Science.gov

Sample records for gold standard equipment

  1. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  2. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  3. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the heavy equipment mechanic program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  4. Interface standards for computer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The ability to configure data systems using modules provided by independent manufacturers is complicated by the wide range of electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics exhibited within the equipment provided by different manufacturers of computers, peripherals, and terminal devices. A number of international organizations were and still are involved in the creation of standards that enable devices to be interconnected with minimal difficulty, usually involving only a cable or data bus connection that is defined by the standard. The elements covered by an interface standard are covered and the most prominent interface standards presently in use are identified and described.

  5. Vocational Education Equipment Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document lists equipment and equipment-like supplies used in classrooms in nine vocational education programs in North Carolina. It was prepared to help local educational agencies assess the adequacy of their vocational education equipment; identify and plan for equipment purchases to meet the minimum requirements; and determine the…

  6. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  7. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  8. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  9. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  10. 75 FR 35439 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards AGENCY... equipment to ensure that such equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities to... accessibility needs of individuals with disabilities with respect to medical diagnostic equipment and...

  11. 77 FR 67595 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The Committee will meet...

  12. Equipment for the calibration of squareness standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, Björn; Korhonen, Antti; Palosuo, Ilkka; Lassila, Antti

    2012-09-01

    In dimensional metrology, the measurement of squareness is a basic task for many purposes. At the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES), a squareness measuring machine for traceable calibration of squares has been developed. The machine is able to measure a squareness standard of 1000 mm × 1000 mm maximum size. The system consists of a rotary table and a tactile displacement transducer with horizontal and vertical linear guides. The error sources of the developed equipment are presented together with a brief description of the calibration procedure. Implemented error compensation of the rotary table and one linear guide is described. The uncertainty estimate is presented for squareness angle measurement. The standard measurement uncertainty for steel or granite squares is 0.2″. We also present the results of an internal comparison of squareness measurements made with the developed machine and a high accuracy coordinate measuring machine. The results show good agreement.

  13. 77 FR 6915 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is proposing accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment. The proposed standards contain minimum technical criteria to ensure that medical diagnostic equipment, including examination tables, examination chairs, weight scales, mammography equipment, and other imaging equipment used by health care......

  14. Establishment of gold-quartz standard GQS-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, Hugh T.; Marinenko, John; McLane, John E.

    1969-01-01

    A homogeneous gold-quartz standard, GQS-1, was prepared from a heterogeneous gold-bearing quartz by chemical treatment. The concentration of gold in GQS-1 was determined by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis to be 2.61?0.10 parts per million. Analysis of 10 samples of the standard by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis failed to reveal heterogeneity within the standard. The precision of the analytical methods, expressed as standard error, was approximately 0.1 part per million. The analytical data were also used to estimate the average size of gold particles. The chemical treatment apparently reduced the average diameter of the gold particles by at least an order of magnitude and increased the concentration of gold grains by a factor of at least 4,000.

  15. Advocacy: Making the Gold Standard School a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Inman, Tracy Ford

    2011-01-01

    In their last column, the authors described a Gold Standard School--a place in which all children thrive including the gifted and talented. The Checklist for a Gold Standard School, which is included in this article, highlights the main characteristics of such a school including a focus on continuous progress, talent development, policies that…

  16. 'Gold standard' for remediation of WTC contamination.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 and thereafter resulted in arguably the worst environmental disaster in the history of New York City. Particulate matter and combustion by-products containing asbestos, lead, mercury, dioxin, PAHs, and other toxic substances, not only affected rescue and recovery workers but also infiltrated thousands of residences and workplaces. Government agencies did not acknowledge responsibility for residential indoor environmental quality until eight months later, and still have not accepted responsibility for indoor environmental quality in commercial or government buildings. In May 2002, 200 representatives from 38 community, labor, environmental, and public health organizations met to discuss unmet post-9/11 public health needs. They established a technical working group to press the Environmental Protection Agency to expand and improve its proposals for the cleanup of Lower Manhattan. This 2002 document, "The 'Gold Standard' for Remediation of WTC Contamination," articulates the environmental health concerns and suggestions of grassroots organizations active in 9/11 response efforts at that time.

  17. 77 FR 39656 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... CFR Part 1195 [Docket No. ATBCB-2012-0003] RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Proposed Rulemaking on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The first meeting of... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 14706...

  18. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures.

  19. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures. PMID:16507141

  20. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility...) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The...

  1. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... the Federal Register, 77 FR 6916, on accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment and... equipment, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Access...

  2. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.424 Section 63.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....424 Standards: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or operator of a bulk gasoline terminal or...

  3. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Special Items 908.7112 Materials handling equipment replacement standards. Materials handling...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  8. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: What should be the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    plaques and environmental specimens. There are speculations for false positivity due to detection of non-pylori Helicobacters due to genetic sharing; and false negativity due to low bacterial counts and presence of PCR inhibitors. However, specimen collection, transportation and processing do not require speed and special conditions. PCR based diagnosis may be considered as gold standard by designing primers extremely specific to H. pylori and targeting at least more than one conserved genes. Similarly specificity of PCR may be improved by use of internal Primers. Further, nested PCR will take care of false negatives by countering the effect of PCR inhibitors and low bacterial counts. Therefore, nested PCR based methods if performed properly, may be proposed as gold standard test. PMID:25278682

  9. 77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board... and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) established an advisory committee to...

  10. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  11. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  12. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  13. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  14. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  15. Reflections on the NASA standardization effort. [space qualified equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnemann, H.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA standardization effort which has been in existence for four years is described. A significant number of equipments have been declared standard in order to achieve multimission utilization with the consequent avoidance of high nonrecurring development costs. The small numbers of equipments and significant gaps in time before the next user requires the item raise questions of the value of maintaining a standard, how to assure its producibility economically in the future, and how to prevent its technical obsolescence. Increasing pressures to broaden the participation of industry in the space program have also contributed to a reexamination of the philosophy of standardization.

  16. Studies and research concerning BNFP: cask handling equipment standardization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreery, Paul N.

    1980-10-01

    This report covers the activities of one of the sub-tasks within the Spent LWR Fuel Transportation Receiving, Handling, and Storage program. The sub-task is identified as Cask Handling Equipment Standardization. The objective of the sub-task specifies: investigate and identify opportunities for standardization of cask interface equipment. This study will examine the potential benefits of standardized yokes, decontamination barriers and special tools, and, to the extent feasible, standardized methods and software for handling the variety of casks presently available in the US fleet. The result of the investigations is a compilation of reports that are related by their common goal of reducing cask turnaround time.

  17. The Trouble with the Gold Standard: School Libraries & Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Although science has provided empirical evidence for centuries, it's only as recently as the 1940s that a scientific method called randomized controlled trials (RCT) emerged as a technique to test the efficacy of drugs and medical procedures. Since RCT is unique in that it can claim causality, it's considered the "gold standard" of research…

  18. Methodological Pluralism: The Gold Standard of STEM Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, there is continuing debate about appropriate methods for conducting educational evaluations. The U.S. Department of Education has placed a priority on "scientifically" based evaluation methods and has advocated a "gold standard" of randomized controlled experimentation. The priority suggests that randomized control methods are best,…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.1255 Section 63.1255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for equipment leaks. 63.1363 Section 63.1363 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  1. Surgical management of female SUI: is there a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Cox, Ashley; Herschorn, Sender; Lee, Livia

    2013-02-01

    Many surgical options exist for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The traditional gold standards of Burch retropubic colposuspension and pubovaginal slings are still appropriate treatment options for some patients, but randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that synthetic midurethral slings are just as effective as these traditional procedures but with less associated morbidity. Thus, midurethral slings--inserted via a retropubic or transobturator approach--have become the new gold standard first-line surgical treatment for women with uncomplicated SUI. Retropubic midurethral slings are associated with slightly higher success rates than transobturator slings, but at the cost of more postoperative complications. Pubovaginal slings remain an effective option for women with SUI who have failed other procedures, have had mesh complications, or who require concomitant urethral surgery. Single-incision slings have a number of benefits, including decreased operative times and early return to regular activities, but they are yet to be shown to be as effective as midurethral slings. Both retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings are effective for patients with mixed urinary incontinence, but the overall cure rate is lower than for patients with pure SUI. Based on the literature a new gold standard first-line surgical treatment for women with SUI is the synthetic midurethral sling inserted through a retropubic or transobturator approach [corrected].

  2. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  3. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  4. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  5. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  6. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  7. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  8. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  9. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  10. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with spark arrestors and drip pans;...

  11. Con: Can biomarkers be gold standards in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As Alzheimer's disease remains a clinical diagnosis, and as clinical diagnosis can be difficult, it makes sense to look for so-called biomarkers. A biomarker predicts who is likely to have the illness and who is not. Some biomarkers might even correlate with a clinically meaningful response to treatment. Developing biomarkers is often characterized as searching for a diagnostic gold standard that can seem appealing in its promise of certainty. Even so, considering both the economic history of the gold standard and the results of neuropathological studies, framing the search for measurable, biological correlates of dementia syndromes in this way is likely to be self-defeating. Instead of considering biomarkers as providing certainty through referent criterion validation, currently it makes more sense to test their construct validity and their predictive ability. This means that while biomarkers should inform, they will not dictate clinical meaningfulness. For the foreseeable future, even were they to inform diagnosis, biomarkers cannot substitute for understanding whether patients and caregivers find a given dementia treatment effective. Instead, clinicians should recognize their own determining role, both in dementia diagnosis and in the evaluation of treatment. These roles will best be executed by hearing what patients and caregivers tell us about dementia, and its response to treatment. PMID:20587007

  12. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must...

  13. HIS/RIS/PACS integration: getting to the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Boochever, Stephen S

    2004-01-01

    The technology for acquiring, storing, retrieving, displaying, and distributing images has advanced dramatically in recent years. The push is toward enterprise-wide image management solutions, where digital images from radiology, cardiology, and other "ologies" are seamlessly linked with information from clinical information systems and other databases, and they are accessed seamlessly from a single point of end-user interaction. The "gold standard" of system integration would provide the platform for improved workflow, patient throughput and patient safety, as well as decreased cost. Unfortunately, the gold standard remains elusive in most healthcare environments, even those with new systems. One of the earliest issues that plagued the progress of hospital information system/radiology information systems/picture archiving and communication systems (HIS/RIS/PACS) integration was a matter of language between Health Level-7 (HL7) and DICOM. This barrier was solved by the broker--a software and hardware device that accepts HL7 messages from the RIS then translates, or maps, the data to produce DICOM messages for transmission to the PACS. Technologist workflow requires patient and exam information from the RIS to flow to the modality. The broker provides support for this by taking advantage of the DICOM Modality Worklist (DMWL). Two primary problems are inherent in most brokered configurations. Workflow is driven by paper, and RIS information flows in 1 direction only, which leads to duplicative databases. Overcoming the limitations of HIS/RIS/PACS connectivity requires industry accepted communication protocols/rules. To facilitate this, the Integrating the Health Care Enterprise (IHE) initiative was developed. The goal of IHE is to provide end-users improved access to critical patient and clinical information across all systems within the healthcare delivery network. While the IHE initiative began to facilitate more efficient, predictable, and functional integration

  14. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... enables registration of nonroad engines and equipment that operate at multiple locations across California, so that the engine and equipment owners can operate throughout California without obtaining permits... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment...

  15. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE.

  16. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    , it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

  17. The tarnished gold standard for GM risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Henry I

    2010-01-01

    The American public's assessment of the accuracy of news stories is now at its lowest level in more than two decades, and their views of media bias and independence now match previous lows, according to a September 2009 Pew Research Center survey.  Only 29% of Americans say that news organizations usually get the facts right, while 63% say that news stories often are inaccurate.  Although there are no similar survey data for "peer-reviewed journals" -- which submit articles to review by independent experts before they are accepted for publication and which have long been considered science's "gold standard" - it is not uncommon for articles that are egregiously, obviously flawed to find their way into prominent international scientific publications. If the articles have policy implications, misinformation is quickly and widely propagated; feeds the propagandizing of opportunistic, anti-technology activists, and can have dire consequences.

  18. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  19. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  20. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75762, December 2, 2011. If oxygen dispensing units are installed,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  6. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  7. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  8. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment...

  9. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  11. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  12. Standards for material handling and facilities equipment proofload testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonn, S. P.

    1970-01-01

    Document provides information on verifying the safety of material handling and facilities equipment /MH/FE/, ranging from monorail systems to ladders and non-powered mobile equipment. Seven catagories of MH/FE equipment are defined.

  13. 78 FR 32612 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  14. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  15. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  16. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  17. 78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  18. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed...) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards'' in the... publishing an interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization...

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... utilization standards. 109-38.5104 Section 109-38.5104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  20. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... utilization standards. 109-38.5104 Section 109-38.5104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  1. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... utilization standards. 109-38.5104 Section 109-38.5104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  2. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  3. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  4. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  5. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  6. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  7. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  8. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  9. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  10. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  11. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment, and facilities. State plan requirements: A State plan for financial assistance under title I, IV... establish and maintain standards for office space, equipment, and facilities that will adequately and... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment,...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  17. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  18. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rulemaking (NPRM) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International... interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With...

  19. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  20. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  1. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permission to use free standing/floor model cameras. You may only use planetary type camera equipment. You may not use automatic rotary cameras and other equipment with automatic feed devices. We may approve... documents, or other formats, as well as other camera types not specified here, on a case-by-case basis....

  2. 75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...,\\1\\ the optical axis is determined by the manufacturer in the certification process. Our lighting... Standard (FMVSS) No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment, establishes...

  3. Reduction of ETS-VI Laser Communication Equipment Optical-Downlink Telemetry Collected During GOLD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toyoshima, M.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Toyoda, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K.; Lesh, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Free-space laser communications experiments were conducted between the laser communication equipment (LCE) on board the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the ground station located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) during late 1995 and early 1996. This article describes the on-line data reduction process used to decode LCE telemetry (called E2) downlinked on the optical carrier during the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) experiments. The LCE has the capability of transmitting real-time sensor and status information at 128 kbps by modulating the onboard diode laser. The optical downlink was detected on the ground, bit synchronized, and the resulting data stream stored on a data recorder. The recorded data were subsequently decoded by on-line data processing that included cross-correlation of the known telemetry data format and the downlink data stream. Signals obtained from the processing can be useful not only in evaluating the characteristics of the LCE but also in understanding uplink and downlink signal quality.

  4. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security equipment designed to provide secure storage for classified information. Whenever new secure... Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY...

  5. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  6. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  7. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  8. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  9. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  10. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  11. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  12. 77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air-conditioner incorporating a single... package air conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system heat pump that uses... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating,...

  13. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  14. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. 63.1159 Section 63.1159 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric...

  15. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-0871; FRL-9688-8] RIN 2060-AR00 National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent Systems and Control Devices; and Revisions to the National... Emission Standards for Storage Vessels and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent...

  16. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for Health or designee is authorized to develop and establish minimum standards of safety and quality...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  2. 76 FR 71835 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... viewing pane) or a sealed system, they do not provide the same heating function as gas fireplaces, gas... Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 223...-AC56 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of this part applies to: pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service... processes, not just batch processes. (B) For pumps, the phrase “at the frequencies specified in Table 1 of... agitators, 2,000 parts per million for pumps, and 500 parts per million for all other equipment, except...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) General equipment leak requirements. (1) The provisions of this section apply to pumps, compressors... connection systems. Section 63.169 applies to pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid... or operator may not comply with the planned routine maintenance provisions in § 63.1252(h)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  9. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  10. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  11. Optimizing subsystem test programs. [spacecraft equipment standardization for cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, W. H.; Pierman, B. C.

    1974-01-01

    The goal of reduction of space system costs is pursued in the areas of standardization of subsystem test requirements as well as overall subsystem test program resource requirements. A number of standard components are being developed by NASA. The rationale for the various environmental tests applicable to future missions and launch vehicles is discussed. The need for and approach to developing standard component specifications is presented. In addition, a method for reduction of test expenditures utilizing indexes of mission effect and hardware history as indicators of test requirements is proposed.

  12. The standardization and certification procedures of cryogenic equipment in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbayeva, A.; Drobyshev, A.; Drobyshev, N.

    2015-07-01

    The complex of procedures on stepwise carrying out actions of standardization and certification of liquid nitrogen, argon and oxygen gasificator G-200 is considered. In the process of organization of standardization and certification procedures the set of regulatory documents was developed that allow starting small-scale production of gasificators in Kazakhstan. Thus the emphasis on the potential incorporation of the requirements of such documents is placed from the Eurasian Economic Union.

  13. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ..., S5.1.1 required that the equipment listed in Table III conform to the corresponding SAE Standards... required ``license plate lamps'' to be designed to conform to SAE Standard J587 (October 1981). Among other requirements, SAE Standard J587 states in paragraph 6.1 that ``the angle between the plane of the license...

  14. 78 FR 11795 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards of NIGC regulations. DATES: Submit comments on or before April 8, 2013... Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming (MICS). 77 FR 58707. Like the Technical Standards, the MICS... Gaming Systems and Equipment AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  16. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... for Class II gaming systems and equipment to harmonize the charitable gaming exemption amount in the technical standards with the charitable gaming exemption amount in its Class II minimum internal control... Gaming Systems and Equipment AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  17. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material Handling... sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling'' by removing the rated... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0...

  18. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  19. 40 CFR 63.769 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities... specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section that is located at a natural gas processing plant and... under 40 CFR 61.242-10. (4) Sampling connection systems are exempt from the requirements of 40 CFR...

  20. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  1. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  2. Leishmania infection: laboratory diagnosing in the absence of a "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Francino, Olga; López-Fuertes, Laura; Timón, Marcos; Alberola, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    There is no gold standard for diagnosing leishmaniases. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of tests used in detecting Leishmania infection using samples from experimental infections, a reliable equivalent to the classic definition of gold standard. Without statistical differences, the highest sensitivity was achieved by protein A (ProtA), immunoglobulin (Ig)G2, indirect fluorescenece antibody test (IFAT), lymphocyte proliferation assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow (qPCR-BM), qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and the highest specificity by IgG1, IgM, IgA, qPCR-Blood, IgG, IgG2, and qPCR-BM. Maximum positive predictive value was obtained simultaneously by IgG2, qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and maximum negative predictive value by qPCR-BM. Best positive and negative likelihood ratios were obtained by IgG2. The test having the greatest, statistically significant, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was IgG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, according to the gold standard used, IFAT and qPCR are far from fulfilling the requirements to be considered gold standards, and the test showing the highest potential to detect Leishmania infection is Leishmania-specific ELISA IgG2.

  3. Reassessing RCTs as the "Gold Standard": Synergy Not Separatism in Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Pam; Chambers, Bette; Haslam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate educational interventions in the UK. However, RCTs remain controversial for some elements of the research community. This paper argues that the widespread use of the term "gold standard" to describe RCTs is problematic, as it implies that other research methods are…

  4. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  5. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  6. Nursing Program Success: Are We Using the Right "Gold" Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Sharon L.; Helfert, Karen; Teich, Carolyn R.; Viterito, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Community college administrators and state regulatory bodies assess associate degree nursing programs on a continual basis. In their quest to evaluate the programs, they rely heavily on the "first time pass rate" reports on the standard licensing test: NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination). A closer look at the use of this…

  7. Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements.

  8. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  9. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  10. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  11. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  12. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  13. 49 CFR 571.108, Nt. - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108, Nt. Section 571.108, Nt. Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS...

  14. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  15. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  16. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  17. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  18. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  19. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  20. Farm Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de machines agricoles. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for farm equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  1. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers...

  2. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers...

  3. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers...

  4. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers...

  5. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers...

  6. Cross-cultural validity and reliability testing of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-culture validity and reliability of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without the usual "gold standards." Normally criterion validity testing requires comparison with such a standard--usually another instrument or a professional diagnosis. Instead local informants identified persons with and without "agahinda gakabije" (a locally described grief syndrome) who were then asked if they thought they had this syndrome and also interviewed using the depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL). To assess criterion validity, interviews where respondent and informant agreed on the presence or absence of agahinda gakabije were compared with depression diagnosis using the DHSCL. We also assessed construct validity (using factor analysis), internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability using results from a subsequent community-based survey employing the DHSCL. We found a similar relationship between depression and agahinda gakabije as between depression and grief in western countries, which supports criterion validity. Construct validity and internal reliability were good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Test-retest reliability of a DHSCL-based scale was less adequate (0.67). Although not replacing the usual gold standards for testing criterion validity, this approach may prove useful where these standards are unavailable. As this includes much of the developing world, this could result in more accurate mental health assessments among populations for whom this has hitherto not been possible.

  7. Seeking a valid gold standard for an innovative, dialect-neutral language test.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E; Wu, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. METHOD Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Norm Referenced (DELV-NR; Seymour, Roeper, & J. de Villiers, 2005) was administered, and concurrent language samples (LSs) were collected. Using LS profiles as the gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy were compared for diagnoses made from the DELV-NR and participants' clinical status prior to recruitment. In a second analysis, the authors used results from the first analysis to make evidence-based adjustments in the estimates of DELV-NR diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS Accuracy of the DELV-NR relative to LS profiles was greater than that of prior diagnoses, indicating that the DELV-NR was an improvement over preexisting diagnoses for this group. Specificity met conventional standards, but sensitivity was somewhat low. Reanalysis using the positive and negative predictive power of the preexisting diagnosis in a discrepant-resolution procedure revealed that estimates for sensitivity and specificity for the DELV-NR were .85 and .93, respectively. CONCLUSION The authors found that, even after making allowances for the imperfection of available gold standards, clinical decisions made with the DELV-NR achieved high values on conventional measures of diagnostic accuracy.

  8. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

  10. Comparative evaluation of an ambulatory EEG platform vs. clinical gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gregory; Radhu, Natasha; Sun, Yinming; Tallevi, Kevin; Ritvo, Paul; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) testing in clinical labs makes use of large amplifiers and complex software for data acquisition. While there are new ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, few have been directly compared to a gold standard system. Here, an ultra-low power wireless EEG system designed by Imec is tested against the gold standard Neuroscan SynAmps2 EEG system, recording simultaneously from the same laboratory cap prepared with electrode gel. The data was analyzed using correlation analysis for both time domain and frequency domain data. The analysis indicated a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (mean=0.957, median=0.985) with high confidence (mean P=0.002) for 10-second sets of data transformed to the frequency domain. The time domain results had acceptable Pearson's coefficient (mean=0.580, median =0.706) with high confidence (mean P=0.008).

  11. "Gold standard" data for evaluation and comparison of 3D/2D registration methods.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation and comparison of registration techniques for image-guided surgery is an important problem that has received little attention in the literature. In this paper we address the challenging problem of generating reliable "gold standard" data for use in evaluating the accuracy of 3D/2D registrations. We have devised a cadaveric lumbar spine phantom with fiducial markers and established highly accurate correspondences between 3D CT and MR images and 18 2D X-ray images. The expected target registration errors for target points on the pedicles are less than 0.26 mm for CT-to-X-ray registration and less than 0.42 mm for MR-to-X-ray registration. As such, the "gold standard" data, which has been made publicly available on the Internet (http://lit.fe.uni-lj.si/Downloads/downloads.asp), is useful for evaluation and comparison of 3D/2D image registration methods.

  12. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  13. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-03-08

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves.

  14. A studentized permutation test for three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design.

    PubMed

    Mütze, Tobias; Konietschke, Frank; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim

    2017-03-15

    The 'gold standard' design for three-arm trials refers to trials with an active control and a placebo control in addition to the experimental treatment group. This trial design is recommended when being ethically justifiable and it allows the simultaneous comparison of experimental treatment, active control, and placebo. Parametric testing methods have been studied plentifully over the past years. However, these methods often tend to be liberal or conservative when distributional assumptions are not met particularly with small sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a studentized permutation test for testing non-inferiority and superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design. The performance of the studentized permutation test for finite sample sizes is assessed in a Monte Carlo simulation study under various parameter constellations. Emphasis is put on whether the studentized permutation test meets the target significance level. For comparison purposes, commonly used Wald-type tests, which do not make any distributional assumptions, are included in the simulation study. The simulation study shows that the presented studentized permutation test for assessing non-inferiority in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design outperforms its competitors, for instance the test based on a quasi-Poisson model, for count data. The methods discussed in this paper are implemented in the R package ThreeArmedTrials which is available on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Investigation report on the technical standards of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Tangyi; Yang, Huayuan

    2016-02-01

    The questionnaire was adopted so as to investigate the attitudes and recognition of the manufacture eneprises of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment (DTRE) to the technical standards of, relevant products. It was found that the construction of the industrial standard and the national standard was lagged behind on TCM DTRE. Under the new situation, the enterprises are highly willing to participate in the development of the industrial, national and international standards and have a certain of understanding on the standard development. Nearly 80 % of enterprises believed that it was necessary to set up the relevant mirror organization for the development of industrial, national and international standard of TCM DITRE. In the future, the standard construction of TCM DTRE must face to the new situation. The constant increasing of the enterprises. and scientific research organizations in the standard construction must promote the development of TCM DTRE.

  16. Fungus-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and standardization of parameters for its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tidke, Pritish R; Gupta, Indarchand; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    We report the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a fungus Fusarium acuminatum. Mycosynthesis of Au-NPs was carried out by challenging the fungal cells filtrate with HAuCl 4 solution (1 mM), as nanoparticles synthesizing enzyme secrete extracellularly by the fungi. The AuNPs were characterized with the help of UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Zeta Potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed absorbance peak in between 520 nm-550 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon absorbance of the gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized in the present investigation were found to be capped by proteins. XRD results showed that the distinctive formation of crystalline gold nanoparticles in the solution. The spherical and polydispersed AuNPs in the range 8 to 28 nm with average size of 17 nm were observed by TEM analysis. We also standardized the parameters like the effect of pH, temperature and salt concentration on the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. It was found that acidic pH, 1 mM salt concentration and 37 (°)C temperature were found to be optimum for the synthesis of Au-NPs. Therefore, the present study introduces the easy, better and cheaper method for biosynthesis of AuNPs.

  17. Szilard Award Recipients: Equipment Efficiency Standards: Mitigating Global Climate Change at a Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, David B.; Geller, Howard

    1998-04-01

    Efficiency standards for equipment have overcome market failures, encouraged technological innovation, and provided enormous economic and environmental benefits. They have been one of the most successful public policy initiatives in the energy arena in the past 25 years, benefiting the U.S. as well as other countries. New standards could be a cornerstone of a strategy for meeting climate goals at a profit. But delaying their enactment greatly reduces their effectiveness.

  18. Safety Requirements for Home Playground Equipment. (Voluntary Product Standard PS 66-75).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Standards Inst., Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents the National Bureau of Standards safety requirements for home playground equipment intended for use by children 2 through 10 years old. The requirements are concerned with the design and performance of the units and their components, the structural integrity of the units and their components during and after exposure to…

  19. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  20. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC56 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  3. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... January 17, 2012 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air..., January 17, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC47...

  4. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory. The... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory. The... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory. The... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  8. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  9. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  10. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA) and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE), and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician coding for cause of death

  12. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  13. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as “gold standard” for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of −23% to −27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB −2% to −6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB −0.6% to −0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%–0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers’ (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers’ (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. PMID

  14. Validation of temporal gait metrics from three IMU locations to the gold standard force plate.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Matthew R; Johnston, William; O'Mahony, Niamh; O'Mahony, Sam; Nolan, Eimear; Caulfield, Brian

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare temporal gait parameters from three different IMU locations to the gold standard force platform. 33 subjects (12 F, 21 M) performed twenty gait trials each while wearing inertial measurement units (IMUs) on the trunk, both shanks and both feet. Data was simultaneously collected from a laboratory embedded force plate. Step times were derived from the raw IMU data at the three IMU locations using methods that have been shown to be accurate. Step times from all locations were valid compared to the force plate. Foot IMU step time was the most accurate (Pearson = .991, CI width = 3.00e2), the trunk IMU was the next most accurate (Pearson = .974, CI width = 4.85e2) and shank step time was the least accurate (Pearson = .958, CI width = 6.80e2). All three sensing locations result in valid estimations of step time compared to the gold standard force plate. These results suggest that the foot location would be most appropriate for clinical applications where very precise temporal parameter detection is required.

  15. Collective biodosimetry as a dosimetric "gold standard": a study of three radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Pass, B; Baranov, A E; Kleshchenko, E D; Aldrich, J E; Scallion, P L; Gale, R P

    1997-03-01

    Quantification of the biologically relevant dose is required for the establishment of cause-and-effect between radiation detriment or burden and important biological outcomes. Most epidemiological studies of unanticipated radiation exposure fail to establish cause and effect because of an inability to construct a valid quantification of dose for the exposed population. No one biodosimetric technique (biophysical or biological) meets all the requirements of an ideal dosimeter and thus qualify as a "gold standard." This report combines new results with previously published data in order to establish a collective biodosimetry as a dosimetric "gold standard" for the victims of three radiation accidents. Combining new and previously published data is necessary as execution and planning of a comprehensive dosimetry is rarely done at the initial stages of a radiation accident. The first subject was a fireman during the initial moments of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; the second was the victim of an unspecified occupational accident; and the third was exposed to a 60Co sterilization source. There was generally good agreement among the various biodosimetric techniques used for the three accident victims.

  16. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-07-07

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique.

  17. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  18. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  19. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  20. SpaceFibre: The Standard, Simulation, IP Cores and Test Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Ferrer Florit, Albert; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    SpaceFibre is an emerging new standard for spacecraft on-board data-handling networks. Initially targeted to deliver multi-Gbit/s data rates for synthetic aperture radar and high-resolution, multi-spectral imaging instruments, SpaceFibre has developed into a unified network technology that integrates high bandwidth, with low latency, quality of service (QoS) and fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Furthermore SpaceFibre is backwards compatible with the widely used SpaceWire standard at the network level allowing simple interconnection of existing SpaceWire equipment to a SpaceFibre link or network. Developed by the University of Dundee for the European Space Agency (ESA) SpaceFibre is able to operate over fibre-optic and electrical cable and supports data rates of 2 Gbit/s in the near future and up to 5 Gbit/s long-term. Multi-laning improves the data-rate further to well over 20 Gbits/s. This paper details the current state of SpaceFibre which is now in the process of formal standardisation by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS). It describes the SpaceFibre IP core being developed for ESA. The design of a SpaceFibre demonstration board is introduced and available SpaceFibre test and development equipment is described. The way in which several SpaceWire links can be concentrated over a single SpaceFibre link will be explained.

  1. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  2. ECG or X-ray as the 'gold standard' for establishing PICC-tip location?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gemma; Jones, Matt

    2014-10-22

    Recently there has been an increase in evidence that the tip position of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) needs to be accurately placed in the lower third of the superior vena cava at the junction with the right atrium in order to minimise potential complications ( Royal College of Nursing, 2010 ; Infusion Nurses Society, 2011 ). The current 'gold standard' practice of performing a chest X-ray post-insertion of PICC can be fraught with complications with regard to accurately placing the PICC in this position. The purpose of this evaluation is to discuss how using an electrocardiogram-guided PICC placement system may be a preferable method with which to accurately measure the exact position of the PICC within the venous system.

  3. Stress: Towards a Gold Standard for Continuous Stress Assessment in the Mobile Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Karen; al’Absi, Mustafa; Ertin, Emre; Kamarck, Thomas; Nakajima, Motohiro; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile health have produced several new models for inferring stress from wearable sensors. But, the lack of a gold standard is a major hurdle in making clinical use of continuous stress measurements derived from wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a stress model (called cStress) that has been carefully developed with attention to every step of computational modeling including data collection, screening, cleaning, filtering, feature computation, normalization, and model training. More importantly, cStress was trained using data collected from a rigorous lab study with 21 participants and validated on two independently collected data sets — in a lab study on 26 participants and in a week-long field study with 20 participants. In testing, the model obtains a recall of 89% and a false positive rate of 5% on lab data. On field data, the model is able to predict each instantaneous self-report with an accuracy of 72%. PMID:26543926

  4. Can 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain the gold standard for gallbladder surgery?

    PubMed

    Kartal, Kinyas; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Fin dalla prima esecuzione di una colecistectomia laparoscopica (LC), questo approccio ha attratto l’attenzione di tutti i chirurghi per continuare quindi la sua rivoluzione tecnica. Con l’aumentare dell’esperienza chirurgica si è sviluppata la tendenza verso approcci sempre meno invasivi ed ha comportato innovazioni nel campo della chirurgia laparoscopica. Le procedure chirurgiche correnti sono: l’approccio con 4 port (4PLC) che rappresenta tutt’ora il gold standard, l’approccio con 3 port (3PLC), quello con 2 port (2PLC) ed infine quello con un solo port (SPLC). La colecistectomia robotica (RC) e la chirurgia eseguita endoscopicamente tramite orifici coporei naturali (NOTES) rappresentano le altre nuove tecniche per l’esecuzione dell’asportazione della colecisti. In questo articolo ci si propone di fare un confronto obiettivo tra i diversi tipi di colecistectomia laparoscopica sulla base della corrente letteratura medica del settore.

  5. [Gold standard for implant selection in operative therapy of spondylitis/spondylodiscitis].

    PubMed

    Wiedenhöfer, B; Hemmer, S; Akbar, M; Lehner, B; Schmidmaier, G; Klöckner, C

    2012-09-01

    The operative therapy management of vertebral osteomyelitis including debridement and stabilization is well established. Autologous bone is the preferred graft material but is limited due to availability, failure of consolidation in large defects and donor morbidity. Titanium mesh cages are alternatively equally well evaluated and other materials are also mentioned. Immobilization of affected segments is the fundamental requirement for healing of osteomyelitis. The operative therapy of choice is meticulous debridement and internal stabilization of the defect. Autologous bone seems to provide the best conditions to bridge and consolidate defects. Bone marrow aspirate, reaming irrigator aspiration (RIA) and bone marrow protein (BMP) in combination with cages have the same qualities considering bone healing but they are not yet sufficiently evaluated for management of vertebral osteomyelitis. Autologous bone graft remains the gold standard, nevertheless, its disadvantages point out the need for alternative grafts. Titanium is well proven to provide stability but bone substitutes are not sufficiently evaluated but seem to be promising.

  6. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation in diabetes with renal failure: the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Augustine, Titus

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney (SPK) transplantation in the 21st century is a proven therapeutic intervention for diabetes with renal failure. Although it is a major invasive procedure, successful transplantation leads to an overall improvement in the quality of life of the recipient, freedom from insulin and dialysis, along with stabilisation and improvement in several of the multi-system complications associated with long-term diabetes. It is also associated with improved longevity when compared to diabetics who have had a kidney transplant alone. The combined transplant could be considered a curative procedure albeit at the expense of long-term immunosuppression. In essence, successful SPK transplantation may be considered the gold standard against which all other therapeutic interventions may be measured in diabetes with end-stage renal failure.

  7. Quantifying the accuracy of forensic examiners in the absence of a "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas; Bowen, Michael D; Vanness, David J; Bienenfeld, David; Correll, Terry; Kay, Jerald; Klykylo, William M; Lehrer, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    This study asked whether latent class modeling methods and multiple ratings of the same cases might permit quantification of the accuracy of forensic assessments. Five evaluators examined 156 redacted court reports concerning criminal defendants who had undergone hospitalization for evaluation or restoration of their adjudicative competence. Evaluators rated each defendant's Dusky-defined competence to stand trial on a five-point scale as well as each defendant's understanding of, appreciation of, and reasoning about criminal proceedings. Having multiple ratings per defendant made it possible to estimate accuracy parameters using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, despite the absence of any "gold standard" for the defendants' true competence status. Evaluators appeared to be very accurate, though this finding should be viewed with caution.

  8. Stress: Towards a Gold Standard for Continuous Stress Assessment in the Mobile Environment.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Karen; al'Absi, Mustafa; Ertin, Emre; Kamarck, Thomas; Nakajima, Motohiro; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in mobile health have produced several new models for inferring stress from wearable sensors. But, the lack of a gold standard is a major hurdle in making clinical use of continuous stress measurements derived from wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a stress model (called cStress) that has been carefully developed with attention to every step of computational modeling including data collection, screening, cleaning, filtering, feature computation, normalization, and model training. More importantly, cStress was trained using data collected from a rigorous lab study with 21 participants and validated on two independently collected data sets - in a lab study on 26 participants and in a week-long field study with 20 participants. In testing, the model obtains a recall of 89% and a false positive rate of 5% on lab data. On field data, the model is able to predict each instantaneous self-report with an accuracy of 72%.

  9. Role of hydrogen ions in standard and activation heap leaching of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, YuI

    2017-02-01

    The role of hydrogen ions in activation heap leaching of gold from rebellious ore has been studied, which has allowed enhancing gold recovery. The author puts forward a gold leaching circuit with the use of activated oxygen-saturated solutions acidified to pH = 6–9.

  10. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  11. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  12. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  14. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  15. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  16. Evaluating the Gold Standard: A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debbie; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is often touted as the gold standard of measures of feigning. This label likely arises in part out of the impressive accuracy rates reported in the extensive validation research that preceded its publication. However, since its publication, researchers not only…

  17. Can We Create a "Gold Standard of Education" for Our Children through the "Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) Program"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    We need to come together as a team and become one system of total quality improvement regarding the education of our nation's children. In order to achieve a gold standard in the education of our nation's children, leadership has to be willing to go against the status quo and build bridges for long-term sustainable change. In order to survive,…

  18. Direct Animal Calorimetry, the Underused Gold Standard for Quantifying the Fire of Life*

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ~10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment. PMID:20427023

  19. Direct animal calorimetry, the underused gold standard for quantifying the fire of life.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2011-03-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ∼10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment.

  20. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  1. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  5. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  6. A standard model eye with micro scale multilayer structure for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhenggang; Ding, Zengqian; Hu, Zhixiong; Wen, Tao; Qiao, Wen; Liu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely applied in diagnosis of eye diseases during the last 20 years. Differing from traditional two-dimension imaging technologies, OCT could also provide cross-sectional information of target tissues simultaneously and precisely. As well known, axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting the OCT image quality, which determines whether an accurate diagnosis could be obtained. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the axial resolution of an OCT equipment. Phantoms always play an important role in the standardization and validation process. Here, a standard model eye with micro-scale multilayer structure was custom designed and manufactured. Mimicking a real human eye, analyzing the physical characteristic of layer structures of retina and cornea in-depth, appropriate materials were selected by testing the scattering coefficient of PDMS phantoms with difference concentration of TiO2 or BaSO4 particles. An artificial retina and cornea with multilayer-films which have a thickness of 10 to 60 micrometers for each layer were fabricated using spin coating technology. Considering key parameters of the standard model eye need to be traceable as well as accurate, the optical refractive index and layer structure thicknesses of phantoms were verified by utilizing Thickness Monitoring System. Consequently, a standard OCT model eye was obtained after the retinal or corneal phantom was embedded into a water-filled model eye which has been fabricated by 3D printing technology to simulate ocular dispersion and emmetropic refraction. The eye model was manufactured with a transparent resin to simulate realistic ophthalmic testing environment, and most key optical elements including cornea, lens and vitreous body were realized. By investigating with a research and a clinical OCT system respectively, the OCT model eye was demonstrated with similar physical properties as natural eye, and the multilayer film measurement

  7. Using the Gold Standards Framework to deliver good end of life care.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Barry; Thomas, Keri

    2017-02-27

    The aims of excellent end of life care (EOLC) and nursing are at the heart of healthcare. Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, a multi-site London teaching care provider, recognises and values the importance of good EOLC, and the quality of EOLC is used as one of the key metrics in assessing the quality of patient and family care across the trust. The principles of EOLC, including those enshrined in the Gold Standards Framework (GSF), are closely aligned with the trust's core values. Each member of staff is encouraged and supported, through the GSF process, to recognise and respond as befits their role in implementing the principles of EOLC, agreed by staff, and by patients and their relatives. This article describes the experience of, and collaboration between, trust staff and members of the GSF team, who have worked together for the past 18 months, and how this work has placed EOLC at the heart of patient care and staff recruitment. This collaboration has helped to enrich the culture of compassion and care that the trust aims to deliver, and to focus on providing person-centred care.

  8. On the creation of a clinical gold standard corpus in Spanish: Mining adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Oronoz, Maite; Gojenola, Koldo; Pérez, Alicia; de Ilarraza, Arantza Díaz; Casillas, Arantza

    2015-08-01

    The advances achieved in Natural Language Processing make it possible to automatically mine information from electronically created documents. Many Natural Language Processing methods that extract information from texts make use of annotated corpora, but these are scarce in the clinical domain due to legal and ethical issues. In this paper we present the creation of the IxaMed-GS gold standard composed of real electronic health records written in Spanish and manually annotated by experts in pharmacology and pharmacovigilance. The experts mainly annotated entities related to diseases and drugs, but also relationships between entities indicating adverse drug reaction events. To help the experts in the annotation task, we adapted a general corpus linguistic analyzer to the medical domain. The quality of the annotation process in the IxaMed-GS corpus has been assessed by measuring the inter-annotator agreement, which was 90.53% for entities and 82.86% for events. In addition, the corpus has been used for the automatic extraction of adverse drug reaction events using machine learning.

  9. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebeschuetz, John W.; Cole, Jason C.; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  10. Inter-Observer Agreement in Dysplasia Grading: Towards an Enhanced Gold Standard for Clinical Pathology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Paul M.; Abram, Timothy J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H.; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D’Apice, Katy; Kerr, A. Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M.; Weinstock, Y. Etan; Redding, Spencer W.; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H. Stan; Miller, Frank R.; McDevitt, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inter-observer agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Study Design Two adjacent serial histological sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by two different pathologists from a pool of four. In instances where the original two pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Results Individual pathologist pair kappa values ranged from 0.251 – 0.706 (fair – good) before the 3-stage review process During the initial review phase, the two pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). Following the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. Conclusion The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. PMID:26216170

  11. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910

  12. Measuring error rates in genomic perturbation screens: gold standards for human functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Traver; Brown, Kevin R; Sircoulomb, Fabrice; Rottapel, Robert; Moffat, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Technological advancement has opened the door to systematic genetics in mammalian cells. Genome-scale loss-of-function screens can assay fitness defects induced by partial gene knockdown, using RNA interference, or complete gene knockout, using new CRISPR techniques. These screens can reveal the basic blueprint required for cellular proliferation. Moreover, comparing healthy to cancerous tissue can uncover genes that are essential only in the tumor; these genes are targets for the development of specific anticancer therapies. Unfortunately, progress in this field has been hampered by off-target effects of perturbation reagents and poorly quantified error rates in large-scale screens. To improve the quality of information derived from these screens, and to provide a framework for understanding the capabilities and limitations of CRISPR technology, we derive gold-standard reference sets of essential and nonessential genes, and provide a Bayesian classifier of gene essentiality that outperforms current methods on both RNAi and CRISPR screens. Our results indicate that CRISPR technology is more sensitive than RNAi and that both techniques have nontrivial false discovery rates that can be mitigated by rigorous analytical methods. PMID:24987113

  13. "TAGS", a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gerbier, Guillaume; Gardner, Ian A

    2002-02-14

    When a perfect reference test (i.e. "gold standard") is not available, it is possible to obtain estimates of test sensitivity and specificity using "latent-class" methods. However, there are few widely available software programs that allow implementation of these procedures. We describe the development of a program (implemented in R and S-Plus software) for this purpose that yields maximum-likelihood estimates of sensitivity, specificity and prevalence. We also have implemented an HTML form, which submits data to a web-based interface to R. The programs can incorporate data obtained from several populations, results of multiple tests, and can account for data obtained from a reference population in which the true status (infected or non-infected) of each individual is known exactly. Two estimation methods are used: a Newton-Raphson procedure and an expectation-maximisation (EM) procedure. The estimation methods assume test independence conditional on the infection status of the individuals and constant test accuracy in each population. A goodness-of-fit statistic and the residuals of pairwise correlation coefficients are calculated to check the validity of these assumptions. Two examples are used to illustrate application and limitations of the programs. The programs are available at www.afssa.fr/interne/tags.htm (Europe) or www.epi.ucdavis.edu/diagnostictests/ (USA).

  14. Analysis of Standards and Specific Documentation about Equipment of Dimensional Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. J.; Flores, I.; Sebastian, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    Currently the certification of quality systems and accreditation of laboratories for metrology and testing are activities of great interest within the framework of advanced production systems. In this context, the availability of standardized documents, complete and efficient as well as specific documents edited by agencies with experience in this field, is especially important to obtain better results and lower costs. This work tries to establish the foundations to evaluate a documental system about equipment of Dimensional Metrology. An integrated and complete system does not exist in international field, so the Spanish case will be analyzed as example to the general study. In this paper we consider three types of instruments commonly used in the field of Dimensional Metrology (vernier calliper, micrometer calliper and mechanical dial gauge) and are passed to analyze the contents of UNE standards that affect them directly, and the two collections of documents produced and edited by the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), such as "calibration procedures" and "use manuals." Given the results of this analysis, a discussion on the metrological characteristics of the contents of the document in question is developed and recommendations for their use and improvement are proposed.

  15. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison.

  16. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP) Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP) performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data. PMID:21816099

  17. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a size-independent new "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Elzayat, Ehab A; Habib, Enmar I; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2005-11-01

    We report our experience with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for treatment of 552 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and their long-term outcome. Between March 1998 and January 2005, a retrospective review was conducted at our institution of 552 cases in which patients underwent HoLEP. Patient characteristics, indications for surgery, preoperative and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), peak flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine, operative data, catheterization time, hospital stay, and immediate and long-term complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 73.7 +/- 7.9 years, and the mean follow-up time was 36 months. The mean preoperative prostate size was 83.7 +/- 49.7 cm3 (range, 20 to 351 cm3), the mean enucleation time was 86 minutes (range, 15 to 255 minutes), and the mean enucleated tissue weight was 52.1 +/- 43.7 g (range, 5 to 340 g). The voiding parameters were significantly improved, with a 200% increase in Qmax, as well as a 75% improvement in I-PSS at 1 year postoperatively, which continued to improve during subsequent follow-up. A total of 11 patients required blood transfusion; 8 of them were on anticoagulant therapy. Irritative symptoms were noted in 9.4% and transient stress incontinence in 4.2% of patients. Bladder neck contracture and urethral stricture each developed in 1.3% of patients. We conclude that HoLEP is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of symptomatic BPH, regardless of prostate size, with low morbidity and short hospital stay. HoLEP appears to be the modern alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy, and it may be considered a size-independent new "gold standard."

  18. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Haris R.; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC. PMID:27251827

  19. Urologist led one-stop testicular clinic: the UK 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Muthuveloe, David; Nkwam, Nkwam; Hutton, Paul; Wallace, D M A; Viney, Richard; Patel, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Prompt diagnosis and early treatment for testicular cancer is vital. To help with this a one-stop, urologist run, testicular clinic with testicular ultrasound scanning as an integral part of the clinic format was introduced to investigate patients in an efficient and timely manner. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of running a one-stop testicular clinic. A prospectively collected electronic database of all patients attending a one-stop testicular clinic at a busy university hospital was interrogated over a 6-year period. Only new referral males, above the age of 15 years old were included. Case notes were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1757 patients were found with a median age of 36. 6.3 % had a suspicious ultrasound scan and overall 5.6 % were found to have malignancy histologically. In addition a significant proportion of men with a history of testicular maldescent went on to develop testicular cancer (p < 0.01). Median time from referral to clinic and clinic to orchidectomy for suspected testicular cancers was 9 and 5 days respectively (95 % CI). Some of the benefits of a urologist run one-stop testicular clinic include: timely diagnosis and treatment, early reassurance with normal investigations, the discovery of clinically unsuspecting malignancy and the increase in teaching opportunities. These collective benefits must improve patient experience and benefit the department as a whole. A urologist led one-stop testicular clinic should be regarded as the gold standard.

  20. Ghost particle velocimetry: accurate 3D flow visualization using standard lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-07-26

    We describe and test a new approach to particle velocimetry, based on imaging and cross correlating the scattering speckle pattern generated on a near-field plane by flowing tracers with a size far below the diffraction limit, which allows reconstructing the velocity pattern in microfluidic channels without perturbing the flow. As a matter of fact, adding tracers is not even strictly required, provided that the sample displays sufficiently refractive-index fluctuations. For instance, phase separation in liquid mixtures in the presence of shear is suitable to be directly investigated by this "ghost particle velocimetry" technique, which just requires a microscope with standard lamp illumination equipped with a low-cost digital camera. As a further bonus, the peculiar spatial coherence properties of the illuminating source, which displays a finite longitudinal coherence length, allows for a 3D reconstruction of the profile with a resolution of few tenths of microns and makes the technique suitable to investigate turbid samples with negligible multiple scattering effects.

  1. Random forests for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-coded verbal autopsy (CCVA) is a promising alternative to the standard approach of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA), because of its high speed, low cost, and reliability. This study introduces a new CCVA technique and validates its performance using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 verbal autopsies (VAs). Methods The Random Forest (RF) Method from machine learning (ML) was adapted to predict cause of death by training random forests to distinguish between each pair of causes, and then combining the results through a novel ranking technique. We assessed quality of the new method at the individual level using chance-corrected concordance and at the population level using cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy as well as linear regression. We also compared the quality of RF to PCVA for all of these metrics. We performed this analysis separately for adult, child, and neonatal VAs. We also assessed the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE). Results For all metrics, for all settings, RF was as good as or better than PCVA, with the exception of a nonsignificantly lower CSMF accuracy for neonates with HCE information. With HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 3.4 percentage points higher for adults, 3.2 percentage points higher for children, and 1.6 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was 0.097 higher for adults, 0.097 higher for children, and 0.007 lower for neonates. Without HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 8.1 percentage points higher than PCVA for adults, 10.2 percentage points higher for children, and 5.9 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was higher for RF by 0.102 for adults, 0.131 for children, and 0.025 for neonates. Conclusions We found that our RF Method outperformed the PCVA method in terms of chance-corrected concordance and CSMF accuracy for

  2. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  3. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  4. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  5. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  6. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., harmonization with current international standards will facilitate marketing of their products internationally... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed... adopted international standards affecting design, performance, and testing for such lifesaving...

  7. Comparative evaluation of haemoglobin estimation amongst pregnant women in Ibadan: Hemocue - B haemoglobin analyzer versus haemiglobincyanide (standard) method as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Ojengbede, O A; Okonkwo, S N; Morhason-Bello, I O

    2008-08-01

    This was a comparative crossectional study that was conducted among 557 antenatal women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1st April and 30th May 2006. The study compared the accuracy of haemoglobin estimation using an automated HemoCue B analyzer kit with a standard laboratory method (haemogloincyanide) as the gold standard. The result showed a positive correlation of HaemoCue haemoglobin results when compared with the standard methods (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.892; p value = 0.000). We concluded that the use of the automated HemoCue kit for haemoglobin estimation gives an objective assessment which overcomes the challenge of extra skilled manpower or power outages in rural areas thereby enhancing access to quality of care in resource poor countries.

  8. The challenge of determining handedness in electron tomography and the use of DNA origami gold nanoparticle helices as molecular standards

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Pilhofer, Martin; Mastronarde, David N.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    The apparent handedness of an EM-tomography reconstruction depends on a number of conventions and can be confused in many ways. As the number of different hardware and software combinations being used for electron tomography continue to climb, and the reconstructions being produced reach higher and higher resolutions, the need to verify the hand of the results has increased. Here we enumerate various steps in a typical tomography experiment that affect handedness and show that DNA origami gold nanoparticle helices can be used as convenient and fail-safe handedness standards. PMID:23639902

  9. The SYSCILIA gold standard (SCGSv1) of known ciliary components and its applications within a systems biology consortium.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Teunis Jp; Wheway, Gabrielle; Slaats, Gisela G; Huynen, Martijn A; Giles, Rachel H

    2013-05-31

    The multinational SYSCILIA consortium aims to gain a mechanistic understanding of the cilium. We utilize multiple parallel high-throughput (HTP) initiatives to develop predictive models of relationships between complex genotypes and variable phenotypes of ciliopathies. The models generated are only as good as the wet laboratory data fed into them. It is therefore essential to orchestrate a well-annotated and high-confidence dataset to be able to assess the quality of any HTP dataset. Here, we present the inaugural SYSCILIA gold standard of known ciliary components as a public resource.

  10. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme compared with other smoking cessation interventions in Denmark: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful quitting. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting A total of 423 smoking cessation clinics from different settings reported data from 2001 to 2013. Participants In total, 82 515 patients were registered. Smokers ≥15 years old and attending a programme with planned follow-up were included. Smokers who did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard Programme, Come & Quit, crash courses, health promotion counselling (brief intervention) and other interventions. Main outcome Self-reported continuous abstinence for 6 months. Results Overall, 33% (11 184) were continuously abstinent after 6 months; this value was 24% when non-respondents were considered smokers. The follow-up rate was 74%. Women were less likely to remain abstinent, OR 0.83 (CI 0.79 to 0.87). Short interventions were more effective among men. After adjusting for confounders, the Gold Standard Programme was the only intervention with significant results across sex, increasing the odds of abstinence by 69% for men and 31% for women. In particular, compliance, and to a lesser degree, mild smoking, older age and not being disadvantaged were associated with positive outcomes for both sexes. Compliance increased the odds of abstinence more than 3.5-fold. Conclusions Over time, Danish smoking cessation interventions have been effective in real life. Compliance is the main predictor of successful quitting. Interestingly, short programmes seem to have

  11. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA...

  15. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? 1068.425 Section 1068.425 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? 1068.425 Section 1068.425 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  20. Selection of emission factor standards for estimating emissions from diesel construction equipment in building construction in the Australian context.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomin; Sandanayake, Malindu; Setunge, Sujeeva; Li, Chunqing; Fang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from equipment usage and transportation at the construction stage are classified as the direct emissions which include both greenhouse gas (GHG) and non-GHG emissions due to partial combustion of fuel. Unavailability of a reliable and complete inventory restricts an accurate emission evaluation on construction work. The study attempts to review emission factor standards readily available worldwide for estimating emissions from construction equipment. Emission factors published by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (AUS NGA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) are critically reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses. A selection process based on the availability and applicability is then developed to help identify the most suitable emission factor standards for estimating emissions from construction equipment in the Australian context. A case study indicates that a fuel based emission factor is more suitable for GHG emission estimation and a time based emission factor is more appropriate for estimation of non-GHG emissions. However, the selection of emission factor standards also depends on factors like the place of analysis (country of origin), data availability and the scope of analysis. Therefore, suitable modifications and assumptions should be incorporated in order to represent these factors.

  1. 78 FR 55889 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Condensing Units 6. Small Units 7. Consideration of Impact of Amended Standards 8. CO 2 Cascade Systems 9...- Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 1200-2010, appendix D. ``V'' is the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.103a - Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this subpart shall develop and implement a written flare management plan no later than the date specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The flare management plan must include the information described..., ancillary equipment, and fuel gas systems connected to the flare for each affected flare. (2) An...

  3. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note...

  4. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note...

  5. 75 FR 53457 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    .... Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. International Trade Impacts M... Department of Homeland Security EPA Environmental Protection Agency FRP Fiber Reinforced Plastic GSA General... use; (3) firefighting equipment, its use, and precautionary measures to guard against fire;...

  6. Removal of plastic materials using adjustments and revisions to standard seed cotton clean equipment: Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the U.S. A previous study showed that current cotton ginning equipment is not very efficient in removing plastic included in the seed cotton. The purpose of this...

  7. [Meet the challenge of the implementation of the EMC standard for medical electrical equipment].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Lin, Weizeng; Liu, Jingling

    2011-03-01

    This paper reveals the EMC quality situation of China's medical electrical equipment and the existing security risks in order to arouse the concerns of the government supervision departments, technical inspection units, the production enterprises and the users. It also serves as a reference when formulating related policies and measures.

  8. Equipped for the Future: Tools & Standards for Building & Assessing Quality Adult Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangenberg, Gail; Watson, Sarah

    This report presents results from interviews with a sampling of experienced Equipped for the Future (EFF) users. Chapter I provides background and context for this initiative. Chapter II provides facts and figures from the field and presents questions posed and interviewees' views. The questions are as follows: (1) Why did you or your organization…

  9. Increase in linkage information by stratification of pedigree data into gold-standard and standard diagnoses: application to the NIMH Alzheimer Disease Genetics Initiative Dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derek; Haynes, Chad; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Abraham M

    2006-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with a standard clinical method (subject to misclassification error) are often combined with patients diagnosed with a gold-standard method (with zero or very small misclassification error) in family-based studies of complex disease. For example, non-autopsied patients (NAP) are often included along with autopsy-proven (AP) patients in family-based studies of complex diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Theoretical and simulation studies suggest that certain misclassification errors can result in severe reduction of power in genetic linkage and association analyses and that phenotype (or diagnostic) error can produce misleading results. Morton's test for heterogeneity can identify genomic regions where error may have led to loss in power. We applied this test to pedigree data from the NIMH Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Initiative Database separated into AP and NAP pedigrees. Morton's test identified one highly significant region of heterogeneity on chromosome 2. The source of the heterogeneity was due to significant indication of linkage in the AP pedigrees at position 109 cM (p value = 6.68 x 10(-5)) with no indication in the NAP pedigrees. Furthermore, Morton's test showed no evidence for heterogeneity on chromosome 19 in early-onset pedigrees that showed highly significant evidence for linkage in other published reports. These results suggest that supplementing linkage analysis with Morton's test can be usefully applied to genetic data sets that have AP and NAP samples, or other sample mixtures that include a 'gold standard' subgroup with reduced error rate, to increase power to detect linkage in the presence of diagnostic misclassification.

  10. 76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... in SAE J587 October 1981, which is incorporated into FMVSS No. 108 in Table III for license plate... additional support for ] their request, MIC mentions that SAE Standard J587 was updated in 1997 to also allow... plate mounting requirements of SAE Standard J587 (October 1981) directly into the regulatory...

  11. Design of a medical and laboratory equipment management program for the new standards certification achievement in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Clark, D; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B; Rodriguez-Vera, R

    2010-01-01

    Certification for healthcare institutions in Mexico is ruled by 2009 standards homologated with the Joint Commission International criteria. Nowadays, healthcare requires of medical equipment and devices, so it has become necessary to implement guidelines for its adequate management in order to reach the highest level of quality and safety at the lowest cost. The objective of this work was to develop a Medical and Laboratory Equipment Management Program, oriented to the improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the technological resources in order to meet the certification requirements. The result of this work allows to have an auto evaluation tool that focuses the efforts of the National Institute for Respiratory Diseases to the achievement of the new requirements established for the certification.

  12. Disassembly and Loading of Standard Engineer Equipment for Transport in the C-46 Cargo Plane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-28

    nual Mfgr’s. Manual 5-E19-3 Appendix Q R 5-5100 Truck, Fire. Powered, Crash, Clam 156 Complete w/Equipment. Distributor, Bituminous Material ... materially weakened by the latter procedure. 6-1210 5-1037 Mfgr’s Manual Mfgr’s Manual b. Sometimes it may expedite dismantling procedure to make...loekwaahers. cotter pins, and gas- ket material to replace those lost or damaged during disas- sembly» A sufficient quantity of welding eleotrodes must

  13. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot

  14. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, Helene; Comin, Arianna; Isaksson, Mats; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR), allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108) and autumn 2012 (n=69) in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88), which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99) for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1) for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1). One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88) was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83). PMID:26968153

  15. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or... on the lens face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp recommended in SAE Standard...

  16. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... feature of the pump whereby polymer fluid used to provide lubrication and/or cooling of the pump...

  17. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  18. Standardization of Automatic Test Equipment in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    cooperation among the services and defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the...are developed, they should satisfy multi- system and multi- service requirements" (6-Q-3). Standardization Responsibility Department of Defense (DoD...problems and issues forwarded by the lead services (2-13) The services were once required to submit a consolidated report to DMSSO outlining standardization

  19. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.; Judkoff, R.; Gall, J.; Knebel, D.; Henninger, R.; Witte, M.; Hong, T.; McDowell, T.; Yan, D.; Zhou, X.

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  20. Clathrate Ba8Au16P30: the "gold standard" for lattice thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, James; Lebedev, Oleg I; Roddatis, Vladimir V; Kaseman, Derrick C; Sen, Sabyasachi; Dolyniuk, Juli-Anna; Lee, Kathleen; Olenev, Andrei V; Kovnir, Kirill

    2013-08-21

    A novel clathrate phase, Ba8Au16P30, was synthesized from its elements. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to establish the crystal structure of the new compound. Ba8Au16P30 crystallizes in an orthorhombic superstructure of clathrate-I featuring a complete separation of gold and phosphorus atoms over different crystallographic positions, similar to the Cu-containing analogue, Ba8Cu16P30. Barium cations are trapped inside the large polyhedral cages of the gold-phosphorus tetrahedral framework. X-ray diffraction indicated that one out of 15 crystallographically independent phosphorus atoms appears to be three-coordinate. Probing the local structure and chemical bonding of phosphorus atoms with (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy confirmed the three-coordinate nature of one of the phosphorus atomic positions. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicated that the clathrate Ba8Au16P30 is well-ordered on the atomic scale, although numerous twinning and intergrowth defects as well as antiphase boundaries were detected. The presence of such defects results in the pseudo-body-centered-cubic diffraction patterns observed in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. NMR and resistivity characterization of Ba8Au16P30 indicated paramagnetic metallic properties with a room-temperature resistivity of 1.7 mΩ cm. Ba8Au16P30 exhibits a low total thermal conductivity (0.62 W m(-1) K(-1)) and an unprecedentedly low lattice thermal conductivity (0.18 W m(-1) K(-1)) at room temperature. The values of the thermal conductivity for Ba8Au16P30 are significantly lower than the typical values reported for solid crystalline compounds. We attribute such low thermal conductivity values to the presence of a large number of heavy atoms (Au) in the framework and the formation of multiple twinning interfaces and antiphase defects, which are effective scatterers of heat-carrying phonons.

  1. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  2. 77 FR 71752 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... and importing requirements from applicable SAE International standards incorporated by reference into... that this requirement was derived from both the regulatory text of FMVSS No. 108 S5.1.1.3 and SAE J592e...\\ Additionally, the agency explained that Table 1 of SAE J592e, detailing the photometric requirements of...

  3. 78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... whose requirements were transferred to the regulatory text of the standard was SAE J587 OCT81, License Plate Lamps (Rear Registration Plate Lamps). Among other requirements derived from SAE J587 OCT81.... Additionally, Harley-Davidson and Ford stated that the license plate mounting provisions of SAE J587 OCT81...

  4. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  5. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  6. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  7. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  8. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  9. 77 FR 17897 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... standards for hazardous air pollutants for individual source categories that are part of the chemical... control devices used to control process vents from reactors, distillation and other operations, as well as... achievable control technology mg/acm milligram per actual cubic meter MON Miscellaneous Organic...

  10. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... data stored in critical memory must be checked after certain events. The current regulation and... would be leaving a gap in the testing standards for critical memory. Therefore, the Commission has... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and that no detailed statement is required...

  11. Optimal Allocation of Gold Standard Testing under Constrained Availability: Application to Assessment of HIV Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Hogan, Joseph W.; Wang, Lisa; Zhang, Shangxuan; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings (RLS) are mostly based on clinical and immunological markers (e.g., CD4 cell counts). Recent research indicates that the guidelines are inadequate and can result in high error rates. Viral load (VL) is considered the “gold standard”, yet its widespread use is limited by cost and infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm that uses information from routinely-collected clinical and immunological markers to guide a selective use of VL testing for diagnosing HIV treatment failure, under the assumption that VL testing is available only at a certain portion of patient visits. Our algorithm identifies the patient sub-population, such that the use of limited VL testing on them minimizes a pre-defined risk (e.g., misdiagnosis error rate). Diagnostic properties of our proposal algorithm are assessed by simulations. For illustration, data from the Miriam Hospital Immunology Clinic (RI, USA) are analyzed. PMID:24672142

  12. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  13. Development of a hand- transmitted vibration measurement instrument to perform tests in medical equipment according to the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005 Ed.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, F. F.; Moriya, H. T.; Moraes, J. C. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    According to the sub clause 9.6.3 of the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005, medical electrical equipment must provide means of protection against hazardous hand- transmitted vibrations. Compliance of this sub clause is checked by using a vibration measurement instrument in accordance with ISO 5349-1-2001 standard. The present article describes the development of a vibration measurement instrument to perform vibration measurements tests in medical equipments.

  14. Validation and clinical application of a continuous P0.1 measurement using standard respiratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, R; Mohnhaupt, R; Slama, K; Hausmann, S; Pappert, D; Rossaint, R; Falke, K

    1996-12-01

    The airway occlusion pressure, P0.1, is the negative airway pressure generated during the first 100 msec of an occluded inspiration. P0.1 is a parameter for the neuro-muscular activation of the respiratory system, which is an important determinant for the work of breathing. It has been shown to be a good predictor for successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Standard P0.1 measurement techniques are based on a total occlusion of the inspiration for more than 100 msec. These measurements are technically complex and therefore not useful for clinical purposes. Furthermore, a significant breath-by-breath variability has been shown for P0.1, which is neglected by any single point measurement technique. Therefore, we have developed a continuous on-line measurement for breath-by-breath determination of P0.1 using the Siemens Servo 900C respirator. In triggered mechanical ventilation the delay time between the onset of the patient's inspiration and flow delivery from the respiratory is more than 100 msec for this respirator. During that time the inspiration is occluded. Therefore, the trigger effort was proposed to be a good estimate of P0.1. Based on this, we calculated P0.1 as follows: airway pressure (Paw) was registered at the endotracheal tube site of the respiratory tubing, digitized and acquired by a personal computer at 100 Hz. The recorder output of the Servo 900C was connected to the same computer, delivering the electronical signal for the inspiratory valve to open when the inspiratory effort has exceeded the trigger threshold, which needs a minimal delay time of 80 msec. Around 20 msec after this signal flow is delivered from the respirator. The computer runs an algorithm, which recognizes this signal and calculates P0.1 (Servo P0.1) as the slope of the pressure drop during this 100 msec. Paw tracings and the calculated P0.1 values were displayed on the computer screen and stored on disk. This method was validated by comparing it to the standard technique

  15. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  16. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, A.; Dai, I.; Oleniuk, P.; Todd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  17. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 3: Tasks 3 and 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The modifications for the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment, designed for ground based laboratory use, that would be required to permit its use in the Spacelab environments were determined. The cost of these modifications were estimated and the most cost effective approach to implementing them were identified. A shared equipment implementation in which the various Spacelab users draw their required complement of standard NIM and CAMAC equipment for a given flight from a common equipment pool was considered. The alternative approach studied was a dedicated equipment implementation in which each of the users is responsible for procuring either their own NIM/CAMAC equipment or its custom built equivalent.

  18. Preparation of TNT, RDX and Ammonium Nitrate Standards on Gold-on-Silicon Surfaces by Thermal Inkjet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrable-Rose, Madeline; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-12-01

    This research examines the surface contamination properties, trace sample preparation methodologies, detection systems response and generation of explosive contamination standards for trace detection systems. Homogeneous and reproducible sample preparation is relevant for trace detection of chemical threats, such as warfare agents, highly energetic materials (HEM) and toxic industrial chemicals. The objective of this research was to develop a technology capable of producing samples and standards of HEM with controlled size and distribution on a substrate to generate specimens that would reproduce real contamination conditions. The research activities included (1) a study of the properties of particles generated by two deposition techniques: sample smearing deposition and inkjet deposition, on gold-coated silicon, glass and stainless steel substrates; (2) characterization of composition, distribution and adhesion characteristics of deposits; (3) evaluation of accuracy and reproducibility for depositing neat highly energetic materials such as TNT, RDX and ammonium nitrate; (4) a study of HEM-surface interactions using FTIR-RAIRS; and (5) establishment of protocols for validation of surface concentration using destructive methods such as HPLC.

  19. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, José C.; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D.; Maserati Jr, Marc P.; Alves, Mayra F.; de Almeida, Tamie G.; Cardoso, Bruna L.; Basso, Andrea C.; Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment. PMID:27584609

  20. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Rocha, José C; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D; Maserati, Marc P; Alves, Mayra F; Almeida, Tamie G de; Cardoso, Bruna L; Basso, Andrea C; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-08-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment.

  1. Anesthetic mishaps and the cost of monitoring: a proposed standard for monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Whitcher, C; Ream, A K; Parsons, D; Rubsamen, D; Scott, J; Champeau, M; Sterman, W; Siegel, L

    1988-01-01

    Review of insurance data indicates that approximately 1.5 claims are paid per 10,000 anesthetic procedures, a conservative estimate of the incidence of preventable serious injury associated with anesthesia. Insurance data permit estimation of the premium cost for the anesthesiologist and hospital, per operating room per year, of $69,429.00. We propose the use of an enhanced monitoring standard requiring a pulse oximeter, capnograph, spirometer, halometer, automatic sphygmomanometer, breathing circuit oxygen analyzer, stethoscope, electrocardiographic monitor, and temperature monitor. We suggest that this premium cost, together with the estimate that 50% of incidents would be avoided, predicts a resultant saving of over $27,000/operating room/year, a savings equal to the entire cost of the enhanced monitoring system in approximately 8 months, or a yearly savings of over five times the annualized expense of the monitoring system. Thus, in addition to the moral imperative to monitor a patient during anesthesia to avoid injury and death, there is an economic incentive to monitor effectively.

  2. Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL) for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA). However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE) items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar

  3. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  4. Blood pressure measurement in children: which method? which is the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrico; Murer, Luisa; Matteucci, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hypertension has become increasingly prevalent in children. Hypertension that begins in childhood can carry on into adulthood, therefore early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of high blood pressure may improve long-term outcomes of children and adolescents. As far as pediatric hypertension is concerned, doubts still persist about the right instruments, modalities and standards of reference that should be used in routine practice. Due to the dynamic process of growth and development, many physiological parameters undergo intensive change with age. Therefore, in children, the definition of hypertension can not rely on a single blood pressure level but should be based on age- and height-specific percentiles. In this review, we introduce the nephrologist to the correct definition of high blood pressure in children. Moreover, we specifically address the main characteristics of different modalities for blood pressure measurement in children, focusing on practical aspects. The latest international guidelines and appropriate standards of reference for office, ambulatory and home blood pressure data collection are presented. As clinicians are being faced with a greater number of children with hypertension, they should be aware of these peculiarities.

  5. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  6. Histopathological examination of nail clippings using PAS staining (HPE-PAS): gold standard in diagnosis of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Shazia; Ahmed, Qazi Masood; Lanker, Audil Mohmad; Hassan, Iffat; Jeelani, Nasir; Fazili, Tawheeda

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is fungal infection of one or more of the nail units. However, because fungi cause only about half of all nail dystrophies, the use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is important to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment. Aim of the present study was to compare direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS for diagnosis of onychomycosis by evaluating their sensitivity and various other relevant statistical parameters. A prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 patients with a high degree of clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Nail specimens were evaluated using three diagnostic methods, i.e. direct microscopy using 20% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) & 40% Di-methyl-suphoxide (DMSO), culture and histopathological examination using PAS stain (HPE-PAS). Of 216 patients direct microscopy was positive in 138 (63.9%), culture in 147 (68%) and HPE-PAS in 164 patients (76%). One hundred and seventy-nine patients fitted into the criteria set for confirmed diagnosis of onychomycosis. Using this as a denominator; direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS had sensitivities of 77.1%, 70% and 91.6% respectively. Also, HPE-PAS showed the highest sensitivity of 94.7% in 19 cases with prediagnostic antimycotic treatment compared to direct microscopy (42.1%) or culture (57.9%). HPE-PAS shows high sensitivity for diagnosis of onychomycosis and can be considered as a gold standard in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

  7. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  8. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Young Children in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Carlos; Malheiro, Adriana; Bührer, Samira; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor; Abellana, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009–2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53–91] and 97% (95%CI: 89–100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41–66) and 81% (95%CI:71–90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61–99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47–95). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. PMID:27783642

  9. Validation of ultrasonographic muscle thickness measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bullen, Lindsey E.; Evola, Maria G.; Griffith, Emily H.; Seiler, Gabriela S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US) muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT) in the canine. Design This was a prospective study. Population Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. Materials and Methods Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors) and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials) muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position. Prior to CT scan, the skin over the muscle sites was shaved and marked with a permanent marker. Patient body position was determined based on the patient’s CT plan; positioning was consistent between CT and US imaging. To ensure identical imaging position for both CT and US measurements, radio-opaque fiducial markers were placed directly over the skin marks once the dog was positioned. Quantitative measurements (cm) for both lean muscle mass (LMM) and subcutaneous adipose (SQA) were recorded. Statistical comparisons between CT and US values were done separately for each site and type. Results Muscle groups and associated SQA measured by US and CT were not statistically different based on an adjusted p-value using Bonferroni’s correction (p < 0.0031). In addition, all LMM and SQA sites had good reliability and agreement (Cronbach’s α = 0.8 − 1.0) between the two metrics, excluding the coxofemoral extensor muscle group (Cronbach’s α = 0.73232). Linear regression analysis of muscle measures indicated close agreement (slope range 0.93–1.09) and minimal bias of variation (intercept range 0.05–0.11) between CT versus US modalities, with the exception of the coxofemoral extensor muscle. Similarly, SQA CT and US measures indicated close agreement with the slope range of 0.88–1.02 and minimal bias of

  10. A survey of immunohistochemical biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer against a gene expression profile gold standard.

    PubMed

    Won, Jennifer R; Gao, Dongxia; Chow, Christine; Cheng, Jinjin; Lau, Sherman Y H; Ellis, Matthew J; Perou, Charles M; Bernard, Philip S; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2013-11-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer delineates a particularly aggressive subtype referred to as 'basal-like', which comprises ∼15% of all breast cancers, afflicts younger women and is refractory to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies. Immunohistochemical surrogate definitions for basal-like breast cancer, such as the clinical ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative phenotype and models incorporating positive expression for CK5 (CK5/6) and/or EGFR are heavily cited. However, many additional biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer have been described in the literature. A parallel comparison of 46 proposed immunohistochemical biomarkers of basal-like breast cancer was performed against a gene expression profile gold standard on a tissue microarray containing 42 basal-like and 80 non-basal-like breast cancer cases. Ki67 and PPH3 were the most sensitive biomarkers (both 92%) positively expressed in the basal-like subtype, whereas CK14, IMP3 and NGFR were the most specific (100%). Among biomarkers surveyed, loss of INPP4B (a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol signaling) was 61% sensitive and 99% specific with the highest odds ratio (OR) at 108, indicating the strongest association with basal-like breast cancer. Expression of nestin, a common marker of neural progenitor cells that is also associated with the triple-negative/basal-like phenotype and poor breast cancer prognosis, possessed the second highest OR at 29 among the 46 biomarkers surveyed, as well as 54% sensitivity and 96% specificity. As a positively expressed biomarker, nestin possesses technical advantages over INPP4B that make it a more ideal biomarker for identification of basal-like breast cancer. The comprehensive immunohistochemical biomarker survey presented in this study is a necessary step for determining an optimized surrogate immunopanel that best defines basal-like breast cancer in a practical and clinically accessible way.

  11. Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: the gold standard? A multicenter controlled trial in 1578 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, J M; Boudet, M J; Fingerhut, A; Poucher, J; Hennet, H; Habib, E; Veyrières, M; Flamant, Y

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hernia repair is the second most frequently performed operation in France and in the United States, the prevalence being 36 for every 1000 males. Lowering the recurrence rate by 1% would mean 1000 fewer operations for hernia repair per year in France. METHODS: Between 1983 and 1989, 1578 adult males with a total of 1706 nonrecurrent inguinal hernias were prospectively and randomly allotted to undergo either a Bassini's repair, Cooper's ligament, or Shouldice repair with polypropylene or a Shouldice repair with stainless steel for determination of which technique was associated with the lowest recurrence rate. Fifty-nine hernia repairs were withdrawn after inclusion. Of the 1647 remaining hernias, 52.2% were indirect, 25.6% were direct, and 23.2% were combined. Patients were seen every 6 months for 3 years and then every year. Median follow-up was 5 years 8 months (range, 3 months-8.5 years). RESULTS: At 8.5 years, 5.6% of hernias were lost to follow-up. Ninety-seven hernia repairs failed, 50% during the first 2 years. The actuarial recurrence rate was 7.94% at 8.5 years. The Shouldice repair (stainless steel or polypropylene) was associated with fewer recurrences (6.1%) than either the Bassini's (8.6%) or Cooper's ligament repair (11.2%) technique (p < 0.001). This difference remained significant even when the maximal bias test was used. Fewer recurrences (5.9%) were observed with the stainless steel wire Shouldice repair than with polypropylene version (6.5%), but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Shouldice hernia repair provides the patient with the best chances of nonrecurrence regardless of the anatomical type of hernia. The Shouldice hernia repair should be the gold standard for inguinal hernia repair in men and serves as the basis for comparison with all other techniques, be they prosthetic or laparoscopic. PMID:8526578

  12. Gold Standard Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    salbutamol (albuterol) may demonstrate values greater than one suggesting gas trapping. reversible airflow obstruction suggestive of asthma or...halo blue Alcohol (amyl) + 11 ________ Amphetamines ______ _____ blue 136 DRUG CHROMA- DEFICIT TINGE OR NOTES TOPSIA TYPE HALO Barbiturates

  13. Equipped for the Future Content Standards. What Adults Need To Know and Be Able To Do in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sondra

    This document presents the Equipped for the Future Framework (EFF) content standards that were developed over a 6-year period by hundreds of adult education practitioners, experts, and others nationwide to create a working consensus on what adults need to know and be able to do in the 21st century. Chapter 1 defines adult literacy for the 21st…

  14. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC-12 or HFC-134a F Appendix F to Subpart B of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 82—Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single,...

  15. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of Five Diagnostic Tests for Fasciola hepatica Infection in Naturally Infected Cattle Using a Bayesian No Gold Standard Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargison, Neil; Kelly, Robert F.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection. In total 619 cattle slaughtered at one of Scotland’s biggest abattoirs were sampled, during three sampling periods spanning summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. Test sensitivities and specificities were estimated using an extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model, where estimates were allowed to vary between seasons if tests were a priori believed to perform differently for any reason. The results of this analysis provide novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population and at different times of the year where different levels of acute or chronic infection are expected. Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Furthermore, the results provide evidence to suggest that the copro-antigen ELISA does not cross-react with Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke parasites, while the serum antibody ELISA does. PMID:27564546

  17. Current and planned palliative care service provision for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in 239 UK hospital units: comparison with the gold standards framework.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Katherine L; Stone, Robert A; Buckingham, Rhona J; Pursey, Nancy A; Roberts, Christopher M

    2010-07-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease report a symptom burden similar in magnitude to terminal cancer patients yet service provision and access has been reported as poor. In the absence of a specific national chronic obstructive pulmonary disease service framework the gold standards framework might support service developments. We surveyed 239 UK acute hospital units admitting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, comprising 98% of all acute trusts, about their current and planned provision for palliative care services. Only 49% of units had a formal referral pathway for palliative care and only 13% had a policy of initiating end-of-life discussions with appropriate patients. Whilst 66% of units had plans to develop palliative care services, when mapped against the gold standards framework few were directly relevant and only three of the seven key standards were covered to any significant degree. We conclude that service provision remains poor and access is hindered by a lack of proactive initiation of discussion. Planned developments in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease palliative care services also lack a strategic framework that risks holistic design.

  18. Gold Rush!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahier, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  19. Quantification of particle sizes with metal replication under standard freeze-etching conditions: a gold ball standard for calibrating shadow widths was used to measure freeze-etched globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruben, G C

    1995-11-01

    The real size of platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicated particles is not directly equivalent to either its metal-coated diameter or its shadow width. This paper describes two indirect methods, shadow widths and coated particle diameters, for determining a particle's actual size beneath a Pt-C replication film. Both produce equivalent measurements using the same standardized conditions: 2.3 nm Pt-C films deposited at a 45 degree angle on an approximately -100 degrees C surface in a 10(-6) torr vacuum. For the first method, gold balls nucleated in a partial pressure of helium and deposited on flat indirect carbon films (root mean square roughness of 0.8 nm) on 400 mesh grids were used as test particles for calibrating shadow widths as a function of particle size. The gold ball test specimens were replicated, and a distribution of Pt-C shadow widths orthogonal to the Pt-C deposition direction was measured and averaged for gold balls 1.5 +/- 0.25 nm, 2.0 +/- 0.25 nm, etc. The diameter of each gold ball was measured within the Pt-C film along with its shadow width because the Pt-C did not obscure or adhere well to the gold. The shadow width distributions for each gold size do not differ significantly from log normal. Two proteins, the lactose repressor and the mitochondrial ATPase, F1, were also used as replication test objects. Negative staining of both proteins was conducted to measure their average diameters. In the second method, a distribution of Pt-C-coated lac repressor diameters perpendicular to the shadow direction was measured. The Pt-C film thickness measured on the quartz crystal monitor was subtracted from the average metal-coated protein diameter to obtain the lac repressor's diameter. The Pt-C-coated particle diameter distributions also did not differ significantly from log normal. While doing this work it was discovered that outgassing the Pt-C electron gun greatly affected Pt-C film granularity: 19 sec produced a high contrast, granular Pt-C film, whereas

  20. 77 FR 37733 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C68a, Airborne Automatic Dead Reckoning Computer Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... utilizing aircraft heading and Doppler ground speed and drift angle data. The effect of the cancelled TSO... Computer Equipment Utilizing Aircraft Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air... heading and Doppler ground speed and drift angle data (for air carrier aircraft). SUMMARY: This...

  1. 77 FR 53962 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C68a, Airborne Automatic Dead Reckoning Computer Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Computer Equipment Utilizing Aircraft Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air... Heading and Doppler Ground Speed and Drift Angle Data (for Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's cancellation of TSO-C68a. The effect of the cancelled TSO-C68a will result in no new...

  2. Produce Live News Broadcasts Using Standard AV Equipment: A Success Story from the Le Center High School in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostad, John

    1997-01-01

    Describes the production of news broadcasts on video by a high school class in Le Center, Minnesota. Topics include software for Apple computers, equipment used, student responsibilities, class curriculum, group work, communication among the production crew, administrative and staff support, and future improvements. (LRW)

  3. 77 FR 37734 - Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-122a, Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Channels Used in Two-Way Radio Communications Due to Simultaneous Transmissions AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way Radio Communications Due to Simultaneous...- way radio communication systems employing anti-blocking and stuck microphone protection circuitry....

  4. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  5. Improvement to the Standardization Life-Cycle-Cost Model for Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Components and Equipments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    application of this model in the ship design process has been con- sidered by NAVSEA for use as an aid in selecting standard or nonstandard HM&E...the latter type of C/E is designated as "nonstandard," while the C/E already in the Navy inventory is designated as "standard." 2.1.2 Enhancement In the...specific technical data directly related to the designated C/E. 0 Standard data - general input and cost data normally obtained from the Government

  6. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  7. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison.

  8. 76 FR 63714 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    .... Background On September 21, 2009, the FAA published TSO-C196, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Sensors for... standard for GPS sensors not augmented by satellite-based or ground- based systems (i.e., TSO-C129a Class B... augmentation system (TSO-C145c, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using the Global Positioning System Augmented...

  9. 54 FR 38044: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By- Product Recovery Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final Rule on National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants.

  10. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  11. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements for Space Equipment and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    methods applicable to most modern receivers.) (L) 6.23 Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Cross Modulation, 30Hz-40GHz (CS105) a. Purpose... methods of MIL-STD-461F, with changes in antennas , preamplifiers and receiver(s) appropriate for the frequency range(s). d4. Verification: Platform...requirements, using flight-like antennas , transmitters representative of the RFI sources of concern, and by standard measurement methods of electrical

  12. Getting the Gold Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Epner Technology, Inc., worked with Goddard Space Center to apply gold coating to the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mirror. This partnership resulted in new commercial applications for Epner's LaserGold(R) process in the automotive industry. Previously, the company did not have equipment large enough to handle the plating of the stainless steel panels cost effectively. Seeing a chance to renew this effort, Epner Technology and Goddard entered into an agreement by which NASA would fund the facility needed to do the gold-plating, and Epner Technology would cover all other costs as part of their internal research and development. The VCL mirror project proceeded successfully, fulfilling Goddard's needs and leaving Epner Technology with a new facility to provide LaserGold for the automotive industry. The new capability means increased power savings and improvements in both quality and production time for BMW Manufacturing Corporation of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Cadillac of Detroit, Michigan, as well as other manufacturers who have implemented Epner Technology's LaserGold process. LaserGold(R) is a registered trademark of Epner Technology, Inc.

  13. National standards and code compliance for electrical equipment and instruments installed in hazardous locations for the cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    The cone penetrometer is designed to measure the material properties of waste tank contents at the Hanford Site. The penetrometer system consists of a skid-mounted assembly, a penetrometer assembly (composed of a guide tube and a push rod), an active neutron moisture measurement probe, decontamination unit, and a support trailer containing a diesel-engine-driven hydraulic pump and a generator. The skid-mounted assembly is about 8 feet wide by 23 feet long and 15 feet high. Its nominal weight is about 40,000 pounds with the provisions to add up to 54,500 pounds of additional ballast. This document describes the cone penetrometer electrical instruments and how it complies with national standards.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of a Citrate-Based Protocol for Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis in AKI Using Standard Dialysis Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164

  15. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  16. National Accreditation and Its Role in Early Education: An Analysis of Florida's Gold Seal Quality Child-Care Program and Licensing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbottom, Christian; Jones, Ithel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first Florida statewide assessment of the Gold Seal Quality Care program, accreditation, and the relationship with licensing violations. This study analyzed the differences between the Department of Children and Families Gold Seal-Accredited facilities and nonaccredited facilities by comparing the facilities and the…

  17. Array CGH on unstimulated blood does not detect all cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome: a skin biopsy should remain the diagnostic gold standard.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Jennelle C; Hulshizer, Rachael L; Seger, Pam; St Antoine, Angelique; Bair, Jennifer; Kirmani, Salman

    2012-03-01

    A child whose features are consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) did not have detectable tetrasomy 12p due to an additional isochromosome 12p in an unstimulated blood specimen by interphase FISH or array CGH analysis. The diagnosis of PKS was made through these methods solely in a skin biopsy specimen. To determine the sensitivity of our array CGH platform to tetrasomy 12p mosaicism, dilutions of DNA from both the child's skin fibroblasts and a PKS cell line were analyzed. Tetrasomy 12p at 10% mosaicism was identifiable but 5% was below the limit of detection. This result suggests through extrapolation that the tetrasomy 12p is present in <10% of cells in our patient's blood, confirming the tissue-limited mosaicism of PKS. Multiple recent studies show that array CGH provides greater sensitivity than chromosome analysis to detect mosaic abnormalities including that of tetrasomy 12p in blood specimens. However, our case demonstrates that the biology of PKS precludes the exclusive use of array CGH on blood for diagnosis. A tissue sample should continue to be the diagnostic gold standard for PKS.

  18. Evaluations of an in-house drug resistance method for HIV-1 drug resistance using ViroSeq™ 2.0 genotyping system as a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Hingankar, Nitin K; Siddhaarth, K; Deshpande, Sohan N; Sen, Sourav; Kabra, Sandhya; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Tripathy, Srikanth P

    2013-04-01

    An in-house method was evaluated for its efficiency to detect the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. This method was compared with the ViroSeq™ Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, US) a gold standard. Sixty-five stored plasma samples, previously tested for HIV-1 drug resistance using the ViroSeq™ method were used to evaluate the in-house method. Out of the sixty five plasma samples, sixty were HIV-1 positive clinical samples; four samples from the Virology Quality Assessment (VQA) program and one positive control from the ViroSeq™ kit were used in this study. The sequences generated by the ViroSeq™ and an in-house method showed 99.5±0.5% and 99.7±0.4% (mean±SD) nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. Out of 214 Stanford HIVdb listed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions, concordance was observed in 203 (94.9%), partial discordance in 11 (5.1%) and complete discordance was absent. The in-house primers are broadly sensitive in genotyping multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes. The amplification sensitivity of the in-house method was 1000 copies/ml. The evaluation of the in-house method provides results comparable with that of ViroSeq™ method thus, making the in-house method suitable for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the developing countries.

  19. Improving planning, design, reporting and scientific quality of animal experiments by using the Gold Standard Publication Checklist, in addition to the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob; Leenaars, Marlies; Curfs, Jo; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated serious omissions in the way research that use animals is reported. In order to improve the quality of reporting of animal experiments, the Animals in research: reporting in vivo experiments (ARRIVE) Guidelines were published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in August 2010. However, not only the quality of reporting of completed animal studies needs to be improved, but also the design and execution of new experiments. With both these goals in mind, we published the Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in May 2010, a few months before the ARRIVE guidelines appeared. In this letter, we compare the GSPC checklist with the ARRIVE Guidelines. The GSPC describes certain items in more detail, which makes it both easier to use when designing and conducting an experiment and particularly suitable for making systematic reviews of animal studies more feasible. In order to improve not only the reporting but also the planning, design, execution and thereby, the scientific quality of animal experiments, we strongly recommend to all scientists involved in animal experimentation and to editors of journals publishing animal studies to take a closer look at the contents of both the ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC, and select the set of guidelines which is most appropriate for their particular situation.

  20. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare x-ray modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalstra, M.; Schulz, G.; Dagassan-Berndt, D.; Verna, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Müller, B.

    2016-10-01

    An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging modalities.

  1. Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E K; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

  2. Acute appendicitis: should the laparoscopic approach be proposed as the gold standard? Six-year experience in an Emergency Surgery Unit

    PubMed Central

    GUERCIO, G.; AUGELLO, G.; LICARI, L.; DAFNOMILI, A.; RASPANTI, C.; BAGARELLA, N.; FALCO, N.; ROTOLO, G.; FONTANA, T.; PORRELLO, C.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is common in an Emergency Surgery Unit. Although the laparoscopic approach is a method accepted for its treatment, no strong data are available for determining how many procedures must an experienced surgeon carry out for obtaining all the advantages of this technique and if this approach can become the gold standard in the activity of a general emergency unit with senior surgeons variously skilled on the basic laparoscopy. 142 patients that underwent appendectomy (90 laparoscopic, 52 conventional) for acute appendicitis were enrolled in this institutional retrospective cohort study. The surgeons were classified with a descriptor-based grading and divided in two groups regarding the skill. The only relevant result of our study was the significant reduction of conversion rate in case of laparoscopic approach. No strong differences were found concerning the duration of the procedure and the hospital stay between the two groups. The rate of complications were very low in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced surgeons can easily perform a laparoscopic approach independently from the specific skill in this approach. PMID:27938536

  3. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-07

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young's modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young's modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  4. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young’s modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young’s modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  5. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  6. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  7. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of utilizing the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and the Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment for Spacelab payload instrumentation was determined. Representative shuttle sortie payloads were analyzed for applicability and commonality. Modification of NIM/CAMAC equipment was analyzed for its suitability in Spacelab environments and to determine the cost. NIM/CAMAC equipment usage requirements for Spacelab payloads were converted to pool size requirements and time-phased equipment procurement requirements. A programmatic estimate of the pool equipment costs and a management plan were prepared for the pool concept. The implementation and impact of CAMAC software were assessed.

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation in Anorexia Nervosa: Hope for the Hopeless or Exploitation of the Vulnerable? The Oxford Neuroethics Gold Standard Framework.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebecca J; Singh, Ilina; Pike, Alexandra C; Tan, Jacinta O A

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric disorders have a long and troubled history (1, 2) but have become much more refined in the last few decades due to the rapid development of neuroimaging and robotic technologies (2). These advances have enabled the design of less invasive techniques, which are more focused, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) (3). DBS involves electrode insertion into specific neural targets implicated in pathological behavior, which are then repeatedly stimulated at adjustable frequencies. DBS has been used for Parkinson's disease and movement disorders since the 1960s (4-6) and over the last decade has been applied to treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders, with some evidence of benefit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, and addictions (7). Recent consensus guidelines on best practice in psychiatric neurosurgery (8) stress, however, that DBS for psychiatric disorders remains at an experimental and exploratory stage. The ethics of DBS-in particular for psychiatric conditions-is debated (1, 8-10). Much of this discourse surrounds the philosophical implications of competence, authenticity, personality, or identity change following neurosurgical interventions, but there is a paucity of applied guidance on neuroethical best practice in psychiatric DBS, and health-care professionals have expressed that they require more (11). This paper aims to redress this balance by providing a practical, applied neuroethical gold standard framework to guide research ethics committees, researchers, and institutional sponsors. We will describe this as applied to our protocol for a particular research trial of DBS in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01924598, unique identifier NCT01924598), but believe it may have wider application to DBS in other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  10. Statistical evaluation of a commercial Neospora caninum competitive ELISA in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, Mathieu; Hutchins, Wendy; Orsel, Karin

    2014-08-01

    Neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (Cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. In the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. However, there are a number of statistical methods that can help in selecting an appropriate cut-off value and estimating the resulting diagnostic test performances. In this paper, the performance of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) on elk serum samples was evaluated with two statistical approaches: a mixture distribution model fitted to the cELISA results, and a Bayesian latent class analysis combining results from the cELISA and an indirect immuno-fluorescence antibody test. Both methods indicated that the commercial kit could be used on elk serum with the specifications recommended by the manufacturer. In particular, the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a percentage of inhibition cutoff of 30%. The 95% probability interval of the proportion of elk exposed to N. caninum, adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of this test in elk, was estimated between 1.3 and 7.4%. There was no association between the serological status of female elk and their pregnancy status. These results point out to the involvement of elk in a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum in this area.

  11. Deep Brain Stimulation in Anorexia Nervosa: Hope for the Hopeless or Exploitation of the Vulnerable? The Oxford Neuroethics Gold Standard Framework

    PubMed Central

    Park, Rebecca J.; Singh, Ilina; Pike, Alexandra C.; Tan, Jacinta O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric disorders have a long and troubled history (1, 2) but have become much more refined in the last few decades due to the rapid development of neuroimaging and robotic technologies (2). These advances have enabled the design of less invasive techniques, which are more focused, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) (3). DBS involves electrode insertion into specific neural targets implicated in pathological behavior, which are then repeatedly stimulated at adjustable frequencies. DBS has been used for Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders since the 1960s (4–6) and over the last decade has been applied to treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders, with some evidence of benefit in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, and addictions (7). Recent consensus guidelines on best practice in psychiatric neurosurgery (8) stress, however, that DBS for psychiatric disorders remains at an experimental and exploratory stage. The ethics of DBS—in particular for psychiatric conditions—is debated (1, 8–10). Much of this discourse surrounds the philosophical implications of competence, authenticity, personality, or identity change following neurosurgical interventions, but there is a paucity of applied guidance on neuroethical best practice in psychiatric DBS, and health-care professionals have expressed that they require more (11). This paper aims to redress this balance by providing a practical, applied neuroethical gold standard framework to guide research ethics committees, researchers, and institutional sponsors. We will describe this as applied to our protocol for a particular research trial of DBS in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01924598, unique identifier NCT01924598), but believe it may have wider application to DBS in other psychiatric disorders. PMID:28373849

  12. No Gold Standard Estimation of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Molecular Diagnostic Protocols for Trypanosoma brucei spp. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    de Clare Bronsvoort, Barend Mark; von Wissmann, Beatrix; Fèvre, Eric Maurice; Handel, Ian Graham; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Sue Christina

    2010-01-01

    African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingTrypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypansoma brucei. In Western Kenya and other parts of East Africa two subspecies of T. brucei, T.b. brucei and the zoonoticT.b. rhodesiense, co-circulate in livestock. A range of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) have been developed as important molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiological investigations of T. brucei s.l. in the animal reservoir and of its zoonotic potential. Quantification of the relative performance of different diagnostic PCRs is essential to ensure comparability of studies. This paper describes an evaluation of two diagnostic test systems for T. brucei using a T. brucei s.l. specific PCR [1] and a single nested PCR targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of trypanosome ribosomal DNA [2]. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model was employed to estimate their test performance in the absence of a gold standard test for detecting T.brucei s.l. infections in ear-vein blood samples from cattle, pig, sheep and goat populations in Western Kenya, stored on Whatman FTA cards. The results indicate that the system employing the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR (Se1 = 0.760) had a higher sensitivity than the ITS-PCR (Se2 = 0.640); both have high specificity (Sp1 = 0.998; Sp2 = 0.997). The true prevalences for livestock populations were estimated (pcattle = 0.091, ppigs = 0.066, pgoats = 0.005, psheep = 0.006), taking into account the uncertainties in the specificity and sensitivity of the two test systems. Implications of test performance include the required survey sample size; due to its higher sensitivity and specificity, the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR requires a consistently smaller sample size than the ITS-PCR for the detection of T. brucei s.l. However the ITS-PCR is able to simultaneously screen samples for other pathogenic trypanosomes

  13. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 2: Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A representative set of payloads for both science and applications disciplines were selected that would ensure a realistic and statistically significant estimate of equipment utilization. The selected payloads were analyzed to determine the applicability of Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM)/Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment in satisfying their data acquisition and control requirements. The analyses results were combined with the comparable results from related studies to arrive at an overall assessment of the applicability and commonality of NIM/CAMAC equipment usage across the spectrum of payloads.

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  15. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  16. Gold Nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    An array of gold nanoantennas laced into an artificial membrane enhances the fluorescence intensity of three different molecules when they pass through plasmonic hot spots in the array. Watch for the blue, green and red flashes. The photobleaching at the end of each fluorescence event (white flashes) is indicative of single molecule observations.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment of CFC-12. G. The amount of cross contaminated refrigerant, as determined by gas chromatography....4.1 The amount of noncondensable gas is to be determined by gas chromatography. A sample of vaporized refrigerant liquid shall be separated and analyzed by gas chromatography. A Propak Q column at...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment of CFC-12. G. The amount of cross contaminated refrigerant, as determined by gas chromatography....4.1 The amount of noncondensable gas is to be determined by gas chromatography. A sample of vaporized refrigerant liquid shall be separated and analyzed by gas chromatography. A Propak Q column at...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment of CFC-12. G. The amount of cross contaminated refrigerant, as determined by gas chromatography....4.1 The amount of noncondensable gas is to be determined by gas chromatography. A sample of vaporized refrigerant liquid shall be separated and analyzed by gas chromatography. A Propak Q column at...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment of CFC-12. G. The amount of cross contaminated refrigerant, as determined by gas chromatography....4.1 The amount of noncondensable gas is to be determined by gas chromatography. A sample of vaporized refrigerant liquid shall be separated and analyzed by gas chromatography. A Propak Q column at...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment of CFC-12. G. The amount of cross contaminated refrigerant, as determined by gas chromatography....4.1 The amount of noncondensable gas is to be determined by gas chromatography. A sample of vaporized refrigerant liquid shall be separated and analyzed by gas chromatography. A Propak Q column at...

  2. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare... Requirements Property Standards § 2543.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with... not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside...

  5. 45 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment... section. (b)(1) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with HHS funds to provide services to...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  7. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  8. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  9. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  10. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  11. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  12. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  13. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  14. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  15. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  16. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  17. Biomineralization of gold: biofilms on bacterioform gold.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Rogers, Stephen L; McPhail, D C; Webb, Daryl

    2006-07-14

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with secondary gold grains from two sites in Australia. 16S ribosomal DNA clones of the genus Ralstonia that bear 99% similarity to the bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans-shown to precipitate gold from aqueous gold(III) tetrachloride-were present on all DNA-positive gold grains but were not detected in the surrounding soils. These results provide evidence for the bacterial contribution to the authigenic formation of secondary bacterioform gold grains and nuggets.

  18. Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

  19. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article.

  20. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  1. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  2. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions.…

  3. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  4. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  5. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a range of ... you can submit an equipment pool request. Helpful Equipment The following is a list of equipment that ...

  6. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 82—SAE... removed from, motor vehicle air-conditioning systems. 1. Scope The purpose of this SAE Standard is...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 82—SAE... removed from, motor vehicle air-conditioning systems. 1. Scope The purpose of this SAE Standard is...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 82—SAE... removed from, motor vehicle air-conditioning systems. 1. Scope The purpose of this SAE Standard is...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 82—SAE... removed from, motor vehicle air-conditioning systems. 1. Scope The purpose of this SAE Standard is...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. C..., DC 20402-9320. OT Standard, CFR Title 49, Section 173.304 Shippers—General Requirements for Shipments... and/or a vacuum pump, draw the tank into a vacuum of 9 to 10 inches Mercury (225 to 250 mm...

  12. Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Equipment Standardization in the U.S. Navy Surface Force: A Case of Competing Objectives and Stakeholder Trade-Off Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    between out-year inventory support costs resulting from the lack of technical data and initial procurement costs of technical data packages should be...contains standard profile reports and an ILS cost-avoidance package that includes ILS cost tables and a cost calculator. Both tools together help those...effort • Improve interchangeability of parts, designs and packages , etc. • Promote the use of improved methods and products • Help eliminate unsound

  13. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  14. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  15. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for... certification procedure. (b) Any manufacturer of radio transmitting equipment to be used in these services...

  16. 47 CFR 24.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 24.51 Section 24.51... SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized for operation... part. (b) Any manufacturer of radio transmitting equipment to be used in these services may...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 29.1431 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1431 Electronic... operation of any other radio or electronic unit, or system of units, required by this chapter....

  18. 14 CFR 1260.134 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.134 Equipment. (a) For grants and.... (3) A physical inventory of equipment shall be taken and the results reconciled with the equipment... difference. The recipient shall, in connection with the inventory, verify the existence, current...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25.1307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment....

  20. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25.1307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment....

  1. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25.1307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment....

  2. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25.1307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment....

  3. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of the Accuracy of a Test for Tuberculous Pleuritis in the Absence of a Gold Standard Reference

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Schiller, Ian; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Madhukar

    2013-01-01

    Summary Absence of a perfect reference test is an acknowledged source of bias in diagnostic studies. In the case of tuberculous pleuritis, standard reference tests such as smear microscopy, culture and biopsy have poor sensitivity. Yet meta-analyses of new tests for this disease have always assumed the reference standard is perfect, leading to biased estimates of the new test’s accuracy. We describe a method for joint meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test under evaluation, while considering the imperfect nature of the reference standard. We use a Bayesian hierarchical model that takes into account within- and between-study variability. We show how to obtain pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity, and how to plot a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve. We describe extensions of the model to situations where multiple reference tests are used, and where index and reference tests are conditionally dependent. The performance of the model is evaluated using simulations and illustrated using data from a meta-analysis of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for tuberculous pleuritis. The estimate of NAAT specificity was higher and the sensitivity lower compared to a model that assumed that the reference test was perfect. PMID:22568612

  4. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  5. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  6. Fire suppression and detection equipment

    SciTech Connect

    E.E. Bates

    2006-01-15

    Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

  7. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for human soil-transmitted helminth infections: a meta-analysis in the absence of a true gold standard.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L

    2014-10-01

    Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Katz, direct microscopy, formol-ether concentration, McMaster, FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC. In the absence of a perfect reference standard, we employed a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true, unobserved sensitivity of compared diagnostic tests for each of the soil-transmitted helminth species Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms. To investigate the influence of varying transmission settings we subsequently stratified the analysis by intensity of infection. Overall, sensitivity estimates varied between the different methods, ranging from 42.8% for direct microscopy to 92.7% for FLOTAC. The widely used double slide Kato-Katz method had a sensitivity of 74-95% for the three soil-transmitted helminth species at high infection intensity, however sensitivity dropped to 53-80% in low intensity settings, being lowest for hookworm and A. lumbricoides. The highest sensitivity, overall and in both intensity groups, was observed for the FLOTAC method, whereas the sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC method was comparable with the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC average egg count estimates were significantly lower compared with Kato-Katz, while the compared McMaster counts varied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods had comparable sensitivities. We further show that test sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method is reduced in low transmission settings.

  8. Galvanic gold plating for fixed dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-07-01

    Metal ceramic partial fixed dental prostheses have been commonly used for the replacement of missing teeth for many years. Because of an increase in the price of gold, base metal alloys have been the choice of alloy for the fabrication of metal ceramic restorations in many dental clinics. Some major disadvantages of base metals are their corrosion and the dark coloration they may cause at the crown margins. This article describes a galvanic gold-plating technique, which is used to minimize corrosion and improve the esthetics of metal ceramic restorations fabricated with Cr-Co base metal alloys. This technique involves the deposition of a 6 μm to 8 μm 24 K gold layer directly onto the Cr-Co cast prosthesis framework. The technique improves metal surface properties, making them more biocompatible and usable, however, requires additional equipment and experienced laboratory technicians. Clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the long term success of this technique.

  9. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000447.htm Personal protective equipment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personal protective equipment is special equipment you wear to create a ...

  10. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  11. Integrated Personal Protective Equipment Standards Support Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Second, because they are on patrol between calls, police officers don’t have the same amount of time for training that fire fighters do. Third...better trained for operating in PPE, they have more time for specialized training , and it is more cost effective to get them high quality PPE rather than...floor 10 ft. inside door, CB agents. while keeping weapon trained on person. 2-way communication between officer and suspect. 11 Stand up and repair any

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.4 - Tools and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tools and equipment. 50... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.4 Tools and equipment. Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees, including tools and equipment which...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.4 - Tools and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Tools and equipment. 50... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.4 Tools and equipment. Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees, including tools and equipment which...

  14. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 70.300... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall...

  15. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  16. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  17. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that...

  18. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 70.300... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall...

  19. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 70.300... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall...

  20. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 70.300... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall...

  1. 30 CFR 70.300 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 70.300... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.300 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section shall have seat belts as required for the operators when seated in the normal seating... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.602 Material handling equipment. (a) Earthmoving equipment; General...” equipment is reserved pending consideration of standards currently being developed. (2) Seat belts. (i)...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section shall have seat belts as required for the operators when seated in the normal seating... Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.602 Material handling equipment. (a) Earthmoving equipment; General...” equipment is reserved pending consideration of standards currently being developed. (2) Seat belts. (i)...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of internally labeled monoclonal antibodies as a gold standard: comparison of biodistribution of /sup 75/Se-, /sup 111/In-, and /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Konishi, J.; Yamamuro, T.; Toyama, S.

    1989-04-01

    In order to know the true biodistribution of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies, three monoclonal antibodies (OST6, OST7, and OST15) against human osteosarcoma and control antibody were internally labeled with 75Se by incubating (75Se)methionine and hybridoma cells. 75Se-labeled monoclonal antibodies were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line KT005, and the results were compared with those of 125I- and 111In-labeled antibodies. 75Se-, 125I- and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibodies had identical binding activities to KT005 cells, and the immunoreactivity was in the decreasing order of OST6, OST7, and OST15. On the contrary, in vivo tumor uptake (% injected dose/g) of 75Se- and 125I-labeled antibodies assessed using nude mice bearing human osteosarcoma KT005 was in the order of OST7, OST6, and OST15. In the case of 111In, the order was OST6, OST7, and OST15. High liver uptake was similarly seen with 75Se- and 111In-labeled antibodies, whereas 125I-labeled antibodies showed the lowest tumor and liver uptake. These data indicate that tumor targeting of antibody conjugates are not always predictable from cell binding studies due to the difference of blood clearance of labeled antibodies. Furthermore, biodistribution of both 111In- and 125I-labeled antibodies are not identical with internally labeled antibody. Admitting that internally labeled antibody is a ''gold standard'' of biodistribution of monoclonal antibody, high liver uptake of 111In-radiolabeled antibodies may be inherent to antibodies. Little, if any, increase in tumor-to-normal tissue ratios of antibody conjugates will be expected compared to those of 111In-labeled antibodies if stably coupled conjugates are administered i.v.

  5. 75 FR 14575 - Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III AGENCY: National... Phase III of the benchmark research for voting equipment used in an election in 2008 or later and/ or... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will be conducting Phase III research on voting equipment...

  6. Gold recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, Earle B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

  7. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  8. [Future perspectives for equipment maintenance and servicing].

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, H

    1987-03-01

    Based on the Equipment Safety Law, the Medical Technical Regulations in force since 1 January 1986, and the German Standard DIN 13252: "Inhalational anesthetic Apparatus--requirements for safety and testing", a maintenance system for medical equipment is presented. The maintenance system comprises the check of the equipment by the user before clinical use, maintenance procedures when the equipment is in daily clinical use (maintenance system I), inspection of the equipment at fixed intervals (maintenance system II), and the repair of the equipment should it break down (maintenance system III). Possibilities and perspectives for rationalizing test procedures by means of test simulators are shown. The initial or repeated instruction on medical equipment with life-supporting functions can be performed more systematically when appropriately designed test simulators are used.

  9. Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Space and Missile Systems Center Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) Lt Col James “Mutt” Wilson Program Manager 29 Apr 15 Information contained in...SUBTITLE Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a REPORT unclassified b ABSTRACT unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

  10. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  11. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  12. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  13. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  14. 47 CFR 27.51 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 27.51 Section 27.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.51 Equipment authorization. (a) Each transmitter utilized...

  15. 24 CFR 84.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment. 84.34 Section 84.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.34 Equipment. (a) Title...

  16. 24 CFR 84.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment. 84.34 Section 84.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.34 Equipment. (a) Title...

  17. 24 CFR 84.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment. 84.34 Section 84.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.34 Equipment. (a) Title...

  18. 24 CFR 84.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment. 84.34 Section 84.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.34 Equipment. (a) Title...

  19. 22 CFR 226.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment. 226.34 Section 226.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.34 Equipment. (a) Unless the agreement...

  20. 22 CFR 226.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment. 226.34 Section 226.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.34 Equipment. (a) Unless the agreement...

  1. 22 CFR 226.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment. 226.34 Section 226.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.34 Equipment. (a) Unless the agreement...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... issue disposition instructions within 120 calendar days after receipt of a final inventory. The final..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 1210.34 Equipment... Government shall be identified to indicate Federal ownership. (3) A physical inventory of equipment shall...

  3. Guidelines for Equipment To Prepare Healthy Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.

    The National Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) has conducted a project to develop guidelines on the type of preparation equipment needed in school kitchens to produce meals that meet the nutrition standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The guidelines provide detailed descriptions of food preparation equipment items,…

  4. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  5. NASA researchers in gold control room during an F-15 HiDEC flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA researchers monitor equipment in the mission control Gold room at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during a flight of an F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) research aircraft. The system was developed on the F-15 to investigate and demonstrate methods of obtaining optimum aircraft performance. The major elements of HIDEC were a Digital Electronic Flight Control System (DEFCS), a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), an on-board general purpose computer, and an integrated architecture to allow all components to 'talk to each other.' Unlike standard F-15s, which have a mechanical and analog electronic flight control system, the HIDEC F-15 also had a dual-channel, fail-safe digital flight control system programmed in Pascal. It was linked to the Military Standard 1553B and a H009 data bus which tied all the other electronic systems together.

  6. 40 CFR 265.32 - Required equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; and (d) Water at adequate volume and pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems. ...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  7. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory. (a)...

  9. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  10. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-07-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  11. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  12. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  13. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  14. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.144... in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision on whether...

  15. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  16. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... program shall in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision...

  17. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.144... in designating new source gold placer mines, take into account and base the decision on whether...

  18. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Without Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury-free techniques are safer for miners, their families and local communities. They can also help miners qualify for certification under fair-mined standards, potentially allowing them to market their gold at higher prices.

  19. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... request RUS approval to negotiate for additional equipment for the purpose of standardization on a system... negotiation with a seller of non-domestic equipment for the purpose of standardization, because such a... standardization on a system basis prior to preparing the P&S. (ii) RUS notifies the borrower in writing as...

  20. Equipment management user's handbook for property custodians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management User's Handbook for Property Custodians is issued as an instructional guide for personnel designated as property custodians and technical personnel involved in the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This handbook provides general information and basic operational procedures for processing equipment transactions through the agency-wide NASA Equipment Management System (NEMS). Each NASA installation must prepare supplementary instructions for local requirements beyond the scope of NASA-wide policies and procedures contained herein, or as specified for local implementation in NHB 4200.1, 'NASA Equipment Management Manual.' NHB 4200.1 sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This handbook is a controlled document, issued in loose-leaf form and revised by page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  1. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  2. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  3. PMAA`s Silver/Gold National Certification Program - update

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketers Association of America`s (PMAA) Silver/Gold National Certification Program is discussed. The oil heat technician certification is a process whose time has come. The information age has put us in an era of improved technology as well as improved equipment. The advantages of the oil heat certification program for oil heat dealers, technicians, and customers are listed.

  4. Methanobactin-mediated one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-ying; Cheng, Dan-dan; Zhang, Lan-xuan; Lin, Kai; Fan, Hong-chen; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-gu

    2013-11-01

    Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0). In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III) by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III) to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0) with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months.

  5. Methanobactin-Mediated One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jia-ying; Cheng, Dan-dan; Zhang, Lan-xuan; Lin, Kai; Fan, Hong-chen; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-gu

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0). In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III) by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III) to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0) with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months. PMID:24189217

  6. Chalcogenide centred gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, M Concepción; Laguna, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Chalcogenide-centred gold complexes are an important class of compounds in which a central chalcogen is surrounded by several gold atoms or gold and other metals. They have special characteristics such as unusual geometries, electron deficiency and properties such as luminescence or non-linear optical properties. The best known species are the trinuclear [E(AuPR3)3]+, 'oxonium' type species, that have high synthetic applicability, not only in other chalcogen-centred species, but in many other organometallic derivatives. The aurophilic interactions play an important role in the stability, preference for a particular geometry and luminescence properties in this type of derivatives (critical review, 117 references).

  7. Differential interferences with clinical chemistry assays by gold nanorods, and gold and silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M

    2015-02-01

    Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects.

  8. Pre-Columbian alloys from the royal tombs of Sipán; energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with a portable equipment.

    PubMed

    Cesareo, R; Calza, C; Dos Anjos, M; Lopes, R T; Bustamante, A; Fabian S, J; Alva, W; Chero Z, L

    2010-01-01

    On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished approximately between 50 and 700 AD, the Moche civilization. It was an advanced culture and the Moche were sophisticated metalsmiths, so that they are considered as the finest producers of jewels and artefacts of the region. The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated by the objects discovered by Walter Alva and coworkers in 1987, in the excavations of the "Tumbas Reales de Sipán". About 50 metal objects from these excavations, now at the namesake Museum, in Lambayeque, north of Peru, were analyzed with a portable equipment using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This portable equipment is mainly composed of a small size X-ray tube and a thermoelectrically cooled X-ray detector. Standard samples of gold and silver alloys were employed for quantitative analysis. It was determined that the analyzed artefacts from the "Tumbas Reales de Sipán" are mainly composed of gold, silver and copper alloys, of gilded copper and of tumbaga, the last being a poor gold alloy enriched at the surface by depletion gilding, i.e. removing copper from the surface.

  9. 30 CFR 75.523 - Electric face equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric face equipment; deenergization. 75.523... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523 Electric face equipment; deenergization. An authorized representative of the Secretary may require in...

  10. 30 CFR 75.523 - Electric face equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric face equipment; deenergization. 75.523... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523 Electric face equipment; deenergization. An authorized representative of the Secretary may require in...

  11. 30 CFR 75.523 - Electric face equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric face equipment; deenergization. 75.523... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523 Electric face equipment; deenergization. An authorized representative of the Secretary may require in...

  12. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  13. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  14. 30 CFR 75.523 - Electric face equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric face equipment; deenergization. 75.523... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523 Electric face equipment; deenergization. An authorized representative of the Secretary may require in...

  15. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  16. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  17. 30 CFR 75.523 - Electric face equipment; deenergization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric face equipment; deenergization. 75.523... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523 Electric face equipment; deenergization. An authorized representative of the Secretary may require in...

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.405 - Materials handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Materials handling...-Replacement Standards § 101-25.405 Materials handling equipment. (a) Materials handling equipment will not be... materials handling equipment in storage, one month in storage equals 50 hours of operation. (ii) The...

  19. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request... conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment, and requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer an energy conservation program for the equipment, including the development...

  20. 30 CFR 72.700 - Respiratory equipment; respirable dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. 72.700... SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.700 Respiratory equipment; respirable dust. (a) Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be made available...

  1. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  2. Gold-bearing skarns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

  3. Gold in minerals and the composition of native gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Robert Sprague; Fleischer, Michael

    1969-01-01

    Gold occurs in nature mainly as the metal and as various alloys. It forms complete series of solid solutions with silver, copper, nickel, palladium, and platinum. In association with the platinum metals, gold occurs as free gold as well as in solid solution. The native elements contain the most gold, followed by the sulfide minerals. Several gold tellurides are known, but no gold selenides have been reported, and only one sulfide, the telluride-sulfide mineral nagyagite, is known. The nonmetallic minerals carry the least gold, and the light-colored minerals generally contain less gold than the dark minerals. Some conclusions in the literature are conflicting in regard to the relation of fineness of native gold to its position laterally and vertically within a lode, the nature of the country rocks, and the location and size of nuggets in a streambed, as well as to the variation of fineness within an individual nugget.

  4. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  5. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kesarla Mohan; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  6. Spectroradiometric Determination of the Freezing Temperature of Gold

    PubMed Central

    Mielenz, Klaus D.; Saunders, Robert D.; Shumaker, John B.

    1990-01-01

    A direct spectroradiometric determination of the temperature of freezing gold was performed by measuring the spectral radiances of a gold blackbody relative to those of a laser-irradiated integrating sphere which was calibrated with absolute silicon detectors and an electrically calibrated radiometer. The measurements were performed at three laser wavelengths near 600 nm, and the temperature of the blackbody was calculated by substituting the measured spectral radiances into Planck’s radiation formula. The result obtained, TAu=(1337.33± 0.34) K, is 0.25 K below the gold-point assignment in the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68) and has been adopted in September 1990 as the new gold-point value in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The effect of this change in the gold-point assignment on pyrometric, radiometric, and photometric measurement services provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology is assessed. PMID:28179757

  7. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... generation, measurement, or assessment of data shall be adequately tested, calibrated, and/or standardized..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...) Written records shall be maintained of all inspection, maintenance, testing, calibrating,...

  8. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generation, measurement, or assessment of data shall be adequately tested, calibrated, and/or standardized..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...) Written records shall be maintained of all inspection, maintenance, testing, calibrating,...

  9. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generation, measurement, or assessment of data shall be adequately tested, calibrated, and/or standardized..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...) Written records shall be maintained of all inspection, maintenance, testing, calibrating,...

  10. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... generation, measurement, or assessment of data shall be adequately tested, calibrated, and/or standardized..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...) Written records shall be maintained of all inspection, maintenance, testing, calibrating,...

  11. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... generation, measurement, or assessment of data shall be adequately tested, calibrated, and/or standardized..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...) Written records shall be maintained of all inspection, maintenance, testing, calibrating,...

  12. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error).

  13. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  14. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a) The..., or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment,...

  15. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a) The..., or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment,...

  16. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a) The..., or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment,...

  17. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a) The..., or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment,...

  18. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a) The..., or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment,...

  19. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  20. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)