Science.gov

Sample records for gold standard equipment

  1. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  2. Subsea production equipment standardization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    George, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

  3. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  4. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  5. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  6. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  7. 75 FR 35439 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards AGENCY... equipment to ensure that such equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities to... accessibility needs of individuals with disabilities with respect to medical diagnostic equipment and...

  8. The size distribution of 'gold standard' nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2009-11-01

    The spherical gold nanoparticle reference materials RM 8011, RM 8012, and RM 8013, with a nominal radius of 5, 15, and 30 nm, respectively, have been available since 2008 from NIST. These materials are recommended as standards for nanoparticle size measurements and for the study of the biological effects of nanoparticles, e.g., in pre-clinical biomedical research. We report on determination of the size distributions of these gold nanoparticles using different small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) instruments. Measurements with a classical Kratky type SAXS instrument are compared with a synchrotron SAXS technique. Samples were investigated in situ, positioned in capillaries and in levitated droplets. The number-weighted size distributions were determined applying model scattering functions based on (a) Gaussian, (b) log-normal, and (c) Schulz distributions. The mean radii are 4.36 +/- 0.04 nm (RM 8011), 12.20 +/- 0.03 nm (RM 8012), and 25.74 +/- 0.27 nm (RM 8013). Low polydispersities, defined as relative width of the distributions, were detected with values of 0.067 +/- 0.006 (RM 8011), 0.103 +/- 0.003, (RM 8012), and 0.10 +/- 0.01 (RM 8013). The results are in agreement with integral values determined from classical evaluation procedures, such as the radius of gyration (Guinier) and particle volume (Kratky). No indications of particle aggregation and particle interactions--repulsive or attractive--were found. We recommend SAXS as a standard method for a fast and precise determination of size distributions of nanoparticles.

  9. Establishment of gold-quartz standard GQS-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, Hugh T.; Marinenko, John; McLane, John E.

    1969-01-01

    A homogeneous gold-quartz standard, GQS-1, was prepared from a heterogeneous gold-bearing quartz by chemical treatment. The concentration of gold in GQS-1 was determined by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis to be 2.61?0.10 parts per million. Analysis of 10 samples of the standard by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis failed to reveal heterogeneity within the standard. The precision of the analytical methods, expressed as standard error, was approximately 0.1 part per million. The analytical data were also used to estimate the average size of gold particles. The chemical treatment apparently reduced the average diameter of the gold particles by at least an order of magnitude and increased the concentration of gold grains by a factor of at least 4,000.

  10. Advocacy: Making the Gold Standard School a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Inman, Tracy Ford

    2011-01-01

    In their last column, the authors described a Gold Standard School--a place in which all children thrive including the gifted and talented. The Checklist for a Gold Standard School, which is included in this article, highlights the main characteristics of such a school including a focus on continuous progress, talent development, policies that…

  11. 40 CFR 63.691 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through § 61.247 in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks; or (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.691....691 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.691 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through § 61.247 in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks; or (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.691....691 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.691 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through § 61.247 in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks; or (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.691....691 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.691 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... through § 61.247 in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks; or (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.691....691 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.691 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through § 61.247 in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks; or (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.691....691 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of...

  16. 77 FR 39656 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 14706 (March... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The...

  17. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard: Equipment leaks....

  18. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard: Equipment leaks....

  19. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard: Equipment leaks....

  20. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard: Equipment leaks....

  1. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard: Equipment leaks....

  2. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publish uniform standards, specifications, qualified product lists or databases, and supply schedules for security equipment designed to provide secure storage for classified information. Whenever new...

  3. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM and... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  4. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... the Federal Register, 77 FR 6916, on accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment and... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... equipment, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Access...

  5. The Trouble with the Gold Standard: School Libraries & Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Although science has provided empirical evidence for centuries, it's only as recently as the 1940s that a scientific method called randomized controlled trials (RCT) emerged as a technique to test the efficacy of drugs and medical procedures. Since RCT is unique in that it can claim causality, it's considered the "gold standard" of research…

  6. Inspecting Cases against Revans' "Gold Standard" of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Verna J.

    2004-01-01

    A purposive sampling and analysis of ten case histories of action learning in the US suggests that applications tend to be partial, hierarchical, and leader controlled, thus running counter in several significant ways to the gold standard of Revans' action learning theory and egalitarian rules of engagement. Using critical markers to inspect the…

  7. Methodological Pluralism: The Gold Standard of STEM Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, there is continuing debate about appropriate methods for conducting educational evaluations. The U.S. Department of Education has placed a priority on "scientifically" based evaluation methods and has advocated a "gold standard" of randomized controlled experimentation. The priority suggests that randomized control methods are best,…

  8. 78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM and... comfort of other participants (see www.access-board.gov/about/policies/fragrance.htm for more...

  9. 77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM and... refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  10. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... previously published NPRM on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9... provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and...

  11. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM... provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and...

  12. Reflections on the NASA standardization effort. [space qualified equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnemann, H.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA standardization effort which has been in existence for four years is described. A significant number of equipments have been declared standard in order to achieve multimission utilization with the consequent avoidance of high nonrecurring development costs. The small numbers of equipments and significant gaps in time before the next user requires the item raise questions of the value of maintaining a standard, how to assure its producibility economically in the future, and how to prevent its technical obsolescence. Increasing pressures to broaden the participation of industry in the space program have also contributed to a reexamination of the philosophy of standardization.

  13. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... shall be purchased for replacement purposes in accordance with the standards in FPMR 41 CFR...

  14. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... shall be purchased for replacement purposes in accordance with the standards in FPMR 41 CFR...

  15. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) § 63.424 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of a bulk gasoline terminal or pipeline... limited to, the following: (1) Minimize gasoline spills; (2) Clean up spills as expeditiously...

  16. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) § 63.424 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of a bulk gasoline terminal or pipeline... limited to, the following: (1) Minimize gasoline spills; (2) Clean up spills as expeditiously...

  17. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) § 63.424 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of a bulk gasoline terminal or pipeline... limited to, the following: (1) Minimize gasoline spills; (2) Clean up spills as expeditiously...

  18. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) § 63.424 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of a bulk gasoline terminal or pipeline... limited to, the following: (1) Minimize gasoline spills; (2) Clean up spills as expeditiously...

  19. Acute appendicitis: What is the gold standard of treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, Cesare; Fiorot, Alain; Pagura, Giulia; Antoniutti, Michele; Massani, Marco; Caratozzolo, Ezio; Bonariol, Luca; Calia di Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Nicolò

    2013-01-01

    McBurney’s procedure represented the gold-standard for acute appendicitis until 1981, but nowadays the number of laparoscopic appendectomies has progressively increased since it has been demonstrated to be a safe procedure, with excellent cosmetic results and it also allows a shorter hospitalization, a quicker and less painful postoperative recovery. The aim of this editorial was to perform a review of the literature in order to address controversial issues in the treatment of acute appendicitis. PMID:24379603

  20. The gold standard: gold nanoparticle libraries to understand the nano-bio interface.

    PubMed

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Lohse, Samuel E; Murphy, Catherine J

    2013-03-19

    Since the late 1980s, researchers have prepared inorganic nanoparticles of many types--including elemental metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal selenides, and metal tellurides--with excellent control over size and shape. Originally many researchers were primarily interested in exploring the quantum size effects predicted for such materials. Applications of inorganic nanomaterials initially centered on physics, optics, and engineering but have expanded to include biology. Many current nanomaterials can serve as biochemical sensors, contrast agents in cellular or tissue imaging, drug delivery vehicles, or even as therapeutics. In this Account we emphasize that the understanding of how nanomaterials will function in a biological system relies on the knowledge of the interface between biological systems and nanomaterials, the nano-bio interface. Gold nanoparticles can serve as excellent standards to understand more general features of the nano-bio interface because of its many advantages over other inorganic materials. The bulk material is chemically inert, and well-established synthetic methods allow researchers to control its size, shape, and surface chemistry. Gold's background concentration in biological systems is low, which makes it relatively easy to measure it at the part-per-billion level or lower in water. In addition, the large electron density of gold enables relatively simple electron microscopic experiments to localize it within thin sections of cells or tissue. Finally, gold's brilliant optical properties at the nanoscale are tunable with size, shape, and aggregation state and enable many of the promising chemical sensing, imaging, and therapeutic applications. Basic experiments with gold nanoparticles and cells include measuring the toxicity of the particles to cells in in vitro experiments. The species other than gold in the nanoparticle solution can be responsible for the apparent toxicity at a particular dose. Once the identity of the toxic

  1. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  2. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment.

    PubMed

    HALL, L B

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on "use" tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated.THE AUTHOR OUTLINES SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES TO BE FOLLOWED AND STANDARDS TO BE ADOPTED IN TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF COMPRESSION SPRAYERS AND ALLIED EQUIPMENT, WITH REFERENCE TO THE FOLLOWING FEATURES: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern.

  3. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  4. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475). With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536) in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular entities and processes is

  5. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  6. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  7. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  8. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with spark arrestors and drip pans;...

  9. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  10. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must...

  11. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    , it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

  12. Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy: is still the gold standard treatment?

    PubMed

    Milone, Marco; Maietta, Paola; Leongito, Maddalena; Pesce, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Milone, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy remains the most definitive procedure to treat symptomatic grades III and IV hemorrhoids. However, over the years, several modifications have been made to the original operation to improve the outcomes. A total of 693 consecutive patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids underwent Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy. Our results serve as a standard for comparison conventional hemorrhoidectomy (Ferguson's technique) with recent methods such as stapled hemorrhoidopexy and LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy. We have obtained a very low rate of post-operative pain after Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy (VAS pain score was 2.47 ± 1.1 after a day, 1.34 ± 0.7 after 7 days and 0.51 ± 0.1 after 2 weeks) as to for stapler and LigaSure procedure in the literature. Moreover, long-term results demonstrate high levels of patient satisfaction (the satisfaction was good in 624 patients after 2 weeks and in 658 patients after 1 year) with a low recurrence rates (7 patients had recurrence after 1 year and 21 patients after 2 years). We believe that Ferguson-closed hemorrhoidectomy could still be, at the moment, the gold standard to which other techniques are compared.

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  14. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  15. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  16. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  17. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  18. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  19. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  20. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  1. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  2. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75762, December 2, 2011. If oxygen dispensing units are installed,...

  8. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening?

    PubMed

    Brown, F M

    2000-02-01

    Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. Urine cytology has excellent specificity with few false-positive cases. Its overall sensitivity is poor, but this drawback is explained for the most part by poor criteria for identifying well-differentiated, low-grade TCC. The natural history of such lesions is the occurrence of multiple superficial recurrences in 70% to 80% of patients, with only a minority (10% to 15%) progressing to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Because patients with low-grade TCC are at low risk for progression, they are monitored primarily for the development of a subsequent tumor. One might argue that the detection of new low-grade lesions is of secondary importance to the early detection of disease progression. The performance characteristics of urine cytology in this regard are much improved. Urine cytology often results in the identification of high-grade malignant cells even before a cystoscopically distinguishable gross lesion is present. Routinely diagnosing grade I TCC may be clinically irrelevant. Ancillary techniques to improve the sensitivity of urine cytology have been insufficiently additive to have much clinical value. Several promising bladder tumor markers have been investigated as potential screening tools and are summarized in Table 3. BTA, nuclear matrix proteins, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products share lower specificities than urine cytology and may have high rates of false positivity. Telomerase is highly sensitive and highly specific but is not readily available as a point-of-service test. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronic acid are promising prognostic markers, but hyaluronidase does not

  9. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  10. 78 FR 32612 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  11. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  12. Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Brachemi, Soumeya; Bollée, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Renal biopsy (RB) is useful for diagnosis and therapy guidance of renal diseases but incurs a risk of bleeding complications of variable severity, from transitory haematuria or asymptomatic hematoma to life-threatening hemorrhage. Several risk factors for complications after RB have been identified, including high blood pressure, age, decreased renal function, obesity, anemia, low platelet count and hemostasis disorders. These should be carefully assessed and, whenever possible, corrected before the procedure. The incidence of serious complications has become low with the use of automated biopsy devices and ultrasound guidance, which is currently the "gold standard" procedure for percutaneous RB. An outpatient biopsy may be considered in a carefully selected population with no risk factor for bleeding. However, controversies persist on the duration of observation after biopsy, especially for native kidney biopsy. Transjugular RB and laparoscopic RB represent reliable alternatives to conventional percutaneous biopsy in patients at high risk of bleeding, although some factors limit their use. This aim of this review is to summarize the issues of complications after RB, assessment of hemorrhagic risk factors, optimal biopsy procedure and strategies aimed to minimize the risk of bleeding.

  13. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  14. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  15. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  16. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  17. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  18. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  19. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  20. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  1. 77 FR 6915 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... accommodations are accessible to individuals with disabilities.\\7\\ See 75 FR 43452 (July 26, 2010). Among other.... Survey respondents reported difficulties with getting on and off the equipment, positioning their bodies... for transferring onto and off of equipment and positioning their bodies on the equipment...

  2. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

  3. Primary Discussion on Standardized Management of Purchasing Large Equipments for Measurement Technology Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chang; Hu, Juanli; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Yue

    In view of current situation and existing problem on purchasing equipment for measurement technology institution, this paper analyzes key factors that affect the standardization of equipment procurement and it proposes a set of scientific and standardized solutions for equipment procurement based on actual work.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  9. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  10. Measuring Retention in HIV Care: The Elusive Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Mugavero, Michael J.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Zinski, Anne; Davila, Jessica; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Gardner, Lytt I.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Malitz, Faye; Marks, Gary; Metsch, Lisa; Wilson, Tracey E.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Measuring retention in HIV primary care is complex as care includes multiple visits scheduled at varying intervals over time. We evaluated six commonly used retention measures in predicting viral load (VL) suppression and the correlation among measures. Methods Clinic-wide patient-level data from six academic HIV clinics were used for 12-months preceding implementation of the CDC/HRSA Retention in Care intervention. Six retention measures were calculated for each patient based upon scheduled primary HIV provider visits: count and dichotomous missed visits, visit adherence, 6-month gap, 4-month visit constancy, and the HRSA HAB retention measure. Spearman correlation coefficients and separate unadjusted logistic regression models compared retention measures to one another and with 12-month VL suppression, respectively. The discriminatory capacity of each measure was assessed with the c-statistic. Results Among 10,053 patients, 8,235 (82%) had 12-month VL measures, with 6,304 (77%) achieving suppression (VL<400 c/mL). All six retention measures were significantly associated (P<0.0001) with VL suppression (OR;95%CI, c-statistic): missed visit count (0.73;0.71–0.75,0.67), missed visit dichotomous (3.2;2.8–3.6,0.62), visit adherence (3.9;3.5–4.3,0.69), gap (3.0;2.6–3.3,0.61), visit constancy (2.8;2.5–3.0,0.63), HRSA HAB (3.8;3.3–4.4,0.59). Measures incorporating “no show” visits were highly correlated (Spearman coefficient=0.83–0.85), as were measures based solely upon kept visits (Spearman coefficient=0.72–0.77). Correlation coefficients were lower across these two groups of measures (Range=0.16–0.57). Conclusions Six retention measures displayed a wide range of correlation with one another, yet each measure had significant association and modest discrimination for VL suppression. These data suggest there is no clear gold standard, and that selection of a retention measure may be tailored to context. PMID:23011397

  11. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards...

  12. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  13. Reduction of ETS-VI Laser Communication Equipment Optical-Downlink Telemetry Collected During GOLD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toyoshima, M.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Toyoda, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K.; Lesh, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Free-space laser communications experiments were conducted between the laser communication equipment (LCE) on board the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the ground station located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) during late 1995 and early 1996. This article describes the on-line data reduction process used to decode LCE telemetry (called E2) downlinked on the optical carrier during the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) experiments. The LCE has the capability of transmitting real-time sensor and status information at 128 kbps by modulating the onboard diode laser. The optical downlink was detected on the ground, bit synchronized, and the resulting data stream stored on a data recorder. The recorded data were subsequently decoded by on-line data processing that included cross-correlation of the known telemetry data format and the downlink data stream. Signals obtained from the processing can be useful not only in evaluating the characteristics of the LCE but also in understanding uplink and downlink signal quality.

  14. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  15. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result in their physical distortion or degradation. All sources of ultraviolet light must be filtered....

  16. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result in their physical distortion or degradation. All sources of ultraviolet light must be filtered....

  17. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result in their physical distortion or degradation. All sources of ultraviolet light must be filtered....

  18. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result in their physical distortion or degradation. All sources of ultraviolet light must be filtered....

  19. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway. PMID:25233181

  20. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  1. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  2. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  3. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  4. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  5. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  11. 40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV and paragraph (b) of this section except as..., the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as... subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner...

  12. 40 CFR 63.769 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart H of this part; or is subject to and controlled under the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO. Ancillary equipment and compressors subject to and controlled under 40 CFR part 60, subpart... operator shall meet the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V, §§ 61.241 through...

  13. 40 CFR 63.769 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart H of this part; or is subject to and controlled under the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO. Ancillary equipment and compressors subject to and controlled under 40 CFR part 60, subpart... operator shall meet the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 61, subpart V, §§ 61.241 through...

  14. 40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV and paragraph (b) of this section except as..., the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as... subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner...

  15. 40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV and paragraph (b) of this section except as..., the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as... subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner...

  16. 40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV and paragraph (b) of this section except as..., the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as... subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner...

  17. 40 CFR 63.648 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 subpart VV and paragraph (b) of this section except as..., the provisions of 40 CFR part 60, subpart VV apply only to equipment in organic HAP service, as... subpart VV of 40 CFR part 60 may be done on a process unit basis or a sourcewide basis. Once the owner...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4) The... successful repair of the leak. (iv) The maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters (25 feet) above the ground; or...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4) The... successful repair of the leak. (iv) The maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters (25 feet) above the ground; or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4... postrepair monitoring is required, maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters above the ground; or (E) Not...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4) The... successful repair of the leak. (iv) The maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters (25 feet) above the ground; or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4... postrepair monitoring is required, maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters above the ground; or (E) Not...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to comply only with the provisions of this subpart: (i) 40 CFR part 60. (ii) 40 CFR part 61. (3) (4... postrepair monitoring is required, maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60...-type scaffold which would allow access to equipment up to 7.6 meters above the ground; or (E) Not...

  4. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  5. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  9. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM and information related to the proposed... provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and...

  10. 77 FR 67595 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    .... See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The NPRM and information related to the proposed standards are... requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the ] comfort of...

  11. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  12. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  13. Reassessing RCTs as the "Gold Standard": Synergy Not Separatism in Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Pam; Chambers, Bette; Haslam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate educational interventions in the UK. However, RCTs remain controversial for some elements of the research community. This paper argues that the widespread use of the term "gold standard" to describe RCTs is problematic, as it implies that other research methods are…

  14. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission... be achieved by existing sources as expeditiously as practicable, but no later than December 15, 1997. For new sources, initial compliance shall be achieved upon startup. (f) As an alternative...

  15. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  16. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  17. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  18. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  19. Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements.

  20. Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements. PMID:24110139

  1. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60...: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this... from bleed ports in existing pumps in light liquid service are not considered to be a leak as...

  2. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60...: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this... from bleed ports in existing pumps in light liquid service are not considered to be a leak as...

  3. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60...: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this... from bleed ports in existing pumps in light liquid service are not considered to be a leak as...

  4. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60...: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this... from bleed ports in existing pumps in light liquid service are not considered to be a leak as...

  5. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60...: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this... from bleed ports in existing pumps in light liquid service are not considered to be a leak as...

  6. 76 FR 25622 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Method III. Analysis of Potential Energy Savings A. Annual Energy Use 1. Water-Cooled Air Conditioners 2... Conservation Standards for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of... commercial and industrial equipment, including commercial heating, air-conditioning, and water-...

  7. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling'' by removing the rated... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0 1... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material...

  8. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  9. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passenger motor vehicles by persons who have specified types of disablement and for the installation of such... justify development of formal standards, such equipment will be inspected and, if in order, approved...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY... storage of reagents and specimens, accurate and reliable test system operation, and test result reporting...) Temperature. (3) Humidity. (4) Protection of equipment and instruments from fluctuations and interruptions...

  11. Measures of excellence: the search for the gold standard.

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, V H

    1986-01-01

    Questions concerning some of the values we hold as librarians and the goals, standards, and other evaluation tools we derive from them are discussed in the context of the history of our profession and the present period of rapid change. The concepts of stable and changing paradigms and of "scientific communities" provide the foundation for consideration of how a changing conceptual framework can affect values and their application in the evaluation process. One of many possible scenarios for the future is briefly outlined to demonstrate how some traditional values may fare. PMID:3779168

  12. Seeking a valid gold standard for an innovative, dialect-neutral language test.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E; Wu, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. METHOD Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Norm Referenced (DELV-NR; Seymour, Roeper, & J. de Villiers, 2005) was administered, and concurrent language samples (LSs) were collected. Using LS profiles as the gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy were compared for diagnoses made from the DELV-NR and participants' clinical status prior to recruitment. In a second analysis, the authors used results from the first analysis to make evidence-based adjustments in the estimates of DELV-NR diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS Accuracy of the DELV-NR relative to LS profiles was greater than that of prior diagnoses, indicating that the DELV-NR was an improvement over preexisting diagnoses for this group. Specificity met conventional standards, but sensitivity was somewhat low. Reanalysis using the positive and negative predictive power of the preexisting diagnosis in a discrepant-resolution procedure revealed that estimates for sensitivity and specificity for the DELV-NR were .85 and .93, respectively. CONCLUSION The authors found that, even after making allowances for the imperfection of available gold standards, clinical decisions made with the DELV-NR achieved high values on conventional measures of diagnostic accuracy.

  13. A multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition: the Mantra GSC

    PubMed Central

    Clematide, Simon; Akhondi, Saber A; van Mulligen, Erik M; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective To create a multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition. Materials and methods We selected text units from different parallel corpora (Medline abstract titles, drug labels, biomedical patent claims) in English, French, German, Spanish, and Dutch. Three annotators per language independently annotated the biomedical concepts, based on a subset of the Unified Medical Language System and covering a wide range of semantic groups. To reduce the annotation workload, automatically generated preannotations were provided. Individual annotations were automatically harmonized and then adjudicated, and cross-language consistency checks were carried out to arrive at the final annotations. Results The number of final annotations was 5530. Inter-annotator agreement scores indicate good agreement (median F-score 0.79), and are similar to those between individual annotators and the gold standard. The automatically generated harmonized annotation set for each language performed equally well as the best annotator for that language. Discussion The use of automatic preannotations, harmonized annotations, and parallel corpora helped to keep the manual annotation efforts manageable. The inter-annotator agreement scores provide a reference standard for gauging the performance of automatic annotation techniques. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition in languages other than English. Other distinguishing features are the wide variety of semantic groups that are being covered, and the diversity of text genres that were annotated. PMID:25948699

  14. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  15. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  16. Farm Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de machines agricoles. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for farm equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  17. Measuring the adherence to medication of elderly patients with heart failure: is there a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen; Hankins, Matthew; Hodson, Andrew; George, Charles

    2010-11-01

    ACE inhibitors and loop diuretics are treatments of first choice for heart failure, but patients must take their medications regularly to achieve maximum benefit. Adherence is commonly assessed using pill counts, self-report or electronic monitoring, with the latter widely considered the 'gold standard'. We assessed the concordance of these three methods in a sample of 52 elderly patients with heart failure over a six-week period. Substantial differences in adherence were found between the three methods. Adherence by self-report was very high for both ACE-I and diuretic, with little between-person variation. This was, however, uncorroborated by pill count and electronic monitoring. Closer examination of the electronic record suggested that the mean level of adherence overlooked patterns of openings more consistent with adherent behaviour. There seems to be no gold standard for measurement of adherence in this population.

  18. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard.

  19. A Consensus-Based Gold Standard for the Evaluation of Mass Casualty Triage Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; McKee, Courtney H.; Cady, Charles E.; Cone, David C.; Colella, M. Riccardo; Cooper, Arthur; Coule, Phillip L.; Lairet, Julio R.; Liu, J. Marc; Pirrallo, Ronald; Sasser, Scott M.; Schwartz, Richard; Shepherd, Greene; Swienton, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Accuracy and effectiveness analyses of mass casualty triage systems are limited because there are no gold standard definitions for each of the triage categories. Until there is agreement on which patients should be identified by each triage category, it will be impossible to calculate sensitivity and specificity or to compare accuracy between triage systems. Objective To develop a consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category. Methods National experts were recruited through the lead investigators’ contacts and their suggested contacts. Key informant interviews were conducted to develop a list of potential criteria for defining each triage category. Panelists were interviewed in order of their availability until redundancy of themes was achieved. Panelists were blinded to each other’s responses during the interviews. A modified Delphi survey was developed with the potential criteria identified during the interview and delivered to all recruited experts. In the early rounds, panelists could add, remove, or modify criteria. In the final rounds edits were made to the criteria until at least 80% agreement was achieved. Results Thirteen national and local experts were recruited to participate in the project. Six interviews were conducted. Three rounds of voting were performed, with 12 panelists participating in the first round, 12 in the second round, and 13 in the third round. After the first two rounds, the criteria were modified according to respondent suggestions. In the final round, over 90% agreement was achieved for all but one criterion. A single e-mail vote was conducted on edits to the final criterion and consensus was achieved. Conclusion A consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category was been developed. These gold standard definitions can be used to evaluate the accuracy of mass casualty triage systems after an actual incident, during training, or for

  20. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. PMID:27005614

  1. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  2. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-03-08

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7922 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? 63.7922 Section 63.7922 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Equipment Leaks § 63.7922 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? (a) You must demonstrate...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7922 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? 63.7922 Section 63.7922 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Equipment Leaks § 63.7922 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? (a) You must demonstrate...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7922 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? 63.7922 Section 63.7922 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Equipment Leaks § 63.7922 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? (a) You must demonstrate...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7922 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? 63.7922 Section 63.7922 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Equipment Leaks § 63.7922 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? (a) You must demonstrate...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7922 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? 63.7922 Section 63.7922 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation Equipment Leaks § 63.7922 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards for equipment leaks? (a) You must demonstrate...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7920 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart TT—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 1; or (2) Control equipment leaks according to all applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 2. (c) If you use...

  9. 40 CFR 63.7920 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart TT—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 1; or (2) Control equipment leaks according to all applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 2. (c) If you use...

  10. 40 CFR 63.7920 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart TT—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 1; or (2) Control equipment leaks according to all applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 2. (c) If you use...

  11. 40 CFR 63.7920 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart TT—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 1; or (2) Control equipment leaks according to all applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 2. (c) If you use...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7920 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for equipment leaks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart TT—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 1; or (2) Control equipment leaks according to all applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU—National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks—Control Level 2. (c) If you use...

  13. [Investigation report on the technical standards of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Tangyi; Yang, Huayuan

    2016-02-01

    The questionnaire was adopted so as to investigate the attitudes and recognition of the manufacture eneprises of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment (DTRE) to the technical standards of, relevant products. It was found that the construction of the industrial standard and the national standard was lagged behind on TCM DTRE. Under the new situation, the enterprises are highly willing to participate in the development of the industrial, national and international standards and have a certain of understanding on the standard development. Nearly 80 % of enterprises believed that it was necessary to set up the relevant mirror organization for the development of industrial, national and international standard of TCM DITRE. In the future, the standard construction of TCM DTRE must face to the new situation. The constant increasing of the enterprises. and scientific research organizations in the standard construction must promote the development of TCM DTRE.

  14. [Investigation report on the technical standards of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Tangyi; Yang, Huayuan

    2016-02-01

    The questionnaire was adopted so as to investigate the attitudes and recognition of the manufacture eneprises of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment (DTRE) to the technical standards of, relevant products. It was found that the construction of the industrial standard and the national standard was lagged behind on TCM DTRE. Under the new situation, the enterprises are highly willing to participate in the development of the industrial, national and international standards and have a certain of understanding on the standard development. Nearly 80 % of enterprises believed that it was necessary to set up the relevant mirror organization for the development of industrial, national and international standard of TCM DITRE. In the future, the standard construction of TCM DTRE must face to the new situation. The constant increasing of the enterprises. and scientific research organizations in the standard construction must promote the development of TCM DTRE. PMID:27348934

  15. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group`s recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed.

  16. 76 FR 62961 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Standards'' in the Federal Register. See 75 FR 53458. The comment period for the NPRM closed on November 29... certain equipment and materials requiring Coast Guard approval. See 44 FR 73038 (December 17, 1979). The... has not increased at a comparable rate.'' 43 FR 49440 (October 23, 1978). The Coast Guard...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  20. 76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Rulemaking, March 14, 2005 (Docket No. NHTSA-2005-20286-0009) \\2\\ 72 FR 68234 (December 4, 2007)....

  1. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator shall not operate the exhaust system of the shed at an exhaust flow rate lower than that measured... coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... requirements in this section. (b) To qualify for approval of an alternative standard, the owner or...

  2. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  3. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  9. Digital panoramic radiography for diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint: CBCT as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Daniela Brait Silva; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging modalities have been reported to be more accurate than panoramic radiographs (PR) for the assessment of bone components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). No exact prior information is available that demonstrates which specific limitations occur in terms of TMJ diagnosis when using PR for this purpose. This study aimed to assess the clinical validity of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) when diagnosing morphological disorders of the TMJ using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images as the gold standard. A sample composed of TMJ images (N = 848), including 212 DPR and 212 CBCT images obtained from the same patient, was used to assess any morphological changes in the TMJ. Four appraisers diagnosed all of the DPR images, whereas the CBCT images were used to establish the gold standard. The reliability of each appraiser's response pattern was analyzed using the Kappa test (κ), and diagnostic tests were performed to assess each appraiser's performance using a significance level setting of 5% (α = 0.05). Reliability of each appraiser's response pattern compared to the gold standard ranged from a slight-to-moderate agreement (0.18 ≤ κ ≤ 0.45); and among the different appraisers, the response pattern showed a fair agreement (0.22 ≤ κ ≤ 0.39). Diagnostic tests showed a wide range among the different possible morphological changes diagnosed. DPR does not have validity when diagnosing morphological changes in the TMJ; it underestimates the radiological findings with higher prevalence, and thus, it cannot be used effectively as a diagnostic tool for bone components within this region.

  10. Evaluation of the value of frozen tissue section used as "gold standard" for immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Liu, Cheng; Pootrakul, Llana; Tang, Laurie; Young, Andrew; Chen, Ryan; Cote, Richard J; Taylor, Clive R

    2008-03-01

    To examine the use of acetone- or ethanol-fixed frozen tissue sections as the "gold standard" for immunohistochemical analysis, we evaluated frozen sections with various conditions of fixation and antigen retrieval (AR). Fresh human tissues were frozen in OCT. An adjacent tissue block was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Frozen sections were fixed by 6 protocols: acetone, ethanol, NBF (2 durations), and NBF + calcium chloride (2 durations). AR was used for all NBF-fixed sections. More than half of the antibodies (16/26 [62%]) showed immunohistochemical results indistinguishable between acetone- and NBF-fixed sections; 8 (31%) showed better immunohistochemical signals following NBF and AR; 2 gave better immunohistochemical results for acetone-fixed sections. Most cytoplasmic proteins (10/13) showed comparable immunohistochemical signals between acetone- and NBF-fixed sections. For nuclear proteins, NBF-fixed sections gave better immunohistochemical signals than did acetone-fixed sections. In most cases, NBF yielded stronger signals with less background and better morphology. The data do not support the use of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections as the gold standard for immunohistochemical analysis. In evaluating new antibodies, a combination of acetone- and NBF-fixed frozen sections should be used, although in practice, FFPE tissue sections may serve as the standard for most antigens for immunohistochemical analysis.

  11. Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA) and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE), and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician coding for cause of death

  12. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  13. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    PubMed

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium. PMID:20406755

  14. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  15. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer products and industrial equipment subject... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  16. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-07-01

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique.

  17. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  18. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  19. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  20. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  1. Stress: Towards a Gold Standard for Continuous Stress Assessment in the Mobile Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Karen; al’Absi, Mustafa; Ertin, Emre; Kamarck, Thomas; Nakajima, Motohiro; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile health have produced several new models for inferring stress from wearable sensors. But, the lack of a gold standard is a major hurdle in making clinical use of continuous stress measurements derived from wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a stress model (called cStress) that has been carefully developed with attention to every step of computational modeling including data collection, screening, cleaning, filtering, feature computation, normalization, and model training. More importantly, cStress was trained using data collected from a rigorous lab study with 21 participants and validated on two independently collected data sets — in a lab study on 26 participants and in a week-long field study with 20 participants. In testing, the model obtains a recall of 89% and a false positive rate of 5% on lab data. On field data, the model is able to predict each instantaneous self-report with an accuracy of 72%. PMID:26543926

  2. ECG or X-ray as the 'gold standard' for establishing PICC-tip location?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gemma; Jones, Matt

    2014-10-22

    Recently there has been an increase in evidence that the tip position of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) needs to be accurately placed in the lower third of the superior vena cava at the junction with the right atrium in order to minimise potential complications ( Royal College of Nursing, 2010 ; Infusion Nurses Society, 2011 ). The current 'gold standard' practice of performing a chest X-ray post-insertion of PICC can be fraught with complications with regard to accurately placing the PICC in this position. The purpose of this evaluation is to discuss how using an electrocardiogram-guided PICC placement system may be a preferable method with which to accurately measure the exact position of the PICC within the venous system.

  3. Diagnostic gold standard for soft tissue tumours: morphology or molecular genetics?

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J D; Hill, D A; O'Sullivan, M J; Dehner, L P

    2000-12-01

    The recognition of recurrent genetic alterations in specific tumour types has provided the basis for the reclassification of certain soft tissue neoplasms, and molecular analysis of patient material has the potential to provide both diagnostic and prognostic information. In this review, we evaluate the role of molecular genetic testing as the prospective 'gold standard' for sarcoma diagnosis. Molecular genetic testing, as with every new method, promises to improve accuracy and to be more sensitive and less subjective, claims that have been made previously by histochemistry, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Technical limitations in molecular assays, as well as more general specificity issues, decrease the clinical usefulness of molecular pathological testing significantly and suggest that, at present, molecular evaluation is best considered an ancillary technique that neither supersedes other ancillary techniques nor eclipses traditional pathological examination. PMID:11122430

  4. Total Mesorectal Excision, an erroneous anatomical term for the gold standard in rectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín E; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    In 1986 Professor R J Heald published in The Lancet his new technique which he called Total Mesorectal Excision; today this is the gold standard for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), the mesorectum is the term used to describe all the peri-rectal connective tissue including the posterior sheath of the endopelvic fascia containing the peri-rectal neurovascular structures. However, the mesenterium is a defined structure composed of a double layer of peritoneum which does not include the endopelvic fascia and the lateral rectal stalks, so these should not be included in the term 'mesorectum'. In our globalized medical culture it is important to use anatomic terms approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, as contained in the Terminologia Anatomica produced by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT). The term mesorectum is not listed in the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:26409653

  5. SpaceFibre: The Standard, Simulation, IP Cores and Test Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Ferrer Florit, Albert; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    SpaceFibre is an emerging new standard for spacecraft on-board data-handling networks. Initially targeted to deliver multi-Gbit/s data rates for synthetic aperture radar and high-resolution, multi-spectral imaging instruments, SpaceFibre has developed into a unified network technology that integrates high bandwidth, with low latency, quality of service (QoS) and fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Furthermore SpaceFibre is backwards compatible with the widely used SpaceWire standard at the network level allowing simple interconnection of existing SpaceWire equipment to a SpaceFibre link or network. Developed by the University of Dundee for the European Space Agency (ESA) SpaceFibre is able to operate over fibre-optic and electrical cable and supports data rates of 2 Gbit/s in the near future and up to 5 Gbit/s long-term. Multi-laning improves the data-rate further to well over 20 Gbits/s. This paper details the current state of SpaceFibre which is now in the process of formal standardisation by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS). It describes the SpaceFibre IP core being developed for ESA. The design of a SpaceFibre demonstration board is introduced and available SpaceFibre test and development equipment is described. The way in which several SpaceWire links can be concentrated over a single SpaceFibre link will be explained.

  6. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  7. Direct Animal Calorimetry, the Underused Gold Standard for Quantifying the Fire of Life*

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ~10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment. PMID:20427023

  8. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  9. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  10. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  11. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  12. Building a gold standard to construct search filters: a case study with biomarkers for oral cancer*†

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, John J.; Stein, Corey D.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Bekhuis, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To support clinical researchers, librarians and informationists may need search filters for particular tasks. Development of filters typically depends on a “gold standard” dataset. This paper describes generalizable methods for creating a gold standard to support future filter development and evaluation using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a case study. OSCC is the most common malignancy affecting the oral cavity. Investigation of biomarkers with potential prognostic utility is an active area of research in OSCC. The methods discussed here should be useful for designing quality search filters in similar domains. Methods: The authors searched MEDLINE for prognostic studies of OSCC, developed annotation guidelines for screeners, ran three calibration trials before annotating the remaining body of citations, and measured inter-annotator agreement (IAA). Results: We retrieved 1,818 citations. After calibration, we screened the remaining citations (n = 1,767; 97.2%); IAA was substantial (kappa = 0.76). The dataset has 497 (27.3%) citations representing OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. Conclusions: The gold standard dataset is likely to be high quality and useful for future development and evaluation of filters for OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. Implications: The methodology we used is generalizable to other domains requiring a reference standard to evaluate the performance of search filters. A gold standard is essential because the labels regarding relevance enable computation of diagnostic metrics, such as sensitivity and specificity. Librarians and informationists with data analysis skills could contribute to developing gold standard datasets and subsequent filters tuned for their patrons' domains of interest. PMID:25552941

  13. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of...

  15. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... comprehensive safety standards for railroad passenger equipment. See 61 FR 30672. The ANPRM provided background... equipment. See 62 FR 49728. In addition to requesting written comment on the NPRM, FRA also solicited oral... was published on May 12, 1999. See 64 FR 25540. After publication of the final rule,...

  16. Development of a polarimeter equipment for sunglasses according to the Brazilian standard NBR15111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luís. E.; Ventura, Liliane

    2013-03-01

    The use of polarizing filters in sunglasses has become increasingly common worldwide. Although the Brazilian standard NBR15111 has specific requirements for its use (position and efficiency), there is not a proper machine to make the specified measures. This paper describes the development of an equipment according to NBR15111. A study was made using a 120,000 lx white LED light source, and an analyzer, which is an assembly of two polarizing filters with its polarization axis orthogonally aligned, both in front a light sensor with 16 bit resolution. The proposed system was able to measure the polarization efficiency of all the sunglasses categories, including the critical situation of the category 4, 3% of light transmittance, and efficiency of 8:1. The direction of the polarization plane is determined with the resolution of 0.056°in this critical situation. The results meet the standard requirements of 0.5° for angle measures and 8:1 for filters efficiency, which shown that the proposed equipment is able to check the quality of the polarizing filters used in sunglasses, that are commercialized in the Brazilian market.

  17. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  18. New treatment strategies for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: alcohol ablation of the septum: the new gold standard?

    PubMed

    Hess, Otto M; Sigwart, Ulrich

    2004-11-16

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal pattern of inheritance characterized by inappropriate myocardial hypertrophy. Annual mortality has been reported to be 1% to 2% and sudden death represents the most common cause. Treatment strategies are 1) medical therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, 2) reduction of septal hypertrophy by surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation, and 3) implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator in the presence of non-sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. A debate has been started on whether surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation of the septum is the appropriate treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Surgical (transaortic) myectomy has been the gold standard in the past 20 to 30 years for treatment of symptomatic patients with significant hemodynamic outflow tract obstruction. However, modern interventional technologies allow reduction of the myocardial septum by injection of alcohol into the first or second septal branch under guidance of two-dimensional (2D)-contrast echocardiography. This percutaneous technique not only has a lower morbidity than surgical myectomy but can be guided precisely by 2D echocardiography. One potential complication is transient (<30%) or permanent (<10%) atrioventricular block III; however, this complication is relatively rare. A randomized trial comparing the two treatment modalities is lacking, and the chance is small that such a trial will be performed because alcohol ablation can be done with high success and low complication rates, leaving only complex interventions (with valvular reconstructions and so on) for surgical myectomy.

  19. Inter-Observer Agreement in Dysplasia Grading: Towards an Enhanced Gold Standard for Clinical Pathology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Paul M.; Abram, Timothy J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H.; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D’Apice, Katy; Kerr, A. Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M.; Weinstock, Y. Etan; Redding, Spencer W.; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H. Stan; Miller, Frank R.; McDevitt, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inter-observer agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Study Design Two adjacent serial histological sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by two different pathologists from a pool of four. In instances where the original two pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Results Individual pathologist pair kappa values ranged from 0.251 – 0.706 (fair – good) before the 3-stage review process During the initial review phase, the two pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). Following the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. Conclusion The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. PMID:26216170

  20. Bayesian analysis of longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data without a gold standard test.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Turnbull, B W; Nielsen, S S; Gröhn, Y T

    2011-05-01

    A Bayesian methodology was developed based on a latent change-point model to evaluate the performance of milk ELISA and fecal culture tests for longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data. The situation of no perfect reference test was considered; that is, no "gold standard." A change-point process with a Weibull survival hazard function was used to model the progression of the hidden disease status. The model adjusted for the fixed effects of covariate variables and random effects of subject on the diagnostic testing procedure. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to compute the posterior estimates of the model parameters that provide the basis for inference concerning the accuracy of the diagnostic procedure. Based on the Bayesian approach, the posterior probability distribution of the change-point onset time can be obtained and used as a criterion for infection diagnosis. An application is presented to an analysis of ELISA and fecal culture test outcomes in the diagnostic testing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) for a Danish longitudinal study from January 2000 to March 2003. The posterior probability criterion based on the Bayesian model with 4 repeated observations has an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.984, and is superior to the raw ELISA (AUC=0.911) and fecal culture (sensitivity=0.358, specificity=0.980) tests for Johne's disease diagnosis. PMID:21524521

  1. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  2. Group sequential designs for three-arm 'gold standard' non-inferiority trials with fixed margin.

    PubMed

    Schlömer, Patrick; Brannath, Werner

    2013-12-10

    In the recent years there have been numerous publications on the design and the analysis of three-arm 'gold standard' noninferiority trials. Whenever feasible, regulatory authorities recommend the use of such three-arm designs including a test treatment, an active control, and a placebo. Nevertheless, it is desirable in many respects, for example, ethical reasons, to keep the placebo group size as small as possible. We first give a short overview on the fixed sample size design of a three-arm noninferiority trial with normally distributed outcomes and a fixed noninferiority margin. An optimal single stage design is derived that should serve as a benchmark for the group sequential designs proposed in the main part of this work. It turns out, that the number of patients allocated to placebo is substantially low for the optimal design. Subsequently, approaches for group sequential designs aiming to further reduce the expected sample sizes are presented. By means of choosing different rejection boundaries for the respective null hypotheses, we obtain designs with quite different operating characteristics. We illustrate the approaches via numerical calculations and a comparison with the optimal single stage design. Furthermore, we derive approximately optimal boundaries for different goals, for example, to reduce the overall average sample size. The results show that the implementation of a group sequential design further improves the optimal single stage design. Besides cost and time savings, the possible early termination of the placebo arm is a key advantage that could help to overcome ethical concerns. PMID:23970488

  3. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  4. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910

  5. Measuring error rates in genomic perturbation screens: gold standards for human functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Traver; Brown, Kevin R; Sircoulomb, Fabrice; Rottapel, Robert; Moffat, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Technological advancement has opened the door to systematic genetics in mammalian cells. Genome-scale loss-of-function screens can assay fitness defects induced by partial gene knockdown, using RNA interference, or complete gene knockout, using new CRISPR techniques. These screens can reveal the basic blueprint required for cellular proliferation. Moreover, comparing healthy to cancerous tissue can uncover genes that are essential only in the tumor; these genes are targets for the development of specific anticancer therapies. Unfortunately, progress in this field has been hampered by off-target effects of perturbation reagents and poorly quantified error rates in large-scale screens. To improve the quality of information derived from these screens, and to provide a framework for understanding the capabilities and limitations of CRISPR technology, we derive gold-standard reference sets of essential and nonessential genes, and provide a Bayesian classifier of gene essentiality that outperforms current methods on both RNAi and CRISPR screens. Our results indicate that CRISPR technology is more sensitive than RNAi and that both techniques have nontrivial false discovery rates that can be mitigated by rigorous analytical methods.

  6. Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits.

    PubMed

    Rabe, E; Pannier, F

    2012-03-01

    The first CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) consensus document was published after a consensus conference of the American Venous Forum, held at the sixth annual meeting of the AVF in February 1994 in Maui, Hawaii. In the following years the CEAP classification was published in many international journals and books which has led to widespread international use of the CEAP classification since 1995. The aim of this paper is to review the benefits and limits of CEAP from the available literature. In an actual Medline analysis with the keywords 'CEAP' and 'venous insufficiency', 266 publications using the CEAP classification in venous diseases are available. The CEAP classification was accepted in the venous community and used in scientific publications, but in most of the cases only the clinical classification was used. Limitations of the first version including a lack of clear definition of clinical signs led to a revised version. The CEAP classification is the gold standard of classification of chronic venous disorders today. Nevertheless for proper use some facts have to be taken into account: the CEAP classification is not a severity classification, C2 summarizes all kinds of varicose veins, in C3 it may be difficult to separate venous and other reasons for oedema, and corona phlebectatica is not included in the classification. Further revisions of the CEAP classification may help to overcome the still-existing deficits.

  7. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  8. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-containing solvents used for removing cured resin or gel coat are exempt from the requirements of 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What standards must I meet for resin... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-containing solvents used for removing cured resin or gel coat are exempt from the requirements of 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What standards must I meet for resin... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning...

  13. Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Remain the Gold Standard for the Closure of Large Acute and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Simman, Richard; Phavixay, Laemthong

    2012-01-01

    Healing large chronic and acute wounds is a challenging task for wound care providers. It requires numerous visits and frequent dressing changes and often involves expensive therapeutic modalities. Our primary and ultimate goal is to heal these wounds as quickly as possible. In a prepared wound bed, covered with granulation tissue and free of infection, skin graft is the gold standard procedure to achieve this goal. One should keep in mind that not all patients are good candidates for surgery. PMID:24525612

  14. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison.

  15. Can We Create a "Gold Standard of Education" for Our Children through the "Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) Program"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    We need to come together as a team and become one system of total quality improvement regarding the education of our nation's children. In order to achieve a gold standard in the education of our nation's children, leadership has to be willing to go against the status quo and build bridges for long-term sustainable change. In order to…

  16. Evaluating gold standard corpora against gene/protein tagging solutions and lexical resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation The identification of protein and gene names (PGNs) from the scientific literature requires semantic resources: Terminological and lexical resources deliver the term candidates into PGN tagging solutions and the gold standard corpora (GSC) train them to identify term parameters and contextual features. Ideally all three resources, i.e. corpora, lexica and taggers, cover the same domain knowledge, and thus support identification of the same types of PGNs and cover all of them. Unfortunately, none of the three serves as a predominant standard and for this reason it is worth exploring, how these three resources comply with each other. We systematically compare different PGN taggers against publicly available corpora and analyze the impact of the included lexical resource in their performance. In particular, we determine the performance gains through false positive filtering, which contributes to the disambiguation of identified PGNs. Results In general, machine learning approaches (ML-Tag) for PGN tagging show higher F1-measure performance against the BioCreative-II and Jnlpba GSCs (exact matching), whereas the lexicon based approaches (LexTag) in combination with disambiguation methods show better results on FsuPrge and PennBio. The ML-Tag solutions balance precision and recall, whereas the LexTag solutions have different precision and recall profiles at the same F1-measure across all corpora. Higher recall is achieved with larger lexical resources, which also introduce more noise (false positive results). The ML-Tag solutions certainly perform best, if the test corpus is from the same GSC as the training corpus. As expected, the false negative errors characterize the test corpora and – on the other hand – the profiles of the false positive mistakes characterize the tagging solutions. Lex-Tag solutions that are based on a large terminological resource in combination with false positive filtering produce better results, which, in addition, provide

  17. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP) Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP) performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data. PMID:21816099

  18. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.7, and it must be maintained in good working condition. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment... EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.404 Can I...

  19. Schematics of ISO and Japanese Standards on Flange Sealing Systems and Fittings for Vacuum Equipments, and Their Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokouchi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Toshio; Akimichi, Hitoshi; Hirata, Masahiro

    To keep flexibility on construction of vacuum system, understanding of standardization scheme for demountable sealing system consisting of flanges and metal gasket or elastomer O-ring is highly beneficial for both suppliers and users of vacuum equipments. Here we present main contents of international and national standards of flange sealing systems and their correlation, along with some commentaries on states of conformity with standards of commercially available vacuum flanges. Outlines of standards of vacuum fittings, and recent activities for revision and establishment of standards are also reported.

  20. Random forests for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-coded verbal autopsy (CCVA) is a promising alternative to the standard approach of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA), because of its high speed, low cost, and reliability. This study introduces a new CCVA technique and validates its performance using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 verbal autopsies (VAs). Methods The Random Forest (RF) Method from machine learning (ML) was adapted to predict cause of death by training random forests to distinguish between each pair of causes, and then combining the results through a novel ranking technique. We assessed quality of the new method at the individual level using chance-corrected concordance and at the population level using cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy as well as linear regression. We also compared the quality of RF to PCVA for all of these metrics. We performed this analysis separately for adult, child, and neonatal VAs. We also assessed the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE). Results For all metrics, for all settings, RF was as good as or better than PCVA, with the exception of a nonsignificantly lower CSMF accuracy for neonates with HCE information. With HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 3.4 percentage points higher for adults, 3.2 percentage points higher for children, and 1.6 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was 0.097 higher for adults, 0.097 higher for children, and 0.007 lower for neonates. Without HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 8.1 percentage points higher than PCVA for adults, 10.2 percentage points higher for children, and 5.9 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was higher for RF by 0.102 for adults, 0.131 for children, and 0.025 for neonates. Conclusions We found that our RF Method outperformed the PCVA method in terms of chance-corrected concordance and CSMF accuracy for

  1. Remote sensing of the coastal ocean with standard geodetic GNSS-equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Larson, K. M.; Scherneck, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    We use standard geodetic Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) equipment to perform remote sensing measurements of the coastal ocean. This is done by a so-called GNSS-based tide gauge that uses both direct GNSS-signals and GNSS-signals that are reflected off the sea surface. Our installation is located at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) at the west coast of Sweden and consists of a zenith-looking Right Hand Circularly Polarized (RHCP) and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circularly Polarized (LHCP) antenna. Each antenna is connected to a standard geodetic-type GNSS-receiver. We applied two different analysis strategies to our GNSS data set. The first strategy is based on a traditional geodetic differential analysis [Löfgren et al., 2011] and makes use of the data from both receivers; connected to the zenith and the nadir looking antennae. This approach results in local sea level that is automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that the GNSS-based tide gauge can provide reliable sea-level estimates even in tectonic active regions. The second strategy focuses on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) recorded with the receiver connected to the zenith-looking antenna [Larson et al., 2011]. The SNR is affected by multipath originating from the sea surface reflections. Analysis of the SNR data allows to determine the distance between the antenna and the reflecting surface, and thus to measure sea surface height. Results from both analysis strategies are compared to independently observed sea-level data from two stilling-well gauges operated by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), which lie in a distance of several km from OSO. The root-mean-square agreement between the different time series of several month's length is on the order of 5 cm and better. These results indicate the large potential for using coastal GNSS-sites for the monitoring of the coastal ocean.

  2. Is surgery the gold standard in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Knyshov, Gennady; Lazoryshynets, Vasyl; Rudenko, Kostyantyn; Kravchuk, Borys; Beshlyaga, Vyacheslav; Zalevsky, Valery; Rasputnyak, Olga; Batsak, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    functional reversible states characterized by excitation delay. Alcohol septal ablation is preferable in cases with midventricular obstruction and appropriate coronary anatomy. Surgical methods are indicated in anatomical irreversible changes and remain the gold standard for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treatment. PMID:23027595

  3. Evaluation of a Rapid Test for the Diagnosis of Cholera in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Page, Anne-Laure; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Mondonge, Vital; Rauzier, Jean; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Guerin, Philippe J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection and confirmation of cholera outbreaks are crucial for rapid implementation of control measures. Because cholera frequently affects regions with limited laboratory resources, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) designed for field conditions are important to enhance rapid response. Stool culture remains the “gold standard” for cholera diagnosis; however, its lack of sensitivity may lead to underestimation of test specificity. We evaluated the Crystal VC® immunochromatographic test (Span Diagnostics, India) for cholera diagnosis using a modified reference standard that combines culture-dependent and independent assays, or a Bayesian latent class model (LCM) analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted during a cholera epidemic in 2008, in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stools collected from 296 patients were used to perform the RDT on site and sent to Institut Pasteur, Paris, for bacterial culture. In comparison with culture as the gold standard, the RDT showed good sensitivity (92.2%; 95% CI: 86.8%–95.9%) but poor specificity when used by a trained laboratory technician (70.6%; 95% CI: 60.7%–79.2%) or by clinicians with no specific test training (60.4%, 95% CI: 50.2%–70.0%). The specificity of the test performed by the laboratory technician increased to 88.6% (95% CI: 78.7–94.9) when PCR was combined with culture results as the reference standard, and to 85.0% (95% CI: 70.4–99.2), when the Bayesian LCM analysis was used for performance evaluation. In both cases, the sensitivity remained high. Conclusion Using an improved reference standard or appropriate statistical methods for diagnostic test evaluations in the absence of a gold standard, we report better performance of the Crystal VC® RDT than previously published. Our results confirm that this test can be used for early outbreak detection or epidemiological surveillance, key components of efficient global cholera control. Our analysis also

  4. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  5. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  6. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  7. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... interim rule regarding inflatable liferafts and buoyant apparatuses. 76 FR 62714. The SNPRM addressed... apparatuses approved under subpart 160.010 prior to March 22, 2012, the cost of testing equipment at the... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 49 CFR, Section 173.304... local requirements on equipment related to the handling of R-12 material. Safety precautions or notices... operation. 6. Functional Description 6.1The equipment must be capable of ensuring recovery of the...

  9. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... considered as a petition for rulemaking per 49 CFR 553.35. \\1\\ 70 FR 77454 (December 30, 2005). \\2\\ 72 FR..., reflectors such as reflex reflectors, and associated equipment such as turn signal operating units....

  10. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  11. Nondestructive test and inspection requirements for aeromechanical lifting and handling equipment - A comparison of launch site to industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Donald E.

    Launch site safety regulations require lifting devices to provide a safety factor of five at ultimate to be periodically proof load tested to 200 percent of capacity; visually inspected prior to use; and undergo nondestructive crack detection tests such as magnetic particle, dye penetrant, or X-ray. Industry standards are similar, but do not require crack detection tests. A TQM process improvement study has found the additional tests do not improve the quality of safety for this type equipment.

  12. Evaluation of human exposure to complex waveform magnetic fields generated by arc-welding equipment according to European safety standards.

    PubMed

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole; Andreuccetti, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a procedure is described for the assessment of human exposure to magnetic fields with complex waveforms generated by arc-welding equipment. The work moves from the analysis of relevant guidelines and technical standards, underlining their strengths and their limits. Then, the procedure is described with particular attention to the techniques used to treat complex waveform fields. Finally, the procedure is applied to concrete cases encountered in the workplace. The discussion of the results highlights the critical points in the procedure, as well as those related to the evolution of the technical and exposure standards.

  13. Evaluation of human exposure to complex waveform magnetic fields generated by arc-welding equipment according to European safety standards.

    PubMed

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole; Andreuccetti, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a procedure is described for the assessment of human exposure to magnetic fields with complex waveforms generated by arc-welding equipment. The work moves from the analysis of relevant guidelines and technical standards, underlining their strengths and their limits. Then, the procedure is described with particular attention to the techniques used to treat complex waveform fields. Finally, the procedure is applied to concrete cases encountered in the workplace. The discussion of the results highlights the critical points in the procedure, as well as those related to the evolution of the technical and exposure standards. PMID:24936022

  14. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  16. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note to... certifies the date of the last calibration check, should be retained onboard for inspection purposes....

  17. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note to... certifies the date of the last calibration check, should be retained onboard for inspection purposes....

  18. 76 FR 9696 - Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... a product. To explain the empirical relationship, the theory of technology learning is used to... covered products and equipment may in fact trend downward over time according to ``learning'' or... incorporating learning over time, consistent with the analysis in the currently available literature, in...

  19. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... number of product offerings. 75 FR 20112, 20231 (April 16, 2010). In order to comply with the energy... found at: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR+PR+N+O+SR+PS;rpp=250;so=DESC;sb=postedDate... vented gas hearth direct heating equipment. 75 FR 20112. \\1\\ For editorial reasons, upon codification...

  20. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note to... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...

  1. 78 FR 25627 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Weatherized Commercial Warm Air Furnaces C. Markups Analysis D. Energy Use Analysis E. Life-Cycle Cost and...: (1) Engineering; (2) energy use; (3) markups; (4) life-cycle cost and payback period; and (5... analysis and the life-cycle cost and payback-period analyses. Typically, DOE would consider equipment...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  3. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  4. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  5. Office of Space Flight standard spaceborne Global Positioning System user equipment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Penny E.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides users autonomous, real-time navigation capability. A vehicle equipped with GPS user equipment can receive and process signals transmitted by a constellation of GPS satellites and derive from the resulting measurements the vehicle's position and velocity. Specified accuracies range from 16 to 76 meters and 0.1 to 1.0 meters/second for position and velocity, respectively. In a rendezvous and docking scenario, the use of a technique called relative GPS can provide range and range rate accuracies on the order of 1 meter and 0.01 meters/second, respectively. Relative GPS requires both vehicles to be equipped with GPS user equipment and a data communication link for transmission of GPS data and GPS satellite selection coordination information. Through coordinated satellite selection, GPS measurement errors common to both users are cancelled and improved relative position and velocity accuracies are achieved. The background, the design approach, the expected performance and capabilities, the development plan, and the project status are described. In addition, a description of relative GPS, the possible GPS hardware and software configurations, and its application to automated rendezvous and capture are presented.

  6. 77 FR 72411 - The Standard on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Shipyard Employment; Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...), hands and body (Sec. 1915.157), lifesaving equipment (Sec. 1915.158), personal fall arrest systems (Sec... Agency's functions, including whether the information is useful; The accuracy of OSHA's estimate of the.... Authority and Signature David Michaels, Ph.D., MPH, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety...

  7. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note...

  8. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, Helene; Comin, Arianna; Isaksson, Mats; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR), allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108) and autumn 2012 (n=69) in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88), which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99) for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1) for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1). One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88) was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83). PMID:26968153

  9. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot

  10. 49 CFR 571.108, Nt. - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by automatic means continuing until stopped... equipped with a turn signal operating unit designed to complete a durability test of 100,000 cycles. S5.1.1... shall not exceed 0.8 volt. S5.1.1.21A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph...

  11. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... and Standards Directorate, Office of Design and Engineering Standards, Lifesaving and Fire Safety.... Taking of Private Property H. Civil Justice Reform I. Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting The Coast Guard does not plan...

  12. 77 FR 71752 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit... substantive changes to the requirements of the standard. \\1\\ 70 FR 77454, (Dec. 30, 2005). Based on the... would have no impact on the substantive requirements of the standard. \\2\\ 72 FR 68234, (Dec. 4, 2007)....

  13. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions of the SAE Standard, SAE J1990 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart B). (h) Manufacturers and... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158...

  14. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions of the SAE Standard, SAE J1990 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart B). (h) Manufacturers and... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158...

  15. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions of the SAE Standard, SAE J1990 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart B). (h) Manufacturers and... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158...

  16. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... ensuring the integrity of electronic Class II games and aids. 73 FR 60508, Oct. 10, 2008. The technical... Class II gaming system; and to clarify the term ``alternate standard.'' 77 FR 58473, Sept. 21, 2012. In... control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming. 77 FR 58708, Sept. 21, 2012. Similar to the part...

  17. 77 FR 71717 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... to three additional SAE documents. \\1\\ 72 FR 68234, (Dec. 4, 2007). The agency published the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing to reorganize the standard on December 30, 2005. 70 FR 77454, (Dec... boundaries that were removed during the administrative rewrite of the standard. \\2\\ 76 FR 41181, (July...

  18. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... that request by a Federal Register notice published February 9, 2011. See 76 FR 7196 (February 9, 2011... Standards for 1996 and later New Diesel Cycle Engines 175 Horsepower and Greater, 60 FR 48981 (September 21... Off-Road Spark- Ignition Engine Standards, Notice of Decision, 71 FR 29621 (May 23, 2006). B....

  19. Using a Web-Based Application to Define the Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests When the Gold Standard Is Imperfect

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cherry; Wannapinij, Prapass; White, Lisa; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Cooper, Ben S.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimates of the sensitivity and specificity for new diagnostic tests based on evaluation against a known gold standard are imprecise when the accuracy of the gold standard is imperfect. Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) can be helpful under these circumstances, but the necessary analysis requires expertise in computational programming. Here, we describe open-access web-based applications that allow non-experts to apply Bayesian LCMs to their own data sets via a user-friendly interface. Methods/Principal Findings Applications for Bayesian LCMs were constructed on a web server using R and WinBUGS programs. The models provided (http://mice.tropmedres.ac) include two Bayesian LCMs: the two-tests in two-population model (Hui and Walter model) and the three-tests in one-population model (Walter and Irwig model). Both models are available with simplified and advanced interfaces. In the former, all settings for Bayesian statistics are fixed as defaults. Users input their data set into a table provided on the webpage. Disease prevalence and accuracy of diagnostic tests are then estimated using the Bayesian LCM, and provided on the web page within a few minutes. With the advanced interfaces, experienced researchers can modify all settings in the models as needed. These settings include correlation among diagnostic test results and prior distributions for all unknown parameters. The web pages provide worked examples with both models using the original data sets presented by Hui and Walter in 1980, and by Walter and Irwig in 1988. We also illustrate the utility of the advanced interface using the Walter and Irwig model on a data set from a recent melioidosis study. The results obtained from the web-based applications were comparable to those published previously. Conclusions The newly developed web-based applications are open-access and provide an important new resource for researchers worldwide to evaluate new diagnostic tests. PMID:24265775

  20. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of... on the lens face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp recommended in SAE Standard...

  1. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or... on the lens face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp recommended in SAE Standard...

  2. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  3. 76 FR 17573 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... establishing these standards on January 9, 2009 (74 FR 1092), and manufacturers must comply with these... comments from the public. 75 FR 24824 (May 6, 2010). The framework document is available at...

  4. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Uniform Emission Standards General Provisions, was published on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17898). The EPA has... for this extension from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Chemistry Council...

  5. Quantitative PCR confirms culture as the gold standard for detection of lower airway infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Marsh, Robyn L; Binks, Michael J; Grimwood, Keith; Pizzutto, Susan J; Leach, Amanda J; Chang, Anne B; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2013-03-01

    Correlation was observed between quantitative PCR and semi-quantitative culture for definition of Haemophilus influenzae infection in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 81 children with bronchiectasis. However, qPCR data correlated less well with airway neutrophilia, and supports continued use of culture as the gold standard for defining H. influenzae lower airway infection. PMID:23266579

  6. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  7. Quantitative PCR confirms culture as the gold standard for detection of lower airway infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Marsh, Robyn L; Binks, Michael J; Grimwood, Keith; Pizzutto, Susan J; Leach, Amanda J; Chang, Anne B; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2013-03-01

    Correlation was observed between quantitative PCR and semi-quantitative culture for definition of Haemophilus influenzae infection in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 81 children with bronchiectasis. However, qPCR data correlated less well with airway neutrophilia, and supports continued use of culture as the gold standard for defining H. influenzae lower airway infection.

  8. Sterilization of allograft bone: is 25 kGy the gold standard for gamma irradiation?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huynh; Morgan, David A F; Forwood, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    For several decades, a dose of 25 kGy of gamma irradiation has been recommended for terminal sterilization of medical products, including bone allografts. Practically, the application of a given gamma dose varies from tissue bank to tissue bank. While many banks use 25 kGy, some have adopted a higher dose, while some choose lower doses, and others do not use irradiation for terminal sterilization. A revolution in quality control in the tissue banking industry has occurred in line with development of quality assurance standards. These have resulted in significant reductions in the risk of contamination by microorganisms of final graft products. In light of these developments, there is sufficient rationale to re-establish a new standard dose, sufficient enough to sterilize allograft bone, while minimizing the adverse effects of gamma radiation on tissue properties. Using valid modifications, several authors have applied ISO standards to establish a radiation dose for bone allografts that is specific to systems employed in bone banking. These standards, and their verification, suggest that the actual dose could be significantly reduced from 25 kGy, while maintaining a valid sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6). The current paper reviews the methods that have been used to develop radiation doses for terminal sterilization of medical products, and the current trend for selection of a specific dose for tissue banks. PMID:16821106

  9. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  10. 77 FR 17897 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... previously promulgated similar standards, such as the 40 CFR parts 60, 61 and 63 General Provisions (59 FR 12430, March 16, 1994) and the Consolidated Federal Air Rules (CAR) (65 FR 78267, December 14, 2000... EPA Administrator on November 30, 2011 (77 FR 960, January 6, 2012) and would be codified under 40...

  11. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions of the SAE Standard, SAE J1990 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart B). (h) Manufacturers and... vacuum HCFC-22 appliances, or isolated component of such appliances, normally containing less than 200...-like appliances. 2 mm Hg absolute. The vacuums specified in inches of Hg vacuum must be...

  12. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions of the SAE Standard, SAE J1990 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart B). (h) Manufacturers and... vacuum HCFC-22 appliances, or isolated component of such appliances, normally containing less than 200...-like appliances. 2 mm Hg absolute. The vacuums specified in inches of Hg vacuum must be...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems Foreword CFCs deplete the stratospheric ozone layer that...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners... Relief Device Standard Part 1—Cylinders for Compressed Gases 2.1.4DOT Specifications—Available from...

  14. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  15. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  16. 78 FR 11795 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... 77 FR 58473. The standards are designed to assist tribal gaming regulatory authorities and operators..., and the process NIGC should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680. On April 4, 2011, after consulting...) setting out a consultation schedule and process for review. 76 FR 18457. Part 547 was included in...

  17. [Are the equipment safety standards sufficient to guarantee safety from risks?].

    PubMed

    Galassini, A

    1995-06-01

    The output of the work done by National and International Committee and Commission today gives an almost complete frame of Safety Standards for Medical Devices; EEC Harmonised Standards which have been translated in the National ones gave the Free Trade Act an effective push forward. This paper analyses the problem given by the "Safety Assumption" of certified products, which is based on a positive Project examination and/or a positive prototype test made by a Notified Body, as requested by the existing warranty that every unit produced after the applied control or test has the same behaviour as the verified one: on the other hand it is out of the reality to submit every unit produced after the tested one to the same control. For the necessary and requested assumption of safety of every unit produced after the verified one, it is mandatory to act on the complete productive process, in order to reach the certainty that every unit be absolutely identical to the approved one. It is therefore in the interest of the buyers to require in the Tender Specification not only the Safety Standard Certificate for the products to be quoted, but also the Quality Standard Certificate of the producer.

  18. 76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may... process to make no substantive changes to the requirements of the standard. \\1\\ 70 FR 77454, (Dec. 30... boundary requirements from paragraph S14.4.1.3.2. \\2\\ 72 FR 68234, (Dec. 4, 2007). On August 11,...

  19. 75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... amended standard, this requirement is found in paragraph S10.17.1.1.2 and paragraph S10.17.1.1.3. See 72 FR 68234 (Dec. 4, 2007). In a December 2007 final rule, NHTSA rewrote and reorganized FMVSS No. 108.... Id. The effective date of those amendments has been delayed to December 1, 2012. 74 FR 58214 (Nov....

  20. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory....

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments... requirements on equipment related to handling HFC-134a material. Safety precautions or notices related to safe... part number for the replacement filter/drier. 7.Functional Description The ability of the equipment...

  2. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Rocha, José C; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D; Maserati, Marc P; Alves, Mayra F; Almeida, Tamie G de; Cardoso, Bruna L; Basso, Andrea C; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-01-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment. PMID:27584609

  3. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Rocha, José C; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D; Maserati, Marc P; Alves, Mayra F; Almeida, Tamie G de; Cardoso, Bruna L; Basso, Andrea C; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-08-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment.

  4. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  5. Development of a hand- transmitted vibration measurement instrument to perform tests in medical equipment according to the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005 Ed.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, F. F.; Moriya, H. T.; Moraes, J. C. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    According to the sub clause 9.6.3 of the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005, medical electrical equipment must provide means of protection against hazardous hand- transmitted vibrations. Compliance of this sub clause is checked by using a vibration measurement instrument in accordance with ISO 5349-1-2001 standard. The present article describes the development of a vibration measurement instrument to perform vibration measurements tests in medical equipments.

  6. Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL) for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA). However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE) items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar

  7. Of gastro and the gold standard: evaluation and policy implications of norovirus test performance for outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, David N; Greer, Amy L; Brouhanski, George; Drews, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background The norovirus group (NVG) of caliciviruses are the etiological agents of most institutional outbreaks of gastroenteritis in North America and Europe. Identification of NVG is complicated by the non-culturable nature of this virus, and the absence of a diagnostic gold standard makes traditional evaluation of test characteristics problematic. Methods We evaluated 189 specimens derived from 440 acute gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated in Ontario in 2006–07. Parallel testing for NVG was performed with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT2-PCR), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and electron microscopy (EM). Test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) were estimated using latent class models and composite reference standard methods. The practical implications of test characteristics were evaluated using binomial probability models. Results Latent class modelling estimated sensitivities of RT2-PCR, EIA, and EM as 100%, 86%, and 17% respectively; specificities were 84%, 92%, and 100%; estimates obtained using a composite reference standard were similar. If all specimens contained norovirus, RT2-PCR or EIA would be associated with > 99.9% likelihood of at least one test being positive after three specimens tested. Testing of more than 5 true negative specimens with RT2-PCR would be associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of a false positive test. Conclusion Our findings support the characterization of EM as lacking sensitivity for NVG outbreaks. The high sensitivity of RT2-PCR and EIA permit identification of NVG outbreaks with testing of limited numbers of clinical specimens. Given risks of false positive test results, it is reasonable to limit the number of specimens tested when RT2-PCR or EIA are available. PMID:19323808

  8. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, A.; Dai, I.; Oleniuk, P.; Todd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  9. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 3: Tasks 3 and 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The modifications for the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment, designed for ground based laboratory use, that would be required to permit its use in the Spacelab environments were determined. The cost of these modifications were estimated and the most cost effective approach to implementing them were identified. A shared equipment implementation in which the various Spacelab users draw their required complement of standard NIM and CAMAC equipment for a given flight from a common equipment pool was considered. The alternative approach studied was a dedicated equipment implementation in which each of the users is responsible for procuring either their own NIM/CAMAC equipment or its custom built equivalent.

  10. Comparative outcome evaluations of psychotherapies: Guidelines for addressing eight limitations of the gold standard of causal inference.

    PubMed

    Staines, Graham L

    2007-06-01

    Although randomized experiments represent the gold standard in causal research, their limitations are easily overlooked, especially in field experiments. Although discussions of the limitations of field experiments typically detail problems of design implementation, field experiments have limitations even if their randomized designs are successfully implemented. This is particularly true of comparative evaluations of psychotherapy programs. Accordingly, this article focuses on eight limitations that pervade such comparative treatment research: (a) Direct and indirect effects are conflated; (b) the investigation of interactions is limited; (c) attention is diverted from background conditions; (d) temporal factors complicate causal inferences; (e) the stable-unit-treatment-value assumption is easily violated; (f) therapist effects can confound therapy method effects; (g) differential effects of treatment methods are small; and (h) generalizability of treatment research findings is indeterminate. In addition to explaining each limitation, the author proposes research strategies for addressing it. The author concludes that attention to these 8 limitations and to the various strategies for overcoming them can increase increase the causal contribution of experimental evaluations of psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  12. Empowerment in measurement: "muscle," "voice," and subjective quality of life as a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret; Gordon, Wayne A

    2004-04-01

    Measurement and assessment, occurring within both research and clinical service contexts, typically involve an imbalance of power between professionals and persons with disabilities. Power is evidenced in who controls decisions about measurement and whose perspective--the subjective values of the measured person or the objective or normative values of the measurer--is given primacy. The consequences of this imbalance are discussed with respect to both sides of the power relationship. For clinicians, evaluators, and researchers, who typically hold most, if not all of the power in measurement, the process may produce data that meet the highest professional standards. However, the utility of such data is limited in addressing many purposes. For research participants and service recipients, who typically have little if any control of measurement, the measurement process may be disempowering, because measures focus on areas of life that may be of little relevance to what they see as important. In effect, both sides lose, to the degree that resulting data are less revealing than would be the case in a more balanced power relationship. Methods are discussed for reducing power imbalances to improve the utility and efficacy of measurement.

  13. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  14. In Search of a Gold Standard Scoring System for the Subjective Evaluation of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Breast-Conserving Therapy.

    PubMed

    Racz, Jennifer M; Hong, Nicole Look; Latosinsky, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The absence of a widely accepted method for aesthetic evaluation following breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer limits the ability to evaluate cosmetic outcomes. In this study, two different panel scoring approaches were compared in an attempt to identify a gold standard scoring system for subjectively assessing cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy. Standardized photographs of each participant were evaluated independently by twelve health care professionals involved in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment using the Danoff four-point scale. Individual Danoff scores were combined using two methods, a random sample "three-panel" score and an iterative "Delphi-panel" score, in order to create a final cosmetic score for each patient. Agreement between these two aggregative approaches was assessed with a weighted kappa (wk) statistic. Patient and professional recruitment occurred at two separate tertiary care multi-disciplinary breast health centers. Women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving therapy (segmental mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiotherapy) and were at least 2 years after radiotherapy were asked to participate. Ninety-seven women were evaluated. The Delphi approach required three rounds of evaluation to obtain greater than 50% agreement in all photographs. The wk statistic between scores generated from the "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" approaches was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89), thus demonstrating substantial agreement. Evaluation of cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy using a "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" score provide similar results, confirming the reliability of either approach for subjective evaluation. Simplicity of use and interpretation favors the "three-panel" score. Future work should concentrate on the integration of the three-panel score with objective and patient-reported scales to generate a comprehensive cosmetic evaluation platform. PMID:25940058

  15. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Young Children in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Carlos; Malheiro, Adriana; Bührer, Samira; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor; Abellana, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009–2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53–91] and 97% (95%CI: 89–100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41–66) and 81% (95%CI:71–90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61–99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47–95). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. PMID:27783642

  16. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  17. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar air conditioning... Standard, 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1.5 UL Publications...% of the tank's rated volume at 21 °C per DOT Standard, 49 CFR 173.304, and the American Society...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7887 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected equipment leak sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... another subpart in 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you may control emissions of the HAP listed in Table... meet for my affected equipment leak sources? 63.7887 Section 63.7887 Protection of Environment... affected equipment leak sources? (a) You must control HAP emissions from equipment leaks from...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7887 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected equipment leak sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... another subpart in 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you may control emissions of the HAP listed in Table... meet for my affected equipment leak sources? 63.7887 Section 63.7887 Protection of Environment... affected equipment leak sources? (a) You must control HAP emissions from equipment leaks from...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7887 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected equipment leak sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... another subpart in 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you may control emissions of the HAP listed in Table... meet for my affected equipment leak sources? 63.7887 Section 63.7887 Protection of Environment... affected equipment leak sources? (a) You must control HAP emissions from equipment leaks from...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7887 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected equipment leak sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... another subpart in 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you may control emissions of the HAP listed in Table... meet for my affected equipment leak sources? 63.7887 Section 63.7887 Protection of Environment... affected equipment leak sources? (a) You must control HAP emissions from equipment leaks from...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7887 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected equipment leak sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... another subpart in 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you may control emissions of the HAP listed in Table... meet for my affected equipment leak sources? 63.7887 Section 63.7887 Protection of Environment... affected equipment leak sources? (a) You must control HAP emissions from equipment leaks from...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a..., DC 20402-9320. CFR 49, Section 173.304Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1...). This will ensure that the container meets Department of Transportation (DOT) Standard, CFR Title...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a..., DC 20402-9320. CFR 49, Section 173.304Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1...). This will ensure that the container meets Department of Transportation (DOT) Standard, CFR Title...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a..., DC 20402-9320. CFR 49, Section 173.304Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1...). This will ensure that the container meets Department of Transportation (DOT) Standard, CFR Title...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a..., DC 20402-9320. CFR 49, Section 173.304Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1...). This will ensure that the container meets Department of Transportation (DOT) Standard, CFR Title...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected... control HAP ABA emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected source... emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves, and open-ended...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock affected source... emissions from leaks from transfer pumps, valves, connectors, pressure-relief valves, and open-ended...

  10. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which the... conveying equipment, coal storage system, or coal transfer and loading system processing coal...

  11. Evaluation of the Performance of Five Diagnostic Tests for Fasciola hepatica Infection in Naturally Infected Cattle Using a Bayesian No Gold Standard Approach.

    PubMed

    Mazeri, Stella; Sargison, Neil; Kelly, Robert F; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection. In total 619 cattle slaughtered at one of Scotland's biggest abattoirs were sampled, during three sampling periods spanning summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. Test sensitivities and specificities were estimated using an extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model, where estimates were allowed to vary between seasons if tests were a priori believed to perform differently for any reason. The results of this analysis provide novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population and at different times of the year where different levels of acute or chronic infection are expected. Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Furthermore, the results provide evidence to suggest that the copro-antigen ELISA does not cross-react with Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke parasites, while the serum antibody ELISA does. PMID:27564546

  12. Evaluation of the Performance of Five Diagnostic Tests for Fasciola hepatica Infection in Naturally Infected Cattle Using a Bayesian No Gold Standard Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargison, Neil; Kelly, Robert F.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection. In total 619 cattle slaughtered at one of Scotland’s biggest abattoirs were sampled, during three sampling periods spanning summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. Test sensitivities and specificities were estimated using an extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model, where estimates were allowed to vary between seasons if tests were a priori believed to perform differently for any reason. The results of this analysis provide novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population and at different times of the year where different levels of acute or chronic infection are expected. Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Furthermore, the results provide evidence to suggest that the copro-antigen ELISA does not cross-react with Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke parasites, while the serum antibody ELISA does. PMID:27564546

  13. Safety Analysis of 'Older/Aged' Handling and Transportation Equipment for Heavy Loads, Radioactive Waste and Materials in Accordance with German Nuclear Standards KTA 3902, 3903 and 3905

    SciTech Connect

    Macias, P.; Prucker, E.; Stang, W.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general safety analysis of important handling and transportation processes and their related equipment ('load chains' consisting of cranes, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points). This project was arranged by the responsible Bavarian ministry for environment, health and consumer protection (StMUGV) in agreement with the power plant operators of all Bavarian nuclear power plants to work out potential safety improvements. The range of the equipment (e.g. reactor building, crane, refuelling machine, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points) covers the handling and transportation of fuel elements (e. g. with fuel flasks), heavy loads (e.g. reactor pressure vessel closure head, shielding slabs) and radioactive materials and waste (e.g. waste flasks, control elements, fuel channels, structure elements). The handling equipment was subjected to a general safety analysis taking into account the ageing of the equipment and the progress of standards. Compliance with the current valid requirements of the state of science and technology as required by German Atomic Act and particularly of the nuclear safety KTA-standards (3902, 3903 and 3905) was examined. The higher protection aims 'safe handling and transportation of heavy loads and safe handling of radioactive materials and waste' of the whole analysis are to avoid a criticality accident, the release of radioactivity and inadmissible effects on important technical equipment and buildings. The scope of the analysis was to check whether these protection aims were fulfilled for all important technical handling and transportation processes. In particularly the design and manufacturing of the components and the regulations of the handling itself were examined. (authors)

  14. Quantification of particle sizes with metal replication under standard freeze-etching conditions: a gold ball standard for calibrating shadow widths was used to measure freeze-etched globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruben, G C

    1995-11-01

    The real size of platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicated particles is not directly equivalent to either its metal-coated diameter or its shadow width. This paper describes two indirect methods, shadow widths and coated particle diameters, for determining a particle's actual size beneath a Pt-C replication film. Both produce equivalent measurements using the same standardized conditions: 2.3 nm Pt-C films deposited at a 45 degree angle on an approximately -100 degrees C surface in a 10(-6) torr vacuum. For the first method, gold balls nucleated in a partial pressure of helium and deposited on flat indirect carbon films (root mean square roughness of 0.8 nm) on 400 mesh grids were used as test particles for calibrating shadow widths as a function of particle size. The gold ball test specimens were replicated, and a distribution of Pt-C shadow widths orthogonal to the Pt-C deposition direction was measured and averaged for gold balls 1.5 +/- 0.25 nm, 2.0 +/- 0.25 nm, etc. The diameter of each gold ball was measured within the Pt-C film along with its shadow width because the Pt-C did not obscure or adhere well to the gold. The shadow width distributions for each gold size do not differ significantly from log normal. Two proteins, the lactose repressor and the mitochondrial ATPase, F1, were also used as replication test objects. Negative staining of both proteins was conducted to measure their average diameters. In the second method, a distribution of Pt-C-coated lac repressor diameters perpendicular to the shadow direction was measured. The Pt-C film thickness measured on the quartz crystal monitor was subtracted from the average metal-coated protein diameter to obtain the lac repressor's diameter. The Pt-C-coated particle diameter distributions also did not differ significantly from log normal. While doing this work it was discovered that outgassing the Pt-C electron gun greatly affected Pt-C film granularity: 19 sec produced a high contrast, granular Pt-C film, whereas

  15. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  16. Gold Standards?: State Standards Reform and Student Achievement. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 12-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of the recent and widely adopted Common Core State Standards argue that high quality curricular standards are critical to students' educational success. Little clear evidence exists, however, linking the quality of such standards to student achievement. I remedy this by connecting data on state-level student achievement from 1994-2011…

  17. 77 FR 37733 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C68a, Airborne Automatic Dead Reckoning Computer Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Computer Equipment Utilizing Aircraft Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air... heading and Doppler ground speed and drift angle data (for air carrier aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice... utilizing aircraft heading and Doppler ground speed and drift angle data. The effect of the cancelled...

  18. 77 FR 53962 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C68a, Airborne Automatic Dead Reckoning Computer Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... proposed cancellation of TSO-C68a as published in 77 FR 37733, June 22, 2012, produced no comments... Computer Equipment Utilizing Aircraft Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air... Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This...

  19. 77 FR 37734 - Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-122a, Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...- way radio communication systems employing anti-blocking and stuck microphone protection circuitry. Our... Channels Used in Two-Way Radio Communications Due to Simultaneous Transmissions AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way Radio Communications Due to...

  20. 76 FR 63714 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... on August 16, 2011 (76 FR 50808) describing our intent to cancel TSO- C129a to solicit feedback. We... Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's cancellation of TSO-C129a,...

  1. Produce Live News Broadcasts Using Standard AV Equipment: A Success Story from the Le Center High School in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostad, John

    1997-01-01

    Describes the production of news broadcasts on video by a high school class in Le Center, Minnesota. Topics include software for Apple computers, equipment used, student responsibilities, class curriculum, group work, communication among the production crew, administrative and staff support, and future improvements. (LRW)

  2. GCSE and A Level Reform: Are the New Qualifications Returning a "Gold Standard" of Assessment? Election Factsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Newman

    2015-01-01

    This election factsheet highlights the following points: (1) While the GCSE pass rate has increased since its introduction, this doesn't tell us very much about how standards have changed. Evidence from international surveys suggests that education standards have remained stable. Stopping the use of modules and limiting resits is likely to reduce…

  3. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. PMID:27565238

  4. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison. PMID:25973619

  5. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard.

  6. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison.

  7. The use of chance-corrected agreement to diagnose canine compulsive disorder: an approach to behavioral diagnosis in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, C J; Luescher, U A; Ball, R O

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of formal diagnostic criteria for canine compulsive disorder (canine CD). Canine CD is a syndrome of abnormal behaviors that are believed to result from conflict or frustration. Differential diagnoses include normal conflict behavior and learned behavior. In studies of canine CD, confidence in the diagnosis comes with knowing the accuracy of the diagnostic method. This accuracy may be quantified as the chance-corrected agreement between the diagnostic method and a 'gold standard' diagnostic test. The present study examined the agreement between diagnoses of canine CD made by an expert (the 'gold standard') and by using formal diagnostic criteria. The owners of 84 dogs suspected of having CD received 2 telephone interviews. The first utilized a detailed, pre-tested questionnaire; a dog was then diagnosed with CD if the behavioral history met 7 diagnostic criteria. The second interview was given by a behavioral expert whose diagnosis was based on personal experience. The interviewers were blind to each other's diagnoses. The chance-corrected agreement between diagnoses was minimal (kappa = 0.02) and disagreement was associated with 3 of the formal criteria: a history of conflict or frustration, an increase in the number of contexts that elicit the behavior, and an increase in the daily frequency of the behavior. Reasons for the disagreement include the order of the interviews, response biases, the setting of the interviews, and, possibly, the diversity of the behaviors associated with canine CD. To the authors' knowledge, this type of study is the first in clinical ethology to address validation of the diagnostic method. The results indicate 3 developmental aspects of canine CD that should be examined in future work. PMID:10480462

  8. Chemical contamination of animal feeding systems: evaluation of two caging systems and standard cage-washing equipment.

    PubMed

    Fox, J G; Helfrich-Smith, M E

    1980-12-01

    Sodium fluorescein was added as a tracer to an ager gel diet which was fed for 5 day to 90 of 180 rats housed in two different polycarbonate caging systems, shoe-box cages and suspension solid-bottom cages. Cage racks, supplementary equipment, and case washer surfaces were analysed for fluorescein both before and after a complete wash and rinse cycle. Efficacy of washing was greater than 99% for both the inside and outside of the suspended cages and greater than 99% for the inside, but only 93% for the outside, of the shoe-box cages. The shoe-box cages, which were larger than the suspended cages, were spaced closer together on the washer rack, which may account for this variation in cleaning effectiveness. The cage washer surfaces and the water, which was recirculated during each cycle, also became contaminated with fluorescein. Strict adherence to proper cage-washing procedures and careful selection of cage design are important factors in controlling the potential for residual contamination of caging and cage-washing equipment. PMID:7464031

  9. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  10. Aerospace Ground Equipment for model 4080 sequence programmer. A standard computer terminal is adapted to provide convenient operator to device interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) provides an interface between a human operator and a complete spaceborne sequence timing device with a memory storage program. The AGE provides a means for composing, editing, syntax checking, and storing timing device programs. The AGE is implemented with a standard Hewlett-Packard 2649A terminal system and a minimum of special hardware. The terminal's dual tape interface is used to store timing device programs and to read in special AGE operating system software. To compose a new program for the timing device the keyboard is used to fill in a form displayed on the screen.

  11. Getting the Gold Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Epner Technology, Inc., worked with Goddard Space Center to apply gold coating to the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mirror. This partnership resulted in new commercial applications for Epner's LaserGold(R) process in the automotive industry. Previously, the company did not have equipment large enough to handle the plating of the stainless steel panels cost effectively. Seeing a chance to renew this effort, Epner Technology and Goddard entered into an agreement by which NASA would fund the facility needed to do the gold-plating, and Epner Technology would cover all other costs as part of their internal research and development. The VCL mirror project proceeded successfully, fulfilling Goddard's needs and leaving Epner Technology with a new facility to provide LaserGold for the automotive industry. The new capability means increased power savings and improvements in both quality and production time for BMW Manufacturing Corporation of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Cadillac of Detroit, Michigan, as well as other manufacturers who have implemented Epner Technology's LaserGold process. LaserGold(R) is a registered trademark of Epner Technology, Inc.

  12. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the "traditional tests" and several "molecular tests" and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics.

  13. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: Gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the “traditional tests” and several “molecular tests” and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics. PMID:23277642

  14. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the "traditional tests" and several "molecular tests" and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics. PMID:23277642

  15. National standards and code compliance for electrical equipment and instruments installed in hazardous locations for the cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    The cone penetrometer is designed to measure the material properties of waste tank contents at the Hanford Site. The penetrometer system consists of a skid-mounted assembly, a penetrometer assembly (composed of a guide tube and a push rod), an active neutron moisture measurement probe, decontamination unit, and a support trailer containing a diesel-engine-driven hydraulic pump and a generator. The skid-mounted assembly is about 8 feet wide by 23 feet long and 15 feet high. Its nominal weight is about 40,000 pounds with the provisions to add up to 54,500 pounds of additional ballast. This document describes the cone penetrometer electrical instruments and how it complies with national standards.

  16. National Accreditation and Its Role in Early Education: An Analysis of Florida's Gold Seal Quality Child-Care Program and Licensing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbottom, Christian; Jones, Ithel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first Florida statewide assessment of the Gold Seal Quality Care program, accreditation, and the relationship with licensing violations. This study analyzed the differences between the Department of Children and Families Gold Seal-Accredited facilities and nonaccredited facilities by comparing the facilities and the…

  17. Objective evaluation of methods to track motion from clinical cardiac-gated tagged MRI without the use of a gold standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parages, Felipe M.; Denney, Thomas S.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac-gated MRI is widely used for the task of measuring parameters related to heart motion. More specifically, gated tagged MRI is the preferred modality to estimate local deformation (strain) and rotational motion (twist) of myocardial tissue. Many methods have been proposed to estimate cardiac motion from gated MRI sequences. However, when dealing with clinical data, evaluation of these methods is problematic due to the absence of gold-standards for cardiac motion. To overcome that, a linear regression scheme known as regression-without-truth (RWT) was proposed in the past. RWT uses priors to model the distribution of true values, thus enabling us to assess image-analysis algorithms without knowledge of the ground-truth. Furthermore, it allows one to rank methods by means of an objective figure-of-merit γ (i.e. precision). In this work we apply RWT to compare the performance of several gated MRI motion-tracking methods (e.g. non-rigid registration, feature based, harmonic phase) at the task of estimating myocardial strain and left-ventricle (LV) twist, from a population of 18 clinical human cardiac-gated tagged MRI studies.

  18. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young’s modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young’s modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  19. Redefining Gold Standard Testing for Diagnosing Leptospirosis: Further Evidence from a Well-Characterized, Flood-Related Outbreak in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Nöckler, Karsten; Anne, Mayer-Scholl; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    A gap in the leptospirosis field remains the lack of well-characterized sample collections that allow for comparison of new methods to standard ones. In the context of a flood-related outbreak of leptospirosis evaluated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, a specimen bank was obtained with detailed metadata accompanied by gold standard diagnostic test results. Blood samples collected on admission and 14 days later from suspected cases of leptospirosis were tested using microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (17 serovars), an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a locally obtained strain of Leptospira kirschneri as sonicated antigen, a commercially available ELISA based on sonicated Leptospira biflexa, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting the pathogenic Leptospira-specific 16S rRNA gene. Of 62 patients presenting within the first 2 days of illness, 31 had confirmed leptospirosis based either on paired-sample MAT or qPCR. During the acute phase, qPCR was most sensitive, detecting 74% of definitively diagnosed cases; immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA (in-house), IgG ELISA (commercial), and MAT had sensitivities of 35.5%, 12.0%, and 22.6%, respectively, in detecting definitively diagnosed cases using acute phase serum. Of 40 patients with paired sera, 10 were qPCR positive. Of these, five samples were negative by paired-sample MAT. Of the 11 MAT-positive samples, only five were detected using qPCR confirming that both tests are needed for maximal sensitivity. Regional leptospiral serovar-specific IgG ELISA was superior to MAT. Knowing the regionally dominant serovars improves serological sensitivity in the analysis of acute specimens by ELISA, but qPCR was most sensitive in this patient population. PMID:27402521

  20. Redefining Gold Standard Testing for Diagnosing Leptospirosis: Further Evidence from a Well-Characterized, Flood-Related Outbreak in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Nöckler, Karsten; Anne, Mayer-Scholl; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    A gap in the leptospirosis field remains the lack of well-characterized sample collections that allow for comparison of new methods to standard ones. In the context of a flood-related outbreak of leptospirosis evaluated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, a specimen bank was obtained with detailed metadata accompanied by gold standard diagnostic test results. Blood samples collected on admission and 14 days later from suspected cases of leptospirosis were tested using microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (17 serovars), an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a locally obtained strain of Leptospira kirschneri as sonicated antigen, a commercially available ELISA based on sonicated Leptospira biflexa, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting the pathogenic Leptospira-specific 16S rRNA gene. Of 62 patients presenting within the first 2 days of illness, 31 had confirmed leptospirosis based either on paired-sample MAT or qPCR. During the acute phase, qPCR was most sensitive, detecting 74% of definitively diagnosed cases; immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA (in-house), IgG ELISA (commercial), and MAT had sensitivities of 35.5%, 12.0%, and 22.6%, respectively, in detecting definitively diagnosed cases using acute phase serum. Of 40 patients with paired sera, 10 were qPCR positive. Of these, five samples were negative by paired-sample MAT. Of the 11 MAT-positive samples, only five were detected using qPCR confirming that both tests are needed for maximal sensitivity. Regional leptospiral serovar-specific IgG ELISA was superior to MAT. Knowing the regionally dominant serovars improves serological sensitivity in the analysis of acute specimens by ELISA, but qPCR was most sensitive in this patient population.

  1. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  2. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  3. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  4. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  5. Effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements: comparison with the gold standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilpa; Laidlaw, D Alistair H; Brown, Graham; Robson, Chloe

    2010-03-01

    Contour interaction plays an important role in letter recognition and has long been known to influence clinical visual acuity measurements. LogMAR charts originally employed between-letter and line spacing of one letter width/height; however, in more recent designs, half letter width spacing has become accepted without validation. COMPlog is a computerised visual acuity measurement device being developed and validated for routine and research clinical use and is available commercially. This study was performed to investigate the effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements. An iterative series of experiments was performed in which test and retest fully interpolated five letters-per-line logMAR visual acuity measurements were taken in three groups of a total 100 adult subjects. Each group had visual acuity measured using ETDRS charts 1 and 2 and on COMPlog using various combinations of letter and line spacing. The first group consisted of 31 subjects tested using 3.75 and 2.50 stroke width spacing, the second 45 subjects using 2.50 and 1.25 stroke width spacing and the last group, 24 subjects tested using 1.90 stroke width spacing. The methods of Bland and Altman were used to analyse the data. No significant bias was noted between the gold standard ETDRS measurements and those taken using COMPlog with 3.75 stroke width spacing. Significant bias of half a logMAR line was found with crowding of 1.90 and 1.25 stroke widths. A small systematic bias with a reduction of 1 ETDRS letter was found with spacing of 2.50 stroke widths which has not been demonstrated in previous validation studies. Crowding of 2.50 stroke widths is the smallest spacing which can be used in the design of COMPlog.

  6. Likelihood ratio estimation without a gold standard: a case study evaluating a brucellosis c-ELISA in cattle and water buffalo of Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Fosgate, G T; Adesiyun, A A; Hird, D W; Hietala, S K

    2006-08-17

    The likelihood ratio (LR) is a measure of association that quantifies how many more times likely a particular test result is from an infected animal compared to one that is uninfected. They are ratios of conditional probabilities and cannot be interpreted at the individual animal level without information concerning pretest probabilities. Their usefulness is that they can be used to update the prior belief that the individual has the outcome of interest through a modification of Bayes' theorem. Bayesian analytic techniques can be used for the evaluation of diagnostic tests and estimation of LRs when information concerning a gold standard is not available. As an example, these techniques were applied to the estimation of LRs for a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) for diagnosis of Brucella abortus infection in cattle and water buffalo in Trinidad. Sera from four herds of cattle (n=391) and four herds of water buffalo (n=381) in Trinidad were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies using a c-ELISA. On the basis of previous serologic (agglutination) test results in the same animals, iterative simulation modeling was used to classify animals as positive or negative for Brucella infection. LRs were calculated for six categories of the c-ELISA proportion inhibition (PI) results pooled for cattle and water buffalo and yielded the following estimations (95% probability intervals): <0.10 PI, 0.05 (0-0.13); 0.10-0.249 PI, 0.11 (0.04-0.20); 0.25-0.349 PI, 0.77 (0.23-1.63); 0.35-0.499 PI, 3.22 (1.39-6.84); 0.50-0.749 PI, 17.9 (6.39-77.4); > or =0.75 PI, 423 (129-infinity). LRs are important for calculation of post-test probabilities and maintaining the quantitative nature of diagnostic test results.

  7. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  8. [Contact allergy to gold and its alloys. Pertinence of gold salt patch tests].

    PubMed

    Collet, E; Lacroix, M; Dalac, S; Ponnelle, C; Lambert, D

    1994-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to gold and its alloys is a rare affection and it is difficult to interpret gold salts patch tests. We report two cases of patients with positive patch tests to 0.5% sodium aurothiosulfate discovered during a dermatology exploration of an occupational contact eczema (for the first patient) and an intolerance to gold jewelry (for the second). There is much confusion in the literature concerning the allergologic exploration of contact dermatitis to gold: no standardized test, possible cross reactions between different gold salts, the tests often irritate. The mechanism of sensitization to gold salts is unknown since pure gold is inalterable and does not contain any salts. The pertinence of a positive test to one or more gold salts must therefore be examined carefully and the diagnosis of gold allergy must not be made without sufficient evidence.

  9. No Gold Standard Estimation of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Molecular Diagnostic Protocols for Trypanosoma brucei spp. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    de Clare Bronsvoort, Barend Mark; von Wissmann, Beatrix; Fèvre, Eric Maurice; Handel, Ian Graham; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Sue Christina

    2010-01-01

    African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingTrypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypansoma brucei. In Western Kenya and other parts of East Africa two subspecies of T. brucei, T.b. brucei and the zoonoticT.b. rhodesiense, co-circulate in livestock. A range of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) have been developed as important molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiological investigations of T. brucei s.l. in the animal reservoir and of its zoonotic potential. Quantification of the relative performance of different diagnostic PCRs is essential to ensure comparability of studies. This paper describes an evaluation of two diagnostic test systems for T. brucei using a T. brucei s.l. specific PCR [1] and a single nested PCR targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of trypanosome ribosomal DNA [2]. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model was employed to estimate their test performance in the absence of a gold standard test for detecting T.brucei s.l. infections in ear-vein blood samples from cattle, pig, sheep and goat populations in Western Kenya, stored on Whatman FTA cards. The results indicate that the system employing the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR (Se1 = 0.760) had a higher sensitivity than the ITS-PCR (Se2 = 0.640); both have high specificity (Sp1 = 0.998; Sp2 = 0.997). The true prevalences for livestock populations were estimated (pcattle = 0.091, ppigs = 0.066, pgoats = 0.005, psheep = 0.006), taking into account the uncertainties in the specificity and sensitivity of the two test systems. Implications of test performance include the required survey sample size; due to its higher sensitivity and specificity, the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR requires a consistently smaller sample size than the ITS-PCR for the detection of T. brucei s.l. However the ITS-PCR is able to simultaneously screen samples for other pathogenic trypanosomes

  10. Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main limitation of these studies is that they compare cause of death as ascertained through hospital record review or hospital discharge diagnosis with the results of InterVA. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the performance of InterVA compared to physician-certified verbal autopsies (PCVA) and alternative automated methods for analysis. Methods Using clinical diagnostic gold standards to select 12,542 verbal autopsy cases, we assessed the performance of InterVA on both an individual and population level and compared the results to PCVA, conducting analyses separately for adults, children, and neonates. Following the recommendation of Murray et al., we randomly varied the cause composition over 500 test datasets to understand the performance of the tool in different settings. We also contrasted InterVA with an alternative Bayesian method, Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Results Across all age groups, InterVA performs worse than PCVA, both on an individual and population level. On an individual level, InterVA achieved a chance-corrected concordance of 24.2% for adults, 24.9% for children, and 6.3% for neonates (excluding free text, considering one cause selection). On a population level, InterVA achieved a cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.546 for adults, 0.504 for children, and 0.404 for neonates. The comparison to SSP revealed four specific characteristics that lead to superior performance of SSP. Increases in chance-corrected concordance are attained by developing cause-by-cause models (2%), using all items as opposed to only the ones that mapped to InterVA items (7%), assigning probabilities to clusters of symptoms (6%), and using empirical as opposed to expert

  11. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS... certificate of conformity can cover that engine or piece of equipment: (1) Correct the problem and retest...

  12. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS... certificate of conformity can cover that engine or piece of equipment: (1) Correct the problem and retest...

  13. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  14. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 2: Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A representative set of payloads for both science and applications disciplines were selected that would ensure a realistic and statistically significant estimate of equipment utilization. The selected payloads were analyzed to determine the applicability of Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM)/Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment in satisfying their data acquisition and control requirements. The analyses results were combined with the comparable results from related studies to arrive at an overall assessment of the applicability and commonality of NIM/CAMAC equipment usage across the spectrum of payloads.

  15. Gold Nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    An array of gold nanoantennas laced into an artificial membrane enhances the fluorescence intensity of three different molecules when they pass through plasmonic hot spots in the array. Watch for the blue, green and red flashes. The photobleaching at the end of each fluorescence event (white flashes) is indicative of single molecule observations.

  16. Gold liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Lipids are an important class of molecules, being found in membranes, HDL, LDL, and other natural structures, serving essential roles in structure and with varied functions such as compartmentalization and transport. Synthetic liposomes are also widely used as delivery and release vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals; soap is made from lipids. Lipids may form bilayer or multilammellar vesicles, micelles, sheets, tubes, and other structures. Lipid molecules may be linked to proteins, carbohydrates, or other moieties. EM study of this essential ingredient of life has lagged, due to lack of direct methods to visualize lipids without extensive alteration. OsO4 reacts with double bonds in membrane phospholipids, forming crossbridges. This has been the method of choice to both fix and stain membranes, thus far. An earlier work described the use of tungstate clusters (W{sub 11}) attached to lipid moieties to form lipid structures and lipid probes. With the development of gold clusters, it is now possible to covalently and specifically link a dense gold sphere to a lipid molecule; for example, reacting a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide Nanogold cluster with the amino group on phosphatidyl ethanolaminine. Examples of a gold-fatty acid and a gold-phospholipid are shown.

  17. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2A. Comments on process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). However, the provisions for equipment leaks also apply to certain polymer and resin production processes, certain pesticide production processes, and certain miscellaneous processes that are subject to the negotiated regulation for equipment leaks. Volume 2A is organized by emission point and contains discussions of specific technical issues related to process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Volume 2A discusses specific technical issues such as control technology, cost analysis, emission estimates, Group 1/Group 2 determination, compliance options and demonstrations, and monitoring.

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  19. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions. (WRM)

  20. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  2. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a... applicable, and repair of the equipment according to the procedures in § 63.1005 if a leak is detected. (ii... leak is detected. (d) Special equipment designations: Unsafe-to-repair—(1) Designation and...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a... applicable, and repair of the equipment according to the procedures in § 63.1005 if a leak is detected. (ii... leak is detected. (d) Special equipment designations: Unsafe-to-repair—(1) Designation and...

  5. 10 CFR 600.134 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.134 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a... organizations for a fee that is less than private companies charge for equivalent services, unless specifically... management standards for equipment acquired with Federal funds and federally-owned equipment shall...

  6. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in...

  7. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the...

  8. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  9. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare... Requirements Property Standards § 2543.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with... not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside...

  11. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  12. Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standard, 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1.5 UL Publications...% of the tank's rated volume at 21 °C per DOT Standard, 49 CFR 173.304, and the American Society of...—Cylinder Valves 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipment and Packagings...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standard, 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1.5 UL Publications...% of the tank's rated volume at 21 °C per DOT Standard, 49 CFR 173.304, and the American Society of...—Cylinder Valves 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipment and Packagings...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard, 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1.5 UL Publications...% of the tank's rated volume at 21 °C per DOT Standard, 49 CFR 173.304, and the American Society of...—Cylinder Valves 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipment and Packagings...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standard, 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings. 2.1.5 UL Publications...% of the tank's rated volume at 21 °C per DOT Standard, 49 CFR 173.304, and the American Society of...—Cylinder Valves 49 CFR 173.304—Shippers—General Requirements for Shipment and Packagings...

  17. Stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with an ionic liquid salt bridge composed of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-amide in potentiometry of pH standard buffers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Manabu; Yamanuki, Mikito; Iwamoto, Yasukazu; Nomura, Satoshi; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with a gelled ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N), as a salt bridge, was examined in the potentiometry of pH standard solutions. The variation in the liquid junction potential (LJP) of the ionic liquid (IL)-type reference electrode, measured with respect to a double junction-type KCl reference electrode, was within 1 mV when one standard solution was replaced by another, except for the phthalate standard. The time course of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode showed a standard deviation of ±0.3 mV in all buffer solutions. The reproducible deviation of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode in the phthalate pH standard amounted to 5 mV. The deviation is due to the partition of the hydrogen phthalate in the C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N, influencing the phase boundary potential (PBP) across the interface between C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N and the phthalate standard. If a citrate standard is used instead of the phthalate buffer, the IL salt bridge works satisfactorily as a salt bridge for a reference electrode suitable for potentiometoric pH measurements.

  18. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  19. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  20. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  1. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  2. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments..., CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 7.3Portable refillable... content via Karl Fischer coulometric titration, or an equivalent method. The Karl Fischer apparatus is...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cannot exceed 80% of volume at 21.1 °C of its maximum rating as defined by DOT standards, 49 CFR 173.304... phase sample of refrigerant shall be analyzed for moisture content via Karl Fischer coulometer titration... sample of 30 to 130 g is vaporized directly into the Karl Fischer anolyte. A coulometer titration...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cannot exceed 80% of volume at 21.1 °C of its maximum rating as defined by DOT standards, 49 CFR 173.304... phase sample of refrigerant shall be analyzed for moisture content via Karl Fischer coulometer titration... sample of 30 to 130 g is vaporized directly into the Karl Fischer anolyte. A coulometer titration...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cannot exceed 80% of volume at 21.1 °C of its maximum rating as defined by DOT standards, 49 CFR 173.304... phase sample of refrigerant shall be analyzed for moisture content via Karl Fischer coulometer titration... sample of 30 to 130 g is vaporized directly into the Karl Fischer anolyte. A coulometer titration...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cannot exceed 80% of volume at 21.1 °C of its maximum rating as defined by DOT standards, 49 CFR 173.304... phase sample of refrigerant shall be analyzed for moisture content via Karl Fischer coulometer titration... sample of 30 to 130 g is vaporized directly into the Karl Fischer anolyte. A coulometer titration...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments..., CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 7.3Portable refillable... content via Karl Fischer coulometric titration, or an equivalent method. The Karl Fischer apparatus is...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cannot exceed 80% of volume at 21.1 °C of its maximum rating as defined by DOT standards, 49 CFR 173.304... phase sample of refrigerant shall be analyzed for moisture content via Karl Fischer coulometer titration... sample of 30 to 130 g is vaporized directly into the Karl Fischer anolyte. A coulometer titration...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments..., CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 7.3Portable refillable... content via Karl Fischer coulometric titration, or an equivalent method. The Karl Fischer apparatus is...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments..., CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 7.3Portable refillable... content via Karl Fischer coulometric titration, or an equivalent method. The Karl Fischer apparatus is...

  12. Career/Technical Courses Meet 21st-Century Standards in Equipping Students for Further Study, Training and the Workplace. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    More schools are designing intellectually demanding career/technical (CT) courses--aligned with 21st-century requirements--to prepare students for further study, advanced training and work. They are using effective leadership, embedding essential college-readiness standards into CT courses, making CT courses more intellectually challenging, using…

  13. API specification 6A 17. Edition: The state-of-the-art document for international standardization of wellhead and christmas tree equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Dach, A.J. Jr.; Haeberle, T.

    1996-09-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the significant revisions that are included in the API 6A 17th Edition. The various revisions have been categorized based on their resultant effects. Also included in this paper is a discussion of the regulatory, standardization and customer acceptance issues that clouded the future of API 6A 17th Edition at the time of its release.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1439... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1439... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1439... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1439... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  18. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

    PubMed

    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  19. Toward a New Gold Standard for Early Safety: Automated Temperature-Controlled hERG Test on the PatchLiner®

    PubMed Central

    Polonchuk, Liudmila

    2012-01-01

    The Patchliner® temperature-controlled automated patch clamp system was evaluated for testing drug effects on potassium currents through human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells at 35–37°C. IC50 values for a set of reference drugs were compared with those obtained using the conventional voltage clamp technique. The results showed good correlation between the data obtained using automated and conventional electrophysiology. Based on these results, the Patchliner® represents an innovative automated electrophysiology platform for conducting the hERG assay that substantially increases throughput and has the advantage of operating at physiological temperature. It allows fast, accurate, and direct assessment of channel function to identify potential proarrhythmic side effects and sets a new standard in ion channel research for drug safety testing. PMID:22303293

  20. 14 CFR 29.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 29.1431 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1431 Electronic... operation of any other radio or electronic unit, or system of units, required by this chapter....

  1. 14 CFR 29.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 29.1431 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1431 Electronic... operation of any other radio or electronic unit, or system of units, required by this chapter....

  2. 14 CFR 29.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 29... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment, controls, and...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment and controls must...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 29... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment, controls, and...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment and controls must...

  6. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  7. Amyloid Templated Gold Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Gustav; Fernández-Ronco, María P; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Mazzotti, Marco; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-01-20

    Amyloid fibril-based ultralow-density aerogels are designed by functionalization with gold nanoparticles and microcrystals, leading to hybrids of unprecedented lightness and functionality. By changing the colloidal gold shape, size, and concentration, the gold composition can be tuned to reach contents ≥20 kt equivalent, yet at densities ≈10(3) lighter than any equivalent gold alloys, and combining unique features such as porosity, catalytic properties, pressure sensing, and autofluorescence.

  8. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests and the complement fixation test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies, with PCR used as the "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Beersma, Matthias F C; Dirven, Kristien; van Dam, Alje P; Templeton, Kate E; Claas, Eric C J; Goossens, Herman

    2005-05-01

    Serology and nucleic acid amplification are the main diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Since no reference standard is generally accepted, serologic assays for M. pneumoniae have not been evaluated on a broad scale. In this study, 12 commercially available serologic assays (for immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were evaluated by using M. pneumoniae DNA detection by real-time PCR as the "gold standard." The assays tested were Platelia EIA (Bio-Rad), SeroMP EIA (Savyon), Serion classic EIA (Virion/Serion), Biotest EIA (Biotest), Ridascreen EIA (r-Biopharm), AniLabsystems EIA (Labsystems), Novum EIA (Novum Diagnostica), Diagnosys EIA (MP products), Genzyme/Virotech EIA, ImmunoWell EIA (Genbio), ImmunoCard EIA (Meridian), and SerodiaMycoII microparticle agglutination (Fujirebio). Serum samples (n = 46) from 27 PCR-positive patients with a known first day of disease and sera (n = 33) from PCR-negative controls were obtained from prospective studies of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Additionally, control sera (n = 63) from patients with acute viral or bacterial respiratory infections other than those caused by M. pneumoniae were tested. The results showed low specificities for both the Novum and the ImmunoCard IgM assays. The IgM assays with the best performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity were AniLabsystems (77% and 92%, respectively), SeroMP (71% and 88%, respectively), and CFT (65% and 97%, respectively). Good receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve were found for CFT (0.94), the Platelia assay (0.87), and the AniLabsystems assay (0.85). We conclude that there are few commercial serologic assays for the detection of M. pneumoniae infections with appropriate performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity and that PCR has become increasingly important for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections in defined groups of patients.

  9. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for human soil-transmitted helminth infections: a meta-analysis in the absence of a true gold standard.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L

    2014-10-01

    Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Katz, direct microscopy, formol-ether concentration, McMaster, FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC. In the absence of a perfect reference standard, we employed a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true, unobserved sensitivity of compared diagnostic tests for each of the soil-transmitted helminth species Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms. To investigate the influence of varying transmission settings we subsequently stratified the analysis by intensity of infection. Overall, sensitivity estimates varied between the different methods, ranging from 42.8% for direct microscopy to 92.7% for FLOTAC. The widely used double slide Kato-Katz method had a sensitivity of 74-95% for the three soil-transmitted helminth species at high infection intensity, however sensitivity dropped to 53-80% in low intensity settings, being lowest for hookworm and A. lumbricoides. The highest sensitivity, overall and in both intensity groups, was observed for the FLOTAC method, whereas the sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC method was comparable with the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC average egg count estimates were significantly lower compared with Kato-Katz, while the compared McMaster counts varied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods had comparable sensitivities. We further show that test sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method is reduced in low transmission settings.

  10. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  11. 21 CFR 606.60 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in the collection, processing, compatibility testing, storage and distribution of blood and blood... maintenance. The equipment shall be observed, standardized and calibrated on a regularly scheduled basis as... blood products. (b) Equipment that shall be observed, standardized and calibrated with at least...

  12. 21 CFR 606.60 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the collection, processing, compatibility testing, storage and distribution of blood and blood... maintenance. The equipment shall be observed, standardized and calibrated on a regularly scheduled basis as... blood products. (b) Equipment that shall be observed, standardized and calibrated with at least...

  13. 21 CFR 606.60 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in the collection, processing, compatibility testing, storage and distribution of blood and blood... maintenance. The equipment shall be observed, standardized and calibrated on a regularly scheduled basis as... blood products. (b) Equipment that shall be observed, standardized and calibrated with at least...

  14. 24 CFR 84.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.34 Equipment. (a) Title to... to non-Federal outside organizations for a fee that is less than private companies charge for... subject to the approval of HUD. (f) The recipient's property management standards for equipment...

  15. Fire suppression and detection equipment

    SciTech Connect

    E.E. Bates

    2006-01-15

    Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

  16. Comparison Between Differently Priced Devices for Digital Capture of X-Ray Films Using Computed Tomography as a Gold Standard: A Multireader-Multicase Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Study

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Juan Camilo; Aguirre, Diego Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Film digitizers are a specialized technology that is available for scanning X-ray radiographs; however, their cost makes them unaffordable for developing countries. Thus, less expensive alternatives are used. The purpose of this study was to compare three devices for digital capture of X-ray films: a film digitizer (US $15,000), a flatbed scanner (US $1800), and a 10-megapixel digital camera (US $450), in terms of diagnostic accuracy, defined as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and computed tomography as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: The sample included 136 chest X-ray cases with computed tomography confirmation of the presence or absence of pneumothorax, interstitial opacities, or nodules. The readers were six radiologists who made observations of eight variables for each digital capture of the X-ray films: three main variables to determine the accuracy in the detection of the above-mentioned pathologies, four secondary variables to categorize other pathological classifications, and one variable regarding digital image quality. Results: The receiver operating characteristic curves for each device and pathology were very similar. For the main variables, there was no significant statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy between the devices. For the secondary variables, >84% of cases were correctly classified, even those that were classified with the lowest image quality. High accuracy was determined for the three main variables (0.75 to 0.96), indicating good performance for all tested devices, despite their very different prices. Conclusions: Choosing a device for a teleradiology service should involve additional factors, such as capture time, maintenance concerns, and training requirements. PMID:21457011

  17. Pharmacokinetics of internally labeled monoclonal antibodies as a gold standard: comparison of biodistribution of /sup 75/Se-, /sup 111/In-, and /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Konishi, J.; Yamamuro, T.; Toyama, S.

    1989-04-01

    In order to know the true biodistribution of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies, three monoclonal antibodies (OST6, OST7, and OST15) against human osteosarcoma and control antibody were internally labeled with 75Se by incubating (75Se)methionine and hybridoma cells. 75Se-labeled monoclonal antibodies were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line KT005, and the results were compared with those of 125I- and 111In-labeled antibodies. 75Se-, 125I- and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibodies had identical binding activities to KT005 cells, and the immunoreactivity was in the decreasing order of OST6, OST7, and OST15. On the contrary, in vivo tumor uptake (% injected dose/g) of 75Se- and 125I-labeled antibodies assessed using nude mice bearing human osteosarcoma KT005 was in the order of OST7, OST6, and OST15. In the case of 111In, the order was OST6, OST7, and OST15. High liver uptake was similarly seen with 75Se- and 111In-labeled antibodies, whereas 125I-labeled antibodies showed the lowest tumor and liver uptake. These data indicate that tumor targeting of antibody conjugates are not always predictable from cell binding studies due to the difference of blood clearance of labeled antibodies. Furthermore, biodistribution of both 111In- and 125I-labeled antibodies are not identical with internally labeled antibody. Admitting that internally labeled antibody is a ''gold standard'' of biodistribution of monoclonal antibody, high liver uptake of 111In-radiolabeled antibodies may be inherent to antibodies. Little, if any, increase in tumor-to-normal tissue ratios of antibody conjugates will be expected compared to those of 111In-labeled antibodies if stably coupled conjugates are administered i.v.

  18. Is flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy the new gold standard for lower pole renal stones when compared to shock wave lithotripsy: Comparative outcomes from a University hospital over similar time period

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Jacob; Ishii, Hiro; Simmonds, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal lower pole stones pose difficulty in management due to anatomical variation, stone size, hardness and patient demographics. Flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy (FURSL) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) are preferred for stones 1-2 cm in size. We wanted to compare the outcomes of FURSL and SWL for lower pole stones during the same time period. Material and methods All patients who were treated for lower pole stones with FURSL and SWL during a 19-month period were included. The stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments on follow-up imaging or stone free endoscopically. Data was recorded in an excel spreadsheet with SPSS version 21 used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 161 lower pole procedures were done (93 SWL and 63 FURSL). The mean stone size for SWL (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was significantly smaller than for FURSL (13.4 mm; 4-53 mm). The mean operating time and hospital stay for FURSL was 65 minutes (range: 30-160 minutes) and 0.5 days (range: 0-7 days) respectively. The SFR was significantly better (p <0.001) for FURSL (n = 63, 93%) compared to SWL (n = 23, 25%). There were 4 (6%) complications (3 Clavien II and 1 Clavien I) in the FURSL group (2 urosepsis, 1 UTI and 1 stent pain). Three patients in the SWL group (Clavien I) were readmitted with renal colic but there were no other complications. Conclusions FURSL for lower pole stones seems to be a much better alternative than SWL with a high SFR even for larger stones and seems to be the new gold standard for lower pole stone management. PMID:26251738

  19. Education Schools Need a Gold Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Reform of teacher preparation is once again in the air. In his first major speech about education, President Obama said that "recruiting, preparing, and rewarding outstanding teachers" will be one of the new administration's top priorities. The priorities set forth in the stimulus package, as well as the Congressional debates about the future of…

  20. Gold recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, Earle B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

  1. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  2. Screening for Intermediately Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus by Use of Vancomycin-Supplemented Brain Heart Infusion Agar Biplates: Defining Growth Interpretation Criteria Based on Gold Standard Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Riad; Riederer, Kathleen; Sharma, Mamta; Shemes, Stephen; Iyer, Sugantha P; Szpunar, Susan

    2015-11-01

    BHI agars supplemented with vancomycin 4 (BHI-V4) and 3 (BHI-V3) mg/liter have been proposed for screening vancomycin intermediately susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heteroresistant (hVISA) phenotypes, respectively, but growth interpretation criteria have not been established. We reviewed the growth results (CFU) during population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) of consecutive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates, which were saved intermittently between 1996 and 2012. CFU counts on BHI-V4 and BHI-V3 plates were stratified according to PAP-AUC interpretive criteria: <0.90 (susceptible [S-MRSA]), 0.90 to 1.3 (hVISA), and >1.3 (VISA). CFU cutoffs that best predict VISA and hVISA were determined with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Mu3, Mu50, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) controls were included. We also prospectively evaluated manufacturer-made BHI-V3/BHI-V4 biplates for screening of 2010-2012 isolates. The PAP-AUC of 616 clinical samples was consistent with S-MRSA, hVISA, and VISA in 550 (89.3%), 48 (7.8%), and 18 (2.9%) instances, respectively. For VISA screening on BHI-V4, a cutoff of 2 CFU/droplet provided 100% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity. To distinguish VISA from hVISA, a cutoff of 16 CFU provided 83.3% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity; the specificity was lowered to 89.5% with a 12-CFU cutoff. For detecting hVISA/VISA on BHI-V3, a 2-CFU/droplet cutoff provided 98.5% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity. These results suggest that 2-CFU/droplet cutoffs on BHI-V4 and BHI-V3 best approximate VISA and hVISA gold standard confirmation, respectively, with minimal overlap in samples with borderline PAP-AUC. Simultaneous screening for VISA/hVISA on manufacturer-made BHI-V4/BHI-V3 biplates is easy to standardize and may reduce the requirement for PAP-AUC confirmation. PMID:26311860

  3. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  4. Screening for Intermediately Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus by Use of Vancomycin-Supplemented Brain Heart Infusion Agar Biplates: Defining Growth Interpretation Criteria Based on Gold Standard Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Riad; Riederer, Kathleen; Sharma, Mamta; Shemes, Stephen; Iyer, Sugantha P; Szpunar, Susan

    2015-11-01

    BHI agars supplemented with vancomycin 4 (BHI-V4) and 3 (BHI-V3) mg/liter have been proposed for screening vancomycin intermediately susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heteroresistant (hVISA) phenotypes, respectively, but growth interpretation criteria have not been established. We reviewed the growth results (CFU) during population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) of consecutive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates, which were saved intermittently between 1996 and 2012. CFU counts on BHI-V4 and BHI-V3 plates were stratified according to PAP-AUC interpretive criteria: <0.90 (susceptible [S-MRSA]), 0.90 to 1.3 (hVISA), and >1.3 (VISA). CFU cutoffs that best predict VISA and hVISA were determined with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Mu3, Mu50, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) controls were included. We also prospectively evaluated manufacturer-made BHI-V3/BHI-V4 biplates for screening of 2010-2012 isolates. The PAP-AUC of 616 clinical samples was consistent with S-MRSA, hVISA, and VISA in 550 (89.3%), 48 (7.8%), and 18 (2.9%) instances, respectively. For VISA screening on BHI-V4, a cutoff of 2 CFU/droplet provided 100% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity. To distinguish VISA from hVISA, a cutoff of 16 CFU provided 83.3% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity; the specificity was lowered to 89.5% with a 12-CFU cutoff. For detecting hVISA/VISA on BHI-V3, a 2-CFU/droplet cutoff provided 98.5% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity. These results suggest that 2-CFU/droplet cutoffs on BHI-V4 and BHI-V3 best approximate VISA and hVISA gold standard confirmation, respectively, with minimal overlap in samples with borderline PAP-AUC. Simultaneous screening for VISA/hVISA on manufacturer-made BHI-V4/BHI-V3 biplates is easy to standardize and may reduce the requirement for PAP-AUC confirmation.

  5. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  6. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  7. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    PubMed

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  8. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  10. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  12. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory. (a)...

  14. Seminal gold content in healthy fertile men in India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vinod; Rai, Anurag; Misra, Samir; Singh, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Since centuries Ayurveda, mentions the role of gold in the treatment of male infertility ‘Swarna Bhasma’ (Ash of gold) has been used with good results by Ayurvedic practitioners in the treatment of infertility. Hence, a study was planned to estimate gold in whole semen by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Whole semen from 11 healthy males of proved fertility from Lucknow (India) was analyzed for gold content by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry at wavelength 242.8 nm with Hollow Cathode Gold Lamp. Prior to analysis, all the samples were subjected to digestion procedure, achieved by treating them with mixture of concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated Perchloric acid in 6: 1 ratio. Observation: On analysis all semen samples were found to contain gold ranging from 0.36 to 1.98 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.88 μg/ml and a standard deviation of 0.51 μg/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, gold was estimated after complete digestion (oxidation of organic matters; hence, whatever amount of gold detected, denotes the levels in seminal plasma as well as the sperm itself) in whole semen (seminal plasma and sperm). It seems that the hypothesis made for presence of gold in sperm might be true. However, the literature available in this connection is very scanty and further studies are needed for scientific documentation of gold in male infertility. PMID:21170210

  15. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust....

  16. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust....

  17. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-driven mine equipment, except low horsepower rock dusting equipment, that employs an electric current... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment. 75.501-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  18. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-driven mine equipment, except low horsepower rock dusting equipment, that employs an electric current... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment. 75.501-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  19. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-driven mine equipment, except low horsepower rock dusting equipment, that employs an electric current... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment. 75.501-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  20. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-driven mine equipment, except low horsepower rock dusting equipment, that employs an electric current... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment. 75.501-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  1. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-driven mine equipment, except low horsepower rock dusting equipment, that employs an electric current... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment. 75.501-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 50-204.7 Section 50-204.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  3. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  4. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  5. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  6. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  7. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  8. 7 CFR 550.37 - Title to equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Title to equipment. 550.37 Section 550.37 Agriculture... Equipment/property Standards § 550.37 Title to equipment. (a) As authorized by 7 U.S.C. 3318(d), title to... provision of this rule the REE Agency may, at its discretion, retain title to equipment described...

  9. NASA researchers in gold control room during an F-15 HiDEC flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA researchers monitor equipment in the mission control Gold room at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during a flight of an F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) research aircraft. The system was developed on the F-15 to investigate and demonstrate methods of obtaining optimum aircraft performance. The major elements of HIDEC were a Digital Electronic Flight Control System (DEFCS), a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), an on-board general purpose computer, and an integrated architecture to allow all components to 'talk to each other.' Unlike standard F-15s, which have a mechanical and analog electronic flight control system, the HIDEC F-15 also had a dual-channel, fail-safe digital flight control system programmed in Pascal. It was linked to the Military Standard 1553B and a H009 data bus which tied all the other electronic systems together.

  10. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  11. 75 FR 14575 - Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III AGENCY: National... Phase III of the benchmark research for voting equipment used in an election in 2008 or later and/ or... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will be conducting Phase III research on voting equipment...

  12. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal... selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations, and...-STD, “RTCM Recommended Minimum Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment...

  13. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  14. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  15. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  16. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.144... in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision on whether...

  17. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.144... in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision on whether...

  18. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  19. Shuttle extravehicular life support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A Shuttle EVA/IVA Requirements Study was conducted by Hamilton Standard for NASA. The objectives of this study were to establish a baseline EVA approach for Shuttle and to prepare requirements for the EVA equipment required to support these operations. This paper presents the results of the EVA life support requirements definition effort and defines candidate configurations which meet these requirements. Various subsystem and system concepts were identified and evaluated to determine the most desirable approaches. Both independent and umbilical configurations are considered. Because certain EVA missions could involve contamination-sensitive payloads, the impact of integrating noncontaminating equipment is also considered.

  20. 76 FR 28434 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 40, Definitional Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Standard 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory... Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment....

  1. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  2. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  3. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  4. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  5. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  6. 47 CFR 24.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 24.51 Section 24.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for...

  7. 47 CFR 24.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 24.51 Section 24.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for...

  8. 47 CFR 24.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 24.51 Section 24.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for...

  9. 47 CFR 24.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 24.51 Section 24.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award... not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside organizations...) The recipient's property management standards for equipment acquired with Federal funds and...

  11. 22 CFR 518.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements... equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside organizations for a fee...) The recipient's property management standards for equipment acquired with Federal funds and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-monitor equipment include, but is not limited to, equipment under extreme pressure or heat. (2... Section 63.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-to-monitor equipment include, but is not limited to, equipment under extreme pressure or heat. (2... Section 63.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1005 - Equipment approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment approval. 154.1005 Section 154.1005 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...

  15. Special Equipment and/or Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This standard covers the sanitation requirements for equipment and/or devices used in the storage, preparation, or handling of foods and beverages. The National Sanitation Foundation's basic criteria for the evaluation of special equipment and/or devices has been prepared to fulfill several specific needs, its major function being to serve as a…

  16. Differential interferences with clinical chemistry assays by gold nanorods, and gold and silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M

    2015-02-01

    Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects.

  17. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  18. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  19. PMAA`s Silver/Gold National Certification Program - update

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketers Association of America`s (PMAA) Silver/Gold National Certification Program is discussed. The oil heat technician certification is a process whose time has come. The information age has put us in an era of improved technology as well as improved equipment. The advantages of the oil heat certification program for oil heat dealers, technicians, and customers are listed.

  20. Prospecting for toxic gases with gold film sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, K.A.

    1988-12-01

    This paper reports on a gold film sensor that detects such toxic chemicals as mercury in quantities of parts per million or parts per billion. The gold films, many times thinner than a human hair, are the key to the sensor, because gold - an inert, stable, fairly unreactive: element - is unaffected by interferences from aromatic hydrocarbons (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) or water vapor. These gold film sensors are used for mercury detection in such places as hospitals, laboratories and sites where batteries, caustic soda, thermometers, fluorescent lights or photographic equipment are manufactured. The sensor also detects hydrogen sulfide, an application developed in 1982 for the control of odor and corrosion in paper and pulp mills, sewage treatment plants, oil refineries, and smelters.