer, and to the proprietor of each...

  15. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  16. 46 CFR 197.332 - PVHO-Decompression chambers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.332 PVHO—Decompression chambers... minimum pressure capability of— (1) 6 ATA, when used for diving to 300 fsw; or (2) The maximum depth of the dive, when used for diving operations deeper than 300 fsw, unless a closed bell meeting...

  17. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  18. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  19. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Storage § 197.4 What standard must DOE meet? The DOE must ensure... storage (as defined in 40 CFR 191.2) of radioactive material that: (1) Is subject to 40 CFR 191.3(a);...

  20. 37 CFR 1.97 - Filing of information disclosure statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of information... Provisions Information Disclosure Statement § 1.97 Filing of information disclosure statement. (a) In order for an applicant for a patent or for a reissue of a patent to have an information disclosure...

  1. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  2. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  3. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  4. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  5. 46 CFR 197.540 - Determination of personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.540 Determination of personal exposure. (a) General. (1... which involves the handling of or potential exposure to benzene are monitored. The monitoring must be... operation involving benzene. Monitoring one vessel of a class is sufficient for all vessels of that...

  6. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from an aquifer containing less than 10,000 milligrams of total dissolved solids per liter of water...

  7. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from an aquifer containing less than 10,000 milligrams of total dissolved solids per liter of water to supply a given...

  8. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  10. 40 CFR 197.26 - What are the circumstances of the human intrusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... human intrusion? 197.26 Section 197.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion...

  11. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites

    PubMed Central

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  12. Gold Nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    An array of gold nanoantennas laced into an artificial membrane enhances the fluorescence intensity of three different molecules when they pass through plasmonic hot spots in the array. Watch for the blue, green and red flashes. The photobleaching at the end of each fluorescence event (white flashes) is indicative of single molecule observations.

  13. Gold liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Lipids are an important class of molecules, being found in membranes, HDL, LDL, and other natural structures, serving essential roles in structure and with varied functions such as compartmentalization and transport. Synthetic liposomes are also widely used as delivery and release vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals; soap is made from lipids. Lipids may form bilayer or multilammellar vesicles, micelles, sheets, tubes, and other structures. Lipid molecules may be linked to proteins, carbohydrates, or other moieties. EM study of this essential ingredient of life has lagged, due to lack of direct methods to visualize lipids without extensive alteration. OsO4 reacts with double bonds in membrane phospholipids, forming crossbridges. This has been the method of choice to both fix and stain membranes, thus far. An earlier work described the use of tungstate clusters (W{sub 11}) attached to lipid moieties to form lipid structures and lipid probes. With the development of gold clusters, it is now possible to covalently and specifically link a dense gold sphere to a lipid molecule; for example, reacting a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide Nanogold cluster with the amino group on phosphatidyl ethanolaminine. Examples of a gold-fatty acid and a gold-phospholipid are shown.

  14. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  15. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  16. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  17. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  18. 15 CFR 922.197 - Consultation with affected federally-recognized Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-recognized Indian tribes. 922.197 Section 922.197 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.197 Consultation with affected federally-recognized...

  19. 10 CFR 431.197 - Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.197 Section 431.197 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.197 Manufacturer's determination of efficiency for distribution transformers. When...

  20. 40 CFR 197.26 - What are the circumstances of the human intrusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... human intrusion? 197.26 Section 197.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.26 What are the circumstances of the human intrusion? For the purposes of the analysis of...

  1. 46 CFR 197.208 - Designation of person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of person-in-charge. 197.208 Section 197.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.208 Designation of...

  2. 46 CFR 197.434 - Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. 197.434 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.434 Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) When...

  3. 46 CFR 197.208 - Designation of person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of person-in-charge. 197.208 Section 197.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.208 Designation of...

  4. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  8. 7 CFR 800.197 - Approval as a scale testing and certification organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organization. 800.197 Section 800.197 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... § 800.197 Approval as a scale testing and certification organization. (a) Who may apply. Any State...) Voluntary. A scale testing and certification organization may request cancellation of its approval...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose Equivalent

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Effective Dose Equivalent A Appendix A to Part 197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dose Equivalent Unless otherwise directed by NRC, DOE shall use the radiation weighting factors and... effective dose equivalent for compliance with §§ 197.20 and 197.25 of this part. NRC may allow DOE to...

  12. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197 Section 264.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner...

  13. 40 CFR 197.26 - What are the circumstances of the human intrusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... human intrusion? 197.26 Section 197.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.26 What are the circumstances of the human intrusion? For the purposes of the analysis of...

  14. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  15. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  16. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  17. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  18. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  20. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at...

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the NaI(Tl) detector response to measure gold activated foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Domingo, C.; Bouassoule, T.; Fernández, F.

    2009-09-01

    This work deals with the implementation of a NaI(Tl) detector for the assessment of the specific saturation activities of pure gold foils after neutron irradiation. These gold foils can be placed in the centre of a set of polyethylene spheres with different diameters. This configuration, known as a passive Bonner sphere system, is suitable to measure neutron spectra normally extended over a wide energy range containing up to 11 decades (from thermal to a few MeV), at places where the neutron field is very intense, high frequency pulsed or where it is mixed with an important high-energy photon component. The MCNPX code was used to evaluate the NaI(Tl) responses to different incident photon energies in terms of pulse-height distributions. An experimental validation of the calculated NaI(Tl) responses, using certified standard sources at a given measurement arrangement, indicates that MCNPX is a valid tool for routine calibration and benchmarking studies of this detector. A good agreement is found between the measured pulse-height distributions of the certified standard sources and those obtained from MCNPX simulations. As a preliminary application, a bare disc Au foil was directly exposed to a Bremsstrahlung photon beam at the isocentre of an 18 MV medical LINAC, in order to test the suitability of this activation material to measure the photo-neutrons generated in such facility. Two differentiated main photo-peaks, arising from 196Au and 198Au predominant γ-ray emissions, were observed. The two isotopes are produced mainly by the photonuclear, 197Au(γ, n) 196Au, and radiative capture, 197Au( n, γ) 198Au, reactions of, respectively, high-energy photons and thermal neutrons on the gold foil. From the measured 198Au saturation activity, a rough estimation of (378 ± 68) × 10 4 cm -2 Gy -1 was derived for the thermal neutron flux within the LINAC treatment room. This value, although being very approximate, is comparable to those reported by other authors for similar

  2. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions. (WRM)

  3. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  4. O:2-CRM197 Conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A

    PubMed Central

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and clinical data have previously demonstrated the potential of using O:2 conjugate vaccines. Here we describe a new conjugation chemistry to link O:2 and the carrier protein CRM197, using the terminus 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO), thus leaving the O:2 chain unmodified. The new conjugates were tested in mice and compared with other O:2-antigen conjugates, synthesized adopting previously described methods that use CRM197 as carrier protein. The newly developed conjugation chemistry yielded immunogenic conjugates with strong serum bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A. PMID:23144798

  5. {sup 63}Cu and {sup 197}Au nuclear quadrupole moments from four-component relativistic density-functional calculations using correct long-range exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Thierfelder, Christian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Saue, Trond

    2007-09-15

    The electric field gradient in late transition metal compounds is incorrectly determined by most density functionals. We show that the coupling of short-range density functional based with long-range wave function based methods using a reparametrization of the Coulomb-attenuated Becke three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr approximation gives reliable results for the electric field gradients of copper and gold for a series of compounds. This results in nuclear quadrupole moments of -0.208 b for {sup 63}Cu and +0.526 b for {sup 197}Au in good agreement with experimental values of -0.220(15) and +0.547(16)b, respectively.

  6. Mechanism of ternary breakup in the reaction {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au at 15A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Junlong; Wu Xizhen; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Kai; Zhang Yingxun; Li Xian; Yan Shiwei

    2010-11-15

    The mechanism of the ternary breakup of the very heavy system {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au at an energy of 15A MeV has been studied by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculation results reproduce the characteristic features in ternary breakup events explored in a series of experiments; i.e., the masses of three fragments are comparable in size and the very fast, nearly collinear breakup of the colliding system is dominant in the ternary breakup events. Further, the evolution of the time scales of different ternary reaction modes and the behavior of mass distributions of three fragments with impact parameters are studied. The time evolution of the configurations of the composite reaction systems is also studied. We find that for most of the ternary breakup events with the features found in the experiments, the configuration of the composite system has two-preformed-neck shape. The study shows that those ternary breakup events having the characteristic features found in the experiments happen at relatively small impact parameter reactions, but not at peripheral reactions. The ternary breakup reaction at peripheral reactions belongs to binary breakup with a neck emission.

  7. Discovery of a Transient Magnetar: XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Ransom, Scott; Roberts, Mallory; Kaspi, Victoria; Woods, Peter M.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Balman, Solen; Parke, William C.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new X-ray pulsar, XTE J1810-197, that was serendipitously discovered on 2003 July 15 by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) while observing the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20. The pulsar has a 5.54 s spin period, a soft X-ray spectrum (with a photon index of approx. = 4). and is detectable in earlier RXTE observations back to 2003 January but not before. These show that a transient outburst began between 2002 November 17 and 2003 January 23 and that the source's persistent X-ray flux has been declining since then. The pulsar exhibits a high spin-down rate P approx.= l0(exp -11) s/s with no evidence of Doppler shifts due to a binary companion. The rapid spin-down rate and slow spin period imply a supercritical characteristic magnetic field B approx. = 3 x l0(exp 14) G and a young age tau less than or = 7600 yr. Follow-up Chandra observations provided an accurate position of the source. Within its error radius, the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish Optical Telescope found a limiting magnitude R(sub c) = 21.5. All such properties are strikingly similar to those of anomalous X-ray pulsars ad soft gamma repeaters, providing strong evidence that the source is a new magnetar. However, archival ASCA and ROSAT observations found the source nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter. This transient behavior and the observed long-term flux variability of the source in absence of an observed SGR-like burst activity make it the first confirmed transient magnetar and suggest that other neutron stars that share the properties of XTE 51810- 197 during its inactive phase may be unidentified transient magnetars awaiting detection via a similar activity. This implies a larger population of magnetars than previously surmised and a possible evolutionary connection between magnetars and other neutron star families. Subject headings: pulsars: general -pulsars: individual (XTE 51810- 197) - stars: magnetic fields -

  8. Gold and iron oxide associations under supergene conditions: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greffié, Catherine; Benedetti, Marc F.; Parron, Claude; Amouric, Marc

    1996-05-01

    Abstract-The interaction of gold hydroxo-chloro complexes with iron oxides (ferrihydrites, goethites) during coprecipitation experiments is investigated. Chemical analyses of solids and solutions are coupled with a detailed characterization of the iron oxides with various methods, including X-ray diffraction, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. HCl solutions containing varying amounts of AuCl 4- and ferric nitrate were titrated to neutral or alkaline pH, resulting in the coprecipitation of gold and iron oxide phases (ferrihydrite or goethite). Reference titrations were performed in the absence of iron. Most of the gold was removed from solution in the presence of iron oxides whereas gold remained dissolved in the reference samples. In association with iron oxides two forms of gold have been identified by HRTEM and 197Au Mössbauer spectroscopy: metallic gold as well as chloro and/or hydroxo combined gold. This combined gold is in a trivalent state as the primary product which means that a reduction process is not a necessary step for the adsorption of gold species on iron oxides. Metallic gold characterized in these products by means of HRTEM consists mainly of colloids ranging from 3-60 nm in diameter embedded in the ferrihydrite matrix, as isolated particles or as particles associated with goethite laths. The smallest metallic gold particles detected would be almost invisible to classical observation techniques used for solid phases. In our experiments, oxidation-reduction reactions between Fe 2+ and Au 3+ are responsible for the presence of metallic gold observed on the iron phases. Photochemical reactions may also take part in the reduction process. Colloidal gold and gold complexes could be associated to the iron oxides by strong electrostatic interactions. Our results suggest that poorly ordered iron oxides are highly efficient in trapping gold from solutions thanks to their high surface area, and favor gold

  9. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-01

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  10. Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 &#197 and 840 &#197

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 119 Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 &#197 and 840 &#197 (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  11. INTRA - BEAM SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; CONNOLLY,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; ZENO,K.

    2002-06-02

    RHIC in gold operation shows significant intra-beam scattering due to the high charge state of the stored ions. Intra-beam scattering leads to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth. The longitudinal emittance growth causes debunching in operation; the transverse emittance growth contributes to the reduction of the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The longitudinal and transverse beam growth was measured. Beam growth measurement are compared with computations.

  12. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.; Albrow, M. D.; Kubas, D.; Bond, I. A.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Bennett, D. P.; Dominik, M.; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P.; Gould, A.; Greenhill, J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kains, N.; Menzies, J.; Sumi, T.; Bachelet, E.; Coutures, C.; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lee, C.-U.; Marquette, J.-B.; Park, B.-G.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Street, R.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and μFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived basic parameters such as, the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s ≃ 1.13), the mass ratio q = (4.732 ± 0.020) × 10-2 and the Einstein radius crossing time (tE ≃ 82 d). Because of this long time scale, we took annual parallax and orbital motion of the lens in the models into account, as well as finite source effects that were clearly detected during the source caustic exit. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. From this analysis, we derived a lens total mass of 0.86 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a lens distance of DL = 4.2 ± 0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41 ± 2 MJ observed at a projected separation of a⊥ = 4.3 ± 0.1 AU, and orbits a 0.82 ± 0.04 M⊙ G-K dwarf star. We then placed the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L in a mass-period diagram consisting of all brown dwarf companions detected so far through different techniques, including microlensing, transit, radial velocity, and direct imaging (most of these objects orbit solar-type stars). To study the statistical properties of this population, we performed a two-dimensional, non-parametric probability density distribution fit to the data, which draws a structured brown dwarf landscape. We confirm the existence of a region that is strongly depleted in objects at short periods and intermediate masses (P ≲ 30 d, M ~ 30-60 MJ), but also find an accumulation of objects around P ~ 500 d and M ~ 20

  13. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  14. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  15. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  16. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  17. 46 CFR 197.402 - Responsibilities of the person-in-charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Operations § 197.402... of this subpart; (2) Prior to permitting any commercial diving operation to commence, have— (i) The designation of the diving supervisor for each diving operation as required by § 197.210; (ii) A report on—...

  18. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...

  19. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above the highest concentration of radionuclides in the plume of contamination; (b) Has a diet and... assessments conducted for §§ 197.20 and 197.25; and (c) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground water at the location specified in paragraph (a) of this section....

  20. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  1. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  2. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  3. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong; Tong, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  6. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  7. 40 CFR 197.5 - When will this part take effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When will this part take effect? 197.5 Section 197.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  8. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the...

  9. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Form for Securities Sale Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manually signed, as required under 12 CFR 197.5. Attention Intentional misstatements or omissions of fact constitute violations of Federal law (see 18 U.S.C. 1001 and 12 CFR 197.180(b)). ... unknown, provide reasonable estimates of the dollar amount allocated to each purpose for which...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Form for Securities Sale Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manually signed, as required under 12 CFR 197.5. Attention Intentional misstatements or omissions of fact constitute violations of Federal law (see 18 U.S.C. 1001 and 12 CFR 197.180(b)). ... unknown, provide reasonable estimates of the dollar amount allocated to each purpose for which...

  12. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  13. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  14. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  15. 13 CFR 120.197 - Notifying SBA's Office of Inspector General of suspected fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...

  16. Structural basis for lack of toxicity of the diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197

    PubMed Central

    Malito, Enrico; Bursulaya, Badry; Chen, Connie; Surdo, Paola Lo; Picchianti, Monica; Balducci, Enrico; Biancucci, Marco; Brock, Ansgar; Berti, Francesco; Bottomley, Matthew James; Nissum, Mikkel; Costantino, Paolo; Rappuoli, Rino; Spraggon, Glen

    2012-01-01

    CRM197 is an enzymatically inactive and nontoxic form of diphtheria toxin that contains a single amino acid substitution (G52E). Being naturally nontoxic, CRM197 is an ideal carrier protein for conjugate vaccines against encapsulated bacteria and is currently used to vaccinate children globally against Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus. To understand the molecular basis for lack of toxicity in CRM197, we determined the crystal structures of the full-length nucleotide-free CRM197 and of CRM197 in complex with the NAD hydrolysis product nicotinamide (NCA), both at 2.0-Å resolution. The structures show for the first time that the overall fold of CRM197 and DT are nearly identical and that the striking functional difference between the two proteins can be explained by a flexible active-site loop that covers the NAD binding pocket. We present the molecular basis for the increased flexibility of the active-site loop in CRM197 as unveiled by molecular dynamics simulations. These structural insights, combined with surface plasmon resonance, NAD hydrolysis, and differential scanning fluorimetry data, contribute to a comprehensive characterization of the vaccine carrier protein, CRM197. PMID:22431623

  17. Structural basis for lack of toxicity of the diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Bursulaya, Badry; Chen, Connie; Lo Surdo, Paola; Picchianti, Monica; Balducci, Enrico; Biancucci, Marco; Brock, Ansgar; Berti, Francesco; Bottomley, Matthew James; Nissum, Mikkel; Costantino, Paolo; Rappuoli, Rino; Spraggon, Glen

    2012-04-01

    CRM197 is an enzymatically inactive and nontoxic form of diphtheria toxin that contains a single amino acid substitution (G52E). Being naturally nontoxic, CRM197 is an ideal carrier protein for conjugate vaccines against encapsulated bacteria and is currently used to vaccinate children globally against Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus. To understand the molecular basis for lack of toxicity in CRM197, we determined the crystal structures of the full-length nucleotide-free CRM197 and of CRM197 in complex with the NAD hydrolysis product nicotinamide (NCA), both at 2.0-Å resolution. The structures show for the first time that the overall fold of CRM197 and DT are nearly identical and that the striking functional difference between the two proteins can be explained by a flexible active-site loop that covers the NAD binding pocket. We present the molecular basis for the increased flexibility of the active-site loop in CRM197 as unveiled by molecular dynamics simulations. These structural insights, combined with surface plasmon resonance, NAD hydrolysis, and differential scanning fluorimetry data, contribute to a comprehensive characterization of the vaccine carrier protein, CRM197.

  18. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  19. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  20. 40 CFR 197.12 - What definitions apply in subpart B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? 197.12 Section 197.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA... land surface and in a saturated zone. Human intrusion means breaching of any portion of the...

  1. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 241. The data to be recorded and reported from selected lifted ticket flight coupons, as... U.S. carrier. The authority for these instructions is found in 14 CFR part 241, section 19-7, and in.... Participating carriers. As defined in section 19-7 of the Department's Economic Regulations (14 CFR part...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 241. The data to be recorded and reported from selected lifted ticket flight coupons, as... U.S. carrier. The authority for these instructions is found in 14 CFR part 241, section 19-7, and in.... Participating carriers. As defined in section 19-7 of the Department's Economic Regulations (14 CFR part...

  3. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 241. The data to be recorded and reported from selected lifted ticket flight coupons, as... U.S. carrier. The authority for these instructions is found in 14 CFR part 241, section 19-7, and in.... Participating carriers. As defined in section 19-7 of the Department's Economic Regulations (14 CFR part...

  4. 34 CFR 403.197 - What are the requirements for the use of equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the use of equipment? 403.197 Section 403.197 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  6. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W; Brennan, J M; Cameron, P; Connolly, R; Montag, C; Peggs, S; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Tepikian, S; Trbojevic, D; Van Zeijts, J

    2003-05-12

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far.

  7. Kilovoltage radiosurgery with gold nanoparticles for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a Monte Carlo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, D.; Zygmanski, P.; Arnoldussen, M.; Hanlon, J.; Chell, E.; Sajo, E.; Makrigiorgos, G. M.; Ngwa, W.

    2015-12-01

    This work uses Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to assess the potential benefits of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with stereotactic radiosurgery. Clinically, a 100 kVp x-ray beam of 4 mm diameter is aimed at the macula to deliver an ablative dose in a single fraction. In the transport model, AuNP accumulated at the bottom of the macula are targeted with a source representative of the clinical beam in order to provide enhanced dose to the diseased macular endothelial cells. It is observed that, because of the AuNP, the dose to the endothelial cells can be significantly enhanced, allowing for greater sparing of optic nerve, retina and other neighboring healthy tissue. For 20 nm diameter AuNP concentration of 32 mg g-1, which has been shown to be achievable in vivo, a dose enhancement ratio (DER) of 1.97 was found to be possible, which could potentially be increased through appropriate optimization of beam quality and/or AuNP targeting. A significant enhancement in dose is seen in the vicinity of the AuNP layer within 30 μm, peaked at the AuNP-tissue interface. Different angular tilting of the 4 mm beam results in a similar enhancement. The DER inside and in the penumbra of the 4 mm irradiation-field are almost the same while the actual delivered dose is more than one order of magnitude lower outside the field leading to normal tissue sparing. The prescribed dose to macular endothelial cells can be delivered using almost half of the radiation allowing reduction of dose to the neighboring organs such as retina/optic nerve by 49% when compared to a treatment without AuNP.

  8. Kilovoltage radiosurgery with gold nanoparticles for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a Monte Carlo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brivio, D; Zygmanski, P; Arnoldussen, M; Hanlon, J; Chell, E; Sajo, E; Makrigiorgos, G M; Ngwa, W

    2015-12-21

    This work uses Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to assess the potential benefits of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with stereotactic radiosurgery. Clinically, a 100 kVp x-ray beam of 4 mm diameter is aimed at the macula to deliver an ablative dose in a single fraction. In the transport model, AuNP accumulated at the bottom of the macula are targeted with a source representative of the clinical beam in order to provide enhanced dose to the diseased macular endothelial cells. It is observed that, because of the AuNP, the dose to the endothelial cells can be significantly enhanced, allowing for greater sparing of optic nerve, retina and other neighboring healthy tissue. For 20 nm diameter AuNP concentration of 32 mg g(-1), which has been shown to be achievable in vivo, a dose enhancement ratio (DER) of 1.97 was found to be possible, which could potentially be increased through appropriate optimization of beam quality and/or AuNP targeting. A significant enhancement in dose is seen in the vicinity of the AuNP layer within 30 μm, peaked at the AuNP-tissue interface. Different angular tilting of the 4 mm beam results in a similar enhancement. The DER inside and in the penumbra of the 4 mm irradiation-field are almost the same while the actual delivered dose is more than one order of magnitude lower outside the field leading to normal tissue sparing. The prescribed dose to macular endothelial cells can be delivered using almost half of the radiation allowing reduction of dose to the neighboring organs such as retina/optic nerve by 49% when compared to a treatment without AuNP. PMID:26576672

  9. Internal crystallography and thermal history of natural gold alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R.; Cleverley, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    New studies of gold are revealing how metallography is a key component of our understanding of the deposition of precious alloys in primary ore systems. Alluvial gold nuggets once thought to be secondary in origin have now been shown to be the erosional residue of hypogene systems, i.e. primary. This has been achieved through analysis of the internal crystallography using electron back scattered diffraction of large area ion beam polished gold samples. Comparisons of the microstructure are also being made with experiments on gold alloys with the same Ag contents where real time heating and in-situ microstructure mapping reveal the structures are of high temperature origin. A new frontier in gold analysis in both hypogene and supergene systems is the nano domain. In hypogene settings gold at all scales can be metallic and particulate as has been directly observed in refractory ores, or the so called "invisible gold" in pyrite and arsenopyrite. Such nanoparticulate and colloidal transport of gold is a viable mechanism of dispersing the gold during weathering of ore deposits. These gold nanoparticles, long known about in materials sciences and manufacturing have now been seen in these natural environments. Such colloids are also likely to play an important role in gold transport in hydrothermal deposits. The regularly heterogeneous distribution, trace concentration and nanoparticulate grain size of metallic gold in all ore systems has made it difficult for direct observation. Yet, it is critical to be able to establish a broad view of the microstructural/microchemical residence of the actual gold in a given sample. New generation element mapping tools now allow us to 'see' this invisible gold component for the first time and to probe its chemistry and controls on deposition. These studies have the potential to provide a new approach and view of the formation, deposition and provenance history of the metal in all gold deposits.

  10. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  11. Amyloid Templated Gold Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Gustav; Fernández-Ronco, María P; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Mazzotti, Marco; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-01-20

    Amyloid fibril-based ultralow-density aerogels are designed by functionalization with gold nanoparticles and microcrystals, leading to hybrids of unprecedented lightness and functionality. By changing the colloidal gold shape, size, and concentration, the gold composition can be tuned to reach contents ≥20 kt equivalent, yet at densities ≈10(3) lighter than any equivalent gold alloys, and combining unique features such as porosity, catalytic properties, pressure sensing, and autofluorescence.

  12. Aneurysm, arachnoiditis and intrathecal Au (gold)

    SciTech Connect

    Pence, D.M.; Kim, T.H.; Levitt, S.H. )

    1990-05-01

    This report is a 20-year follow-up of 14 patients treated with external beam craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal gold (10-45 mCi) for medulloblastoma. Six of the patients died within 2 years of treatment from persistent disease. No patients are alive without complications. Six of eight surviving patients developed arachnoiditis and cauda equina syndrome within 5 to 10 years of treatment. Seven of eight survivors developed aneurysms and/or cerebrovascular accidents 9 to 20 years after treatment. Four of the cerebrovascular events were fatal. Intrathecal gold pools in the basal cisterns and cauda equina delivering an extremely inhomogeneous dose throughout the neuroaxis. Its use is discouraged.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 197 - Procedures for Historical Researchers Not Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch D Appendix D to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense... THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. D Appendix D to Part 197—Procedures for... recommendations (paragraph 1.a. of this section) for the research to review the classified information. d....

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 197 - Procedures for Historical Researchers Not Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permanently Assigned to the Executive Branch D Appendix D to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense... THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. D Appendix D to Part 197—Procedures for... recommendations (paragraph 1.a. of this section) for the research to review the classified information. d....

  15. 40 CFR 197.12 - What definitions apply in subpart B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal § 197.12 What definitions apply in subpart B? All... dissolved (filterable) solids in water as determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR part...

  16. MiR-197 induces Taxol resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by regulating NLK.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dongling; Wang, Dong; Li, Rong; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Li; Long, Xingtao; Zhou, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic approach for the therapy of advanced ovarian cancer, but 5-year survival rate remains low due to the development of drug resistance. Increasing evidence has documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act important roles in drug resistance in a variety types of cancer. However, the roles of miRNA in regulating Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer and the detailed mechanism are less reported. We used Taqman probe stem loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-197 in normal ovarian cells, ovarian cancer cells, and Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and found that miR-197 was significantly increased in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Enforced expression of miR-197 can promote Taxol resistance, cell proliferation, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, repression of miR-197 in ovarian cancer cells can sensitize its response to Taxol and also induced attenuated cell proliferation and invasion ability. Furthermore, investigation of the detailed mechanism showed that the promotion of miR-197 on drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells was partially mediated by downregulating NLK, a negative regulator of WNT signaling pathway. Taken together, our work first demonstrated that miR-197 can confer drug resistance to Taxol, by regulating tumor suppressor, NLK expression in ovarian cancer cells.

  17. Microbiological Characteristics of Wild Yeast Strain Pichia anomala Y197-13 for Brewing Makgeolli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional cloudy-white Korean rice wine with an alcohol content of 6~7%. The present study investigated the morphological characteristics, carbon-utilizing ability, fatty acid composition, alcohol resistance, glucose tolerance, and flocculence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5 and Pichia anomala Y197-13, non-S. cerevisiae isolated from Nuruk, which is used in brewing Makgeolli. Similar morphological characteristics were observed for both isolated wild yeast strains; and the carbon source assimilation of Y197-13 differed from that of other P. anomala strains. Strain Y197-13 was negative for D-trehalose, mannitol, arbutin, I-erythritol, and succinic acid. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Y197-13 included C18:2n6c (33.94%), C18:1n9c (26.97%) and C16:0 (20.57%). Strain Y197-13 was Crabtree-negative, with 60% cell viability at 12% (v/v) ethanol. The flocculation level of strain Y197-13 was 8.38%, resulting in its classification as a non-flocculent yeast. PMID:24198668

  18. Gold nanorods as nanoadmicelles: 1-naphthol partitioning into a nanorod-bound surfactant bilayer.

    PubMed

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Frey, Rebecca L; Ferry, John L; Murphy, Catherine J

    2008-09-16

    As-prepared gold nanorods, stable in aqueous solution, bear a bilayer of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). This bilayer provides a approximately 3 nm thick hydrophobic layer that could be used to sequester hydrophobic organic molecules from aqueous solution. We have investigated the uptake of 1-naphthol as a model hydrophobic compound by CTAB-coated gold nanorods using both ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. We find the adsorption isotherm of 1-naphthol partitioning into the CTAB bilayer on gold nanorods fits the Langmuir model. The maximum number of bound 1-naphthol molecules is 14.6 +/- 2.2 x 10(3) molecules per gold nanorod, with an equilibrium binding constant of 1.97 +/- 0.79 x 10(4) M(-1) at room temperature. PMID:18700748

  19. Beam-Beam Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sramek, Christopher

    2003-09-05

    At the interaction point of a particle accelerator, various phenomena occur which are known as beam-beam effects. Incident bunches of electrons (or positrons) experience strong electromagnetic fields from the opposing bunches, which leads to electron deflection, beamstrahlung and the creation of electron/positron pairs and hadrons due to two-photon exchange. In addition, the beams experience a ''pinch effect'' which focuses each beam and results in either a reduction or expansion of their vertical size. Finally, if a beam's disruption parameter is too large, the beam can develop a sinusoidal distortion, or two-stream (kink) instability. This project simulated and studied these effects as they relate to luminosity, deflection angles and energy loss in order to optimize beam parameters for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Using the simulation program Guinea-Pig, luminosity, deflection angle and beam energy data was acquired for different levels of beam offset and distortion. Standard deflection curves and luminosity plots agreed with theoretical models but also made clear the difficulties of e-e- feedback. Simulations emphasizing kink instability in modulated and straight beam collisions followed qualitative behavioral predictions and roughly fit recent analytic calculations. Finally, a study of e-e- collisions under design constraints for the NLC provided new estimates of how luminosity, beamstrahlung energy loss, upsilon parameter and deflection curve width scale with beam spotsizes.

  20. Evidence of muonium formation using thin gold foils in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, B. A.; Chang, C. Y.; Steinberg, P.; Yodh, G. B.; Orr, H. D.; Carroll, J. B.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J. R.; Spence, C. B.; Hsieh, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    The production of thermal muonium in a vacuum region has been investigated using an array of 200 thin (about 1000 A thick) gold foils exposed to a stopping positive-muon beam. By examining the observed time dependence of the positive-muon decay spectra in various transverse magnetic field, it is estimated that the lower limit of the probability of muonium formation by these gold foils placed in vacuum was 0.28 plus or minus 0.05.

  1. BEAM-BEAM 2003 SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.SEN,T.

    2003-05-19

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions of the Beam-Beam'03 workshop, held in Montauk, Long Island, from May 19 to 23, 2003. Presentations and discussions focused on halo generation from beam-beam interactions; beam-beam limits, especially coherent limits and their effects on existing and future hadron colliders; beam-beam compensation techniques, particularly for long-range interactions; and beam-beam study tools in theory, simulation, and experiment.

  2. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  3. Laser-targeted photofabrication of gold nanoparticles inside cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas I; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Niioka, Hirohiko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Pavillon, Nicolas; Hobro, Alison J; Ando, Jun; Fujita, Katsumasa; Kumagai, Yutaro

    2014-10-09

    Nanoparticle manipulation is of increasing interest, since they can report single molecule-level measurements of the cellular environment. Until now, however, intracellular nanoparticle locations have been essentially uncontrollable. Here we show that by infusing a gold ion solution, focused laser light-induced photoreduction allows in situ fabrication of gold nanoparticles at precise locations. The resulting particles are pure gold nanocrystals, distributed throughout the laser focus at sizes ranging from 2 to 20 nm, and remain in place even after removing the gold solution. We demonstrate the spatial control by scanning a laser beam to write characters in gold inside a cell. Plasmonically enhanced molecular signals could be detected from nanoparticles, allowing their use as nano-chemical probes at targeted locations inside the cell, with intracellular molecular feedback. Such light-based control of the intracellular particle generation reaction also offers avenues for in situ plasmonic device creation in organic targets, and may eventually link optical and electron microscopy.

  4. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    PubMed

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  5. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Quantitation by Whole Cell Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Aric W; Jeerage, Kavita M; Schwartz, Cindi L; Curtin, Alexandra E; Chiaramonti, Ann N

    2015-12-22

    Many proposed biomedical applications for engineered gold nanoparticles require their incorporation by mammalian cells in specific numbers and locations. Here, the number of gold nanoparticles inside of individual mammalian stem cells was characterized using fast focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy based tomography. Enhanced optical microscopy was used to provide a multiscale map of the in vitro sample, which allows cells of interest to be identified within their local environment. Cells were then serially sectioned using a gallium ion beam and imaged using a scanning electron beam. To confirm the accuracy of single cross sections, nanoparticles in similar cross sections were imaged using transmission electron microscopy and scanning helium ion microscopy. Complete tomographic series were then used to count the nanoparticles inside of each cell and measure their spatial distribution. We investigated the influence of slice thickness on counting single particles and clusters as well as nanoparticle packing within clusters. For 60 nm citrate stabilized particles, the nanoparticle cluster packing volume is 2.15 ± 0.20 times the volume of the bare gold nanoparticles.

  7. Effect of Increased CRM197 Carrier Protein Dose on Meningococcal C Bactericidal Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    New multivalent CRM197-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM197 coadministration with CRM197-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM197 carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM197 conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules. PMID:22336285

  8. Rapidity and centrality dependence of proton and anti-proton production from 197Au+197Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 130 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Corral, M.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Ganti, M.S.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; et al.

    2003-06-20

    We report on the rapidity and centrality dependence of proton and anti-proton transverse mass distributions from {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV as measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. Our results are from the rapidity and transverse momentum range of |y| < 0.5 and 0.35 < p{sub t} < 1.00 GeV/c. For both protons and anti-protons, transverse mass distributions become more convex from peripheral to central collisions demonstrating characteristics of collective expansion. The measured rapidity distributions and the mean transverse momenta versus rapidity are flat within |y| < 0.5. Comparisons of our data with results from model calculations indicate that in order to obtain a consistent picture of the proton(anti-proton) yields and transverse mass distributions the possibility of pre-hadronic collective expansion may have to be taken into account.

  9. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 6-92. Implementation of the benzene regulations of title 46, code of Federal Regulations, part 197 (46 cfr 197). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-03

    This Circular provides Coast Guard Captains of the Port (COTPs), Officers in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMIs) and members of industry with guidance on the implementation of the benzene regulations contained in 46 CFR 197. These regulations provide detailed requirements for protecting personnel from breathing harmful concentrations of benzene vapor aboard U.S. flag inspected vessels. This circular outlines a reasonable enforcement scheme given the nature of these regulations.

  10. Vi-CRM197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Micoli, F.; Rondini, S.; Pisoni, I.; Proietti, D.; Berti, F.; Costantino, P.; Rappuoli, R.; Szu, S.; Saul, A.; Martin, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM197 proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM197 appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. PMID:21115057

  11. Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 112 Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197 (Web, free access)   Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 &#197 contains wavelengths and intensities for about 5600 lines in the region 4330 &#197. An atlas plot of the spectrum is given, with the spectral lines marked and their intensities, wavelengths, and classifications listed.

  12. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determined by amortizing the cost or other basis of the computer software using the straight line method... described in section 167(f)(3) and § 1.197-2(c)(11) is determined by using the straight line method... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general....

  14. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous... ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.97 Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  15. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous... ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.97 Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  16. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous... ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.97 Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  17. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight... the following renewal requirements— (i) A record of training students showing that, during the... completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight...

  18. PSN J02062253-5201267 is a type Ia supernova in ESO 197-G24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Parker, S.; Hsia, E. Y.

    2015-07-01

    PSN J02062253-5201267 was discovered by Stu Parker (BOSS collaboration) in the edge-on spiral galaxy ESO 197-G024 at a redshift of 0.0196 (NED). The optical spectroscopic observation (range 360-960 nm) of the supernova was obtained with the 2.5-m du Pont Telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas on Jul. 19.40 UT.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Chf197, a ligustrazine derivative, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Liu, Huiqing; Wei, Chunmin; Wei, Xinbing; Tang, Mingtan; Kong, Xianglin; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinyong; Guo, Ruichen

    2015-10-01

    Ligustrazine is the most abundant and bioactive ingredient in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chf197 is one of the structurally modified ligustrazine derivatives in a purpose of overcoming the rapid metabolism and short half-life of original. The plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of Chf197 in rats were studied after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of Chf197 with the validated RP-HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Chf197 injected intravenously 20 mg/kg were as follows: Cmax , 1.44 ± 0.4 mg/L; Tmax , 0.08 h; t1/2 , 3.03 ± 1.67 h; AUC, 3.85 ± 3.88 h/L; Vd , 31.66 ± 11.79L/kg; and CL, 9.29 ± 4.92 l/h/kg. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics was observed, and a significantly higher dose-normalized AUC after intravenous administration was obtained than that after intraperitoneal administration. A possible metabolite was detected at about 3.1 min, and full-scan mass spectrum was adopted to predict its possible structure. PMID:26182951

  20. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197. 1.167(a)-14 Section 1.167(a)-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations §...

  1. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... include certain computer software and certain other separately acquired rights, such as rights to receive... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general. The amount of the deduction for computer software described in section 167(f)(1) and § 1.197-2(c)(4)...

  2. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include certain computer software and certain other separately acquired rights, such as rights to receive... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general. The amount of the deduction for computer software described in section 167(f)(1) and § 1.197-2(c)(4)...

  3. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... include certain computer software and certain other separately acquired rights, such as rights to receive... subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167(a). (b) Computer software—(1) In general. The amount of the deduction for computer software described in section 167(f)(1) and § 1.197-2(c)(4)...

  4. 46 CFR 197.206 - Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus... Operations General § 197.206 Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests. (a) The Coast Guard may accept substitutes for equipment, materials,...

  5. 46 CFR 197.206 - Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus... Operations General § 197.206 Substitutes for required equipment, materials, apparatus, arrangements, procedures, or tests. (a) The Coast Guard may accept substitutes for equipment, materials,...

  6. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise... Commerce entity may compromise the Commerce debt in accordance with the provisions of 31 CFR part 902 and the Commerce entity's policies and procedures. Legal counsel approval to compromise a Commerce debt...

  7. Feasibility of brewing makgeolli using Pichia anomala Y197-13, a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, ByungHak

    2012-12-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional rice wine favored by the general public in Korea. This study investigated the fermentation and sensory characteristics of using wild yeast strains for brewing makgeolli. A non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was isolated from nuruk and termed Y197-13. It showed 98% similarity to Pichia anomala and had an optimal growth temperature of 25 degrees C. Makgeolli was manufactured using koji, jinju nuruk, and improved nuruk as fermentation agents. Y197-13 makgeolli brewed with koji had alcohol and solids contents of 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Sweet sensory characteristics were attributed to residual sugars in makgeolli with 6% alcohol. The makgeolli had a fresh sour taste and carbonated taste. Volatile component analysis showed the isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, and fatty acid, including ethyl oleate and ethyl linoleate, relative peak area was higher in Y197-13 makgeolli than in makgeolli with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest the wild yeast, Y197-13, as a candidate for brewing makgeolli. PMID:23221539

  8. 26 CFR 1.197-1T - Certain elections for intangible property (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain elections for intangible property... Corporations (continued) § 1.197-1T Certain elections for intangible property (temporary). (a) In general. This...(g)(2) election (the retroactive election) to apply the intangibles provisions of OBRA '93...

  9. 26 CFR 1.197-1T - Certain elections for intangible property (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain elections for intangible property... Corporations (continued) § 1.197-1T Certain elections for intangible property (temporary). (a) In general. This...(g)(2) election (the retroactive election) to apply the intangibles provisions of OBRA '93...

  10. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  11. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... Collecting and Reporting Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and in Passenger Origin-Destination Directives issued by the Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics...

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure, and formulation of a core collection of 1,197 Citrullus accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been continuing interests in breeding of watermelon for economic benefits, but information on the scope and utilization of genetic variations in this genus (Citrullus) is still limited. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population structure of 1,197 watermelon collections, which belon...

  14. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  15. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  16. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  17. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight... the following renewal requirements— (i) A record of training students showing that, during the... completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight...

  18. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight... the following renewal requirements— (i) A record of training students showing that, during the... completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight...

  19. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight... the following renewal requirements— (i) A record of training students showing that, during the... completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight...

  20. 26 CFR 1.197-2 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., process, design, pattern, know-how, format, package design, computer software (as defined in paragraph (c... the underlying improvement. (4) Certain computer software—(i) Publicly available. Section 197 intangibles do not include any interest in computer software that is (or has been) readily available to...

  1. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51–1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  2. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51–1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond). PMID:27143582

  3. Constraints on the Emission and Viewing Geometry of the Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal decay of the flux components of the transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1 810-197 following its 2002 outburst presents a unique opportunity to probe the emission geometry of a magnetar. Toward this goal, we model the magnitude of the pulsar's modulation in narrow spectral bands over time. Following previous work, we assume that the postoutburst flux is produced in two distinct thermal components arising from a hot spot and a warm concentric ring. We include general relativistic effects on the blackbody spectra due to gravitational redshift and light bending near the stellar surface, which strongly depend on radius. This affects the model fits for the temperature and size of the emission regions. For the hot spot, the observed temporal and energy-dependent pulse modulation is found to require an anisotropic, pencil-beamed radiation pattern. We are able to constrain an allowed range for the angles that the line of sight (psi) and the hot spot pole (xi) make with respect to the spin axis. Within errors, this is defined by the locus of points in the xi-psi plane that lie along the line [xi + beta(R)] [psi + [beta(R)] = const, where beta(R) is a function of the radius R of the star. For a canonical value of R = 12 km, the viewing parameters range from psi = xi = 37deg to (psi, xi) = (85deg, 15deg). We discuss our results in the context of magnetar emission models.

  4. Evolution of the X-Ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, J. A. J.; Halpern, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1 × 10-11 to 8.1 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot spot that remains on the neutron star (NS) surface. The luminosity of this hot spot exceeds XTE J1810-197’s spin-down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197’s X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire NS surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one- or two-component blackbody model. A 1.2 keV absorption line, possibly due to resonant proton scattering, is detected at all epochs. The X-ray flux of the hot spot decreased by ≈ 20% between 2008 and 2009 March, the same period during which XTE J1810-197 became radio quiet.

  5. Evolution of the X-ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1E-11 to 8.1E-13 erg/cm^2/s. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot-spot that remains on the neutron star surface. The luminosity of this hot-spot exceeds XTE J1810-197's spin down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197's X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire neutron star surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one or two-component blackbody model. A 1.2 keV absorption line, possibly due to resonant proton scattering, is detected at all epochs. The X-ray flux of the hot spot decreased by approximately 20% between 2008 March and 2009 March, the same period during which XTE J1810-197 became radio quiet.

  6. Comparison of CRM197, diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid as protein carriers for meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tontini, M; Berti, F; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; De Gregorio, E; Del Giudice, G; Rappuoli, R; Costantino, P; Brogioni, G; Balocchi, C; Biancucci, M; Malito, E

    2013-10-01

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective and safest vaccines ever developed. Diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and CRM197 have been mostly used as protein carriers in licensed vaccines. We evaluated the immunogenicity of serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y meningococcal oligosaccharides conjugated to CRM197, DT and TT in naïve mice. The three carriers were equally efficient in inducing an immune response against the carbohydrate moiety in immunologically naïve mice. The effect of previous exposure to different dosages of the carrier protein on the anti-carbohydrate response was studied using serogroup A meningococcal (MenA) saccharide conjugates as a model. CRM197 showed a strong propensity to positively prime the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by its conjugates or those with the antigenically related carrier DT. Conversely in any of the tested conditions TT priming did not result in enhancement of the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by the corresponding conjugates. Repeated exposure of mice to TT or to CRM197 before immunization with the respective MenA conjugates resulted in a drastic suppression of the anti-carbohydrate response in the case of TT conjugate and only in a slight reduction in the case of CRM197. The effect of carrier priming on the anti-MenA response of DT-based conjugates varied depending on their carbohydrate to protein ratio. These data may have implications for human vaccination since conjugate vaccines are widely used in individuals previously immunized with DT and TT carrier proteins.

  7. Attenuated effects of chitosan-capped gold nanoparticles on LPS-induced toxicity in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Marius; Melnig, Viorel; Pricop, Daniela; Neagu, Anca; Mihasan, Marius; Tartau, Liliana; Hritcu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    The impact of nanoparticles in medicine and biology has increased rapidly in recent years. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have advantageous properties such as chemical stability, high electron density and affinity to biomolecules. However, the effects of AuNP on human body after repeated administration are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gold-11.68 nm (AuNP1, 9.8 μg) and gold-22.22 nm (AuNP2, 19.7 μg) nanoparticles capped with chitosan on brain and liver tissue reactivity in male Wistar rats exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 0111:B4, 250 μg) upon 8 daily sessions of intraperitoneal administration. Our results suggest that the smaller size of chitosan-capped AuNP shows the protective effects against LPS-induced toxicity, suggesting a very high potential for biomedical applications. PMID:25428109

  8. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  9. Gold-bearing skarns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of... THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of... THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  12. 28 CFR 0.197 - Agreements, in connection with criminal proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation or other immigration benefits. 0.197 Section 0.197...-deportation or other immigration benefits. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) shall not be bound, in the exercise of its authority under the immigration laws, through plea agreements,...

  13. 28 CFR 0.197 - Agreements, in connection with criminal proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation or other immigration benefits. 0.197 Section 0.197...-deportation or other immigration benefits. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) shall not be bound, in the exercise of its authority under the immigration laws, through plea agreements,...

  14. 28 CFR 0.197 - Agreements, in connection with criminal proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation or other immigration benefits. 0.197 Section 0.197...-deportation or other immigration benefits. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) shall not be bound, in the exercise of its authority under the immigration laws, through plea agreements,...

  15. 28 CFR 0.197 - Agreements, in connection with criminal proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation or other immigration benefits. 0.197 Section 0.197...-deportation or other immigration benefits. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) shall not be bound, in the exercise of its authority under the immigration laws, through plea agreements,...

  16. 28 CFR 0.197 - Agreements, in connection with criminal proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proceedings or investigations, promising non-deportation or other immigration benefits. 0.197 Section 0.197...-deportation or other immigration benefits. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) shall not be bound, in the exercise of its authority under the immigration laws, through plea agreements,...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of... THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  18. 49 CFR 40.197 - What happens when an employer receives a report of a dilute specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens when an employer receives a report of a dilute specimen? 40.197 Section 40.197 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests §...

  19. Metallogeny of gold deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The metallogeny of various gold deposits, particularly their broad temporal and spatial relations, and their relations to other metallic ores, is significant to genetic understanding and also useful in exploration. Archean gold deposits co-exist, both regionally and locally, with certain iron formations, massive base metal and nickel sulfide ores, but these occur generally in differing parts of the host stratigraphic sequences. Gold deposits in marine-eugeosynclinal environments are most important and numerous in Archean rocks. They become increasingly rare in successively younger strata where epithermal deposits in subaerial-continental rocks become important. The hydrothermal systems that formed both were apparently similar; one active in submarine tectonic settings, the other in sub-volcanic continental ones. Gold was apparently first introduced extensively into supracrustal rocks by sub-sea floor hydrothermal processes in Archean time, forming gold-enriched exhalites. These were reworked by metamorphic processes forming epithermal veins in many lode districts, and by sedimentary processes in the Witwatersrand. Epithermal gold deposits were generated where these older, auriferous basement source rocks were affected by younger, plutonic-volcanic-hydrothermal activity.

  20. Getting the Gold Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Epner Technology, Inc., worked with Goddard Space Center to apply gold coating to the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mirror. This partnership resulted in new commercial applications for Epner's LaserGold(R) process in the automotive industry. Previously, the company did not have equipment large enough to handle the plating of the stainless steel panels cost effectively. Seeing a chance to renew this effort, Epner Technology and Goddard entered into an agreement by which NASA would fund the facility needed to do the gold-plating, and Epner Technology would cover all other costs as part of their internal research and development. The VCL mirror project proceeded successfully, fulfilling Goddard's needs and leaving Epner Technology with a new facility to provide LaserGold for the automotive industry. The new capability means increased power savings and improvements in both quality and production time for BMW Manufacturing Corporation of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Cadillac of Detroit, Michigan, as well as other manufacturers who have implemented Epner Technology's LaserGold process. LaserGold(R) is a registered trademark of Epner Technology, Inc.

  1. Gold in minerals and the composition of native gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Robert Sprague; Fleischer, Michael

    1969-01-01

    Gold occurs in nature mainly as the metal and as various alloys. It forms complete series of solid solutions with silver, copper, nickel, palladium, and platinum. In association with the platinum metals, gold occurs as free gold as well as in solid solution. The native elements contain the most gold, followed by the sulfide minerals. Several gold tellurides are known, but no gold selenides have been reported, and only one sulfide, the telluride-sulfide mineral nagyagite, is known. The nonmetallic minerals carry the least gold, and the light-colored minerals generally contain less gold than the dark minerals. Some conclusions in the literature are conflicting in regard to the relation of fineness of native gold to its position laterally and vertically within a lode, the nature of the country rocks, and the location and size of nuggets in a streambed, as well as to the variation of fineness within an individual nugget.

  2. Gold coatings for cube-corner retro-reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dligatch, Svetlana; Gross, Mark; Netterfield, Roger P.; Pereira, Nathan; Platt, Benjamin C.; Nemati, Bijan

    2005-01-01

    We report on a comparative study of optical performance of gold films deposited by resistive and e-beam evaporation, including measurements of the scattering from the coated surfaces. The effects of oxygen bombardment and titanium under-layer on optical properties and adhesion were evaluated. The influence of surface preparation on the optical properties was examined also.

  3. Surface science investigations of oxidative chemistry on gold.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinlong; Mullins, C Buddie

    2009-08-18

    Because of gold's resistance to oxidation and corrosion, historically chemists have considered this metal inert. However, decades ago, researchers discovered that highly dispersed gold particles on metal oxides are highly chemically active, particularly in low-temperature CO oxidations. These seminal findings spurred considerable interest in investigations and applications of gold-based materials. Since the discovery of gold's chemical activity at the nanoscale, researchers found that bulk gold also has interesting catalytic properties. Thus, it is important to understand and contrast the intrinsic chemical properties of bulk gold with those of nanoparticle Au. Despite numerous studies, the structure and active site of supported Au nanoclusters and the active oxygen species remain elusive, and model studies under well-controlled conditions could help identify these species. The {111} facet has the lowest surface energy and is the most stable and prevalent configuration of most supported gold nanoparticles. Therefore, a molecular-level understanding of the physical properties and surface chemistry of Au(111) could provide mechanistic details regarding the nature of Au-based catalysts and lead to improved catalytic processes. This Account focuses on our current understanding of oxidative chemistry on well-defined gold single crystals, predominantly from recent investigations on Au(111) that we have performed using modern surface science techniques. Our model system strategy allows us to control reaction conditions, which assists in the identification of reaction intermediates, the determination of the elementary reaction steps, and the evaluation of reaction energetics for rate-limiting steps. We have employed temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), molecular beam reactive scattering (MBRS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to evaluate surface oxidative chemistry. In some cases, we have combined these results with density functional theory (DFT) calculations

  4. Interference ablation of nanogratings with different duty cycles on gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Nanogratings with different duty cycles are directly written on gold films using interference ablation. After exposing the gold film to the interference pattern of ultraviolet laser beams, gold film in the bright fringes will be melted and ablated, whereas much weaker ablation occurs in the dark fringes. The duty cycle of gold nanogratings can be controlled by adjusting the pulse energy and the exposure times, which can be explained by the temperature rise and cumulative effect of the laser-metal interactions. These results introduce additional parameters for the fine fabrication of metal nanogratings based on interference ablation at a large scale and low cost.

  5. Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2009-05-04

    An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

  6. Gold carbenes, gold-stabilized carbocations, and cationic intermediates relevant to gold-catalysed enyne cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J; Widenhoefer, R A

    2016-08-21

    Cationic gold complexes in which gold is bound to a formally divalent carbon atom, typically formulated as gold carbenes or α-metallocarbenium ions, have been widely invoked in a range of gold-catalyzed transformations, most notably in the gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,n-enynes. Although the existence of gold carbene complexes as intermediates in gold-catalyzed transformations is supported by a wealth of indirect experimental data and by computation, until recently no examples of cationic gold carbenes/α-metallocarbenium ions had been synthesized nor had any cationic intermediates generated via gold-catalyzed enyne cycloaddition been directly observed. Largely for this reason, there has been considerable debate regarding the electronic structure of these cationic complexes, in particular the relative contributions of the carbene (LAu(+)[double bond, length as m-dash]CR2) and α-metallocarbenium (LAu-CR2(+)) forms, which is intimately related to the extent of d → p backbonding from gold to the C1 carbon atom. However, over the past ∼ seven years, a number of cationic gold carbene complexes have been synthesized in solution and generated in the gas phase and cationic intermediates have been directly observed in the gold-catalyzed cycloaddition of enynes. Together, these advances provide insight into the nature and electronic structure of gold carbene/α-metallocarbenium complexes and the cationic intermediates generated via gold-catalyzed enyne cycloaddition. Herein we review recent advances in this area. PMID:27146712

  7. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-07-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on gold for production of (197m,197g,195m,195g, 193m,193g,192)Hg, (196m,196g(cum),195g(cum),194,191(cum))Au, (191(cum))Pt and (192)Ir were measured up to 65MeV proton energy, some of them for the first time. The new data are in acceptably good agreement with the recently published earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 (results in TENDL-2015 on-line library) and EMPIRE 3.2 code. PMID:27156194

  8. Laser spectroscopy studies of intruder states in 193, 195, 197Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments on bismuth isotopes using the 306.77-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data for the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of 193, 195, 197Bi g, m isotopes and isomers have been obtained. A large isomer shift between I =1 /2+ (intruder) and I =9 /2- (normal) states has been found. The charge radii of the 193,195,197Bi ground states follow the trend found previously for isotonic (spherical) lead nuclei. The larger radii for the 1 /2+ isomers suggest a larger deformation of these isomers compared to the ground state and support the shape coexistence interpretation of the previously obtained experimental data. Magnetic moments of Bi intruder isomers depart from the trend of the magnetic moments of the 1 /2+ thallium ground states at N <114 .

  9. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Pérez Catán, Soledad; Jaćimović, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-03-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H2SO4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197Hg2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H2SO4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197Hg radiotracer (T1/2=2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203Hg (T1/2=46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196Hg isotope, and a 340-fold

  10. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A. Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  11. The Anatomy Of A Magnetar: XMM Monitoring Of Transient AXP XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, Eric V.; Halpern, J. P.; Perna, R.

    2006-09-01

    The transient anomalous X-ray pulsar (TAXP) XTE J1810-197 is a unique object whose remarkable properties offer great promise for deciphering the emission mechanism(s) of magnetars. This 5.54s pulsar was discovered in early 2003 during an outburst that has, as of 2006, faded near to quiescence, based on historic data. TAXP XTE J1810-197 is, most surprisingly, a highly variable radio pulsar with a unusual flat spectrum. This is the first confirmed example of radio flux from an AXP. Herein, we report on our semi-annual XMM monitoring campaign that has followed the pulsar for the last 3 years as its spectrum evolved. Fitting a double blackbody model we find that the component luminosities followed an exponential decay law with κ(BB1) = 870 days and κ(BB2) = 280 days, respectively. The temperatures of these components cooled at a rate of 22% per year from the nearly constant value recorded prior to 2004 March of kT(BB1) = 0.25 keV and kT(BB2) = 0.67 keV, respectively. The latest data show that the luminosity and temperature of the cooler component have effectively returned to their quiescent levels and that its pulsed fraction, which has steadily decreased with time, is now consistent with the previous lack of detected pulsations in quiescence. We use the energy dependence of the fading emission to decouple the pulsed components to solve for the viewing and emitting geometry of XTE J1810-197. Finally, we consider the emission mechanism(s) of XTE J1810-197 in the context of the coronal loop magnetar model of Beloborodov & Thompson (2006). This research is supported by XMM-Newton grant NNG05GJ61G and NASA ADP grant ADP04-0059-0024.

  12. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    SciTech Connect

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-05-30

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness {approx}50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics.

  13. Biorecovery of gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of ionic and metallic gold (Au) from a wide variety of solutions by selected species of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and higher plants is documented. Gold accumulations were up to 7.0 g/kg dry weight (DW) in various species of bacteria, 25.0 g/kg DW in freshwater algae, 84.0 g/kg DW in peat, and 100.0 g/kg DW in dried fungus mixed with keratinous material. Mechanisms of accumulation include oxidation, dissolution, reduction, leaching, and sorption. Uptake patterns are significantly modified by the physicochemical milieu. Crab exoskeletons accumulate up to 4.9 g Au/kg DW; however, gold accumulations in various tissues of living teleosts, decapod crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs are negligible.

  14. X-Ray Bursts from the Transient Magnetar Candidate XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Ibrahim, Alaa; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Finger, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered four X-ray bursts, recorded with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array between 2003 September and 2004 April, that we show to originate from the transient magnetar candidate XTE 51810-197. The burst morphologies consist of a short spike or multiple spikes lasting approx. 1 s each followed by extended tails of emission where the pulsed flux from XTE 51810-197 is significantly higher. The burst spikes are likely correlated with the pulse maxima, having a chance probability of a random phase distribution of 0.4%. The burst spectra are best fit to a blackbody with temperatures 4-8 keV, considerably harder than the persistent X-ray emission. During the X-ray tails following these bursts, the temperature rapidly cools as the flux declines, maintaining a constant emitting radius after the initial burst peak. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these bursts closely resemble the bursts seen from 1E 1048.1-5937 and a subset of the bursts detected from 1E 2259+586, thus establishing XTE J1810-197 as a magnetar candidate. The bursts detected from these three objects are sufficiently similar to one another, yet si,g&cantly differe2t from those seen from soft gamma repeaters, that they likely represent a new class of bursts from magnetar candidates exclusive (thus far) to the anomalous X-ray pulsar-like sources.

  15. Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Niclas; Sjöholm, Ingvar

    2005-04-15

    Mucosal vaccination has the advantage of eliciting a local mucosal immune response as well as a systemic response. In this investigation, polyacryl starch microparticles were conjugated to diphtheria toxin cross-reacting material (CRM197) as a mucosal adjuvant for oral or intranasal immunisation of mice. Various methods of stabilising CRM197 with formaldehyde were investigated. A good systemic and local mucosal immune response was attained with oral immunisation when CRM197 was treated with a relatively low formaldehyde concentration prior to conjugation to the microparticles. No immune response was seen after intranasal immunisation.

  16. Chemistry for oncotheranostic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Trouiller, Anne Juliette; Hebié, Seydou; El Bahhaj, Fatima; Napporn, Teko W; Bertrand, Philippe

    2015-06-24

    This review presents in a comprehensive ways the chemical methods used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with focus on anti-cancer applications. The review covers the parameters required for the synthesis gold nanoparticles with defined shapes and sizes, method for targeted delivery in tumours, and selected examples of anti-cancers compounds delivered with gold nanoparticles. A short survey of bioassays for oncology based on gold nanoparticles is also presented.

  17. BEAM DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FLILLER,R.P.,IIIDREES,A.GASSNER,D.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2003-05-12

    During a store, particles from the beam core continually diffuse outwards into the halo through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the diffusion rate as a function of particle amplitude can help discover which processes are important to halo growth. A collimator can be used to measure the amplitude growth rate as a function of the particle amplitude. In this paper we present results of diffusion measurements performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with fully stripped gold ions, deuterons, and protons. We compare these results with measurements from previous years, and simulations, and discuss any factors that relate to beam growth in RHIC.

  18. Effect of particle size on the thermo-optic properties of gold nanofluids – A thermal lens study

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Basheer, N. Shemeena; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2014-01-28

    Spherical gold nanoparticles having particle size in the range 30 to 50 nm are prepared using citrate reduction of gold chloride trihydrate in water. The influence of particle size on the thermal diffusivity value of gold nanofluid is measured using dual beam thermal lens technique. The present study shows that the particle size influences the effective thermal diffusivity value of the nanofluid substantially and the value decreases with decrease in particle size for the investigated samples.

  19. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... in any assay for quality of a karat gold industry product include springs, posts, and separable...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... in any assay for quality of a karat gold industry product include springs, posts, and separable...