Science.gov

Sample records for gold standard equipment

  1. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  2. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  3. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the heavy equipment mechanic program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  4. Interface standards for computer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The ability to configure data systems using modules provided by independent manufacturers is complicated by the wide range of electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics exhibited within the equipment provided by different manufacturers of computers, peripherals, and terminal devices. A number of international organizations were and still are involved in the creation of standards that enable devices to be interconnected with minimal difficulty, usually involving only a cable or data bus connection that is defined by the standard. The elements covered by an interface standard are covered and the most prominent interface standards presently in use are identified and described.

  5. Vocational Education Equipment Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document lists equipment and equipment-like supplies used in classrooms in nine vocational education programs in North Carolina. It was prepared to help local educational agencies assess the adequacy of their vocational education equipment; identify and plan for equipment purchases to meet the minimum requirements; and determine the…

  6. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  7. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  8. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  9. 75 FR 35439 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards AGENCY... equipment to ensure that such equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities to... accessibility needs of individuals with disabilities with respect to medical diagnostic equipment and...

  10. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  11. National minimum standards for community equipment services.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Brian

    2010-04-01

    There are approximately 10 million pieces of community equipment delivered to 3.5 million clients every year in England and Wales. The service is key for moving people safely around the whole health and social care system, and is used by almost every clinical professional working in the community. It is an absolute essential part of the early intervention and prevention agenda. Unfortunately, the service currently has no standards in place nor is it regulated or inspected in its own right by any of the regulators. Recently enacted legislation impacts significantly on this service area, which has serious penalties for failure. There are some concerning aspects of service delivery, particularly regarding quality and patient safety issues. Widespread failings in service delivery are resulting in a significant number of unnecessary fatalities and incidents, and avoidable costs being incurred. Undue care in this area is resulting in health and social care organizations not fully realizing their strategic and policy objectives. Unless community equipment is addressed appropriately, these issues are likely to be intensified, especially with recent and proposed changes for community equipment services, such as 'choice and control'. It is proposed that national minimum standards will reduce risks and improve quality and safety, while saving public funds through a reduction in secondary episodes of care.

  12. 77 FR 67595 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The Committee will meet...

  13. Equipment for the calibration of squareness standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, Björn; Korhonen, Antti; Palosuo, Ilkka; Lassila, Antti

    2012-09-01

    In dimensional metrology, the measurement of squareness is a basic task for many purposes. At the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES), a squareness measuring machine for traceable calibration of squares has been developed. The machine is able to measure a squareness standard of 1000 mm × 1000 mm maximum size. The system consists of a rotary table and a tactile displacement transducer with horizontal and vertical linear guides. The error sources of the developed equipment are presented together with a brief description of the calibration procedure. Implemented error compensation of the rotary table and one linear guide is described. The uncertainty estimate is presented for squareness angle measurement. The standard measurement uncertainty for steel or granite squares is 0.2″. We also present the results of an internal comparison of squareness measurements made with the developed machine and a high accuracy coordinate measuring machine. The results show good agreement.

  14. Establishment of gold-quartz standard GQS-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, Hugh T.; Marinenko, John; McLane, John E.

    1969-01-01

    A homogeneous gold-quartz standard, GQS-1, was prepared from a heterogeneous gold-bearing quartz by chemical treatment. The concentration of gold in GQS-1 was determined by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis to be 2.61?0.10 parts per million. Analysis of 10 samples of the standard by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis failed to reveal heterogeneity within the standard. The precision of the analytical methods, expressed as standard error, was approximately 0.1 part per million. The analytical data were also used to estimate the average size of gold particles. The chemical treatment apparently reduced the average diameter of the gold particles by at least an order of magnitude and increased the concentration of gold grains by a factor of at least 4,000.

  15. Advocacy: Making the Gold Standard School a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Inman, Tracy Ford

    2011-01-01

    In their last column, the authors described a Gold Standard School--a place in which all children thrive including the gifted and talented. The Checklist for a Gold Standard School, which is included in this article, highlights the main characteristics of such a school including a focus on continuous progress, talent development, policies that…

  16. Advocacy: Making the Gold Standard School a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Inman, Tracy Ford

    2011-01-01

    In their last column, the authors described a Gold Standard School--a place in which all children thrive including the gifted and talented. The Checklist for a Gold Standard School, which is included in this article, highlights the main characteristics of such a school including a focus on continuous progress, talent development, policies that…

  17. 77 FR 39656 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... CFR Part 1195 [Docket No. ATBCB-2012-0003] RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Proposed Rulemaking on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The first meeting of... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 14706...

  18. Pediatric delirium: evaluating the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Silver, Gabrielle; Kearney, Julia; Traube, Chani; Atkinson, Thomas M; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Walkup, John

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate interrater reliability for the diagnosis of pediatric delirium by child psychiatrists. Critically ill patients (N = 17), 0-21 years old, including 7 infants, 5 children with developmental delay, and 7 intubated children, were assessed for delirium using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) (comparable to DSM-V) criteria. Delirium assessments were completed by two psychiatrists, each blinded to the other's diagnosis, and interrater reliability was measured using Cohen's κ coefficient along with its 95% confidence interval. Interrater reliability for the psychiatric assessment was high (Cohen's κ = 0.94, CI [0.83, 1.00]). Delirium diagnosis showed excellent interrater reliability regardless of age, developmental delay, or intubation status (Cohen's κ range 0.81-1.00). In our study cohort, the psychiatric interview and exam, long considered the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of delirium, was highly reliable, even in extremely young, critically ill, and developmentally delayed children. A developmental approach to diagnosing delirium in this challenging population is recommended.

  19. [Laparoscopic splenectomy, is it the gold standard?].

    PubMed

    Gramática, Luis; Mercado Luna, Andrés; Brizuela, Adrián; Taborda, Bruno; Moreno, Walter; Verasay, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the last decade, different groups of workers developed almost simultaneously the laparoscopic splenectomy technique. From then on, and based on the accumulated experience done in the field, this technique has become the preferred approach. to analyze the results obtained with laparoscopic splenectomy on 29 patients with various pathologies. General Surgery Service Number 2, Prof. Pablo Mirizzi, Clinic National Hospital. General Surgery Service, Sucre Clinic, Córdoba. prospective study. Twenty-nine laparoscopic splenectomies were indicated in 22 cases of idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura, 4 autoimmune hemolytic anemia, two spheroid and one segmental hypertension portal. A simultaneous prophylactic cholecistectomy was performed in cases of malign spheroid associated with cholelitiasis. Cases of incorrigible coagulopaty, ascitis and spleenomegaly, greater than 30 cm., were discarded. Antibiotic prophylaxis, bovine anti-pneumonic vaccine, drainage to the spleen cavity, precocious mobilization and liquid diet starting at 6 a.m. were systematically indicated. there was no mortality and a patient with spleenomegaly of 28 cm. was converted (3.4%). The average surgical time was 90 minutes. In 4 cases (13.7%) of patients with ITP, accessory spleens were found. No patient was transfused when bleeding was less than approximiately 100cm. The main surgical difficulty was the spleen mobilization at the level of the pedicle in the big spleens and the hemorrhaging in small volumes during the dissection. this technique offers a series of advantages that allow it to be considered as the new "gold standard" for splenectomy.

  20. 'Gold standard' for remediation of WTC contamination.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 and thereafter resulted in arguably the worst environmental disaster in the history of New York City. Particulate matter and combustion by-products containing asbestos, lead, mercury, dioxin, PAHs, and other toxic substances, not only affected rescue and recovery workers but also infiltrated thousands of residences and workplaces. Government agencies did not acknowledge responsibility for residential indoor environmental quality until eight months later, and still have not accepted responsibility for indoor environmental quality in commercial or government buildings. In May 2002, 200 representatives from 38 community, labor, environmental, and public health organizations met to discuss unmet post-9/11 public health needs. They established a technical working group to press the Environmental Protection Agency to expand and improve its proposals for the cleanup of Lower Manhattan. This 2002 document, "The 'Gold Standard' for Remediation of WTC Contamination," articulates the environmental health concerns and suggestions of grassroots organizations active in 9/11 response efforts at that time.

  1. Robotic radical prostatectomy: The new gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Srivastava, Abhishek; Tewari, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Open radical prostatectomy (RP) has been the standard and primary treatment for focal prostate cancer. However, in recent years this view has changed, as robot-assisted laparoscopic RP has gained acceptance among urologists. In this review we evaluate the importance and place of robotics in laparoscopic urological surgery, discussing several techniques that are currently being used and potentially new techniques that might be used in the future. Methods We systematically reviewed papers published between 1998 and 2011 using the keywords ‘robotic prostatectomy’ ‘gold standard’ and the Medline database. In addition, after selecting relevant reports we searched ‘related citations’ of the documents to find further supporting published papers. Results In all, 50 original papers were identified using the search criteria; we also found 28 through ‘related citations’ browsing. Papers were selected according to their relevance to the current topic (i.e. RP, original articles) and incorporated into this review. These papers were used for their information on the advantages of using robotics, as well as innovative ideas being used in the field of robotic urological surgery. Conclusion Almost a decade after the first robotic RP many reports show the benefits and advantages of incorporating robotics into urological surgery. Robotic surgery decreases the learning curve necessary for surgeons when compared with laparoscopic techniques. In addition, patients prefer robotics, as the procedure is less invasive, diminishes the duration of hospitalisation and speeds the return to function. PMID:26558001

  2. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) § 63... equipment in gasoline service. For this inspection, detection methods incorporating sight, sound, and smell...

  3. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Materials § 1254.106 What are NARA's equipment standards? (a) Because we have limited space in many NARA...) The power consumption of the equipment normally must not exceed 1.2 kilowatts. Power normally... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result...

  4. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Materials § 1254.106 What are NARA's equipment standards? (a) Because we have limited space in many NARA...) The power consumption of the equipment normally must not exceed 1.2 kilowatts. Power normally... equipment must not use a heat generating light source in close enough proximity to the documents to result...

  5. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility...) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The...

  6. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... the Federal Register, 77 FR 6916, on accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment and... equipment, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Access...

  7. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures.

  8. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures. PMID:16507141

  9. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for security equipment. 2001.42 Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY... Safeguarding § 2001.42 Standards for security equipment. (a) Storage. The Administrator of the General...

  13. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Special Items 908.7112 Materials handling equipment replacement standards. Materials handling...

  14. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming Archival Materials § 1254.106 What are NARA's equipment standards? (a) Because we have limited space in many NARA... least 90 days in advance. (c) You may not use equipment having clamps or other devices to exert pressure...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for equipment leaks. 63.1363 Section 63.1363 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  16. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  17. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  18. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.135 Standard: Equipment leaks. (a) Each owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the...

  19. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: What should be the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    plaques and environmental specimens. There are speculations for false positivity due to detection of non-pylori Helicobacters due to genetic sharing; and false negativity due to low bacterial counts and presence of PCR inhibitors. However, specimen collection, transportation and processing do not require speed and special conditions. PCR based diagnosis may be considered as gold standard by designing primers extremely specific to H. pylori and targeting at least more than one conserved genes. Similarly specificity of PCR may be improved by use of internal Primers. Further, nested PCR will take care of false negatives by countering the effect of PCR inhibitors and low bacterial counts. Therefore, nested PCR based methods if performed properly, may be proposed as gold standard test. PMID:25278682

  20. Studies and research concerning BNFP: cask handling equipment standardization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreery, Paul N.

    1980-10-01

    This report covers the activities of one of the sub-tasks within the Spent LWR Fuel Transportation Receiving, Handling, and Storage program. The sub-task is identified as Cask Handling Equipment Standardization. The objective of the sub-task specifies: investigate and identify opportunities for standardization of cask interface equipment. This study will examine the potential benefits of standardized yokes, decontamination barriers and special tools, and, to the extent feasible, standardized methods and software for handling the variety of casks presently available in the US fleet. The result of the investigations is a compilation of reports that are related by their common goal of reducing cask turnaround time.

  1. Reflections on the NASA standardization effort. [space qualified equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnemann, H.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA standardization effort which has been in existence for four years is described. A significant number of equipments have been declared standard in order to achieve multimission utilization with the consequent avoidance of high nonrecurring development costs. The small numbers of equipments and significant gaps in time before the next user requires the item raise questions of the value of maintaining a standard, how to assure its producibility economically in the future, and how to prevent its technical obsolescence. Increasing pressures to broaden the participation of industry in the space program have also contributed to a reexamination of the philosophy of standardization.

  2. Reflections on the NASA standardization effort. [space qualified equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnemann, H.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA standardization effort which has been in existence for four years is described. A significant number of equipments have been declared standard in order to achieve multimission utilization with the consequent avoidance of high nonrecurring development costs. The small numbers of equipments and significant gaps in time before the next user requires the item raise questions of the value of maintaining a standard, how to assure its producibility economically in the future, and how to prevent its technical obsolescence. Increasing pressures to broaden the participation of industry in the space program have also contributed to a reexamination of the philosophy of standardization.

  3. Codeine and cough: an ineffective gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Cough is one of the most common reasons why patients visit physicians. The opioid codeine has been a mainstay in the treatment of cough for decades and this drug is widely regarded as the ‘gold standard’ cough suppressant. Recent findings Recent placebo-controlled studies have shown that codeine is no more effective than placebo in suppressing cough caused by either upper respiratory disorders or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These recent reports are not consistent with several older placebo-controlled studies that demonstrated the efficacy of codeine. The reasons for this difference are not fully understood. Summary We propose that these differences, as well as results from animal models, can be explained by the existence of a complex hierarchical control system that regulates the expression of coughing. This system, known as a holarchy, is composed of regulatory elements known as ‘holons’ that interact with one another to regulate cough. Based on work in animal models, codeine is proposed to act on an intermediate order holon that may not be critical for coughing under some situations in humans. Testing of this hypothesis and further elucidation of the control system for cough will represent an important direction for future research in this area. PMID:17218808

  4. 48 CFR 908.7112 - Materials handling equipment replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Materials handling equipment replacement standards. 908.7112 Section 908.7112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... earlier than the date specified in such standards under unusual circumstances. A written justification...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks. 63.1255 Section 63.1255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  6. The Trouble with the Gold Standard: School Libraries & Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Although science has provided empirical evidence for centuries, it's only as recently as the 1940s that a scientific method called randomized controlled trials (RCT) emerged as a technique to test the efficacy of drugs and medical procedures. Since RCT is unique in that it can claim causality, it's considered the "gold standard" of research…

  7. Methodological Pluralism: The Gold Standard of STEM Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, there is continuing debate about appropriate methods for conducting educational evaluations. The U.S. Department of Education has placed a priority on "scientifically" based evaluation methods and has advocated a "gold standard" of randomized controlled experimentation. The priority suggests that randomized control methods are best,…

  8. The Trouble with the Gold Standard: School Libraries & Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Although science has provided empirical evidence for centuries, it's only as recently as the 1940s that a scientific method called randomized controlled trials (RCT) emerged as a technique to test the efficacy of drugs and medical procedures. Since RCT is unique in that it can claim causality, it's considered the "gold standard" of research…

  9. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  10. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  11. 36 CFR 1254.106 - What are NARA's equipment standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are NARA's equipment standards? 1254.106 Section 1254.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Microfilming...

  12. Acute appendicitis: What is the gold standard of treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, Cesare; Fiorot, Alain; Pagura, Giulia; Antoniutti, Michele; Massani, Marco; Caratozzolo, Ezio; Bonariol, Luca; Calia di Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Nicolò

    2013-01-01

    McBurney’s procedure represented the gold-standard for acute appendicitis until 1981, but nowadays the number of laparoscopic appendectomies has progressively increased since it has been demonstrated to be a safe procedure, with excellent cosmetic results and it also allows a shorter hospitalization, a quicker and less painful postoperative recovery. The aim of this editorial was to perform a review of the literature in order to address controversial issues in the treatment of acute appendicitis. PMID:24379603

  13. Surgical management of female SUI: is there a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Cox, Ashley; Herschorn, Sender; Lee, Livia

    2013-02-01

    Many surgical options exist for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The traditional gold standards of Burch retropubic colposuspension and pubovaginal slings are still appropriate treatment options for some patients, but randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that synthetic midurethral slings are just as effective as these traditional procedures but with less associated morbidity. Thus, midurethral slings--inserted via a retropubic or transobturator approach--have become the new gold standard first-line surgical treatment for women with uncomplicated SUI. Retropubic midurethral slings are associated with slightly higher success rates than transobturator slings, but at the cost of more postoperative complications. Pubovaginal slings remain an effective option for women with SUI who have failed other procedures, have had mesh complications, or who require concomitant urethral surgery. Single-incision slings have a number of benefits, including decreased operative times and early return to regular activities, but they are yet to be shown to be as effective as midurethral slings. Both retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings are effective for patients with mixed urinary incontinence, but the overall cure rate is lower than for patients with pure SUI. Based on the literature a new gold standard first-line surgical treatment for women with SUI is the synthetic midurethral sling inserted through a retropubic or transobturator approach [corrected].

  14. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  15. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  16. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... Performance Standards § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with...

  17. IEC/EN standards relating to diagnostic radiology equipment, and testing according to these standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubszky, Tamas; Barsai, Janos

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an outlook of history, present and future of international (IEC) and European (EN) standards relating to diagnostic radiology equipment. These standards may be safety, quality assurance or performance standards; all of them include testing methods. Elaboration and publication of a new series of safety standards is in progress. Acceptance and conformance testing activity of the accredited Radiohygiene Department Laboratory of NRIRR according to these standards is reported.

  18. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet... § 250.112 What standards must my welding equipment meet? Your welding equipment must meet the following requirements: (a) All engine-driven welding equipment must be equipped with spark arrestors and drip pans;...

  19. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475). With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536) in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular entities and processes is

  20. Epidural technique for postoperative pain: gold standard no more?

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder

    2012-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is a well-established technique that has commonly been regarded as the gold standard in postoperative pain management. However, newer, evidence-based outcome data show that the benefits of epidural analgesia are not as significant as previously believed. There are some benefits in a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, but these benefits are probably limited to high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal or thoracic surgery who receive thoracic epidural analgesia with local anaesthetic drugs only. There is increasing evidence that less invasive regional analgesic techniques are as effective as epidural analgesia. These include paravertebral block for thoracotomy, femoral block for total hip and knee arthroplasty, wound catheter infusions for cesarean delivery, and local infiltration analgesia techniques for lower limb joint arthroplasty. Wound infiltration techniques and their modifications are simple and safe alternatives for a variety of other surgical procedures. Although pain relief associated with epidural analgesia can be outstanding, clinicians expect more from this invasive, high-cost, labour-intensive technique. The number of indications for the use of epidural analgesia seems to be decreasing for a variety of reasons. The decision about whether to continue using epidural techniques should be guided by regular institutional audits and careful risk-benefit assessment rather than by tradition. For routine postoperative analgesia, epidural analgesia may no longer be considered the gold standard.

  1. Con: Can biomarkers be gold standards in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As Alzheimer's disease remains a clinical diagnosis, and as clinical diagnosis can be difficult, it makes sense to look for so-called biomarkers. A biomarker predicts who is likely to have the illness and who is not. Some biomarkers might even correlate with a clinically meaningful response to treatment. Developing biomarkers is often characterized as searching for a diagnostic gold standard that can seem appealing in its promise of certainty. Even so, considering both the economic history of the gold standard and the results of neuropathological studies, framing the search for measurable, biological correlates of dementia syndromes in this way is likely to be self-defeating. Instead of considering biomarkers as providing certainty through referent criterion validation, currently it makes more sense to test their construct validity and their predictive ability. This means that while biomarkers should inform, they will not dictate clinical meaningfulness. For the foreseeable future, even were they to inform diagnosis, biomarkers cannot substitute for understanding whether patients and caregivers find a given dementia treatment effective. Instead, clinicians should recognize their own determining role, both in dementia diagnosis and in the evaluation of treatment. These roles will best be executed by hearing what patients and caregivers tell us about dementia, and its response to treatment. PMID:20587007

  2. Gold-standard for computer-assisted morphological sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Violeta; Garcia, Alejandra; Hitschfeld, Nancy; Härtel, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Published algorithms for classification of human sperm heads are based on relatively small image databases that are not open to the public, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. We describe a gold-standard for morphological sperm analysis (SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS), a dataset of sperm head images with expert-classification labels in one of the following classes: normal, tapered, pyriform, small or amorphous. This gold-standard is for evaluating and comparing known techniques and future improvements to present approaches for classification of human sperm heads for semen analysis. Although this paper does not provide a computational tool for morphological sperm analysis, we present a set of experiments for comparing sperm head description and classification common techniques. This classification base-line is aimed to be used as a reference for future improvements to present approaches for human sperm head classification. The gold-standard provides a label for each sperm head, which is achieved by majority voting among experts. The classification base-line compares four supervised learning methods (1- Nearest Neighbor, naive Bayes, decision trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) and three shape-based descriptors (Hu moments, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptors), reporting the accuracy and the true positive rate for each experiment. We used Fleiss' Kappa Coefficient to evaluate the inter-expert agreement and Fisher's exact test for inter-expert variability and statistical significant differences between descriptors and learning techniques. Our results confirm the high degree of inter-expert variability in the morphological sperm analysis. Regarding the classification base line, we show that none of the standard descriptors or classification approaches is best suitable for tackling the problem of sperm head classification. We discovered that the correct classification rate was highly variable when trying to discriminate among non-normal sperm

  3. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    , it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

  4. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE.

  5. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  6. Standards for material handling and facilities equipment proofload testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonn, S. P.

    1970-01-01

    Document provides information on verifying the safety of material handling and facilities equipment /MH/FE/, ranging from monorail systems to ladders and non-powered mobile equipment. Seven catagories of MH/FE equipment are defined.

  7. 78 FR 32612 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  8. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  9. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  10. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  11. HIS/RIS/PACS integration: getting to the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Boochever, Stephen S

    2004-01-01

    The technology for acquiring, storing, retrieving, displaying, and distributing images has advanced dramatically in recent years. The push is toward enterprise-wide image management solutions, where digital images from radiology, cardiology, and other "ologies" are seamlessly linked with information from clinical information systems and other databases, and they are accessed seamlessly from a single point of end-user interaction. The "gold standard" of system integration would provide the platform for improved workflow, patient throughput and patient safety, as well as decreased cost. Unfortunately, the gold standard remains elusive in most healthcare environments, even those with new systems. One of the earliest issues that plagued the progress of hospital information system/radiology information systems/picture archiving and communication systems (HIS/RIS/PACS) integration was a matter of language between Health Level-7 (HL7) and DICOM. This barrier was solved by the broker--a software and hardware device that accepts HL7 messages from the RIS then translates, or maps, the data to produce DICOM messages for transmission to the PACS. Technologist workflow requires patient and exam information from the RIS to flow to the modality. The broker provides support for this by taking advantage of the DICOM Modality Worklist (DMWL). Two primary problems are inherent in most brokered configurations. Workflow is driven by paper, and RIS information flows in 1 direction only, which leads to duplicative databases. Overcoming the limitations of HIS/RIS/PACS connectivity requires industry accepted communication protocols/rules. To facilitate this, the Integrating the Health Care Enterprise (IHE) initiative was developed. The goal of IHE is to provide end-users improved access to critical patient and clinical information across all systems within the healthcare delivery network. While the IHE initiative began to facilitate more efficient, predictable, and functional integration

  12. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment (as...

  13. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment (as...

  14. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment (as...

  15. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment (as...

  16. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety... Associated Equipment § 12.85 Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards. (a) Applicability of standards or regulations prescribed by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Boats and associated equipment (as...

  17. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards are...

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards are...

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards are...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75762, December 2, 2011. If oxygen dispensing units are installed,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen... occupant for whom supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit must: (1) Provide...

  5. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  6. 41 CFR 109-38.5104 - Other motor equipment utilization standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other motor equipment... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5104 Other motor equipment utilization standards. No utilization standards...

  7. The tarnished gold standard for GM risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Henry I

    2010-01-01

    The American public's assessment of the accuracy of news stories is now at its lowest level in more than two decades, and their views of media bias and independence now match previous lows, according to a September 2009 Pew Research Center survey.  Only 29% of Americans say that news organizations usually get the facts right, while 63% say that news stories often are inaccurate.  Although there are no similar survey data for "peer-reviewed journals" -- which submit articles to review by independent experts before they are accepted for publication and which have long been considered science's "gold standard" - it is not uncommon for articles that are egregiously, obviously flawed to find their way into prominent international scientific publications. If the articles have policy implications, misinformation is quickly and widely propagated; feeds the propagandizing of opportunistic, anti-technology activists, and can have dire consequences.

  8. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  9. The problem of dropout from "gold standard" PTSD therapies.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has increased substantially in the past several decades. There is now more awareness of the many different types of trauma that can lead to PTSD, greater refinement of diagnostic criteria, and the development and testing of various treatments for it. As implementation of PTSD therapies has increased, there is also increased attention to the key issues of retention and dropout. Retention refers to the percentage of patients who stay in a treatment for its intended dose, and dropout is the opposite (the percentage who leave prior to the intended dose); both of which have major implications for treatment outcomes. The two PTSD therapies most studied in relation to retention and dropout are Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy, which have been the subject of massive, formal, multi-year dissemination roll-outs. Both of these evidence-based treatments are defined as gold-standard therapies for PTSD and showed positive outcomes and reasonable retention of patients in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). But an emerging picture based on real-world practice indicates substantial dropout. Such real-world studies are distinct from RCTs, which have consistently evidenced far lower dropout rates, but under much more restricted conditions (e.g. a more selective range of patients and clinicians). In this paper, the phenomena of retention and dropout are described based on real-world studies of Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy, including rates, characteristics of patients, clinicians, and programs in relation to retention and dropout, and identification of clinical issues and future research on these topics. It is suggested that the term "gold-standard" evidence-based treatments should be reserved for treatments that evidence both positive results in RCTs but also feasibility and strong retention in real-world settings.

  10. Tackling variability: A multicenter study to provide a gold-standard network approach for frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sedeño, Lucas; Piguet, Olivier; Abrevaya, Sofía; Desmaras, Horacio; García-Cordero, Indira; Baez, Sandra; Alethia de la Fuente, Laura; Reyes, Pablo; Tu, Sicong; Moguilner, Sebastian; Lori, Nicolas; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Matallana, Diana; Slachevsky, Andrea; Torralva, Teresa; Chialvo, Dante; Kumfor, Fiona; García, Adolfo M; Manes, Facundo; Hodges, John R; Ibanez, Agustin

    2017-08-01

    Biomarkers represent a critical research area in neurodegeneration disease as they can contribute to studying potential disease-modifying agents, fostering timely therapeutic interventions, and alleviating associated financial costs. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis represents a promising approach to identify early biomarkers in specific diseases. Yet, virtually no study has tested whether potential FC biomarkers prove to be reliable and reproducible across different centers. As such, their implementation remains uncertain due to multiple sources of variability across studies: the numerous international centers capable conducting FC research vary in their scanning equipment and their samples' socio-cultural background, and, more troublingly still, no gold-standard method exists to analyze FC. In this unprecedented study, we aim to address both issues by performing the first multicenter FC research in the behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and by assessing multiple FC approaches to propose a gold-standard method for analysis. We enrolled 52 bvFTD patients and 60 controls from three international clinics (with different fMRI recording parameters), and three additional neurological patient groups. To evaluate FC, we focused on seed analysis, inter-regional connectivity, and several graph-theory approaches. Only graph-theory analysis, based on weighted-matrices, yielded consistent differences between bvFTD and controls across centers. Also, graph metrics robustly discriminated bvFTD from the other neurological conditions. The consistency of our findings across heterogeneous contexts highlights graph-theory as a potential gold-standard approach for brain network analysis in bvFTD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3804-3822, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if the...

  12. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if the...

  13. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if the...

  14. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part, if...

  15. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part, if...

  16. Is coronary computed tomographic angiography the "gold standard" for coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Hecht, Harvey S

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of noninvasive diagnostic tests has been accompanied by validation of each technology by a "gold standard." The anatomic "gold standard" of catheter angiography has been uniformly employed to validate the functional technologies of nuclear, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance stress testing and fractional flow reserve, which are then paradoxically used to judge the anatomic findings. Catheter angiography has also been used as the "gold standard" for the newest technology, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). By virtue of similar three dimensional characteristics, intravascular ultrasound may be the more appropriate standard for CCTA. However, because of the paradoxical interdependence of the validations, there can be no true "gold standard" for any technology; clinical, outcomes may ultimately be the best option. In the interim, clinical judgment and common sense should be substituted for slavish adherence to an absolute "gold standard" for diagnostic imaging and total reliance on a single diagnostic test.

  17. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  18. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  19. 78 FR 11795 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... final rule amending its technical standards for Class II gaming systems and equipment, and the rule... in the Federal Register called Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment... revenue, and provide guidance to equipment manufacturers and distributors of Class II gaming systems....

  20. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment, and facilities. State plan requirements: A State plan for financial assistance under title I, IV... establish and maintain standards for office space, equipment, and facilities that will adequately and... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for the oxygen... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is... crew on duty. (b) Portable walk-around oxygen units of the continuous flow, diluter-demand,...

  6. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  7. Towards a gold standard for quantitative coronary arteriography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doriot, Pierre-André; Dorsaz, Pierre-André; Dorsaz, Lidia; Bodenmann, Jean-Jacques

    1997-12-01

    Densitometric quantification of coronary artery stenoses in angiographic images can be problematic for two reasons: (i) the x-rays are inadequately oriented with respect to the vessel segments of interest at image acquisition; (ii) non-linear effects due for instance to beam hardening, scattered radiation and veiling glare may reduce the accuracy. As a consequence, appreciable discrepancies between degrees of stenosis measured in two different projections can occur. To overcome these limitations, we have designed and tested a combined correction that compensates (at subsequent analysis) for the error contributions due to the cited sources. It implies 3D reconstruction of the vessel segments of interest and consequently requires an appropriate biplane coronary angiogram. In experiments performed with a dedicated phantom, application of the correction improved the correlation between measured and true area reduction percentages (without correction: y = 1.04x - 4%, r = 0.97, SEE = 6%, n = 35; with correction: y = 1.02x - 0%, r = 0.99, SEE = 3%, n = 35). Applied to ten area stenoses measured biplane in patients and exhibiting strong interplane discrepancies, the correction had a comparable effect (without correction: y = 0.83x - 11%, r = 0.86, SEE = 9%, n = 10; with correction: y = 0.83x + 2%, r = 0.98, SEE = 4%, n = 10). The new densitometric method could possibly be used as a gold standard in the objective evaluation of geometric methods in patients.

  8. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  9. Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2009-11-10

    DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) has been used for nearly 50 years as the gold standard for prokaryotic species circumscriptions at the genomic level. It has been the only taxonomic method that offered a numerical and relatively stable species boundary, and its use has had a paramount influence on how the current classification has been constructed. However, now, in the era of genomics, DDH appears to be an outdated method for classification that needs to be substituted. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between two genomes seems the most promising method since it mirrors DDH closely. Here we examine the work package JSpecies as a user-friendly, biologist-oriented interface to calculate ANI and the correlation of the tetranucleotide signatures between pairwise genomic comparisons. The results agreed with the use of ANI to substitute DDH, with a narrowed boundary that could be set at approximately 95-96%. In addition, the JSpecies package implemented the tetranucleotide signature correlation index, an alignment-free parameter that generally correlates with ANI and that can be of help in deciding when a given pair of organisms should be classified in the same species. Moreover, for taxonomic purposes, the analyses can be produced by simply randomly sequencing at least 20% of the genome of the query strains rather than obtaining their full sequence.

  10. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  11. Rifampin Drug Resistance Tests for Tuberculosis: Challenging the Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Kya J. M.; Bola, Valentin; Lebeke, Rossin; Hossain, Mohamed Anwar; de Rijk, Willem Bram; Rigouts, Leen; Gumusboga, Aysel; Torrea, Gabriela; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of rifampin resistance is hampered by a reported insufficient specificity of molecular techniques for detection of rpoB mutations. Our objective for this study was to document the prevalence and prognostic value of rpoB mutations with unclear phenotypic resistance. The study design entailed sequencing directly from sputum of first failure or relapse patients without phenotypic selection and comparison of the standard retreatment regimen outcome, according to the mutation present. We found that among all rpoB mutations, the best-documented “disputed” rifampin resistance mutations (511Pro, 516Tyr, 526Asn, 526Leu, 533Pro, and 572Phe) made up 13.1% and 10.6% of all mutations in strains from Bangladesh and Kinshasa, respectively. Except for the 511Pro and 526Asn mutations, most of these strains with disputed mutations tested rifampin resistant in routine Löwenstein-Jensen medium proportion method drug susceptibility testing (DST; 78.7%), but significantly less than those with common, undisputed mutations (96.3%). With 63% of patients experiencing failure or relapse in both groups, there was no difference in outcome of first-line retreatment between patients carrying a strain with disputed versus common mutations. We conclude that rifampin resistance that is difficult to detect by the gold standard, phenotypic DST, is clinically and epidemiologically highly relevant. Sensitivity rather than specificity is imperfect with any rifampin DST method. Even at a low prevalence of rifampin resistance, a rifampin-resistant result issued by a competent laboratory may not warrant confirmation, although the absence of a necessity for confirmation needs to be confirmed for molecular results among new cases. However, a result of rifampin susceptibility should be questioned when suspicion is very high, and further DST using a different system (i.e., genotypic after phenotypic testing) would be fully justified. PMID:23761144

  12. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  13. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  14. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  15. Estimating nurses' exposures to ionizing radiation: the elusive gold standard.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Kay; Chow, Yat; Chung, Joanna; Ratner, Pamela; Spinelli, John; Le, Nhu; Ward, Helen

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed ionizing radiation exposure in 58,125 registered nurses in British Columbia, Canada, for a cohort study of cancer morbidity and mortality. Two methods were used: (1) a survey of nurses in more than 100 acute care hospitals and health care centers; (2) and monitoring data reported to the National Dose Registry of Health Canada, considered the gold standard. The mean exposure of cohort nurses monitored during the study period from 1974 to 2000 was 0.27 milliSieverts (7028 person-years of monitoring). Of 609,809 person-years in the cohort, 554,595 (90.9%) were identified as unexposed by both exposure assessment methods. Despite crude agreement of 91% between the methods, weighted kappa for agreement beyond chance was only 0.045, and the sensitivity of the survey method to capture National Dose Registry monitored person-years was only 0.085 (specificity = 0.97). The survey missed exposures outside the acute care setting. The National Dose Registry also missed potential exposures, especially among hospital emergency department and pediatric staff nurses. It was unlikely that either method estimated nurses' true exposures to ionizing radiation with good sensitivity and specificity. The difficulty in exposure assessment likely arises because fewer than 10% of registered nurses are exposed to ionizing radiation, yet the settings in which they are exposed vary tremendously. This means that careful hazard assessment is required to ensure that monitoring is complete where exposures are probable, without incurring the excess costs and lack of specificity of including the unexposed.

  16. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  17. After the Gold Rush: Questioning the "Gold Standard" and Reappraising the Status of Experiment and Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a resurgence of faith in experimentation in education inquiry, and particularly in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Proponents of such research have succeeded in bringing into common parlance the term "gold standard," which suggests that research emerging from any other design frame fails to achieve the…

  18. 32 CFR 2001.42 - Standards for security equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security equipment designed to provide secure storage for classified information. Whenever new secure... Section 2001.42 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY...

  19. Reduction of ETS-VI Laser Communication Equipment Optical-Downlink Telemetry Collected During GOLD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toyoshima, M.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Toyoda, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Wilson, K.; Lesh, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Free-space laser communications experiments were conducted between the laser communication equipment (LCE) on board the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the ground station located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) during late 1995 and early 1996. This article describes the on-line data reduction process used to decode LCE telemetry (called E2) downlinked on the optical carrier during the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) experiments. The LCE has the capability of transmitting real-time sensor and status information at 128 kbps by modulating the onboard diode laser. The optical downlink was detected on the ground, bit synchronized, and the resulting data stream stored on a data recorder. The recorded data were subsequently decoded by on-line data processing that included cross-correlation of the known telemetry data format and the downlink data stream. Signals obtained from the processing can be useful not only in evaluating the characteristics of the LCE but also in understanding uplink and downlink signal quality.

  20. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  1. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  2. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for...

  3. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for...

  4. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for...

  5. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 10 / Tuesday... Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... standards for several classes of commercial heating, air-conditioning, and water-heating equipment. Pursuant...

  6. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  7. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  8. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... atmosphere shall be equipped with a local fume capture system, ventilated through an air pollution control... pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment in a manner consistent with safety and good air... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... atmosphere shall be equipped with a local fume capture system, ventilated through an air pollution control... pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment in a manner consistent with safety and good air... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  10. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for...

  11. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  12. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... current monitoring period. (5) Exemptions. Each pump or agitator equipped with a dual mechanical seal... (c)(4)(iii) of this section, provided the following requirements are met: (i) Each dual mechanical... shall be recorded for each dual mechanical seal system: (A) Design criteria required by paragraph (c)(5...

  13. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but no later than 15 calendar days after it is detected... calendar days after each leak is detected. (e) Each exhauster equipped with a seal system that includes a... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the atmosphere...

  14. 40 CFR 61.135 - Standard: Equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but no later than 15 calendar days after it is detected... calendar days after each leak is detected. (e) Each exhauster equipped with a seal system that includes a... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the atmosphere...

  15. Present tendencies in equipment noise normalization. [permissible sound level standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, A.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of equipment noise normalization in the complex of measures aimed at reducing noise in work spaces, as well as the necessity of correlating these norms with the criteria that establish the noxious values of noise for man are outlined.

  16. Gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkemo, Harold; Newman, William L.; Ashley, Roger P.

    1998-01-01

    Through the ages, men and women have cherished gold, and many have had a compelling desire to amass great quantities of it -- so compelling a desire, in fact, that the frantic need to seek and hoard gold has been aptly named "gold fever." Gold was among the first metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its native form -- that is, not combined with other elements -- because it is beautiful and imperishable, and because exquisite objects can be made from it.

  17. 76 FR 9696 - Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis AGENCY: Office..., Mailstop EE-2J, Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis, EE-2008-BT-STD- 0012..., the price projections affect the economic impacts calculated for any potential energy conservation...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1447 - Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing... § 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. If oxygen dispensing units are installed... supplemental oxygen is to be supplied. Units must be designed to cover the nose and mouth and must be...

  3. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  4. 40 CFR 63.769 - Equipment leak standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities... capacity to process 283,000 standard cubic meters per day or more of field gas are exempt from the routine...

  5. Preparing an annotated gold standard corpus to share with extramural investigators for de-identification research.

    PubMed

    Deleger, Louise; Lingren, Todd; Ni, Yizhao; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Marsolo, Keith; Kouril, Michal; Molnar, Katalin; Solti, Imre

    2014-08-01

    The current study aims to fill the gap in available healthcare de-identification resources by creating a new sharable dataset with realistic Protected Health Information (PHI) without reducing the value of the data for de-identification research. By releasing the annotated gold standard corpus with Data Use Agreement we would like to encourage other Computational Linguists to experiment with our data and develop new machine learning models for de-identification. This paper describes: (1) the modifications required by the Institutional Review Board before sharing the de-identification gold standard corpus; (2) our efforts to keep the PHI as realistic as possible; (3) and the tests to show the effectiveness of these efforts in preserving the value of the modified data set for machine learning model development. In a previous study we built an original de-identification gold standard corpus annotated with true Protected Health Information (PHI) from 3503 randomly selected clinical notes for the 22 most frequent clinical note types of our institution. In the current study we modified the original gold standard corpus to make it suitable for external sharing by replacing HIPAA-specified PHI with newly generated realistic PHI. Finally, we evaluated the research value of this new dataset by comparing the performance of an existing published in-house de-identification system, when trained on the new de-identification gold standard corpus, with the performance of the same system, when trained on the original corpus. We assessed the potential benefits of using the new de-identification gold standard corpus to identify PHI in the i2b2 and PhysioNet datasets that were released by other groups for de-identification research. We also measured the effectiveness of the i2b2 and PhysioNet de-identification gold standard corpora in identifying PHI in our original clinical notes. Performance of the de-identification system using the new gold standard corpus as a training set was very

  6. 78 FR 55889 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE). EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent, amended standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this notice, DOE proposes amended energy conservation standards for commercial refrigeration equipment. The notice also announces a public meeting to receive comment on these proposed standards and associated analyses and results.

  7. 78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Standards Advisory Committee will hold its fourth meeting. On July 5, 2012, the Architectural and... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 5, 2012, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board...

  8. 77 FR 17897 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...The EPA is proposing National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessels and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks and Control Devices, herein referred to as Uniform Standards. The EPA is also proposing supplemental revisions to the National Uniform Emission Standards General Provisions, which were proposed with the National Uniform Emission Standards for Heat Exchange Systems, signed by......

  9. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards...

  10. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards...

  11. 40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a) On and...

  12. Optimizing subsystem test programs. [spacecraft equipment standardization for cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, W. H.; Pierman, B. C.

    1974-01-01

    The goal of reduction of space system costs is pursued in the areas of standardization of subsystem test requirements as well as overall subsystem test program resource requirements. A number of standard components are being developed by NASA. The rationale for the various environmental tests applicable to future missions and launch vehicles is discussed. The need for and approach to developing standard component specifications is presented. In addition, a method for reduction of test expenditures utilizing indexes of mission effect and hardware history as indicators of test requirements is proposed.

  13. The standardization and certification procedures of cryogenic equipment in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbayeva, A.; Drobyshev, A.; Drobyshev, N.

    2015-07-01

    The complex of procedures on stepwise carrying out actions of standardization and certification of liquid nitrogen, argon and oxygen gasificator G-200 is considered. In the process of organization of standardization and certification procedures the set of regulatory documents was developed that allow starting small-scale production of gasificators in Kazakhstan. Thus the emphasis on the potential incorporation of the requirements of such documents is placed from the Eurasian Economic Union.

  14. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  15. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  16. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material Handling... sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling'' by removing the rated... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0...

  17. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards affecting...

  18. SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD OF SODA FOUNTAIN-LUNCHEONETTE EQUIPMENT IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARDS. THESE STANDARDS ARE ISSUED IN RECOGNITION OF THE LONG FELT NEED FOR A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF SANITATION INVOLVING INDUSTRIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH OFFICIALS WHOSE OBLIGATION IT IS TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS.…

  19. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  20. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  1. Phase Radio Meteor Equipment for Time and Frequency Standards Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    6, 172 pp. 422-428. [3] B. S. Dudnik, B. L. Kashcheyev, Y. A. Koval, and S. B. Pushkin , 1981, “Decrease of errors in time keeping scales...Dudnik, Y. A. Koval, and S. B. Pushkin , 1986, “Criteria for estimating high-precision indices of radio meteor complexes for time scales synchronization...time and frequency primary standards with the errors less than 10 ns, ” Izmeritelnaja technika, Ng. 12,31-32. [9] S. B. Pushkin , B. L. Kashcheyev

  2. Nursing Program Success: Are We Using the Right "Gold" Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Sharon L.; Helfert, Karen; Teich, Carolyn R.; Viterito, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Community college administrators and state regulatory bodies assess associate degree nursing programs on a continual basis. In their quest to evaluate the programs, they rely heavily on the "first time pass rate" reports on the standard licensing test: NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination). A closer look at the use of this…

  3. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  4. Leishmania infection: laboratory diagnosing in the absence of a "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Francino, Olga; López-Fuertes, Laura; Timón, Marcos; Alberola, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    There is no gold standard for diagnosing leishmaniases. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of tests used in detecting Leishmania infection using samples from experimental infections, a reliable equivalent to the classic definition of gold standard. Without statistical differences, the highest sensitivity was achieved by protein A (ProtA), immunoglobulin (Ig)G2, indirect fluorescenece antibody test (IFAT), lymphocyte proliferation assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow (qPCR-BM), qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and the highest specificity by IgG1, IgM, IgA, qPCR-Blood, IgG, IgG2, and qPCR-BM. Maximum positive predictive value was obtained simultaneously by IgG2, qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and maximum negative predictive value by qPCR-BM. Best positive and negative likelihood ratios were obtained by IgG2. The test having the greatest, statistically significant, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was IgG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, according to the gold standard used, IFAT and qPCR are far from fulfilling the requirements to be considered gold standards, and the test showing the highest potential to detect Leishmania infection is Leishmania-specific ELISA IgG2.

  5. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  6. Reassessing RCTs as the "Gold Standard": Synergy Not Separatism in Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Pam; Chambers, Bette; Haslam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate educational interventions in the UK. However, RCTs remain controversial for some elements of the research community. This paper argues that the widespread use of the term "gold standard" to describe RCTs is problematic, as it implies that other research methods are…

  7. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  8. Reassessing RCTs as the "Gold Standard": Synergy Not Separatism in Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Pam; Chambers, Bette; Haslam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate educational interventions in the UK. However, RCTs remain controversial for some elements of the research community. This paper argues that the widespread use of the term "gold standard" to describe RCTs is problematic, as it implies that other research methods are…

  9. Seeking a Valid Gold Standard for an Innovative, Dialect-Neutral Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E.; Wu, Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. Method: Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language…

  10. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  11. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers and...

  12. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers and...

  13. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers and...

  14. 40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for recycling and recovery... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.158 Standards for recycling and recovery equipment. (a) Effective September 22, 2003, all manufacturers and...

  15. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  16. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. 571.108 Section 571.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal...

  17. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency will...

  18. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency will...

  19. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  20. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... to the coke oven battery, converted to the single-run limit according to Table 1. eff=Percent...

  1. Farm Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de machines agricoles. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for farm equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  2. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency will...

  3. Considerations for integration of a physiological radar monitoring system with gold standard clinical sleep monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Baboli, Mehran; Gao, Xiaomeng; Yavari, Ehsan; Padasdao, Bryson; Soll, Bruce; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A design for a physiological radar monitoring system (PRMS) that can be integrated with clinical sleep monitoring systems is presented. The PRMS uses two radar systems at 2.45 GHz and 24 GHz to achieve both high sensitivity and high resolution. The system can acquire data, perform digital processing and output appropriate conventional analog outputs with a latency of 130 ms, which can be recorded and displayed by a gold standard sleep monitoring system, along with other standard sensor measurements.

  4. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment...

  7. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(< 102 g m-3). Elemental gold was successfully obtained on 0.5-1 mm gr particles in an electrochemical reactor incorporating a cation- permeable membrane and operated in bath recycle mode. Depletion to concentration < 5 × 10-3 mol m-3 (< 1 g m-3) appeared to be mass transport controlled at an applied potential of +0.20 V (SCE), specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) of ca. 800-1300 kWh h (tonne Au)-1 for cell voltages (U) of 2.0-3.0 V, and fractional current efficiencies of ca. 0.95. However, atomic absorption and UV spectrophotometry established that as the ([{{AuCl}}4-+[{{AuCl}}2-]) concentration decayed, the [{{AuCl}}4-]:[{{AuCl}}2-] molar ratio changed. A multi-step mechanism for reduction of {{AuCl}}4- ions explained this behavior in terms of changing overpotentials for {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- reduction as total dissolved gold concentration decreased. In addition, SEM images confirmed that adherent and coherent Au deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  8. Cross-cultural validity and reliability testing of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-culture validity and reliability of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without the usual "gold standards." Normally criterion validity testing requires comparison with such a standard--usually another instrument or a professional diagnosis. Instead local informants identified persons with and without "agahinda gakabije" (a locally described grief syndrome) who were then asked if they thought they had this syndrome and also interviewed using the depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL). To assess criterion validity, interviews where respondent and informant agreed on the presence or absence of agahinda gakabije were compared with depression diagnosis using the DHSCL. We also assessed construct validity (using factor analysis), internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability using results from a subsequent community-based survey employing the DHSCL. We found a similar relationship between depression and agahinda gakabije as between depression and grief in western countries, which supports criterion validity. Construct validity and internal reliability were good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Test-retest reliability of a DHSCL-based scale was less adequate (0.67). Although not replacing the usual gold standards for testing criterion validity, this approach may prove useful where these standards are unavailable. As this includes much of the developing world, this could result in more accurate mental health assessments among populations for whom this has hitherto not been possible.

  9. Seeking a valid gold standard for an innovative, dialect-neutral language test.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Jackson, Janice E; Wu, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors explored alternative gold standards to validate an innovative, dialect-neutral language assessment. METHOD Participants were 78 African American children, ages 5;0 (years;months) to 6;11. Twenty participants had previously been identified as having language impairment. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Norm Referenced (DELV-NR; Seymour, Roeper, & J. de Villiers, 2005) was administered, and concurrent language samples (LSs) were collected. Using LS profiles as the gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy were compared for diagnoses made from the DELV-NR and participants' clinical status prior to recruitment. In a second analysis, the authors used results from the first analysis to make evidence-based adjustments in the estimates of DELV-NR diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS Accuracy of the DELV-NR relative to LS profiles was greater than that of prior diagnoses, indicating that the DELV-NR was an improvement over preexisting diagnoses for this group. Specificity met conventional standards, but sensitivity was somewhat low. Reanalysis using the positive and negative predictive power of the preexisting diagnosis in a discrepant-resolution procedure revealed that estimates for sensitivity and specificity for the DELV-NR were .85 and .93, respectively. CONCLUSION The authors found that, even after making allowances for the imperfection of available gold standards, clinical decisions made with the DELV-NR achieved high values on conventional measures of diagnostic accuracy.

  10. An alternative to the hand searching gold standard: validating methodological search filters using relative recall

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Margaret; Zhang, Li; Morrison, Andra; Barrowman, Nicholas J; Clifford, Tammy J; Platt, Robert W; Klassen, Terry P; Moher, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Search filters or hedges play an important role in evidence-based medicine but their development depends on the availability of a "gold standard" – a reference standard against which to establish the performance of the filter. We demonstrate the feasibility of using relative recall of included studies from multiple systematic reviews to validate methodological search filters as an alternative to validation against a gold standard formed through hand searching. Methods We identified 105 Cochrane reviews that used the Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS), included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials, and reported their included studies. We measured the ability of two published and one novel variant of the HSSS to retrieve the MEDLINE-index studies included in these reviews. Results The systematic reviews were comprehensive in their searches. 72% of included primary studies were indexed in MEDLINE. Relative recall of the three strategies ranged from .98 to .91 across all reviews and more comprehensive strategies showed higher recall. Conclusion An approach using relative recall instead of a hand searching gold standard proved feasible and produced recall figures that were congruent with previously published figures for the HSSS. This technique would permit validation of a methodological filter using a collection of approximately 100 studies of the chosen design drawn from the included studies of multiple systematic reviews that used comprehensive search strategies. PMID:16848895

  11. [Investigation report on the technical standards of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Tangyi; Yang, Huayuan

    2016-02-01

    The questionnaire was adopted so as to investigate the attitudes and recognition of the manufacture eneprises of TCM diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation equipment (DTRE) to the technical standards of, relevant products. It was found that the construction of the industrial standard and the national standard was lagged behind on TCM DTRE. Under the new situation, the enterprises are highly willing to participate in the development of the industrial, national and international standards and have a certain of understanding on the standard development. Nearly 80 % of enterprises believed that it was necessary to set up the relevant mirror organization for the development of industrial, national and international standard of TCM DITRE. In the future, the standard construction of TCM DTRE must face to the new situation. The constant increasing of the enterprises. and scientific research organizations in the standard construction must promote the development of TCM DTRE.

  12. "Gold standard" data for evaluation and comparison of 3D/2D registration methods.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation and comparison of registration techniques for image-guided surgery is an important problem that has received little attention in the literature. In this paper we address the challenging problem of generating reliable "gold standard" data for use in evaluating the accuracy of 3D/2D registrations. We have devised a cadaveric lumbar spine phantom with fiducial markers and established highly accurate correspondences between 3D CT and MR images and 18 2D X-ray images. The expected target registration errors for target points on the pedicles are less than 0.26 mm for CT-to-X-ray registration and less than 0.42 mm for MR-to-X-ray registration. As such, the "gold standard" data, which has been made publicly available on the Internet (http://lit.fe.uni-lj.si/Downloads/downloads.asp), is useful for evaluation and comparison of 3D/2D image registration methods.

  13. Comparative evaluation of an ambulatory EEG platform vs. clinical gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gregory; Radhu, Natasha; Sun, Yinming; Tallevi, Kevin; Ritvo, Paul; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) testing in clinical labs makes use of large amplifiers and complex software for data acquisition. While there are new ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, few have been directly compared to a gold standard system. Here, an ultra-low power wireless EEG system designed by Imec is tested against the gold standard Neuroscan SynAmps2 EEG system, recording simultaneously from the same laboratory cap prepared with electrode gel. The data was analyzed using correlation analysis for both time domain and frequency domain data. The analysis indicated a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (mean=0.957, median=0.985) with high confidence (mean P=0.002) for 10-second sets of data transformed to the frequency domain. The time domain results had acceptable Pearson's coefficient (mean=0.580, median =0.706) with high confidence (mean P=0.008).

  14. Szilard Award Recipients: Equipment Efficiency Standards: Mitigating Global Climate Change at a Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, David B.; Geller, Howard

    1998-04-01

    Efficiency standards for equipment have overcome market failures, encouraged technological innovation, and provided enormous economic and environmental benefits. They have been one of the most successful public policy initiatives in the energy arena in the past 25 years, benefiting the U.S. as well as other countries. New standards could be a cornerstone of a strategy for meeting climate goals at a profit. But delaying their enactment greatly reduces their effectiveness.

  15. Safety Requirements for Home Playground Equipment. (Voluntary Product Standard PS 66-75).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Standards Inst., Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents the National Bureau of Standards safety requirements for home playground equipment intended for use by children 2 through 10 years old. The requirements are concerned with the design and performance of the units and their components, the structural integrity of the units and their components during and after exposure to…

  16. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  17. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and operate...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and operate...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and operate...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory. The... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory. The... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  2. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC56 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice...

  3. 78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., reflective devices, and associated equipment to allow the license plate mounting surface on motorcycles to be... Motorcycle Industry Council (MIC) on March 14, 2005, requesting that the agency modify the license mounting... SAE Standard J587 and the requirements in the European Union which both allow motorcycle license...

  4. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  5. 30 CFR 250.112 - What standards must my welding equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standards must my welding equipment meet? 250.112 Section 250.112 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  6. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  7. 7 CFR 550.36 - Purpose of equipment/property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose of equipment/property standards. 550.36 Section 550.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH... disposition of property furnished by the Federal Government or acquired by the Cooperator with funds provided...

  8. 7 CFR 550.36 - Purpose of equipment/property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose of equipment/property standards. 550.36 Section 550.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH... disposition of property furnished by the Federal Government or acquired by the Cooperator with funds provided...

  9. A unification of models for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulun; Chen, Yong; Chu, Haitao

    2015-06-01

    Several statistical methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies have been discussed in the presence of a gold standard. However, in practice, the selected reference test may be imperfect due to measurement error, non-existence, invasive nature, or expensive cost of a gold standard. It has been suggested that treating an imperfect reference test as a gold standard can lead to substantial bias in the estimation of diagnostic test accuracy. Recently, two models have been proposed to account for imperfect reference test, namely, a multivariate generalized linear mixed model (MGLMM) and a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model. Both models are very flexible in accounting for heterogeneity in accuracies of tests across studies as well as the dependence between tests. In this article, we show that these two models, although with different formulations, are closely related and are equivalent in the absence of study-level covariates. Furthermore, we provide the exact relations between the parameters of these two models and assumptions under which two models can be reduced to equivalent submodels. On the other hand, we show that some submodels of the MGLMM do not have corresponding equivalent submodels of the HSROC model, and vice versa. With three real examples, we illustrate the cases when fitting the MGLMM and HSROC models leads to equivalent submodels and hence identical inference, and the cases when the inferences from two models are slightly different. Our results generalize the important relations between the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and HSROC model when the reference test is a gold standard. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  10. A studentized permutation test for three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design.

    PubMed

    Mütze, Tobias; Konietschke, Frank; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim

    2017-03-15

    The 'gold standard' design for three-arm trials refers to trials with an active control and a placebo control in addition to the experimental treatment group. This trial design is recommended when being ethically justifiable and it allows the simultaneous comparison of experimental treatment, active control, and placebo. Parametric testing methods have been studied plentifully over the past years. However, these methods often tend to be liberal or conservative when distributional assumptions are not met particularly with small sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a studentized permutation test for testing non-inferiority and superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design. The performance of the studentized permutation test for finite sample sizes is assessed in a Monte Carlo simulation study under various parameter constellations. Emphasis is put on whether the studentized permutation test meets the target significance level. For comparison purposes, commonly used Wald-type tests, which do not make any distributional assumptions, are included in the simulation study. The simulation study shows that the presented studentized permutation test for assessing non-inferiority in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design outperforms its competitors, for instance the test based on a quasi-Poisson model, for count data. The methods discussed in this paper are implemented in the R package ThreeArmedTrials which is available on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-03-08

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves.

  12. The Gold Standard Paradox in Digital Image Analysis: Manual Versus Automated Scoring as Ground Truth.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Wilson, Kristin; Martin, Nathan T; Black, Joshua C; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Bolon, Brad; Rudmann, Daniel G; Gianani, Roberto; Koegler, Sally R; Krueger, Joseph; Young, G Dave

    2017-09-01

    - Novel therapeutics often target complex cellular mechanisms. Increasingly, quantitative methods like digital tissue image analysis (tIA) are required to evaluate correspondingly complex biomarkers to elucidate subtle phenotypes that can inform treatment decisions with these targeted therapies. These tIA systems need a gold standard, or reference method, to establish analytical validity. Conventional, subjective histopathologic scores assigned by an experienced pathologist are the gold standard in anatomic pathology and are an attractive reference method. The pathologist's score can establish the ground truth to assess a tIA solution's analytical performance. The paradox of this validation strategy, however, is that tIA is often used to assist pathologists to score complex biomarkers because it is more objective and reproducible than manual evaluation alone by overcoming known biases in a human's visual evaluation of tissue, and because it can generate endpoints that cannot be generated by a human observer. - To discuss common visual and cognitive traps known in traditional pathology-based scoring paradigms that may impact characterization of tIA-assisted scoring accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. - This manuscript reviews the current literature from the past decades available for traditional subjective pathology scoring paradigms and known cognitive and visual traps relevant to these scoring paradigms. - Awareness of the gold standard paradox is necessary when using traditional pathologist scores to analytically validate a tIA tool because image analysis is used specifically to overcome known sources of bias in visual assessment of tissue sections.

  13. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    PubMed Central

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernuš, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Nöbauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using analyze 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy. PMID:21520860

  14. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  15. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What standards must I meet for resin... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations...

  16. Fungus-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and standardization of parameters for its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tidke, Pritish R; Gupta, Indarchand; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    We report the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a fungus Fusarium acuminatum. Mycosynthesis of Au-NPs was carried out by challenging the fungal cells filtrate with HAuCl 4 solution (1 mM), as nanoparticles synthesizing enzyme secrete extracellularly by the fungi. The AuNPs were characterized with the help of UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Zeta Potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed absorbance peak in between 520 nm-550 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon absorbance of the gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized in the present investigation were found to be capped by proteins. XRD results showed that the distinctive formation of crystalline gold nanoparticles in the solution. The spherical and polydispersed AuNPs in the range 8 to 28 nm with average size of 17 nm were observed by TEM analysis. We also standardized the parameters like the effect of pH, temperature and salt concentration on the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. It was found that acidic pH, 1 mM salt concentration and 37 (°)C temperature were found to be optimum for the synthesis of Au-NPs. Therefore, the present study introduces the easy, better and cheaper method for biosynthesis of AuNPs.

  17. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  18. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  19. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    PubMed

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  20. Standardization of Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Equipment (H,M&E) inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    ENGINES 1,752.331 215,539 226,421 237,742 DLUMBING EQUIP 17,786 684 718 754 GEARS AND REDUCERS 343,884 56,857 59,788 62,685 GOVERNORS 217,188 48,238...of Standardization for Hull, Mechanical, an-d--ectrical Equilpment, ARINC , Annapolis, ,D-7., Apr i 1978. Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, Form

  1. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  2. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA) and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE), and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician coding for cause of death

  4. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  5. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as “gold standard” for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of −23% to −27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB −2% to −6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB −0.6% to −0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%–0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers’ (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers’ (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. PMID

  6. Minimally Invasive Neck Dissection (MIND) Using Standard Laparoscopic Equipment: a Preliminary Report and Description of Technique.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sandeep P; Jayaprasad, Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Neck dissection leaves behind an aesthetically unacceptable scar over front of the neck. Various techniques, both endoscopic and robotic, have been tried to avoid this scar. Though comparatively more cases of robotic surgery are reported than endoscopic neck dissection, the cost and availability of robot precludes many patients from getting the benefit of minimally invasive neck dissection (MIND). We performed minimally invasive neck dissection for two carefully selected patients with early oral cancer and cN0. We used standard endoscopic equipment and ubiquitously available laparoscopic ports. We used gas insufflation to create the working space. Our results show that MIND is feasible and oncologically safe. The scars produced are aesthetically better than that of conventional open neck dissection. This procedure leaves no scars in the anterior aspect of the neck. This technique can be replicated at any center with endoscopic equipments without need for purchasing specialised retractors or a robot.

  7. Collective biodosimetry as a dosimetric "gold standard": a study of three radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Pass, B; Baranov, A E; Kleshchenko, E D; Aldrich, J E; Scallion, P L; Gale, R P

    1997-03-01

    Quantification of the biologically relevant dose is required for the establishment of cause-and-effect between radiation detriment or burden and important biological outcomes. Most epidemiological studies of unanticipated radiation exposure fail to establish cause and effect because of an inability to construct a valid quantification of dose for the exposed population. No one biodosimetric technique (biophysical or biological) meets all the requirements of an ideal dosimeter and thus qualify as a "gold standard." This report combines new results with previously published data in order to establish a collective biodosimetry as a dosimetric "gold standard" for the victims of three radiation accidents. Combining new and previously published data is necessary as execution and planning of a comprehensive dosimetry is rarely done at the initial stages of a radiation accident. The first subject was a fireman during the initial moments of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; the second was the victim of an unspecified occupational accident; and the third was exposed to a 60Co sterilization source. There was generally good agreement among the various biodosimetric techniques used for the three accident victims.

  8. Validation of temporal gait metrics from three IMU locations to the gold standard force plate.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Matthew R; Johnston, William; O'Mahony, Niamh; O'Mahony, Sam; Nolan, Eimear; Caulfield, Brian

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare temporal gait parameters from three different IMU locations to the gold standard force platform. 33 subjects (12 F, 21 M) performed twenty gait trials each while wearing inertial measurement units (IMUs) on the trunk, both shanks and both feet. Data was simultaneously collected from a laboratory embedded force plate. Step times were derived from the raw IMU data at the three IMU locations using methods that have been shown to be accurate. Step times from all locations were valid compared to the force plate. Foot IMU step time was the most accurate (Pearson = .991, CI width = 3.00e2), the trunk IMU was the next most accurate (Pearson = .974, CI width = 4.85e2) and shank step time was the least accurate (Pearson = .958, CI width = 6.80e2). All three sensing locations result in valid estimations of step time compared to the gold standard force plate. These results suggest that the foot location would be most appropriate for clinical applications where very precise temporal parameter detection is required.

  9. SpaceFibre: The Standard, Simulation, IP Cores and Test Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Ferrer Florit, Albert; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    SpaceFibre is an emerging new standard for spacecraft on-board data-handling networks. Initially targeted to deliver multi-Gbit/s data rates for synthetic aperture radar and high-resolution, multi-spectral imaging instruments, SpaceFibre has developed into a unified network technology that integrates high bandwidth, with low latency, quality of service (QoS) and fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Furthermore SpaceFibre is backwards compatible with the widely used SpaceWire standard at the network level allowing simple interconnection of existing SpaceWire equipment to a SpaceFibre link or network. Developed by the University of Dundee for the European Space Agency (ESA) SpaceFibre is able to operate over fibre-optic and electrical cable and supports data rates of 2 Gbit/s in the near future and up to 5 Gbit/s long-term. Multi-laning improves the data-rate further to well over 20 Gbits/s. This paper details the current state of SpaceFibre which is now in the process of formal standardisation by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS). It describes the SpaceFibre IP core being developed for ESA. The design of a SpaceFibre demonstration board is introduced and available SpaceFibre test and development equipment is described. The way in which several SpaceWire links can be concentrated over a single SpaceFibre link will be explained.

  10. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-07-07

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique.

  11. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J.; Stephen, Renu M.; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both accuracy and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique. PMID:22713231

  12. The validity of cone-beam computed tomography in measuring root canal length using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Chen; Gao, Xue-Jun; Wesselink, Paul R; Wu, Min-Kai; Shemesh, Hagay

    2013-12-01

    The distance between a coronal reference point and the major apical foramen is important for working length determination. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the accuracy of root canal length measurements performed with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans using a gold standard. A total of 162 teeth (198 root canals) in 16 dry human dentulous mandibles were scanned using a 3DX-Accuitomo CBCT scanner (Morita 3DX; J Morita Mfg Corp, Kyoto, Japan). The root canal length was measured with CBCT data. All teeth were extracted atraumatically and endodontically accessed; the root canal length was measured blindly using a #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and served as the gold standard. The mean absolute difference of the CBCT-based root canal length from the gold standard was 0.46 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.50 mm). Only in 9 of 198 (4.5%) roots did the difference between the CBCT-based root canal length and the gold standard exceed 1 mm. CBCT-based root canal length measurements are accurate and reliable when compared with a gold standard. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges of equipment qualification using today`s standards with emphasis on a class 1E motor program

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, K.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes qualification of new equipment for safety related service in the nuclear power industry in accordance with current industry standards. This topic is presented from the perspective of an original equipment manufacturer J(OEM). Equipment qualification is first discussed in a general way then an example is provided of an electric motor qualification. A review of alternative qualification methods including commercial dedication is included. Potential difficulties with alternative/expedited qualification methods are also discussed.

  14. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  15. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  16. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  17. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  18. Paving the way for a gold standard of care for infertility treatment: improving outcomes through standardization of laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, William; Meseguer, Marcos

    2017-07-14

    Infertility affects over 70 million couples globally. Access to, and interest in, assisted reproductive technologies is growing worldwide, with more couples seeking medical intervention to conceive, in particular by IVF. Despite numerous advances in IVF techniques since its first success in 1978, almost half of the patients treated remain childless. The multifactorial nature of IVF treatment means that success is dependent on many variables. Therefore, it is important to examine how each variable can be optimized to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients. The current approach to IVF is fragmented, with various protocols in use. A systematic approach to establishing optimum best practices may improve IVF success and live birth rates. Our vision of the future is that technological advancements in the laboratory setting are standardized and universally adopted to enable a gold standard of care. Implementation of best practices for laboratory procedures will enable clinicians to generate high-quality gametes, and to produce and identify gametes and embryos of maximum viability and implantation potential, which should contribute to improving take-home healthy baby rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  2. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  3. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  4. Proposed Rule for Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Link to Federal Register Notice from February 19, 2015 announcing Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation.

  5. Stress: Towards a Gold Standard for Continuous Stress Assessment in the Mobile Environment.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Karen; al'Absi, Mustafa; Ertin, Emre; Kamarck, Thomas; Nakajima, Motohiro; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in mobile health have produced several new models for inferring stress from wearable sensors. But, the lack of a gold standard is a major hurdle in making clinical use of continuous stress measurements derived from wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a stress model (called cStress) that has been carefully developed with attention to every step of computational modeling including data collection, screening, cleaning, filtering, feature computation, normalization, and model training. More importantly, cStress was trained using data collected from a rigorous lab study with 21 participants and validated on two independently collected data sets - in a lab study on 26 participants and in a week-long field study with 20 participants. In testing, the model obtains a recall of 89% and a false positive rate of 5% on lab data. On field data, the model is able to predict each instantaneous self-report with an accuracy of 72%.

  6. Stress: Towards a Gold Standard for Continuous Stress Assessment in the Mobile Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Karen; al’Absi, Mustafa; Ertin, Emre; Kamarck, Thomas; Nakajima, Motohiro; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile health have produced several new models for inferring stress from wearable sensors. But, the lack of a gold standard is a major hurdle in making clinical use of continuous stress measurements derived from wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a stress model (called cStress) that has been carefully developed with attention to every step of computational modeling including data collection, screening, cleaning, filtering, feature computation, normalization, and model training. More importantly, cStress was trained using data collected from a rigorous lab study with 21 participants and validated on two independently collected data sets — in a lab study on 26 participants and in a week-long field study with 20 participants. In testing, the model obtains a recall of 89% and a false positive rate of 5% on lab data. On field data, the model is able to predict each instantaneous self-report with an accuracy of 72%. PMID:26543926

  7. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation in diabetes with renal failure: the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Augustine, Titus

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney (SPK) transplantation in the 21st century is a proven therapeutic intervention for diabetes with renal failure. Although it is a major invasive procedure, successful transplantation leads to an overall improvement in the quality of life of the recipient, freedom from insulin and dialysis, along with stabilisation and improvement in several of the multi-system complications associated with long-term diabetes. It is also associated with improved longevity when compared to diabetics who have had a kidney transplant alone. The combined transplant could be considered a curative procedure albeit at the expense of long-term immunosuppression. In essence, successful SPK transplantation may be considered the gold standard against which all other therapeutic interventions may be measured in diabetes with end-stage renal failure.

  8. Quantifying the accuracy of forensic examiners in the absence of a "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas; Bowen, Michael D; Vanness, David J; Bienenfeld, David; Correll, Terry; Kay, Jerald; Klykylo, William M; Lehrer, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    This study asked whether latent class modeling methods and multiple ratings of the same cases might permit quantification of the accuracy of forensic assessments. Five evaluators examined 156 redacted court reports concerning criminal defendants who had undergone hospitalization for evaluation or restoration of their adjudicative competence. Evaluators rated each defendant's Dusky-defined competence to stand trial on a five-point scale as well as each defendant's understanding of, appreciation of, and reasoning about criminal proceedings. Having multiple ratings per defendant made it possible to estimate accuracy parameters using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, despite the absence of any "gold standard" for the defendants' true competence status. Evaluators appeared to be very accurate, though this finding should be viewed with caution.

  9. ECG or X-ray as the 'gold standard' for establishing PICC-tip location?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gemma; Jones, Matt

    2014-10-22

    Recently there has been an increase in evidence that the tip position of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) needs to be accurately placed in the lower third of the superior vena cava at the junction with the right atrium in order to minimise potential complications ( Royal College of Nursing, 2010 ; Infusion Nurses Society, 2011 ). The current 'gold standard' practice of performing a chest X-ray post-insertion of PICC can be fraught with complications with regard to accurately placing the PICC in this position. The purpose of this evaluation is to discuss how using an electrocardiogram-guided PICC placement system may be a preferable method with which to accurately measure the exact position of the PICC within the venous system.

  10. [Gold standard for implant selection in operative therapy of spondylitis/spondylodiscitis].

    PubMed

    Wiedenhöfer, B; Hemmer, S; Akbar, M; Lehner, B; Schmidmaier, G; Klöckner, C

    2012-09-01

    The operative therapy management of vertebral osteomyelitis including debridement and stabilization is well established. Autologous bone is the preferred graft material but is limited due to availability, failure of consolidation in large defects and donor morbidity. Titanium mesh cages are alternatively equally well evaluated and other materials are also mentioned. Immobilization of affected segments is the fundamental requirement for healing of osteomyelitis. The operative therapy of choice is meticulous debridement and internal stabilization of the defect. Autologous bone seems to provide the best conditions to bridge and consolidate defects. Bone marrow aspirate, reaming irrigator aspiration (RIA) and bone marrow protein (BMP) in combination with cages have the same qualities considering bone healing but they are not yet sufficiently evaluated for management of vertebral osteomyelitis. Autologous bone graft remains the gold standard, nevertheless, its disadvantages point out the need for alternative grafts. Titanium is well proven to provide stability but bone substitutes are not sufficiently evaluated but seem to be promising.

  11. Can 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain the gold standard for gallbladder surgery?

    PubMed

    Kartal, Kinyas; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Fin dalla prima esecuzione di una colecistectomia laparoscopica (LC), questo approccio ha attratto l’attenzione di tutti i chirurghi per continuare quindi la sua rivoluzione tecnica. Con l’aumentare dell’esperienza chirurgica si è sviluppata la tendenza verso approcci sempre meno invasivi ed ha comportato innovazioni nel campo della chirurgia laparoscopica. Le procedure chirurgiche correnti sono: l’approccio con 4 port (4PLC) che rappresenta tutt’ora il gold standard, l’approccio con 3 port (3PLC), quello con 2 port (2PLC) ed infine quello con un solo port (SPLC). La colecistectomia robotica (RC) e la chirurgia eseguita endoscopicamente tramite orifici coporei naturali (NOTES) rappresentano le altre nuove tecniche per l’esecuzione dell’asportazione della colecisti. In questo articolo ci si propone di fare un confronto obiettivo tra i diversi tipi di colecistectomia laparoscopica sulla base della corrente letteratura medica del settore.

  12. Defining adrenal status with salivary cortisol by gold-standard insulin hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Karpman, Matthew S; Neculau, Madalina; Dias, Valerian C; Kline, Gregory A

    2013-10-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IHT) is considered the gold standard test for evaluating the HPA axis. Serum free cortisol or its surrogate, salivary cortisol as opposed to total cortisol concentrations, offers a better reflection of the activation of HPA axis. Our study aimed to derive reference ranges for the normal salivary cortisol levels in healthy patients and patients with adrenal insufficiency. Serum cortisol concentrations, using the gold standard of IHT, and salivary cortisol were obtained. 36 patients referred to our outpatient endocrine testing unit for evaluation of adrenal function were included in the study. Most subjects had a history of suspected hypothalamic/pituitary disease causing adrenal insufficiency. We found a strong linear correlation between the serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in simultaneously collected samples (r=0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.86, p<0.0001). The corresponding salivary cortisol equivalent to a serum cortisol of 500 nmol/L, using a linear-regression equation, was 16.7 nmol/L (95% CI 13.3-20.1 nmol/L, p=0.0001). A salivary cortisol of 13.3 nmol/L has a specificity of 89.3% to detect abnormal HPA function. Using the upper 95% CI result of salivary cortisol 20.1 yields a sensitivity of 87.5%. With the present assay, adrenal insufficiency may be diagnosed with reasonable confidence if a random salivary cortisol is lower than 13.3 nmol/L and excluded if a random salivary cortisol is higher than 20.1 nmol/L. Future studies should correlate these thresholds with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blinded sample size re-estimation in three-arm trials with 'gold standard' design.

    PubMed

    Mütze, Tobias; Friede, Tim

    2017-10-15

    In this article, we study blinded sample size re-estimation in the 'gold standard' design with internal pilot study for normally distributed outcomes. The 'gold standard' design is a three-arm clinical trial design that includes an active and a placebo control in addition to an experimental treatment. We focus on the absolute margin approach to hypothesis testing in three-arm trials at which the non-inferiority of the experimental treatment and the assay sensitivity are assessed by pairwise comparisons. We compare several blinded sample size re-estimation procedures in a simulation study assessing operating characteristics including power and type I error. We find that sample size re-estimation based on the popular one-sample variance estimator results in overpowered trials. Moreover, sample size re-estimation based on unbiased variance estimators such as the Xing-Ganju variance estimator results in underpowered trials, as it is expected because an overestimation of the variance and thus the sample size is in general required for the re-estimation procedure to eventually meet the target power. To overcome this problem, we propose an inflation factor for the sample size re-estimation with the Xing-Ganju variance estimator and show that this approach results in adequately powered trials. Because of favorable features of the Xing-Ganju variance estimator such as unbiasedness and a distribution independent of the group means, the inflation factor does not depend on the nuisance parameter and, therefore, can be calculated prior to a trial. Moreover, we prove that the sample size re-estimation based on the Xing-Ganju variance estimator does not bias the effect estimate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of hydrogen ions in standard and activation heap leaching of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, YuI

    2017-02-01

    The role of hydrogen ions in activation heap leaching of gold from rebellious ore has been studied, which has allowed enhancing gold recovery. The author puts forward a gold leaching circuit with the use of activated oxygen-saturated solutions acidified to pH = 6–9.

  15. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  16. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  17. Evaluating the Gold Standard: A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debbie; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is often touted as the gold standard of measures of feigning. This label likely arises in part out of the impressive accuracy rates reported in the extensive validation research that preceded its publication. However, since its publication, researchers not only…

  18. Evaluating the Gold Standard: A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debbie; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is often touted as the gold standard of measures of feigning. This label likely arises in part out of the impressive accuracy rates reported in the extensive validation research that preceded its publication. However, since its publication, researchers not only…

  19. Can We Create a "Gold Standard of Education" for Our Children through the "Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) Program"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    We need to come together as a team and become one system of total quality improvement regarding the education of our nation's children. In order to achieve a gold standard in the education of our nation's children, leadership has to be willing to go against the status quo and build bridges for long-term sustainable change. In order to survive,…

  20. Direct Animal Calorimetry, the Underused Gold Standard for Quantifying the Fire of Life*

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ~10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment. PMID:20427023

  1. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Haris R; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R

    2017-01-01

    Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the "Gold Standard" for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC.

  2. Direct animal calorimetry, the underused gold standard for quantifying the fire of life.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2011-03-01

    Direct animal calorimetry, the gold standard method for quantifying animal heat production (HP), has been largely supplanted by respirometric indirect calorimetry owing to the relative ease and ready commercial availability of the latter technique. Direct calorimetry, however, can accurately quantify HP and thus metabolic rate (MR) in both metabolically normal and abnormal states, whereas respirometric indirect calorimetry relies on important assumptions that apparently have never been tested in animals with genetic or pharmacologically-induced alterations that dysregulate metabolic fuel partitioning and storage so as to promote obesity and/or diabetes. Contemporary obesity and diabetes research relies heavily on metabolically abnormal animals. Recent data implicating individual and group variation in the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes raise important questions about transforming aerobic gas exchange into HP because 99% of gut bacteria are anaerobic and they outnumber eukaryotic cells in the body by ∼10-fold. Recent credible work in non-standard laboratory animals documents substantial errors in respirometry-based estimates of HP. Accordingly, it seems obvious that new research employing simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry (total calorimetry) will be essential to validate respirometric MR phenotyping in existing and future pharmacological and genetic models of obesity and diabetes. We also detail the use of total calorimetry with simultaneous core temperature assessment as a model for studying homeostatic control in a variety of experimental situations, including acute and chronic drug administration. Finally, we offer some tips on performing direct calorimetry, both singly and in combination with indirect calorimetry and core temperature assessment.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  8. A standard model eye with micro scale multilayer structure for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhenggang; Ding, Zengqian; Hu, Zhixiong; Wen, Tao; Qiao, Wen; Liu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely applied in diagnosis of eye diseases during the last 20 years. Differing from traditional two-dimension imaging technologies, OCT could also provide cross-sectional information of target tissues simultaneously and precisely. As well known, axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting the OCT image quality, which determines whether an accurate diagnosis could be obtained. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the axial resolution of an OCT equipment. Phantoms always play an important role in the standardization and validation process. Here, a standard model eye with micro-scale multilayer structure was custom designed and manufactured. Mimicking a real human eye, analyzing the physical characteristic of layer structures of retina and cornea in-depth, appropriate materials were selected by testing the scattering coefficient of PDMS phantoms with difference concentration of TiO2 or BaSO4 particles. An artificial retina and cornea with multilayer-films which have a thickness of 10 to 60 micrometers for each layer were fabricated using spin coating technology. Considering key parameters of the standard model eye need to be traceable as well as accurate, the optical refractive index and layer structure thicknesses of phantoms were verified by utilizing Thickness Monitoring System. Consequently, a standard OCT model eye was obtained after the retinal or corneal phantom was embedded into a water-filled model eye which has been fabricated by 3D printing technology to simulate ocular dispersion and emmetropic refraction. The eye model was manufactured with a transparent resin to simulate realistic ophthalmic testing environment, and most key optical elements including cornea, lens and vitreous body were realized. By investigating with a research and a clinical OCT system respectively, the OCT model eye was demonstrated with similar physical properties as natural eye, and the multilayer film measurement

  9. Analysis of Standards and Specific Documentation about Equipment of Dimensional Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. J.; Flores, I.; Sebastian, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    Currently the certification of quality systems and accreditation of laboratories for metrology and testing are activities of great interest within the framework of advanced production systems. In this context, the availability of standardized documents, complete and efficient as well as specific documents edited by agencies with experience in this field, is especially important to obtain better results and lower costs. This work tries to establish the foundations to evaluate a documental system about equipment of Dimensional Metrology. An integrated and complete system does not exist in international field, so the Spanish case will be analyzed as example to the general study. In this paper we consider three types of instruments commonly used in the field of Dimensional Metrology (vernier calliper, micrometer calliper and mechanical dial gauge) and are passed to analyze the contents of UNE standards that affect them directly, and the two collections of documents produced and edited by the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), such as "calibration procedures" and "use manuals." Given the results of this analysis, a discussion on the metrological characteristics of the contents of the document in question is developed and recommendations for their use and improvement are proposed.

  10. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must meet the permeation requirements for EPA Nonroad Fuel Lines or EPA Cold-Weather Fuel Lines as... that are not used in cold-weather equipment. For fuel lines used in cold-weather equipment, you may...

  11. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... apparatuses approved under subpart 160.010 prior to March 22, 2012, the cost of testing equipment at the... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... Guard is amending the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment to harmonize Coast Guard regulations...

  12. Evaluation of a rapid test for the diagnosis of cholera in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Page, Anne-Laure; Alberti, Kathryn P; Mondonge, Vital; Rauzier, Jean; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Guerin, Philippe J

    2012-01-01

    Early detection and confirmation of cholera outbreaks are crucial for rapid implementation of control measures. Because cholera frequently affects regions with limited laboratory resources, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) designed for field conditions are important to enhance rapid response. Stool culture remains the "gold standard" for cholera diagnosis; however, its lack of sensitivity may lead to underestimation of test specificity. We evaluated the Crystal VC® immunochromatographic test (Span Diagnostics, India) for cholera diagnosis using a modified reference standard that combines culture-dependent and independent assays, or a Bayesian latent class model (LCM) analysis. The study was conducted during a cholera epidemic in 2008, in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stools collected from 296 patients were used to perform the RDT on site and sent to Institut Pasteur, Paris, for bacterial culture. In comparison with culture as the gold standard, the RDT showed good sensitivity (92.2%; 95% CI: 86.8%-95.9%) but poor specificity when used by a trained laboratory technician (70.6%; 95% CI: 60.7%-79.2%) or by clinicians with no specific test training (60.4%, 95% CI: 50.2%-70.0%). The specificity of the test performed by the laboratory technician increased to 88.6% (95% CI: 78.7-94.9) when PCR was combined with culture results as the reference standard, and to 85.0% (95% CI: 70.4-99.2), when the Bayesian LCM analysis was used for performance evaluation. In both cases, the sensitivity remained high. Using an improved reference standard or appropriate statistical methods for diagnostic test evaluations in the absence of a gold standard, we report better performance of the Crystal VC® RDT than previously published. Our results confirm that this test can be used for early outbreak detection or epidemiological surveillance, key components of efficient global cholera control. Our analysis also highlights the importance of improving evaluations of RDT when no reliable

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and HFC-134a E Appendix E to Subpart B of... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 82—The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for... specific minimum equipment requirements for automotive refrigerant recycling equipment intended for use...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and HFC-134a E Appendix E to Subpart B of... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 82—The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for... specific minimum equipment requirements for automotive refrigerant recycling equipment intended for use...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and HFC-134a E Appendix E to Subpart B of... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 82—The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for... specific minimum equipment requirements for automotive refrigerant recycling equipment intended for use...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and HFC-134a E Appendix E to Subpart B of... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 82—The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for... specific minimum equipment requirements for automotive refrigerant recycling equipment intended for use...

  17. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  18. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... viruses. Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov index. Although... common path for recovering gold from the cyanide solution is carbon adsorption, where the gold complexes... performed in one of two ways: Electrowinning (the most common process) or precipitation with zinc powder...

  19. Measuring error rates in genomic perturbation screens: gold standards for human functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Traver; Brown, Kevin R; Sircoulomb, Fabrice; Rottapel, Robert; Moffat, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Technological advancement has opened the door to systematic genetics in mammalian cells. Genome-scale loss-of-function screens can assay fitness defects induced by partial gene knockdown, using RNA interference, or complete gene knockout, using new CRISPR techniques. These screens can reveal the basic blueprint required for cellular proliferation. Moreover, comparing healthy to cancerous tissue can uncover genes that are essential only in the tumor; these genes are targets for the development of specific anticancer therapies. Unfortunately, progress in this field has been hampered by off-target effects of perturbation reagents and poorly quantified error rates in large-scale screens. To improve the quality of information derived from these screens, and to provide a framework for understanding the capabilities and limitations of CRISPR technology, we derive gold-standard reference sets of essential and nonessential genes, and provide a Bayesian classifier of gene essentiality that outperforms current methods on both RNAi and CRISPR screens. Our results indicate that CRISPR technology is more sensitive than RNAi and that both techniques have nontrivial false discovery rates that can be mitigated by rigorous analytical methods. PMID:24987113

  20. Destination therapy: the new gold standard treatment for heart failure patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Michael; Kyo, Shunei; Yamakawa, Sean; Ono, Minoru; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nishimura, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure continues to be a growing health problem, eluding large-scale improvement and treatment. Cardiac transplantation has been the gold standard treatment with high post-transplant survival rates and relatively good quality of life. However, there has been an extreme shortage of organ donations, limiting transplants to only a very small portion of patients with the condition. This led to a growing interest in alternative options for the increasing population of patients who are waitlisted or ineligible for transplantation. In recent years, ventricular assist device (VAD) technologies have advanced from pulsatile blood pumps to continuous-flow pumps that have demonstrated unprecedented post-implantation survival rates. The HeartMate II, the only commercially available, continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in the United States and Europe, has been implanted in over 10,000 patients worldwide, setting a benchmark for biomedical modalities of advanced heart failure treatment. Thanks to the successes of contemporary LVADs, patients are able to enjoy a better lifestyle, with a significantly prolonged life span and the ability to regularly partake in physical activities. In this new biomedical generation, the usage of LVADs has begun to expand towards the treatment for a wider range of heart conditions, including earlier stages of heart failure. In fact, LVAD implantations have surpassed the number of transplants taken place annually. An increasing number of patients are considering the permanent, circulatory support with an LVAD, namely destination therapy, as a promising option for treating heart failure.

  1. Is laparoscopic partial nephrectomy already the gold standard for small renal masses?.

    PubMed

    Power, Nicholas E; Silberstein, Jonathan L; Touijer, Karim

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the management of small renal masses. We searched MEDLINE (through March 2012) using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Search Library (though March 2012), and Web of Science (through March 2012). We retrieved citations using the text terms "small renal mass," "laparoscopic," "partial nephrectomy,"and "radical nephrectomy." We limited the search to articles in the English language, to T1a renal tumors, and expanded the search using the related articles function. We also performed hand searches of references identified in electronically abstracted articles. There is a paucity of well conducted clinical trials to elucidate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy's role. A number of assumptions had to be made to complete the review. Other than possibly less operative blood loss, less operative time, less inpatient stay time, and less cost, there was insufficient evidence to support laparoscopic partial nephrectomy over other modalities. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy appears to have a higher rate of radical nephrectomy conversion. There is insufficient evidence to clearly state that laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is the gold standard in the management of small renal masses. If this skill is part of a surgeon's armamentarium, it is certainly not inferior to other modalities, and may offer some benefit to patients.

  2. Inter-Observer Agreement in Dysplasia Grading: Towards an Enhanced Gold Standard for Clinical Pathology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Paul M.; Abram, Timothy J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H.; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D’Apice, Katy; Kerr, A. Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M.; Weinstock, Y. Etan; Redding, Spencer W.; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H. Stan; Miller, Frank R.; McDevitt, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inter-observer agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Study Design Two adjacent serial histological sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by two different pathologists from a pool of four. In instances where the original two pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Results Individual pathologist pair kappa values ranged from 0.251 – 0.706 (fair – good) before the 3-stage review process During the initial review phase, the two pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). Following the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. Conclusion The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. PMID:26216170

  3. Interobserver agreement in dysplasia grading: toward an enhanced gold standard for clinical pathology trials.

    PubMed

    Speight, Paul M; Abram, Timothy J; Floriano, Pierre N; James, Robert; Vick, Julie; Thornhill, Martin H; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D'Apice, Katy; Kerr, A Ross; Phelan, Joan; Corby, Patricia; Khouly, Ismael; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M; Weinstock, Y Etan; Redding, Spencer W; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H Stan; Miller, Frank R; McDevitt, John T

    2015-10-01

    Interobserver agreement in the context of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) grading has been notoriously unreliable and can impose barriers for developing new molecular markers and diagnostic technologies. This paper aimed to report the details of a 3-stage histopathology review and adjudication process with the goal of achieving a consensus histopathologic diagnosis of each biopsy. Two adjacent serial histologic sections of oral lesions from 846 patients were independently scored by 2 different pathologists from a pool of 4. In instances where the original 2 pathologists disagreed, a third, independent adjudicating pathologist conducted a review of both sections. If a majority agreement was not achieved, the third stage involved a face-to-face consensus review. Individual pathologist pair κ values ranged from 0.251 to 0.706 (fair-good) before the 3-stage review process. During the initial review phase, the 2 pathologists agreed on a diagnosis for 69.9% of the cases. After the adjudication review by a third pathologist, an additional 22.8% of cases were given a consensus diagnosis (agreement of 2 out of 3 pathologists). After the face-to-face review, the remaining 7.3% of cases had a consensus diagnosis. The use of the defined protocol resulted in a substantial increase (30%) in diagnostic agreement and has the potential to improve the level of agreement for establishing gold standards for studies based on histopathologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the Gold Standards Framework to deliver good end of life care.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Barry; Thomas, Keri

    2017-02-27

    The aims of excellent end of life care (EOLC) and nursing are at the heart of healthcare. Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, a multi-site London teaching care provider, recognises and values the importance of good EOLC, and the quality of EOLC is used as one of the key metrics in assessing the quality of patient and family care across the trust. The principles of EOLC, including those enshrined in the Gold Standards Framework (GSF), are closely aligned with the trust's core values. Each member of staff is encouraged and supported, through the GSF process, to recognise and respond as befits their role in implementing the principles of EOLC, agreed by staff, and by patients and their relatives. This article describes the experience of, and collaboration between, trust staff and members of the GSF team, who have worked together for the past 18 months, and how this work has placed EOLC at the heart of patient care and staff recruitment. This collaboration has helped to enrich the culture of compassion and care that the trust aims to deliver, and to focus on providing person-centred care.

  5. Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits.

    PubMed

    Rabe, E; Pannier, F

    2012-03-01

    The first CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) consensus document was published after a consensus conference of the American Venous Forum, held at the sixth annual meeting of the AVF in February 1994 in Maui, Hawaii. In the following years the CEAP classification was published in many international journals and books which has led to widespread international use of the CEAP classification since 1995. The aim of this paper is to review the benefits and limits of CEAP from the available literature. In an actual Medline analysis with the keywords 'CEAP' and 'venous insufficiency', 266 publications using the CEAP classification in venous diseases are available. The CEAP classification was accepted in the venous community and used in scientific publications, but in most of the cases only the clinical classification was used. Limitations of the first version including a lack of clear definition of clinical signs led to a revised version. The CEAP classification is the gold standard of classification of chronic venous disorders today. Nevertheless for proper use some facts have to be taken into account: the CEAP classification is not a severity classification, C2 summarizes all kinds of varicose veins, in C3 it may be difficult to separate venous and other reasons for oedema, and corona phlebectatica is not included in the classification. Further revisions of the CEAP classification may help to overcome the still-existing deficits.

  6. Diagnosis of cow's milk allergy in children: determining the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affect many organs, from mouth to gut, with, immediate and delayed reactions, including infantile colic, food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome, enteropathy, eosinophilic disorders, among which infantile proctocolitis, and "dysmotility" disturbances, gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. Diagnosis follows usual steps, careful history taking and medical examination, before starting an elimination diet, for diagnosis and treatment. Beyond, laboratory tests may help, but definitive conclusion will arise from the oral food challenge. The double-blind-placebo-controlled-food challenge, the "gold standard", is needed in clinical research. The food challenge includes the progressive at-home reintroduction of milk, all the more needed since most cases of CMPA in infants are delayed: in clinical practice, diagnosing CMPA is more than saying if the child reacts to cow's milk. One has to define the syndrome the child is suffering from, the risk implied, the best replacement formula. When tolerance develops, a second diagnostic procedure allows seeing if the child has outgrown his disease and, if not, what is the expected outcome and which type of food is best adapted: small amounts of milk, or transformed forms, such as baked milk. Primary care practice is adapted to non-IgE mediated CMPA. When CMPA is part of multiple food allergies or of an eosinophilic disorder, referral centers will perform multiple allergy testing, endoscopic procedures and complex dietary guidance.

  7. On the creation of a clinical gold standard corpus in Spanish: Mining adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Oronoz, Maite; Gojenola, Koldo; Pérez, Alicia; de Ilarraza, Arantza Díaz; Casillas, Arantza

    2015-08-01

    The advances achieved in Natural Language Processing make it possible to automatically mine information from electronically created documents. Many Natural Language Processing methods that extract information from texts make use of annotated corpora, but these are scarce in the clinical domain due to legal and ethical issues. In this paper we present the creation of the IxaMed-GS gold standard composed of real electronic health records written in Spanish and manually annotated by experts in pharmacology and pharmacovigilance. The experts mainly annotated entities related to diseases and drugs, but also relationships between entities indicating adverse drug reaction events. To help the experts in the annotation task, we adapted a general corpus linguistic analyzer to the medical domain. The quality of the annotation process in the IxaMed-GS corpus has been assessed by measuring the inter-annotator agreement, which was 90.53% for entities and 82.86% for events. In addition, the corpus has been used for the automatic extraction of adverse drug reaction events using machine learning.

  8. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebeschuetz, John W.; Cole, Jason C.; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  9. "TAGS", a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gerbier, Guillaume; Gardner, Ian A

    2002-02-14

    When a perfect reference test (i.e. "gold standard") is not available, it is possible to obtain estimates of test sensitivity and specificity using "latent-class" methods. However, there are few widely available software programs that allow implementation of these procedures. We describe the development of a program (implemented in R and S-Plus software) for this purpose that yields maximum-likelihood estimates of sensitivity, specificity and prevalence. We also have implemented an HTML form, which submits data to a web-based interface to R. The programs can incorporate data obtained from several populations, results of multiple tests, and can account for data obtained from a reference population in which the true status (infected or non-infected) of each individual is known exactly. Two estimation methods are used: a Newton-Raphson procedure and an expectation-maximisation (EM) procedure. The estimation methods assume test independence conditional on the infection status of the individuals and constant test accuracy in each population. A goodness-of-fit statistic and the residuals of pairwise correlation coefficients are calculated to check the validity of these assumptions. Two examples are used to illustrate application and limitations of the programs. The programs are available at www.afssa.fr/interne/tags.htm (Europe) or www.epi.ucdavis.edu/diagnostictests/ (USA).

  10. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910

  11. Ghost particle velocimetry: accurate 3D flow visualization using standard lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-07-26

    We describe and test a new approach to particle velocimetry, based on imaging and cross correlating the scattering speckle pattern generated on a near-field plane by flowing tracers with a size far below the diffraction limit, which allows reconstructing the velocity pattern in microfluidic channels without perturbing the flow. As a matter of fact, adding tracers is not even strictly required, provided that the sample displays sufficiently refractive-index fluctuations. For instance, phase separation in liquid mixtures in the presence of shear is suitable to be directly investigated by this "ghost particle velocimetry" technique, which just requires a microscope with standard lamp illumination equipped with a low-cost digital camera. As a further bonus, the peculiar spatial coherence properties of the illuminating source, which displays a finite longitudinal coherence length, allows for a 3D reconstruction of the profile with a resolution of few tenths of microns and makes the technique suitable to investigate turbid samples with negligible multiple scattering effects.

  12. A Bayesian framework for estimating the incremental value of a diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Ling, Daphne I; Pai, Madhukar; Schiller, Ian; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-05-15

    The absence of a gold standard, i.e., a diagnostic reference standard having perfect sensitivity and specificity, is a common problem in clinical practice and in diagnostic research studies. There is a need for methods to estimate the incremental value of a new, imperfect test in this context. We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the probability of the unknown disease status via a latent class model and extend two commonly-used measures of incremental value based on predictive values [difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI)] to the context where no gold standard exists. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and applied to the problem of estimating the incremental value of a novel interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) over the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) screening. We also show how to estimate the incremental value of IGRAs when decisions are based on observed test results rather than predictive values. We showed that the incremental value is greatest when both sensitivity and specificity of the new test are better and that conditional dependence between the tests reduces the incremental value. The incremental value of the IGRA depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the TST, as well as the prevalence of latent TB, and may thus vary in different populations. Even in the absence of a gold standard, incremental value statistics may be estimated and can aid decisions about the practical value of a new diagnostic test.

  13. Combining multiple continuous tests for the diagnosis of kidney impairment in the absence of a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Binbing; Zhou, Chuan; Bandinelli, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly used to summarize the classification accuracy of diagnostic tests. It is not uncommon in medical practice that multiple diagnostic tests are routinely performed or multiple disease markers are available for the same individuals. When the true disease status is verified by a gold standard test, a variety of methods have been proposed to combine such potential correlated tests to increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. In this article, we propose a method of combining multiple diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard. We assume that the test values and their classification accuracies are dependent on covariates. Simulation studies are performed to examine the performance of the combination method. The proposed method is applied to data from a population-based aging study to compare the accuracy of three screening tests for kidney function and to estimate the prevalence of moderate kidney impairment. PMID:21432889

  14. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... must meet the permeation requirements for EPA Nonroad Fuel Lines or EPA Cold-Weather Fuel Lines as... that are not used in cold-weather equipment. For fuel lines used in cold-weather equipment, you may...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.112 - What evaporative emission standards must my nonhandheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section apply starting in the 2011 model year for equipment using Class II engines and in the 2012 model... of this part. Starting in the 2014 model year for Class II equipment and in the 2015 model year for...) Running loss. Running loss requirements apply as specified in 40 CFR 1060.104. (d) Diurnal emissions...

  16. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Haris R.; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC. PMID:27251827

  17. Confocal laser endomicroscopy: a new gold standard for the assessment of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Macé, Vincent; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Coron, Emmanuel; Le Rhun, Marc; Boureille, Arnaud; Bossard, Céline; Mosnier, Jean-François; Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic assessment of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis (UC) is increasingly accepted as a measure of disease activity, therapeutic goal, and the key prognostic indicator. While regular endoscopy evaluates appearance of the mucosal surface, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) enables in vivo visualization of subepithelial mucosa at 1000× magnification during ongoing endoscopy. Our aims were to determine using CLE whether endoscopically normal appearing colonic mucosa in patients with UC in remission (UC-IR) has fully regenerated mucosal structures, resolved inflammation, and to identify the mechanisms. Twelve patients (six controls and six with UC-IR) underwent colonoscopy using CLE and intravenous fluorescein infusion. During colonoscopy, CLE images of colonic mucosa and conventional mucosal biopsies were obtained and evaluated using image-analysis systems. We quantified; (i) regeneration of colonic crypts and blood microvessels; (ii) cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression; (iii) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations; (iv) inflammatory infiltration; and (v) vascular permeability (VP). In control subjects, CLE demonstrated normal colonic crypts and microvasculature. COX2 expression was minimal, and < 7% crypts showed mtDNA mutations. Colonic mucosa of UC-IR patients had impaired and distorted crypt regeneration, increased COX2, 69% crypts with mtDNA mutations, persistent inflammation, and abnormal vascular architecture with increased VP (all P < 0.001 vs normal mucosa). (i) Endoscopically normal appearing colonic mucosa of patients with UC-IR remains abnormal: CLE demonstrates impaired crypt regeneration, persistent inflammation, distinct abnormalities in angioarchitecture and increased vascular permeability; molecular imaging showed increased COX2 and mtDNA mutations; (ii) CLE may serve as a new gold standard for the assessment of mucosal healing in UC. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Urologist led one-stop testicular clinic: the UK 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Muthuveloe, David; Nkwam, Nkwam; Hutton, Paul; Wallace, D M A; Viney, Richard; Patel, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Prompt diagnosis and early treatment for testicular cancer is vital. To help with this a one-stop, urologist run, testicular clinic with testicular ultrasound scanning as an integral part of the clinic format was introduced to investigate patients in an efficient and timely manner. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of running a one-stop testicular clinic. A prospectively collected electronic database of all patients attending a one-stop testicular clinic at a busy university hospital was interrogated over a 6-year period. Only new referral males, above the age of 15 years old were included. Case notes were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1757 patients were found with a median age of 36. 6.3 % had a suspicious ultrasound scan and overall 5.6 % were found to have malignancy histologically. In addition a significant proportion of men with a history of testicular maldescent went on to develop testicular cancer (p < 0.01). Median time from referral to clinic and clinic to orchidectomy for suspected testicular cancers was 9 and 5 days respectively (95 % CI). Some of the benefits of a urologist run one-stop testicular clinic include: timely diagnosis and treatment, early reassurance with normal investigations, the discovery of clinically unsuspecting malignancy and the increase in teaching opportunities. These collective benefits must improve patient experience and benefit the department as a whole. A urologist led one-stop testicular clinic should be regarded as the gold standard.

  19. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Schumacher, H Ralph; Fransen, Jaap; Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L; Brown, Melanie; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Eliseev, Maxim; McCarthy, Geraldine; Stamp, Lisa K; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Sivera, Francisca; Ea, Hang-Korng; Gerritsen, Martijn; Scire, Carlo A; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Lin, Chingtsai; Chou, Yin-Yi; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo; Janssen, Matthijs; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Cimmino, Marco A; Uhlig, Till; Taylor, William J

    2016-12-01

    To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study. Data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR) were randomly divided into development and test data sets. A data-driven case definition was formed using logistic regression in the development data set. This definition, along with definitions used in GUGC studies and the 2015 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout classification criteria were applied to the test data set, using monosodium urate crystal identification as the gold standard. For all tested GUGC definitions, the simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" had the best test performance characteristics (sensitivity 82%, specificity 72%). The simple definition had similar performance to a SUGAR data-driven case definition with 5 weighted items: self-report, self-report of doctor diagnosis, colchicine use, urate-lowering therapy use, and hyperuricemia (sensitivity 87%, specificity 70%). Both of these definitions performed better than the 1977 American Rheumatism Association survey criteria (sensitivity 82%, specificity 67%). Of all tested definitions, the 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria had the best performance (sensitivity 92%, specificity 89%). A simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" has the best test performance characteristics of existing definitions that use routinely available data. A more complex combination of features is more sensitive, but still lacks good specificity. If a more accurate case definition is required for a particular study, the 2015 ACR/EULAR gout classification criteria should be considered. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a size-independent new "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Elzayat, Ehab A; Habib, Enmar I; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2005-11-01

    We report our experience with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for treatment of 552 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and their long-term outcome. Between March 1998 and January 2005, a retrospective review was conducted at our institution of 552 cases in which patients underwent HoLEP. Patient characteristics, indications for surgery, preoperative and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), peak flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine, operative data, catheterization time, hospital stay, and immediate and long-term complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 73.7 +/- 7.9 years, and the mean follow-up time was 36 months. The mean preoperative prostate size was 83.7 +/- 49.7 cm3 (range, 20 to 351 cm3), the mean enucleation time was 86 minutes (range, 15 to 255 minutes), and the mean enucleated tissue weight was 52.1 +/- 43.7 g (range, 5 to 340 g). The voiding parameters were significantly improved, with a 200% increase in Qmax, as well as a 75% improvement in I-PSS at 1 year postoperatively, which continued to improve during subsequent follow-up. A total of 11 patients required blood transfusion; 8 of them were on anticoagulant therapy. Irritative symptoms were noted in 9.4% and transient stress incontinence in 4.2% of patients. Bladder neck contracture and urethral stricture each developed in 1.3% of patients. We conclude that HoLEP is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of symptomatic BPH, regardless of prostate size, with low morbidity and short hospital stay. HoLEP appears to be the modern alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy, and it may be considered a size-independent new "gold standard."

  1. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP) Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP) performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data. PMID:21816099

  2. Diagnosis, prognosis and awareness of dying in nursing homes: towards the Gold Standard?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Martin; Attree, Moira; Jones, Ian; Al Gamal, Ekhlas; Garbutt, David

    2014-06-01

    In Western society and increasingly elsewhere, death has become medicalised and 'hospitalised' even when people are enduring deteriorating terminal conditions such as dementia and heart failure. In an attempt to rationalise and dignify the place and manner of death, evidence is emerging that the adoption of end-of-life care pathways and models can improve the experience of the end-of-life care across a range of care settings. Each of these demands skills and knowledge in the assessment and prediction of the dying trajectory. In this study, we report complexities facing relatives, residents and nursing home staff in the awareness, diagnosis and prediction of the dying trajectory. Data were collected and analysed within a broadly qualitative methodology. The contexts were two nursing homes in the Greater Manchester area, each at different stages of implementing 'Gold Standards Framework' approaches to planning end-of-life care with residents and their relatives. From 2008 to 2011 and with appropriate consent, data were collected by a mixture of interviews and participant observation with residents, relatives and staff. Appropriate ethics approvals were sought and given. Key emerging themes were diagnosis and awareness of dying in which there is no substitute for experience. Significant resource is needed to engage staff, residents and relatives/carers with the idea of advance care planning. Talking to residents and relatives about their feelings and wishes for care at the end of life remains especially difficult, but education and training in key skills and knowledge can engender confidence. Challenges include diagnosing and predicting dying trajectories. Advance care planning can reduce the distress from and number of inappropriate hospital admissions, but requires determination and consistent application of the approach. This can be very challenging in the face of staff rotation and the unpredictability both of the dying trajectory and the decision-making of some

  3. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  4. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except compressors...

  5. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except compressors...

  6. A debate on the proposition that self-report is the gold standard in assessment of pediatric pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Vincent, Catherine; Franck, Linda S; von Baeyer, Carl L

    2015-08-01

    Self-report is often represented as "the gold standard" in assessment of pain intensity in children. We evaluate arguments for and against this claim and consider its implications for pain management. Those in the support of the proposition argue that, when children are able to self-report, treatment decisions should be made based on these scores in line with current evidence-based recommendations. Pain is a subjective phenomenon and can be assessed only via self-report. Treating self-report scores as the gold standard is the only valid way for health care professionals to decide on appropriate treatment.Those against the proposition contend that reliance on self-reported pain scores for analgesic treatment decisions is inappropriate as they oversimplify the pain experience, yield only marginal information on which to base treatment decisions, and potentially place children at significant risk for adverse events. Self-reports of pain intensity sometimes contradict well-founded estimates based on other evidence. Wide variation between children in the meaning of pain scores precludes easy interpretation. We conclude that self-report, when available, can be considered a primary source of evidence about pain intensity. However, it cannot be treated as an unquestioned gold standard. Instead, hierarchical or bundled approaches should be used, taking into account self-report as well as the many individual and contextual factors that influence pain including clinical history, patient preferences, and response to previous treatments. Alternate models are presented to guide further practice and research.

  7. Training text chunkers on a silver standard corpus: can silver replace gold?

    PubMed

    Kang, Ning; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2012-01-30

    To train chunkers in recognizing noun phrases and verb phrases in biomedical text, an annotated corpus is required. The creation of gold standard corpora (GSCs), however, is expensive and time-consuming. GSCs therefore tend to be small and to focus on specific subdomains, which limits their usefulness. We investigated the use of a silver standard corpus (SSC) that is automatically generated by combining the outputs of multiple chunking systems. We explored two use scenarios: one in which chunkers are trained on an SSC in a new domain for which a GSC is not available, and one in which chunkers are trained on an available, although small GSC but supplemented with an SSC. We have tested the two scenarios using three chunkers, Lingpipe, OpenNLP, and Yamcha, and two different corpora, GENIA and PennBioIE. For the first scenario, we showed that the systems trained for noun-phrase recognition on the SSC in one domain performed 2.7-3.1 percentage points better in terms of F-score than the systems trained on the GSC in another domain, and only 0.2-0.8 percentage points less than when they were trained on a GSC in the same domain as the SSC. When the outputs of the chunkers were combined, the combined system showed little improvement when using the SSC. For the second scenario, the systems trained on a GSC supplemented with an SSC performed considerably better than systems that were trained on the GSC alone, especially when the GSC was small. For example, training the chunkers on a GSC consisting of only 10 abstracts but supplemented with an SSC yielded similar performance as training them on a GSC of 100-250 abstracts. The combined system even performed better than any of the individual chunkers trained on a GSC of 500 abstracts. We conclude that an SSC can be a viable alternative for or a supplement to a GSC when training chunkers in a biomedical domain. A combined system only shows improvement if the SSC is used to supplement a GSC. Whether the approach is applicable to

  8. Random forests for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-coded verbal autopsy (CCVA) is a promising alternative to the standard approach of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA), because of its high speed, low cost, and reliability. This study introduces a new CCVA technique and validates its performance using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 verbal autopsies (VAs). Methods The Random Forest (RF) Method from machine learning (ML) was adapted to predict cause of death by training random forests to distinguish between each pair of causes, and then combining the results through a novel ranking technique. We assessed quality of the new method at the individual level using chance-corrected concordance and at the population level using cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy as well as linear regression. We also compared the quality of RF to PCVA for all of these metrics. We performed this analysis separately for adult, child, and neonatal VAs. We also assessed the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE). Results For all metrics, for all settings, RF was as good as or better than PCVA, with the exception of a nonsignificantly lower CSMF accuracy for neonates with HCE information. With HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 3.4 percentage points higher for adults, 3.2 percentage points higher for children, and 1.6 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was 0.097 higher for adults, 0.097 higher for children, and 0.007 lower for neonates. Without HCE, the chance-corrected concordance of RF was 8.1 percentage points higher than PCVA for adults, 10.2 percentage points higher for children, and 5.9 percentage points higher for neonates. The CSMF accuracy was higher for RF by 0.102 for adults, 0.131 for children, and 0.025 for neonates. Conclusions We found that our RF Method outperformed the PCVA method in terms of chance-corrected concordance and CSMF accuracy for

  9. How clean is "clean"? Regulations and standards for workplace clothing and personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Greg; Borak, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    To compile current regulations and advisory recommendations on cleanliness of worker clothing and personal protective equipment and to evaluate the adequacy of criteria for determining whether cleanliness has been achieved. Systematic review of information provided by federal agencies (eg, OSHA, MSHA, and NIOSH), nongovernmental advisory bodies (eg, ACGIH, AIHA, and ANSI), and manufacturers of protective clothing and equipment. We identified an array of terms describing "cleanliness" and the processes for achieving "cleanliness" that were almost never defined in regulations and recommendations. We also found a general lack of criteria for determining whether cleanliness and/or sterility have been achieved. There is need to harmonize cleanliness-related terminology, establish best practices for equipment cleaning and sterilization, implement a signage systems to provide equipment-specific cleaning instructions, and adopt objective criteria for determining what is "clean."

  10. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  11. Evaluation of a Rapid Test for the Diagnosis of Cholera in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Page, Anne-Laure; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Mondonge, Vital; Rauzier, Jean; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Guerin, Philippe J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection and confirmation of cholera outbreaks are crucial for rapid implementation of control measures. Because cholera frequently affects regions with limited laboratory resources, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) designed for field conditions are important to enhance rapid response. Stool culture remains the “gold standard” for cholera diagnosis; however, its lack of sensitivity may lead to underestimation of test specificity. We evaluated the Crystal VC® immunochromatographic test (Span Diagnostics, India) for cholera diagnosis using a modified reference standard that combines culture-dependent and independent assays, or a Bayesian latent class model (LCM) analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted during a cholera epidemic in 2008, in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stools collected from 296 patients were used to perform the RDT on site and sent to Institut Pasteur, Paris, for bacterial culture. In comparison with culture as the gold standard, the RDT showed good sensitivity (92.2%; 95% CI: 86.8%–95.9%) but poor specificity when used by a trained laboratory technician (70.6%; 95% CI: 60.7%–79.2%) or by clinicians with no specific test training (60.4%, 95% CI: 50.2%–70.0%). The specificity of the test performed by the laboratory technician increased to 88.6% (95% CI: 78.7–94.9) when PCR was combined with culture results as the reference standard, and to 85.0% (95% CI: 70.4–99.2), when the Bayesian LCM analysis was used for performance evaluation. In both cases, the sensitivity remained high. Conclusion Using an improved reference standard or appropriate statistical methods for diagnostic test evaluations in the absence of a gold standard, we report better performance of the Crystal VC® RDT than previously published. Our results confirm that this test can be used for early outbreak detection or epidemiological surveillance, key components of efficient global cholera control. Our analysis also

  12. Paralympic sports medicine--current evidence in winter sport: considerations in the development of equipment standards for paralympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained.

  13. A Bayesian framework for estimating the incremental value of a diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of a gold standard, i.e., a diagnostic reference standard having perfect sensitivity and specificity, is a common problem in clinical practice and in diagnostic research studies. There is a need for methods to estimate the incremental value of a new, imperfect test in this context. Methods We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the probability of the unknown disease status via a latent class model and extend two commonly-used measures of incremental value based on predictive values [difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI)] to the context where no gold standard exists. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and applied to the problem of estimating the incremental value of a novel interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) over the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) screening. We also show how to estimate the incremental value of IGRAs when decisions are based on observed test results rather than predictive values. Results We showed that the incremental value is greatest when both sensitivity and specificity of the new test are better and that conditional dependence between the tests reduces the incremental value. The incremental value of the IGRA depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the TST, as well as the prevalence of latent TB, and may thus vary in different populations. Conclusions Even in the absence of a gold standard, incremental value statistics may be estimated and can aid decisions about the practical value of a new diagnostic test. PMID:24886359

  14. Comparative evaluation of haemoglobin estimation amongst pregnant women in Ibadan: Hemocue - B haemoglobin analyzer versus haemiglobincyanide (standard) method as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Ojengbede, O A; Okonkwo, S N; Morhason-Bello, I O

    2008-08-01

    This was a comparative crossectional study that was conducted among 557 antenatal women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1st April and 30th May 2006. The study compared the accuracy of haemoglobin estimation using an automated HemoCue B analyzer kit with a standard laboratory method (haemogloincyanide) as the gold standard. The result showed a positive correlation of HaemoCue haemoglobin results when compared with the standard methods (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.892; p value = 0.000). We concluded that the use of the automated HemoCue kit for haemoglobin estimation gives an objective assessment which overcomes the challenge of extra skilled manpower or power outages in rural areas thereby enhancing access to quality of care in resource poor countries.

  15. Nondestructive test and inspection requirements for aeromechanical lifting and handling equipment - A comparison of launch site to industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Donald E.

    Launch site safety regulations require lifting devices to provide a safety factor of five at ultimate to be periodically proof load tested to 200 percent of capacity; visually inspected prior to use; and undergo nondestructive crack detection tests such as magnetic particle, dye penetrant, or X-ray. Industry standards are similar, but do not require crack detection tests. A TQM process improvement study has found the additional tests do not improve the quality of safety for this type equipment.

  16. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... PERP for portable engines and equipment fall within the scope of previously issued authorizations or...(e)(2)(ii). \\29\\ See 74 FR 32744, 32761 (July 8, 2009); 49 FR 18887, 18889- 18890 (May 3, 1984). \\30\\ CARB, Resolution 07-9 at 5. \\31\\ 49 FR 18887, 18890 (May 3, 1984); see also 76 FR 34693 (June 14,...

  17. Military Standard: Technical Reviews and Audits for Systems, Equipments, and Computer Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-04

    the fuel and oxygen required for its operation. It includes, for example, an arm and firing device. solid propellaw, movable nomzles, casings...interstage, combustion section, turbihe, nozzles, rotors, etc. Tb- sir breathing engine obtains oxygen from the surounding aanosphere to snpport the...and equipment; gasoline, JP-5, all liquid cargo piping, oxygen -nitrogen and aviation lubricating oil systems; plumbing installation, saltwater service

  18. Removal of plastic materials using adjustments and revisions to standard seed cotton clean equipment: Progress Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the U.S. A previous study showed that current cotton ginning equipment is not very efficient in removing plastic included in the seed cotton. The purpose of this...

  19. [Meet the challenge of the implementation of the EMC standard for medical electrical equipment].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Lin, Weizeng; Liu, Jingling

    2011-03-01

    This paper reveals the EMC quality situation of China's medical electrical equipment and the existing security risks in order to arouse the concerns of the government supervision departments, technical inspection units, the production enterprises and the users. It also serves as a reference when formulating related policies and measures.

  20. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note...

  1. 33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR 162.050. (b) On U.S. uninspected ships and foreign ships, oily water separating equipment and bilge alarms must be approved under either 46 CFR 162.050 or MARPOL 73/78 Annex I. Note...

  2. Equipped for the Future: Tools & Standards for Building & Assessing Quality Adult Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangenberg, Gail; Watson, Sarah

    This report presents results from interviews with a sampling of experienced Equipped for the Future (EFF) users. Chapter I provides background and context for this initiative. Chapter II provides facts and figures from the field and presents questions posed and interviewees' views. The questions are as follows: (1) Why did you or your organization…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems Foreword CFCs deplete the stratospheric ozone layer that... Air Act requires recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems to eliminate system... reuse of CFCs in mobile air-conditioning systems. Establishing extraction equipment specifications for...

  4. Selection of emission factor standards for estimating emissions from diesel construction equipment in building construction in the Australian context.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomin; Sandanayake, Malindu; Setunge, Sujeeva; Li, Chunqing; Fang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from equipment usage and transportation at the construction stage are classified as the direct emissions which include both greenhouse gas (GHG) and non-GHG emissions due to partial combustion of fuel. Unavailability of a reliable and complete inventory restricts an accurate emission evaluation on construction work. The study attempts to review emission factor standards readily available worldwide for estimating emissions from construction equipment. Emission factors published by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (AUS NGA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) are critically reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses. A selection process based on the availability and applicability is then developed to help identify the most suitable emission factor standards for estimating emissions from construction equipment in the Australian context. A case study indicates that a fuel based emission factor is more suitable for GHG emission estimation and a time based emission factor is more appropriate for estimation of non-GHG emissions. However, the selection of emission factor standards also depends on factors like the place of analysis (country of origin), data availability and the scope of analysis. Therefore, suitable modifications and assumptions should be incorporated in order to represent these factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA approved...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA approved...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA approved...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recycled in approved refrigerant recycling equipment, or (3) to be destroyed. This standard applies to... Valves. UL 1963—Refrigerant Recovery Recycling Equipment. 3. Specifications and General Description 3.1... reclamation facility that will process it to ARI Standard 700-93 (or for recycling in other EPA approved...

  9. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  10. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? 1068.425 Section 1068.425 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards? (a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if one of my...

  12. Capabilities using 2-D DIGE in proteomics research : the new gold standard for 2-D gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rozanas, Christine R; Loyland, Stacey M

    2008-01-01

    The use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for differential analysis in proteomics was revolutionized by the introduction of 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). This fluorescence-based technique allows the use of multiplexed samples and an internal standard that virtually eliminates gel-to-gel variability, resulting in increased confidence that differences found between samples are due to real induced changes, rather than inherent biological variation or experimental variability. 2-D DIGE has quickly become the "gold standard" for gel-based proteomics for studying tissues, as well as cell culture and bodily fluids such as serum or plasma. This chapter will describe the basic 2-D DIGE technique using minimal labeling, image acquisition using high-quality fluorescence scanners, and software capable of analyzing the multiplexed images and normalizing the data using the internal standard.

  13. The challenge of determining handedness in electron tomography and the use of DNA origami gold nanoparticle helices as molecular standards

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Pilhofer, Martin; Mastronarde, David N.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    The apparent handedness of an EM-tomography reconstruction depends on a number of conventions and can be confused in many ways. As the number of different hardware and software combinations being used for electron tomography continue to climb, and the reconstructions being produced reach higher and higher resolutions, the need to verify the hand of the results has increased. Here we enumerate various steps in a typical tomography experiment that affect handedness and show that DNA origami gold nanoparticle helices can be used as convenient and fail-safe handedness standards. PMID:23639902

  14. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The SYSCILIA gold standard (SCGSv1) of known ciliary components and its applications within a systems biology consortium.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Teunis Jp; Wheway, Gabrielle; Slaats, Gisela G; Huynen, Martijn A; Giles, Rachel H

    2013-05-31

    The multinational SYSCILIA consortium aims to gain a mechanistic understanding of the cilium. We utilize multiple parallel high-throughput (HTP) initiatives to develop predictive models of relationships between complex genotypes and variable phenotypes of ciliopathies. The models generated are only as good as the wet laboratory data fed into them. It is therefore essential to orchestrate a well-annotated and high-confidence dataset to be able to assess the quality of any HTP dataset. Here, we present the inaugural SYSCILIA gold standard of known ciliary components as a public resource.

  16. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme compared with other smoking cessation interventions in Denmark: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful quitting. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting A total of 423 smoking cessation clinics from different settings reported data from 2001 to 2013. Participants In total, 82 515 patients were registered. Smokers ≥15 years old and attending a programme with planned follow-up were included. Smokers who did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard Programme, Come & Quit, crash courses, health promotion counselling (brief intervention) and other interventions. Main outcome Self-reported continuous abstinence for 6 months. Results Overall, 33% (11 184) were continuously abstinent after 6 months; this value was 24% when non-respondents were considered smokers. The follow-up rate was 74%. Women were less likely to remain abstinent, OR 0.83 (CI 0.79 to 0.87). Short interventions were more effective among men. After adjusting for confounders, the Gold Standard Programme was the only intervention with significant results across sex, increasing the odds of abstinence by 69% for men and 31% for women. In particular, compliance, and to a lesser degree, mild smoking, older age and not being disadvantaged were associated with positive outcomes for both sexes. Compliance increased the odds of abstinence more than 3.5-fold. Conclusions Over time, Danish smoking cessation interventions have been effective in real life. Compliance is the main predictor of successful quitting. Interestingly, short programmes seem to have

  17. Tilt testing with combined lower body negative pressure: a "gold standard" for measuring orthostatic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Protheroe, Clare L; Ravensbergen, Henrike Rianne J C; Inskip, Jessica A; Claydon, Victoria E

    2013-03-21

    ,13). However, the main drawback of these approaches are increases in sensitivity at the cost of unacceptable decreases in specificity(10,14), with a high positive response rate immediately after administration(15). Furthermore, invasive procedures associated with some pharmacological provocations greatly increase the false positive rate(1). Another approach is to combine passive tilt testing with LBNP, providing a stronger orthostatic stress without invasive procedures or drug side-effects, using the technique pioneered by Professor Roger Hainsworth in the 1990s(16-18). This approach provokes presyncope in almost all subjects (allowing for symptom recognition in patients with syncope), while discriminating between patients with syncope and healthy controls, with a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 85%, and repeatability of 1.1±0.6 min(16,17). This allows not only diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment(19-22), but also the evaluation of treatments for orthostatic intolerance due to its high repeatability(23-30). For these reasons, we argue this should be the "gold standard" for orthostatic stress testing, and accordingly this will be the method described in this paper.

  18. Tilt Testing with Combined Lower Body Negative Pressure: a "Gold Standard" for Measuring Orthostatic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Protheroe, Clare L.; Ravensbergen, Henrike (Rianne) J.C.; Inskip, Jessica A.; Claydon, Victoria E.

    2013-01-01

    drawback of these approaches are increases in sensitivity at the cost of unacceptable decreases in specificity10,14, with a high positive response rate immediately after administration15. Furthermore, invasive procedures associated with some pharmacological provocations greatly increase the false positive rate1. Another approach is to combine passive tilt testing with LBNP, providing a stronger orthostatic stress without invasive procedures or drug side-effects, using the technique pioneered by Professor Roger Hainsworth in the 1990s16-18. This approach provokes presyncope in almost all subjects (allowing for symptom recognition in patients with syncope), while discriminating between patients with syncope and healthy controls, with a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 85%, and repeatability of 1.1±0.6 min16,17. This allows not only diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment19-22, but also the evaluation of treatments for orthostatic intolerance due to its high repeatability23-30. For these reasons, we argue this should be the "gold standard" for orthostatic stress testing, and accordingly this will be the method described in this paper. PMID:23542558

  19. The effect of using high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Julie; Stone, Louisa; Dewey, Michael; Levy, Jean; Stewart, Robert; McCrone, Paul; Sykes, Nigel; Hansford, Penny; Begum, Aysha; Hockley, Jo

    2014-10-01

    The provision of quality end-of-life care is increasingly on the national agenda in many countries. In the United Kingdom, the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme has been promoted as a national framework for improving end-of-life care. While its implementation is recommended, there are no national guidelines for facilitators to follow to undertake this role. It was hypothesised that action learning alongside high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will result in a reduced proportion of hospital deaths for residents and improvement in the care home staff ability to facilitate good end-of-life care. A cluster randomised controlled trial where 24 nursing homes received high facilitation to enable them to implement the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. The managers of 12 nursing homes additionally took part in action learning sets. A third group (14 nursing homes) received the 'standard' Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes facilitation available in their locality. In total, 38 nursing homes providing care for frail older people, their deceased residents and their nurse managers. A greater proportion of residents died in those nursing homes receiving high facilitation and action learning but not significantly so. There was a significant association between the level of facilitation and nursing homes completing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme through to accreditation. Year-on-year change occurred across all outcome measures. There is a danger that without national guidelines, facilitation of the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will vary and consequently so will its implementation. The nurse manager of a care home must be actively engaged when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Composition Developed by the SAE Defrost and Interior Climate Controls Standards Committee W.J. Atkinson, Sun...Corkel, Freightliner Corp., Charlotte, NC C.J. McLachlan, Livonia, MI H.L. Miner, Climate Control Inc... Defrost and Interior Climate Control Standards Committee W.J. Atkinson, Sun Test Engineering, Paradise...

  1. 49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lamps, July 1972, may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and...: (a) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July... to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and four amber signal lamps designed to...

  2. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards..., final rule reorganizing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108). The... the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking concerning 49 CFR 571.108 (Federal Motor Vehicle...

  3. Disassembly and Loading of Standard Engineer Equipment for Transport in the C-46 Cargo Plane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-28

    nual Mfgr’s. Manual 5-E19-3 Appendix Q R 5-5100 Truck, Fire. Powered, Crash, Clam 156 Complete w/Equipment. Distributor, Bituminous Material ... materially weakened by the latter procedure. 6-1210 5-1037 Mfgr’s Manual Mfgr’s Manual b. Sometimes it may expedite dismantling procedure to make...loekwaahers. cotter pins, and gas- ket material to replace those lost or damaged during disas- sembly» A sufficient quantity of welding eleotrodes must

  4. Design of a medical and laboratory equipment management program for the new standards certification achievement in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Clark, D; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B; Rodriguez-Vera, R

    2010-01-01

    Certification for healthcare institutions in Mexico is ruled by 2009 standards homologated with the Joint Commission International criteria. Nowadays, healthcare requires of medical equipment and devices, so it has become necessary to implement guidelines for its adequate management in order to reach the highest level of quality and safety at the lowest cost. The objective of this work was to develop a Medical and Laboratory Equipment Management Program, oriented to the improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the technological resources in order to meet the certification requirements. The result of this work allows to have an auto evaluation tool that focuses the efforts of the National Institute for Respiratory Diseases to the achievement of the new requirements established for the certification.

  5. 76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... of text, such as a scanned paper document or electronic fax file, into computer-editable text. Please... Engineers (SAE), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). If NHTSA does not use available...

  6. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  7. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... feature of the pump whereby polymer fluid used to provide lubrication and/or cooling of the pump...

  8. Standardization of Automatic Test Equipment in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    cooperation among the services and defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the...are developed, they should satisfy multi- system and multi- service requirements" (6-Q-3). Standardization Responsibility Department of Defense (DoD...problems and issues forwarded by the lead services (2-13) The services were once required to submit a consolidated report to DMSSO outlining standardization

  9. A DC attenuator allows common EEG equipment to record fullband EEG, and fits fullband EEG into standard European Data Format.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Bob; van Beelen, Teunis; Stijl, Marion; van Someren, Paul; Roessen, Marco; van Dijk, J Gert

    2010-12-01

    Traditional electroencephalogram (EEG) recorders reject low frequencies and DC and therefore cannot handle fullband EEG. Dedicated fullband recorders use non-standard file formats, because the standard format (EDF) cannot handle large DC electrode offset voltages. Both facts limit the development and use of fullband EEG. We developed a modification that allows conventional equipment to record fullband EEG, and adapts both types of recorders to EDF. The modification is a simple filter that attenuates the DC component and thus makes the EEG fit within traditional equipment limitations and EDF. The review software automatically 'de-attenuates' the DC component, without loss of information. DC attenuation by a factor of 10 made both types of recorders store DC attenuated fullband EEG into EDF files. Recordings were made during 0.5-24h in 46 subjects. The DC de-attenuator automatically reconstructed the original fullband EEG within an amplitude range of ±100mV and with a resolution of 0.3μV. Using sintered Ag-AgCl electrodes attached with common procedures, reconstructed DC EEG in spontaneously moving subjects ranged between ±32mV. The modification works. Fullband recordings can now be analyzed by independent software, archived and exchanged. Any EEG system can be made to record fullband EEG into standard EDF. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increase in linkage information by stratification of pedigree data into gold-standard and standard diagnoses: application to the NIMH Alzheimer Disease Genetics Initiative Dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derek; Haynes, Chad; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Abraham M

    2006-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with a standard clinical method (subject to misclassification error) are often combined with patients diagnosed with a gold-standard method (with zero or very small misclassification error) in family-based studies of complex disease. For example, non-autopsied patients (NAP) are often included along with autopsy-proven (AP) patients in family-based studies of complex diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Theoretical and simulation studies suggest that certain misclassification errors can result in severe reduction of power in genetic linkage and association analyses and that phenotype (or diagnostic) error can produce misleading results. Morton's test for heterogeneity can identify genomic regions where error may have led to loss in power. We applied this test to pedigree data from the NIMH Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Initiative Database separated into AP and NAP pedigrees. Morton's test identified one highly significant region of heterogeneity on chromosome 2. The source of the heterogeneity was due to significant indication of linkage in the AP pedigrees at position 109 cM (p value = 6.68 x 10(-5)) with no indication in the NAP pedigrees. Furthermore, Morton's test showed no evidence for heterogeneity on chromosome 19 in early-onset pedigrees that showed highly significant evidence for linkage in other published reports. These results suggest that supplementing linkage analysis with Morton's test can be usefully applied to genetic data sets that have AP and NAP samples, or other sample mixtures that include a 'gold standard' subgroup with reduced error rate, to increase power to detect linkage in the presence of diagnostic misclassification.

  11. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.; Judkoff, R.; Gall, J.; Knebel, D.; Henninger, R.; Witte, M.; Hong, T.; McDowell, T.; Yan, D.; Zhou, X.

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  12. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, Helene; Comin, Arianna; Isaksson, Mats; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR), allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108) and autumn 2012 (n=69) in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88), which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99) for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1) for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1). One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88) was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83). PMID:26968153

  13. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot

  14. 76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...: This notice grants the petition for rulemaking submitted by the Motorcycle Industry Council (MIC... Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 to allow motorcycles to mount license plates at an upward angle of up to 30... merits further consideration through the rulemaking process. \\1\\ Motorcycle Industry Council Petition for...

  15. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  16. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  17. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards... determination of equivalency for any means of emission limitation that achieves a reduction in emissions of VOC at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of VOC achieved by the controls required in...

  18. QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (IN ELEMENTARY, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBUN, TED; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A STAGE IN A STUDY TO FORMULATE QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR THE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS FIELD, BEING CONDUCTED BY DOCTORS GENE FARIS AND MENDEL SHERMAN UNDER A NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT CONTRACT. THE STANDARDS LISTED HERE HAVE BEEN OFFICIALLY APPROVED AND ADOPTED BY SEVERAL AGENCIES, INCLUDING THE DEPARTMENT OF…

  19. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 547 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Technical Standards for Class II... Activity In 2012, the NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register amending its part 547 technical... addition, Sec. 547.5(e)(5) of the rule states that the part does not apply to a charitable gaming operation...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard of Purity for Use in Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems Foreword Due to the CFC's damaging effect on the ozone layer, recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems is required to reduce system venting during normal service operations. Establishing recycle specifications for R-12 will...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - The Standard for Automotive Refrigerant Recycling Equipment Intended for Use With Both CFC-12 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assure that this equipment does not cross contaminate refrigerant above specified limits when used under... directly removed from, and is intended for reuse in, mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. This standard...—Standard of Purity for Recycled HFC-134a for Use in Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems SAE 1991—Standard of...

  2. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  3. Military Standard: Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-14

    250 Aircrew Station Controls and Displays for Rotary Wing Aircraft MIL-STD-280 Definitions of Item Levels, Item Interchangeability, Models and other...audio signals have been standardized for aircraft use by joint service and international agreement. Stipulation of audio signals for future aircraft...simultaneously. function as a joystick controller. 109 MIL-STD-1472D / F L , \\ ,’/ f It f/ \\\\ ’ ’\\, // , PENCIL ATTACHMENT 6 ""-. , "’..." SALL JOINT t

  4. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS...) Correct the problem and retest the engine/equipment to show it complies with all emission standards. (2...

  5. Validation and clinical application of a continuous P0.1 measurement using standard respiratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, R; Mohnhaupt, R; Slama, K; Hausmann, S; Pappert, D; Rossaint, R; Falke, K

    1996-12-01

    The airway occlusion pressure, P0.1, is the negative airway pressure generated during the first 100 msec of an occluded inspiration. P0.1 is a parameter for the neuro-muscular activation of the respiratory system, which is an important determinant for the work of breathing. It has been shown to be a good predictor for successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Standard P0.1 measurement techniques are based on a total occlusion of the inspiration for more than 100 msec. These measurements are technically complex and therefore not useful for clinical purposes. Furthermore, a significant breath-by-breath variability has been shown for P0.1, which is neglected by any single point measurement technique. Therefore, we have developed a continuous on-line measurement for breath-by-breath determination of P0.1 using the Siemens Servo 900C respirator. In triggered mechanical ventilation the delay time between the onset of the patient's inspiration and flow delivery from the respiratory is more than 100 msec for this respirator. During that time the inspiration is occluded. Therefore, the trigger effort was proposed to be a good estimate of P0.1. Based on this, we calculated P0.1 as follows: airway pressure (Paw) was registered at the endotracheal tube site of the respiratory tubing, digitized and acquired by a personal computer at 100 Hz. The recorder output of the Servo 900C was connected to the same computer, delivering the electronical signal for the inspiratory valve to open when the inspiratory effort has exceeded the trigger threshold, which needs a minimal delay time of 80 msec. Around 20 msec after this signal flow is delivered from the respirator. The computer runs an algorithm, which recognizes this signal and calculates P0.1 (Servo P0.1) as the slope of the pressure drop during this 100 msec. Paw tracings and the calculated P0.1 values were displayed on the computer screen and stored on disk. This method was validated by comparing it to the standard technique

  6. Clathrate Ba8Au16P30: the "gold standard" for lattice thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, James; Lebedev, Oleg I; Roddatis, Vladimir V; Kaseman, Derrick C; Sen, Sabyasachi; Dolyniuk, Juli-Anna; Lee, Kathleen; Olenev, Andrei V; Kovnir, Kirill

    2013-08-21

    A novel clathrate phase, Ba8Au16P30, was synthesized from its elements. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to establish the crystal structure of the new compound. Ba8Au16P30 crystallizes in an orthorhombic superstructure of clathrate-I featuring a complete separation of gold and phosphorus atoms over different crystallographic positions, similar to the Cu-containing analogue, Ba8Cu16P30. Barium cations are trapped inside the large polyhedral cages of the gold-phosphorus tetrahedral framework. X-ray diffraction indicated that one out of 15 crystallographically independent phosphorus atoms appears to be three-coordinate. Probing the local structure and chemical bonding of phosphorus atoms with (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy confirmed the three-coordinate nature of one of the phosphorus atomic positions. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicated that the clathrate Ba8Au16P30 is well-ordered on the atomic scale, although numerous twinning and intergrowth defects as well as antiphase boundaries were detected. The presence of such defects results in the pseudo-body-centered-cubic diffraction patterns observed in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. NMR and resistivity characterization of Ba8Au16P30 indicated paramagnetic metallic properties with a room-temperature resistivity of 1.7 mΩ cm. Ba8Au16P30 exhibits a low total thermal conductivity (0.62 W m(-1) K(-1)) and an unprecedentedly low lattice thermal conductivity (0.18 W m(-1) K(-1)) at room temperature. The values of the thermal conductivity for Ba8Au16P30 are significantly lower than the typical values reported for solid crystalline compounds. We attribute such low thermal conductivity values to the presence of a large number of heavy atoms (Au) in the framework and the formation of multiple twinning interfaces and antiphase defects, which are effective scatterers of heat-carrying phonons.

  7. Using a web-based application to define the accuracy of diagnostic tests when the gold standard is imperfect.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cherry; Wannapinij, Prapass; White, Lisa; Day, Nicholas P J; Cooper, Ben S; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the sensitivity and specificity for new diagnostic tests based on evaluation against a known gold standard are imprecise when the accuracy of the gold standard is imperfect. Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) can be helpful under these circumstances, but the necessary analysis requires expertise in computational programming. Here, we describe open-access web-based applications that allow non-experts to apply Bayesian LCMs to their own data sets via a user-friendly interface. Applications for Bayesian LCMs were constructed on a web server using R and WinBUGS programs. The models provided (http://mice.tropmedres.ac) include two Bayesian LCMs: the two-tests in two-population model (Hui and Walter model) and the three-tests in one-population model (Walter and Irwig model). Both models are available with simplified and advanced interfaces. In the former, all settings for Bayesian statistics are fixed as defaults. Users input their data set into a table provided on the webpage. Disease prevalence and accuracy of diagnostic tests are then estimated using the Bayesian LCM, and provided on the web page within a few minutes. With the advanced interfaces, experienced researchers can modify all settings in the models as needed. These settings include correlation among diagnostic test results and prior distributions for all unknown parameters. The web pages provide worked examples with both models using the original data sets presented by Hui and Walter in 1980, and by Walter and Irwig in 1988. We also illustrate the utility of the advanced interface using the Walter and Irwig model on a data set from a recent melioidosis study. The results obtained from the web-based applications were comparable to those published previously. The newly developed web-based applications are open-access and provide an important new resource for researchers worldwide to evaluate new diagnostic tests.

  8. Development of a hand- transmitted vibration measurement instrument to perform tests in medical equipment according to the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005 Ed.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, F. F.; Moriya, H. T.; Moraes, J. C. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    According to the sub clause 9.6.3 of the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005, medical electrical equipment must provide means of protection against hazardous hand- transmitted vibrations. Compliance of this sub clause is checked by using a vibration measurement instrument in accordance with ISO 5349-1-2001 standard. The present article describes the development of a vibration measurement instrument to perform vibration measurements tests in medical equipments.

  9. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... source electric arc furnaces to the section 112(c)(6) list). As explained in the proposed rule, we have a... standards for area source electric arc furnaces). In addition to obtaining additional information concerning...

  10. Optimal Allocation of Gold Standard Testing under Constrained Availability: Application to Assessment of HIV Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Hogan, Joseph W.; Wang, Lisa; Zhang, Shangxuan; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings (RLS) are mostly based on clinical and immunological markers (e.g., CD4 cell counts). Recent research indicates that the guidelines are inadequate and can result in high error rates. Viral load (VL) is considered the “gold standard”, yet its widespread use is limited by cost and infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm that uses information from routinely-collected clinical and immunological markers to guide a selective use of VL testing for diagnosing HIV treatment failure, under the assumption that VL testing is available only at a certain portion of patient visits. Our algorithm identifies the patient sub-population, such that the use of limited VL testing on them minimizes a pre-defined risk (e.g., misdiagnosis error rate). Diagnostic properties of our proposal algorithm are assessed by simulations. For illustration, data from the Miriam Hospital Immunology Clinic (RI, USA) are analyzed. PMID:24672142

  11. Standardization of automated industrial test equipment for mass production of control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, A.; Dai, I.; Oleniuk, P.; Todd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. They must be designed to achieve a high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and hardware reliability must be ensured by board level testing before hardware is assembled and installed. In this framework, the National Instrument PCI extension for Instrumentation (PXI) was chosen as standard platform for the development of testers. This paper reports on the design strategy and approach used focusing on the tester hardware, firmware and software development.

  12. Development of gold standard ion-selective electrode-based methods for fluoride analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mier, E A; Cury, J A; Heilman, J R; Katz, B P; Levy, S M; Li, Y; Maguire, A; Margineda, J; O'Mullane, D; Phantumvanit, P; Soto-Rojas, A E; Stookey, G K; Villa, A; Wefel, J S; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M; Zero, D T; Zhang, W; Zohouri, V

    2011-01-01

    Currently available techniques for fluoride analysis are not standardized. Therefore, this study was designed to develop standardized methods for analyzing fluoride in biological and nonbiological samples used for dental research. A group of nine laboratories analyzed a set of standardized samples for fluoride concentration using their own methods. The group then reviewed existing analytical techniques for fluoride analysis, identified inconsistencies in the use of these techniques and conducted testing to resolve differences. Based on the results of the testing undertaken to define the best approaches for the analysis, the group developed recommendations for direct and microdiffusion methods using the fluoride ion-selective electrode. Initial results demonstrated that there was no consensus regarding the choice of analytical techniques for different types of samples. Although for several types of samples, the results of the fluoride analyses were similar among some laboratories, greater differences were observed for saliva, food and beverage samples. In spite of these initial differences, precise and true values of fluoride concentration, as well as smaller differences between laboratories, were obtained once the standardized methodologies were used. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, for the analysis of a certified reference material, using the standardized methodologies. The results of this study demonstrate that the development and use of standardized protocols for F analysis significantly decreased differences among laboratories and resulted in more precise and true values. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Development of Gold Standard Ion-Selective Electrode-Based Methods for Fluoride Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mier, E.A.; Cury, J.A.; Heilman, J.R.; Katz, B.P.; Levy, S.M.; Li, Y.; Maguire, A.; Margineda, J.; O’Mullane, D.; Phantumvanit, P.; Soto-Rojas, A.E.; Stookey, G.K.; Villa, A.; Wefel, J.S.; Whelton, H.; Whitford, G.M.; Zero, D.T.; Zhang, W.; Zohouri, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Currently available techniques for fluoride analysis are not standardized. Therefore, this study was designed to develop standardized methods for analyzing fluoride in biological and nonbiological samples used for dental research. Methods A group of nine laboratories analyzed a set of standardized samples for fluoride concentration using their own methods. The group then reviewed existing analytical techniques for fluoride analysis, identified inconsistencies in the use of these techniques and conducted testing to resolve differences. Based on the results of the testing undertaken to define the best approaches for the analysis, the group developed recommendations for direct and microdiffusion methods using the fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results Initial results demonstrated that there was no consensus regarding the choice of analytical techniques for different types of samples. Although for several types of samples, the results of the fluoride analyses were similar among some laboratories, greater differences were observed for saliva, food and beverage samples. In spite of these initial differences, precise and true values of fluoride concentration, as well as smaller differences between laboratories, were obtained once the standardized methodologies were used. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, for the analysis of a certified reference material, using the standardized methodologies. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the development and use of standardized protocols for F analysis significantly decreased differences among laboratories and resulted in more precise and true values. PMID:21160184

  14. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 3: Tasks 3 and 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The modifications for the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment, designed for ground based laboratory use, that would be required to permit its use in the Spacelab environments were determined. The cost of these modifications were estimated and the most cost effective approach to implementing them were identified. A shared equipment implementation in which the various Spacelab users draw their required complement of standard NIM and CAMAC equipment for a given flight from a common equipment pool was considered. The alternative approach studied was a dedicated equipment implementation in which each of the users is responsible for procuring either their own NIM/CAMAC equipment or its custom built equivalent.

  15. Anesthetic mishaps and the cost of monitoring: a proposed standard for monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Whitcher, C; Ream, A K; Parsons, D; Rubsamen, D; Scott, J; Champeau, M; Sterman, W; Siegel, L

    1988-01-01

    Review of insurance data indicates that approximately 1.5 claims are paid per 10,000 anesthetic procedures, a conservative estimate of the incidence of preventable serious injury associated with anesthesia. Insurance data permit estimation of the premium cost for the anesthesiologist and hospital, per operating room per year, of $69,429.00. We propose the use of an enhanced monitoring standard requiring a pulse oximeter, capnograph, spirometer, halometer, automatic sphygmomanometer, breathing circuit oxygen analyzer, stethoscope, electrocardiographic monitor, and temperature monitor. We suggest that this premium cost, together with the estimate that 50% of incidents would be avoided, predicts a resultant saving of over $27,000/operating room/year, a savings equal to the entire cost of the enhanced monitoring system in approximately 8 months, or a yearly savings of over five times the annualized expense of the monitoring system. Thus, in addition to the moral imperative to monitor a patient during anesthesia to avoid injury and death, there is an economic incentive to monitor effectively.

  16. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  17. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  18. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  19. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  20. Preparation of TNT, RDX and Ammonium Nitrate Standards on Gold-on-Silicon Surfaces by Thermal Inkjet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrable-Rose, Madeline; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-12-01

    This research examines the surface contamination properties, trace sample preparation methodologies, detection systems response and generation of explosive contamination standards for trace detection systems. Homogeneous and reproducible sample preparation is relevant for trace detection of chemical threats, such as warfare agents, highly energetic materials (HEM) and toxic industrial chemicals. The objective of this research was to develop a technology capable of producing samples and standards of HEM with controlled size and distribution on a substrate to generate specimens that would reproduce real contamination conditions. The research activities included (1) a study of the properties of particles generated by two deposition techniques: sample smearing deposition and inkjet deposition, on gold-coated silicon, glass and stainless steel substrates; (2) characterization of composition, distribution and adhesion characteristics of deposits; (3) evaluation of accuracy and reproducibility for depositing neat highly energetic materials such as TNT, RDX and ammonium nitrate; (4) a study of HEM-surface interactions using FTIR-RAIRS; and (5) establishment of protocols for validation of surface concentration using destructive methods such as HPLC.

  1. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, José C.; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D.; Maserati Jr, Marc P.; Alves, Mayra F.; de Almeida, Tamie G.; Cardoso, Bruna L.; Basso, Andrea C.; Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment. PMID:27584609

  2. Methods for assessing the quality of mammalian embryos: How far we are from the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Rocha, José C; Passalia, Felipe; Matos, Felipe D; Maserati, Marc P; Alves, Mayra F; Almeida, Tamie G de; Cardoso, Bruna L; Basso, Andrea C; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-08-01

    Morphological embryo classification is of great importance for many laboratory techniques, from basic research to the ones applied to assisted reproductive technology. However, the standard classification method for both human and cattle embryos, is based on quality parameters that reflect the overall morphological quality of the embryo in cattle, or the quality of the individual embryonic structures, more relevant in human embryo classification. This assessment method is biased by the subjectivity of the evaluator and even though several guidelines exist to standardize the classification, it is not a method capable of giving reliable and trustworthy results. Latest approaches for the improvement of quality assessment include the use of data from cellular metabolism, a new morphological grading system, development kinetics and cleavage symmetry, embryo cell biopsy followed by pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, zona pellucida birefringence, ion release by the embryo cells and so forth. Nowadays there exists a great need for evaluation methods that are practical and non-invasive while being accurate and objective. A method along these lines would be of great importance to embryo evaluation by embryologists, clinicians and other professionals who work with assisted reproductive technology. Several techniques shows promising results in this sense, one being the use of digital images of the embryo as basis for features extraction and classification by means of artificial intelligence techniques (as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks). This process has the potential to become an accurate and objective standard for embryo quality assessment.

  3. Comparison of high-dose-rate (192)Ir source strength measurements using equipment with traceability to different standards.

    PubMed

    Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Bjerke, Hans; Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Hetland, Per-Otto; Kosunen, Antti; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Persson, Linda; Sipila, Petri

    2014-01-01

    According to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism used for dose calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems, the absolute level of absorbed dose is determined through coupling with the measurable quantity air-kerma strength or the numerically equal reference air-kerma rate (RAKR). Traceability to established standards is important for accurate dosimetry in laying the ground for reliable comparisons of results and safety in adoption of new treatment protocols. The purpose of this work was to compare the source strength for a high-dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source as measured using equipment traceable to different standard laboratories in Europe and the United States. Source strength was determined for one HDR (192)Ir source using four independent systems, all with traceability to different primary or interim standards in the United States and Europe. The measured HDR (192)Ir source strengths varied by 0.8% and differed on average from the vendor value by 0.3%. Measurements with the well chambers were 0.5% ± 0.1% higher than the vendor-provided source strength. Measurements with the Farmer chamber were 0.7% lower than the average well chamber results and 0.2% lower than the vendor-provided source strength. All of these results were less than the reported source calibration uncertainties (k=2) of each measurement system. In view of the uncertainties in ion chamber calibration factors, the maximum difference in source strength found in this study is small and confirms the consistency between calibration standards in use for HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood pressure measurement in children: which method? which is the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrico; Murer, Luisa; Matteucci, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hypertension has become increasingly prevalent in children. Hypertension that begins in childhood can carry on into adulthood, therefore early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of high blood pressure may improve long-term outcomes of children and adolescents. As far as pediatric hypertension is concerned, doubts still persist about the right instruments, modalities and standards of reference that should be used in routine practice. Due to the dynamic process of growth and development, many physiological parameters undergo intensive change with age. Therefore, in children, the definition of hypertension can not rely on a single blood pressure level but should be based on age- and height-specific percentiles. In this review, we introduce the nephrologist to the correct definition of high blood pressure in children. Moreover, we specifically address the main characteristics of different modalities for blood pressure measurement in children, focusing on practical aspects. The latest international guidelines and appropriate standards of reference for office, ambulatory and home blood pressure data collection are presented. As clinicians are being faced with a greater number of children with hypertension, they should be aware of these peculiarities.

  5. Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate the causes of death in areas with incomplete vital registration systems. The King and Lu method (KL) for direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from VA studies is an analysis technique that estimates CSMFs in a population without predicting individual-level cause of death as an intermediate step. In previous studies, KL has shown promise as an alternative to physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA). However, it has previously been impossible to validate KL with a large dataset of VAs for which the underlying cause of death is known to meet rigorous clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods We applied the KL method to adult, child, and neonatal VA datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study, a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs where gold standard cause of death was established using strict clinical diagnostic criteria. To emulate real-world populations with varying CSMFs, we evaluated the KL estimations for 500 different test datasets of varying cause distribution. We assessed the quality of these estimates in terms of CSMF accuracy as well as linear regression and compared this with the results of PCVA. Results KL performance is similar to PCVA in terms of CSMF accuracy, attaining values of 0.669, 0.698, and 0.795 for adult, child, and neonatal age groups, respectively, when health care experience (HCE) items were included. We found that the length of the cause list has a dramatic effect on KL estimation quality, with CSMF accuracy decreasing substantially as the length of the cause list increases. We found that KL is not reliant on HCE the way PCVA is, and without HCE, KL outperforms PCVA for all age groups. Conclusions Like all computer methods for VA analysis, KL is faster and cheaper than PCVA. Since it is a direct estimation technique, though, it does not produce individual-level predictions. KL estimates are of similar

  6. Validation of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging blood-brain barrier permeability measurements by comparison with gold standard histology.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Bredno, Jörg; Wendland, Michael F; Derugin, Nikita; Hom, Jason; Schuster, Tibor; Su, Hua; Ohara, Peter T; Young, William L; Wintermark, Max

    2011-07-01

    We sought to validate the blood-brain barrier permeability measurements extracted from perfusion-weighted MRI through a relatively simple and frequently applied model, the Patlak model, by comparison with gold standard histology in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Eleven spontaneously hypertensive rats and 11 Wistar rats with unilateral 2-hour filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery underwent imaging during occlusion at 4 hours and 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood-brain barrier permeability was imaged by gradient echo imaging after the first pass of the contrast agent bolus and quantified by a Patlak analysis. Blood-brain barrier permeability was shown on histology by the extravasation of Evans blue on fluorescence microscopy sections matching location and orientation of MR images. Cresyl-violet staining was used to detect and characterize hemorrhage. Landmark-based elastic image registration allowed a region-by-region comparison of permeability imaging at 24 hours with Evans blue extravasation and hemorrhage as detected on histological slides obtained immediately after the 24-hour image set. Permeability values in the nonischemic tissue (marginal mean ± SE: 0.15 ± 0.019 mL/min 100 g) were significantly lower compared to all permeability values in regions of Evans blue extravasation or hemorrhage. Permeability values in regions of weak Evans blue extravasation (0.23 ± 0.016 mL/min 100 g) were significantly lower compared to permeability values of in regions of strong Evans blue extravasation (0.29 ± 0.020 mL/min 100 g) and macroscopic hemorrhage (0.35 ± 0.049 mL/min 100 g). Permeability values in regions of microscopic hemorrhage (0.26 ± 0.024 mL/min 100 g) only differed significantly from values in regions of nonischemic tissue (0.15 ± 0.019 mL/min 100 g). Areas of increased permeability measured in vivo by imaging coincide with blood-brain barrier disruption and hemorrhage observed on gold standard histology.

  7. Regularities of the working equipment elements mass reduction to the hydraulic power cylinder piston for the bucket boom machines size standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarkina, I. V.; Tarasov, V. N.

    2017-06-01

    The working equipment mass reduction is performed proceeding from the condition of the kinetic energy equality of the reduced mass and kinetic energy of the working equipment. Analytic connections of the boom hydraulic cylinder piston kinematic characteristics with the kinematic characteristics of the working equipment rotation are determined for the establishing of this dependence. Dependences of the working equipment reduced masses are obtained for different boom positions: transport, horizontal and maximum raised position of the working equipment. As opposed to similar researches in mechanical engineering the results of this research consist in the establishing of reduced masses dependences on the machine weight, its lifting capacity, boom positions for the machines size standard. Relative characteristics of the reduced mass depending on the lifting capacity and weight of the machine are obtained.

  8. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  9. Adventures in data citation: sorghum genome data exemplifies the new gold standard

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Scientific progress is driven by the availability of information, which makes it essential that data be broadly, easily and rapidly accessible to researchers in every field. In addition to being good scientific practice, provision of supporting data in a convenient way increases experimental transparency and improves research efficiency by reducing unnecessary duplication of experiments. There are, however, serious constraints that limit extensive data dissemination. One such constraint is that, despite providing a major foundation of data to the advantage of entire community, data producers rarely receive the credit they deserve for the substantial amount of time and effort they spend creating these resources. In this regard, a formal system that provides recognition for data producers would serve to incentivize them to share more of their data. The process of data citation, in which the data themselves are cited and referenced in journal articles as persistently identifiable bibliographic entities, is a potential way to properly acknowledge data output. The recent publication of several sorghum genomes in Genome Biology is a notable first example of good data citation practice in the field of genomics and demonstrates the practicalities and formatting required for doing so. It also illustrates how effective use of persistent identifiers can augment the submission of data to the current standard scientific repositories. PMID:22571506

  10. Multidetector CT: a new gold standard in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism? State of the art and diagnostic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Russo, V; Piva, T; Lovato, L; Fattori, R; Gavelli, G

    2005-01-01

    From the early 90s, spiral CT technology has considerably changed the diagnostic capability of Pulmonary Embolism (PE), giving a direct vision of intravascular thrombi. Further technological progress has strengthened its diagnostic impact leading to an essential role in clinical practice. The advent of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) has subsequently increased the reliability of this technique to the point of undermining the role of pulmonary angiography as the gold standard and occupying a central position in diagnostic algorithms. The aim of this paper is to appraise this evolution by means of a meta-analysis of the relevant literature from 1995 to 2004. The review of the literature showed the sensitivity and specificity of CT to have increased from 37-94% and 81-100% (single-detector CT) to 87-94% and 94-100% (4-channel multidetector CT), especially thanks to the possibility of depicting subsegmental clots, with an interobserver agreement of 0.63-0.94 (k). CT is one of the most reliable and effective methods in the diagnosis is PE, with the advantage of being extremely fast and providing alternative diagnoses. Recent improvements in MDCT technology confers the highest value of diagnostic accuracy with respect to other imaging modalities such as scintigraphy, angiography, MRI, D-dimer assay and Doppler US.

  11. A method to compare the performance of two molecular diagnostic tools in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaonan; Oktay, Maja; Goswami, Sumanta; Kim, Mimi Y

    2017-01-01

    The paper is motivated by the problem of comparing the accuracy of two molecular tests in detecting genetic mutations in tumor samples when there is no gold standard test. Commonly used sequencing methods require a large number of tumor cells in the tumor sample and the proportion of tumor cells with mutation positivity to be above a threshold level whereas new tests aim to reduce the requirement for number of tumor cells and the threshold level. A new latent class model is proposed to compare these two tests in which a random variable is used to represent the unobserved proportion of mutation positivity so that these two tests are conditionally dependent; furthermore, an independent random variable is included to address measurement error associated with the reading from each test, while existing latent class models often assume conditional independence and do not allow measurement error. In addition, methods for calculating the sample size for a study that is sufficiently powered to compare the accuracy of two molecular tests are proposed and compared. The proposed methods are then applied to a study which aims to compare two molecular tests for detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients.

  12. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  13. Comparative outcome evaluations of psychotherapies: Guidelines for addressing eight limitations of the gold standard of causal inference.

    PubMed

    Staines, Graham L

    2007-06-01

    Although randomized experiments represent the gold standard in causal research, their limitations are easily overlooked, especially in field experiments. Although discussions of the limitations of field experiments typically detail problems of design implementation, field experiments have limitations even if their randomized designs are successfully implemented. This is particularly true of comparative evaluations of psychotherapy programs. Accordingly, this article focuses on eight limitations that pervade such comparative treatment research: (a) Direct and indirect effects are conflated; (b) the investigation of interactions is limited; (c) attention is diverted from background conditions; (d) temporal factors complicate causal inferences; (e) the stable-unit-treatment-value assumption is easily violated; (f) therapist effects can confound therapy method effects; (g) differential effects of treatment methods are small; and (h) generalizability of treatment research findings is indeterminate. In addition to explaining each limitation, the author proposes research strategies for addressing it. The author concludes that attention to these 8 limitations and to the various strategies for overcoming them can increase increase the causal contribution of experimental evaluations of psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Histopathological examination of nail clippings using PAS staining (HPE-PAS): gold standard in diagnosis of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Shazia; Ahmed, Qazi Masood; Lanker, Audil Mohmad; Hassan, Iffat; Jeelani, Nasir; Fazili, Tawheeda

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is fungal infection of one or more of the nail units. However, because fungi cause only about half of all nail dystrophies, the use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is important to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment. Aim of the present study was to compare direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS for diagnosis of onychomycosis by evaluating their sensitivity and various other relevant statistical parameters. A prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 patients with a high degree of clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Nail specimens were evaluated using three diagnostic methods, i.e. direct microscopy using 20% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) & 40% Di-methyl-suphoxide (DMSO), culture and histopathological examination using PAS stain (HPE-PAS). Of 216 patients direct microscopy was positive in 138 (63.9%), culture in 147 (68%) and HPE-PAS in 164 patients (76%). One hundred and seventy-nine patients fitted into the criteria set for confirmed diagnosis of onychomycosis. Using this as a denominator; direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS had sensitivities of 77.1%, 70% and 91.6% respectively. Also, HPE-PAS showed the highest sensitivity of 94.7% in 19 cases with prediagnostic antimycotic treatment compared to direct microscopy (42.1%) or culture (57.9%). HPE-PAS shows high sensitivity for diagnosis of onychomycosis and can be considered as a gold standard in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

  15. Establishing a gold standard for manual cough counting: video versus digital audio recordings.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jaclyn A; Earis, John E; Woodcock, Ashley A

    2006-08-03

    Manual cough counting is time-consuming and laborious; however it is the standard to which automated cough monitoring devices must be compared. We have compared manual cough counting from video recordings with manual cough counting from digital audio recordings. We studied 8 patients with chronic cough, overnight in laboratory conditions (diagnoses were 5 asthma, 1 rhinitis, 1 gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and 1 idiopathic cough). Coughs were recorded simultaneously using a video camera with infrared lighting and digital sound recording. The numbers of coughs in each 8 hour recording were counted manually, by a trained observer, in real time from the video recordings and using audio-editing software from the digital sound recordings. The median cough frequency was 17.8 (IQR 5.9-28.7) cough sounds per hour in the video recordings and 17.7 (6.0-29.4) coughs per hour in the digital sound recordings. There was excellent agreement between the video and digital audio cough rates; mean difference of -0.3 coughs per hour (SD +/- 0.6), 95% limits of agreement -1.5 to +0.9 coughs per hour. Video recordings had poorer sound quality even in controlled conditions and can only be analysed in real time (8 hours per recording). Digital sound recordings required 2-4 hours of analysis per recording. Manual counting of cough sounds from digital audio recordings has excellent agreement with simultaneous video recordings in laboratory conditions. We suggest that ambulatory digital audio recording is therefore ideal for validating future cough monitoring devices, as this as this can be performed in the patients own environment.

  16. Neuronavigated surgery of intracranial cavernomas--enthusiasm for high technologies or a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Enchev, Yavor P; Popov, Rumen V; Romansky, Kiril V; Marinov, Marin B; Bussarsky, Ventzeslav A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuronavigation on the following parameters: "skin incision", "craniotomy", "intraoperative anatomical orientation", "dissection guiding", "localization of the pathological formation", "assessment of the degree of resection" and "duration of surgical procedure" in resections of intracranial cavernomas and to specify the indications for neuronavigation in their surgical treatment. The present prospective study included 20 patients with intracranial cavernomas who underwent neuronavigated surgery between March 2003 and December 2005 at the Clinic of Neurosurgery of the "St. I. Rilsky" University Hospital, Medical University, Sofia. The female/male ratio in the series was 9/11 (45%-55%). The patients' mean age was 27.96 +/- 11.61 years (age range 1.2 to 44 years). The patients were examined and followed up in a standard manner. Cavernous malformations were totally removed in 19 patients. One patient with thalamic cavernoma underwent navigated endoscopic biopsy. There was no morbidity or mortality associated with the method. Neuronavigation allowed precise localization and individual design of the skin incision and craniotomy. Neuronavigated intraoperative anatomical orientation, dissection guiding, localization of the pathological formation, and assessment of degree of resection were evaluated as markedly useful. They resulted in excellent surgery results and reduced operation time in comparison with the conventional surgery. In intracranial cavernomas frameless stereotaxy provides the surgeon with useful feedback in the preoperative anatomical orientation, the planning and simulation of surgical approach, the intraoperative navigation, in avoiding vital neurovascular structures, in the assessment of the degree of resection and the identification of possible residual parts. That is why cavernous malformations are among the most common indications for cranial neuronavigation.

  17. In Search of a Gold Standard Scoring System for the Subjective Evaluation of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Breast-Conserving Therapy.

    PubMed

    Racz, Jennifer M; Hong, Nicole Look; Latosinsky, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The absence of a widely accepted method for aesthetic evaluation following breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer limits the ability to evaluate cosmetic outcomes. In this study, two different panel scoring approaches were compared in an attempt to identify a gold standard scoring system for subjectively assessing cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy. Standardized photographs of each participant were evaluated independently by twelve health care professionals involved in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment using the Danoff four-point scale. Individual Danoff scores were combined using two methods, a random sample "three-panel" score and an iterative "Delphi-panel" score, in order to create a final cosmetic score for each patient. Agreement between these two aggregative approaches was assessed with a weighted kappa (wk) statistic. Patient and professional recruitment occurred at two separate tertiary care multi-disciplinary breast health centers. Women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving therapy (segmental mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiotherapy) and were at least 2 years after radiotherapy were asked to participate. Ninety-seven women were evaluated. The Delphi approach required three rounds of evaluation to obtain greater than 50% agreement in all photographs. The wk statistic between scores generated from the "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" approaches was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89), thus demonstrating substantial agreement. Evaluation of cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy using a "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" score provide similar results, confirming the reliability of either approach for subjective evaluation. Simplicity of use and interpretation favors the "three-panel" score. Future work should concentrate on the integration of the three-panel score with objective and patient-reported scales to generate a comprehensive cosmetic evaluation platform. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as a Core Material and a Comparison with Gold Standard Core Materials.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Schmid, Philipp; Roos, Malgorzata; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2016-06-20

    This study investigated the colorimetric properties of different veneering materials on core materials. Standardized specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 1.5 mm) reflecting four core (polyetheretherketone (PEEK), zirconia (ZrO₂), cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo), and titanium oxide (TiO₂); thickness: 1.5 mm) and veneering materials (VITA Mark II, IPS e.max CAD, LAVA Ultimate and VITA Enamic, all in shade A3; thickness: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mm, respectively) were fabricated. Specimens were superimposed to assemblies, and the color was determined with a spectrophotometer (CieLab-System) or a chair-side color measurement device (VITA EasyShade), respectively. Data were analyzed using three-, two-, and one-way ANOVA, a Chi²-test, and a Wilson approach (p < 0.05). The measurements with EasyShade showed A2 for VITA Mark II, A3.5 for VITA Enamic, B2 for LAVA Ultimate, and B3 for IPS e.max CAD. LabE-values showed significant differences between the tested veneering materials (p < 0.001). CieLab-System and VITA EasyShade parameters of the different assemblies showed a significant impact of core (p < 0.001), veneering material (p < 0.001), and thickness of the veneering material (p < 0.001). PEEK as core material showed comparable outcomes as compared to ZrO₂ and CoCrMo, with respect to CieLab-System parameters for each veneering material. The relative frequency of the measured VITA EasyShade parameters regarding PEEK cores also showed comparable results as compared to the gold standard CoCrMo, regardless of the veneering material used.

  19. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Young Children in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Carlos; Malheiro, Adriana; Bührer, Samira; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor; Abellana, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009–2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53–91] and 97% (95%CI: 89–100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41–66) and 81% (95%CI:71–90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61–99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47–95). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. PMID:27783642

  20. Validation of ultrasonographic muscle thickness measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bullen, Lindsey E.; Evola, Maria G.; Griffith, Emily H.; Seiler, Gabriela S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US) muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT) in the canine. Design This was a prospective study. Population Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. Materials and Methods Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors) and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials) muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position. Prior to CT scan, the skin over the muscle sites was shaved and marked with a permanent marker. Patient body position was determined based on the patient’s CT plan; positioning was consistent between CT and US imaging. To ensure identical imaging position for both CT and US measurements, radio-opaque fiducial markers were placed directly over the skin marks once the dog was positioned. Quantitative measurements (cm) for both lean muscle mass (LMM) and subcutaneous adipose (SQA) were recorded. Statistical comparisons between CT and US values were done separately for each site and type. Results Muscle groups and associated SQA measured by US and CT were not statistically different based on an adjusted p-value using Bonferroni’s correction (p < 0.0031). In addition, all LMM and SQA sites had good reliability and agreement (Cronbach’s α = 0.8 − 1.0) between the two metrics, excluding the coxofemoral extensor muscle group (Cronbach’s α = 0.73232). Linear regression analysis of muscle measures indicated close agreement (slope range 0.93–1.09) and minimal bias of variation (intercept range 0.05–0.11) between CT versus US modalities, with the exception of the coxofemoral extensor muscle. Similarly, SQA CT and US measures indicated close agreement with the slope range of 0.88–1.02 and minimal bias of

  1. Comparison of different segmentation approaches without using gold standard. Application to the estimation of the left ventricle ejection fraction from cardiac cine MRI sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lebenberg, Jessica; Buvat, Irène; Garreau, Mireille; Casta, Christopher; Constantinidès, Constantin; Cousty, Jean; Cochet, Alexandre; Jehan-Besson, Stéphanie; Tilmant, Christophe; Lefort, Muriel; Roullot, Elodie; Najman, Laurent; Sarry, Laurent; Clarysse, Patrick; De Cesare, Alain; Lalande, Alain; Frouin, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed to compare several estimates of a relevant clinical parameter when no gold standard is available. The method is illustrated by considering the left ventricle ejection fraction derived from cardiac magnetic resonance images and computed using seven approaches with different degrees of automation. The proposed method did not use any a priori regarding with the reliability of each method and its degree of automation. The results showed that the most accurate estimates of the ejection fraction were obtained using manual segmentations, followed by the semi-automatic methods, while the methods with the least user input yielded the least accurate ejection fraction estimates. These results were consistent with the expected performance of the estimation methods, suggesting that the proposed statistical approach might be helpful to assess the performance of estimation methods on clinical data for which no gold standard is available. PMID:22254889

  2. Using Hashimoto thyroiditis as gold standard to determine the upper limit value of thyroid stimulating hormone in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Chen, Dong-Ning; Cui, Jing; Xin, Zhong; Yang, Guang-Ran; Niu, Ming-Jia; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-11-06

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly caused by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This disorder is defined as merely having elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. However, the upper limit of reference range for TSH is debated recently. This study was to determine the cutoff value for the upper normal limit of TSH in a cohort using the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis as "gold" calibration standard. The research population was medical staff of 2856 individuals who took part in health examination annually. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and other biochemistry parameters were tested. Meanwhile, thyroid ultrasound examination was performed. The diagnosis of HT was based on presence of thyroid antibodies (TPAb and TGAb) and abnormalities of thyroid ultrasound examination. We used two different methods to estimate the cutoff point of TSH based on the prevalence of HT. Joinpoint regression showed the prevalence of HT increased significantly at the ninth decile of TSH value corresponding to 2.9 mU/L. ROC curve showed a TSH cutoff value of 2.6 mU/L with the maximized sensitivity and specificity in identifying HT. Using the newly defined cutoff value of TSH can detect patients with hyperlipidemia more efficiently, which may indicate our approach to define the upper limit of TSH can make more sense from the clinical point of view. A significant increase in the prevalence of HT occurred among individuals with a TSH of 2.6-2.9 mU/L made it possible to determine the cutoff value of normal upper limit of TSH.

  3. A survey of immunohistochemical biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer against a gene expression profile gold standard.

    PubMed

    Won, Jennifer R; Gao, Dongxia; Chow, Christine; Cheng, Jinjin; Lau, Sherman Y H; Ellis, Matthew J; Perou, Charles M; Bernard, Philip S; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2013-11-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer delineates a particularly aggressive subtype referred to as 'basal-like', which comprises ∼15% of all breast cancers, afflicts younger women and is refractory to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies. Immunohistochemical surrogate definitions for basal-like breast cancer, such as the clinical ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative phenotype and models incorporating positive expression for CK5 (CK5/6) and/or EGFR are heavily cited. However, many additional biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer have been described in the literature. A parallel comparison of 46 proposed immunohistochemical biomarkers of basal-like breast cancer was performed against a gene expression profile gold standard on a tissue microarray containing 42 basal-like and 80 non-basal-like breast cancer cases. Ki67 and PPH3 were the most sensitive biomarkers (both 92%) positively expressed in the basal-like subtype, whereas CK14, IMP3 and NGFR were the most specific (100%). Among biomarkers surveyed, loss of INPP4B (a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol signaling) was 61% sensitive and 99% specific with the highest odds ratio (OR) at 108, indicating the strongest association with basal-like breast cancer. Expression of nestin, a common marker of neural progenitor cells that is also associated with the triple-negative/basal-like phenotype and poor breast cancer prognosis, possessed the second highest OR at 29 among the 46 biomarkers surveyed, as well as 54% sensitivity and 96% specificity. As a positively expressed biomarker, nestin possesses technical advantages over INPP4B that make it a more ideal biomarker for identification of basal-like breast cancer. The comprehensive immunohistochemical biomarker survey presented in this study is a necessary step for determining an optimized surrogate immunopanel that best defines basal-like breast cancer in a practical and clinically accessible way.

  4. Recombinant vs native Anisakis haemoglobin (Ani s 13): Its appraisal as a new gold standard for the diagnosis of allergy.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Juan; Rivas, Luis; Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Campioli, Pamela; Gárate, Teresa; Perteguer, María J; Daschner, Alvaro; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Recombinant allergens are currently the best option for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, previous reports showed high rates of anisakiasis patients who were negative to Ani s 7 and especially to Ani s 1. Recently, Anisakis haemoglobin was described as a major allergen (Ani s 13). Although Ani s 13 belongs to a conserved protein family, it seems not to be a cross-reacting antigen because of the absence of IgE recognition against Ascaris haemoglobin in Anisakis patients. The aim of this study is to develop a more sensitive and specific diagnosis tool for Anisakis based on the recently discovered allergen Ani s 13. We obtained and purified recombinant Anisakis haemoglobin (rAni s 13) and the native form (nAni s 13). The recognition of both recombinant and native haemoglobins by anti-haemoglobin IgE from patients' sera was assessed by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting using 43 Anisakis sensitised patients and 44 non-Anisakis sensitised patients. Native Ani s 13 was also treated with periodate to study if oxidation of glycans destroys antibody binding. Furthermore, it was structurally characterised by negative staining electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. Recombinant Ani s 13 was only recognised by four patients with gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) and immunoblotting analyses showed no bands. However, nAni s 13 was detected by 72.1% of Anisakis sensitised patients measured by indirect ELISA. Particularly, 18 (90%) out of 20 GAA patients were positive. Tetramers and octamers were the most abundant homomers of nAni s 13 but octamers had higher content of bound heme. None of the non-Anisakis sensitised patients were positive. Combined use of purified native form of Ani s 13 with current gold standards would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing anisakiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: the gold standard? A multicenter controlled trial in 1578 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, J M; Boudet, M J; Fingerhut, A; Poucher, J; Hennet, H; Habib, E; Veyrières, M; Flamant, Y

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hernia repair is the second most frequently performed operation in France and in the United States, the prevalence being 36 for every 1000 males. Lowering the recurrence rate by 1% would mean 1000 fewer operations for hernia repair per year in France. METHODS: Between 1983 and 1989, 1578 adult males with a total of 1706 nonrecurrent inguinal hernias were prospectively and randomly allotted to undergo either a Bassini's repair, Cooper's ligament, or Shouldice repair with polypropylene or a Shouldice repair with stainless steel for determination of which technique was associated with the lowest recurrence rate. Fifty-nine hernia repairs were withdrawn after inclusion. Of the 1647 remaining hernias, 52.2% were indirect, 25.6% were direct, and 23.2% were combined. Patients were seen every 6 months for 3 years and then every year. Median follow-up was 5 years 8 months (range, 3 months-8.5 years). RESULTS: At 8.5 years, 5.6% of hernias were lost to follow-up. Ninety-seven hernia repairs failed, 50% during the first 2 years. The actuarial recurrence rate was 7.94% at 8.5 years. The Shouldice repair (stainless steel or polypropylene) was associated with fewer recurrences (6.1%) than either the Bassini's (8.6%) or Cooper's ligament repair (11.2%) technique (p < 0.001). This difference remained significant even when the maximal bias test was used. Fewer recurrences (5.9%) were observed with the stainless steel wire Shouldice repair than with polypropylene version (6.5%), but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Shouldice hernia repair provides the patient with the best chances of nonrecurrence regardless of the anatomical type of hernia. The Shouldice hernia repair should be the gold standard for inguinal hernia repair in men and serves as the basis for comparison with all other techniques, be they prosthetic or laparoscopic. PMID:8526578

  6. Real-time PCR to supplement gold-standard culture-based detection of Legionella in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Collins, S; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; Walker, J

    2015-10-01

    Culture remains the gold-standard for the enumeration of environmental Legionella. However, it has several drawbacks including long incubation and poor sensitivity, causing delays in response times to outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. This study aimed to validate real-time PCR assays to quantify Legionella species (ssrA gene), Legionella pneumophila (mip gene) and Leg. pneumophila serogroup-1 (wzm gene) to support culture-based detection in a frontline public health laboratory. Each qPCR assay had 100% specificity, excellent sensitivity (5 GU/reaction) and reproducibility. Comparison of the assays to culture-based enumeration of Legionella from 200 environmental samples showed that they had a negative predictive value of 100%. Thirty eight samples were positive for Legionella species by culture and qPCR. One hundred samples were negative by both methods, whereas 62 samples were negative by culture but positive by qPCR. The average log10 increase between culture and qPCR for Legionella spp. and Leg. pneumophila was 0·72 (P = 0·0002) and 0·51 (P = 0·006), respectively. The qPCR assays can be conducted on the same 1 l water sample as culture thus can be used as a supplementary technique to screen out negative samples and allow more rapid indication of positive samples. The assay could prove informative in public health investigations to identify or rule out sources of Legionella as well as to specifically identify Leg. pneumophila serogroup 1 in a timely manner not possible with culture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The Gold Standard Programme: smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin; Heitmann, Berit L; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates. Observational prospective cohort study. GSPs in pharmacies, hospitals and communities in Denmark, reporting to the national Smoking Cessation Database. Disadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits. 6-week manualised GSP smoking cessation interventions performed by certified staff. 6 months of continuous abstinence, response rate: 80%. Continuous abstinence of the 16 377 responders was 34% (of all 20 588 smokers: 27%). Continuous abstinence was lower in 5738 smokers with a lower educational level (30% of responders and 23% of all) and in 840 unemployed (27% of responders and 19% of all). In respect to modifiable factors, continuous abstinence was found more often after programmes in one-on-one formats (vs group formats) among patients with a lower educational level, 34% (vs 25%, p=0.037), or among unemployed, 35% (vs 24%, p=0.099). The variable 'format' stayed in the final model of multivariable analyses in patients with a lower educational level, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63). Although continuous abstinence was lower among disadvantaged smokers, the absolute difference was small. If the programme had been as effective in disadvantaged as in non-disadvantaged groups, there would have been an extra 46 or 8 quitters annually, respectively. Promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.

  8. Gold Standard Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    confusing and controversial.’ This may abnormalities, including neuropathy, retinopathy, be due in large part to a lack of agreement as to amblyopia , and...I1 yellow Miscellaneous Strychnine + Cannabis indica + Tobacco LI, LII + ( amblyopia ) Sildenafil citrate + LI, III blue, blue- flashing lights

  9. Equipped for the Future Content Standards. What Adults Need To Know and Be Able To Do in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sondra

    This document presents the Equipped for the Future Framework (EFF) content standards that were developed over a 6-year period by hundreds of adult education practitioners, experts, and others nationwide to create a working consensus on what adults need to know and be able to do in the 21st century. Chapter 1 defines adult literacy for the 21st…

  10. Standardized Laboratory Test Requirements for Hardening Equipment to Withstand Wave Impact Shock in Small High Speed Craft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-06

    penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR...the risk of equipment malfunction or failure due to shock forces caused by wave impacts in high-speed craft. The engineering rationale, assumptions...procurement documents are presented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Shock Wave slam shock test equipment operability risk reduction 16. SECURITY

  11. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  12. Can we predict which hospitalised patients are in their last year of life? A prospective cross-sectional study of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in the acute hospital setting.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Anne; Laking, George; Frey, Rosemary; Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn

    2014-09-01

    Screening to identify hospital inpatients with a short life expectancy may be a way to improve care towards the end of life. The Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance is a screening tool that has recently been advocated for use in the hospital setting. To assess the clinical utility of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in an acute hospital setting. Mortality at 6 and 12 months and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year. Prospective cross-sectional study of 501 adult inpatients in a tertiary New Zealand teaching hospital screened utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance. A total of 99 patients were identified as meeting at least one of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance triggers. In this group, 6-month mortality was 56.6% and 12-month mortality was 67.7% compared with 5.2% and 10%, respectively, for those not identified as meeting the criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year were 62.6% and 91.9%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 67.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.0%. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in this study are comparable to, or better than, results of studies identifying patients with a limited life expectancy in particular disease states (e.g. heart failure and renal failure). Screening utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in the acute setting could be the first step towards implementing a more systematic way of addressing patient need--both current unrecognised and future anticipated--thereby improving outcomes for this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a "gold standard" and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960-1980.

    PubMed

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-09-01

    To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the 'Gold Standard' for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a 'Gold Standard' 'from below', from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of 'standard', being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings.

  14. Chapter 5. Essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Charles L; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2010-04-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including essential equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies. Key recommendations include: (1) ensure that adequate essential medical equipment, pharmaceuticals and important supplies are available during a disaster; (2) develop a communication and coordination system between health care facilities and local/regional/state/country governmental authorities for the provision of additional support; (3) determine the required resources, order and stockpile adequate resources, and judiciously distribute them; (4) acquire additional mechanical ventilators that are portable, provide adequate gas exchange for a range of clinical conditions, function with low-flow oxygen and without high pressure, and are safe for patients and staff; (5) provide advanced ventilatory support and rescue therapies including high levels of inspired oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure, volume and pressure control ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, high-frequency ventilation, prone positioning ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; (6) triage scarce resources including equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies based on those who are likely to benefit most or on a 'first come, first served' basis. Judicious planning and adoption of protocols for providing adequate equipment, pharmaceuticals and supplies are necessary to optimize outcomes during a pandemic.

  15. Evaluation of the Performance of Five Diagnostic Tests for Fasciola hepatica Infection in Naturally Infected Cattle Using a Bayesian No Gold Standard Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargison, Neil; Kelly, Robert F.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection. In total 619 cattle slaughtered at one of Scotland’s biggest abattoirs were sampled, during three sampling periods spanning summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. Test sensitivities and specificities were estimated using an extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model, where estimates were allowed to vary between seasons if tests were a priori believed to perform differently for any reason. The results of this analysis provide novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population and at different times of the year where different levels of acute or chronic infection are expected. Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Furthermore, the results provide evidence to suggest that the copro-antigen ELISA does not cross-react with Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke parasites, while the serum antibody ELISA does. PMID:27564546

  16. Produce Live News Broadcasts Using Standard AV Equipment: A Success Story from the Le Center High School in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostad, John

    1997-01-01

    Describes the production of news broadcasts on video by a high school class in Le Center, Minnesota. Topics include software for Apple computers, equipment used, student responsibilities, class curriculum, group work, communication among the production crew, administrative and staff support, and future improvements. (LRW)

  17. Current and planned palliative care service provision for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in 239 UK hospital units: comparison with the gold standards framework.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Katherine L; Stone, Robert A; Buckingham, Rhona J; Pursey, Nancy A; Roberts, Christopher M

    2010-07-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease report a symptom burden similar in magnitude to terminal cancer patients yet service provision and access has been reported as poor. In the absence of a specific national chronic obstructive pulmonary disease service framework the gold standards framework might support service developments. We surveyed 239 UK acute hospital units admitting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, comprising 98% of all acute trusts, about their current and planned provision for palliative care services. Only 49% of units had a formal referral pathway for palliative care and only 13% had a policy of initiating end-of-life discussions with appropriate patients. Whilst 66% of units had plans to develop palliative care services, when mapped against the gold standards framework few were directly relevant and only three of the seven key standards were covered to any significant degree. We conclude that service provision remains poor and access is hindered by a lack of proactive initiation of discussion. Planned developments in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease palliative care services also lack a strategic framework that risks holistic design.

  18. Quantification of particle sizes with metal replication under standard freeze-etching conditions: a gold ball standard for calibrating shadow widths was used to measure freeze-etched globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruben, G C

    1995-11-01

    The real size of platinum-carbon (Pt-C) replicated particles is not directly equivalent to either its metal-coated diameter or its shadow width. This paper describes two indirect methods, shadow widths and coated particle diameters, for determining a particle's actual size beneath a Pt-C replication film. Both produce equivalent measurements using the same standardized conditions: 2.3 nm Pt-C films deposited at a 45 degree angle on an approximately -100 degrees C surface in a 10(-6) torr vacuum. For the first method, gold balls nucleated in a partial pressure of helium and deposited on flat indirect carbon films (root mean square roughness of 0.8 nm) on 400 mesh grids were used as test particles for calibrating shadow widths as a function of particle size. The gold ball test specimens were replicated, and a distribution of Pt-C shadow widths orthogonal to the Pt-C deposition direction was measured and averaged for gold balls 1.5 +/- 0.25 nm, 2.0 +/- 0.25 nm, etc. The diameter of each gold ball was measured within the Pt-C film along with its shadow width because the Pt-C did not obscure or adhere well to the gold. The shadow width distributions for each gold size do not differ significantly from log normal. Two proteins, the lactose repressor and the mitochondrial ATPase, F1, were also used as replication test objects. Negative staining of both proteins was conducted to measure their average diameters. In the second method, a distribution of Pt-C-coated lac repressor diameters perpendicular to the shadow direction was measured. The Pt-C film thickness measured on the quartz crystal monitor was subtracted from the average metal-coated protein diameter to obtain the lac repressor's diameter. The Pt-C-coated particle diameter distributions also did not differ significantly from log normal. While doing this work it was discovered that outgassing the Pt-C electron gun greatly affected Pt-C film granularity: 19 sec produced a high contrast, granular Pt-C film, whereas

  19. Gold Rush!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahier, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  20. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    PubMed

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p < .05) from baseline to follow-up were observed for questions measuring organizational values for 'prevention, screening, and early detection of cancer' and 'accessing cancer treatment and clinical trials'. Health promotion and education efforts using multiple approaches were effective to improve perceived organizational values and support for cancer prevention and early detection, and increase access to information about cancer clinical trials. Future studies are needed to examine broader impacts of implementing worksite health promotion initiatives.

  1. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  2. Improvement to the Standardization Life-Cycle-Cost Model for Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Components and Equipments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Seven appendixes present detailed information complementing the topics in the main body of the report. Appendix A provides the basic Navy method for...equations were then revised to reflect the changes . 2.2.3 Verification of Simplified Standardization Model The objective of the SSM verification was to assure...This model is linear. It calculates allowances of non- whole parts and does not provide for spares-sharing benefits. 3-1 Selected Standard C/E Allowance

  3. Variations in the provision of resuscitation equipment: survey of acute hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hogh, L; Kane, I; Bhalla, A; Ward, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are wide variations in survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The aim of this survey was to describe how equipment provision of resuscitation trolleys was deployed in a range of clinical ward areas. Methods: The equipment in randomly selected resuscitation trolleys in all 14 South West Thames Region hospitals was surveyed. The gold standard for equipment provision was referenced from the document CPR Guidance for Clinical Practice and Training in Hospital. Results: There were significant differences in the provision of circulation equipment (p = 0.004) and in the rates of drug items present (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in provision of airways equipment (p = 0.24) or immediate access items (p = 0.55). Conclusions: There are variations in the provision of resuscitation equipment in many clinical areas. Hospitals need to review the procedures for ensuring adequate provision of resuscitation equipment in all clinical areas. PMID:15937210

  4. ROC surface assessment of the ANB angle and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance with a statistically derived 'gold standard': does normalizing measurements have any merit?

    PubMed

    Wellens, Hans L L; BeGole, Ellen A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Annemarie M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the ANB angle's and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance using an extended version of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, which renders ROC surfaces. These were calculated for both the conventional and normalized cephalometric tests (calculated by exchanging the patient's reference landmarks with those of the Procrustes superimposed sample mean shape).The required 'gold standard' was derived statistically, by applying generalized Procrustes superimposition (GPS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to the digitized landmarks, and ordering patients based upon their PC2 scores. Digitized landmarks of 200 lateral cephalograms (107 males, mean age: 12.8 years, SD: 2.2, 93 females, mean age: 13.2 years, SD: 1.7) were subjected to GPS and PCA. Upon calculating the conventional and normalized ANB and Wits values, ROC surfaces were constructed by varying not just the cephalometric test's cut-off value within each ROC curve, but also the gold standard cut-off value over different ROC curves in 220 steps between -2 and 2 standard deviations along PC2. The volume under the resulting ROC surfaces (VUS) served as a measure of overall diagnostic performance. The statistical significance of the volume differences was determined using permutation tests (1000 rounds, with replacement). The diagnostic performance of the conventional ANB and Wits was remarkably similar for both Class I/II (81.1 and 80.75% VUS, respectively, P > 0.05). Normalizing the measurements improved all VUS highly significantly (91 and 87.2 per cent, respectively, P < 0.001). The conventional ANB and Wits do not differ in their diagnostic performance. Normalizing the measurements does seem to have some merit.

  5. Career/Technical Courses Meet 21st-Century Standards in Equipping Students for Further Study, Training and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    More schools are designing intellectually demanding career/technical (CT) courses--aligned with 21st-century requirements--to prepare students for further study, advanced training and work. They are using effective leadership, embedding essential college-readiness standards into CT courses, making CT courses more intellectually challenging, using…

  6. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  7. Performance evaluation of direct saline stool microscopy, Formol ether concentration and Kato Katz diagnostic methods for intestinal parasitosis in the absence of gold standard methods.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Tadesse; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-07-01

    The parasite load within the sample and the amount of sample taken during examination greatly compromise the sensitivity of direct saline stool microscopy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2011 in Bahir Dar city among 778 fresh single stool samples to evaluate the performance of direct saline (DS), Kato Katz (KK) and Formol ether concentration (FEC) methods against the 'Gold' standard. Among 778 stool samples from school age children, the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites was recorded by FEC (55.1%). The sensitivity of DS, FEC and KK were 61.1%, 92.3% and 58.7%, respectively. FEC is more sensitive than DS and KK. Hence, use of the latter is preferred. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements for Space Equipment and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    methods applicable to most modern receivers.) (L) 6.23 Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Cross Modulation, 30Hz-40GHz (CS105) a. Purpose... methods of MIL-STD-461F, with changes in antennas , preamplifiers and receiver(s) appropriate for the frequency range(s). d4. Verification: Platform...requirements, using flight-like antennas , transmitters representative of the RFI sources of concern, and by standard measurement methods of electrical

  9. Comparison of Adipose Distribution Indices with Gold Standard Body Composition Assessments in the EMPA-REG H2H SU Trial: A Body Composition Sub-Study.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Eliasson, Björn; Ridderstråle, Martin; Zeller, Cordula; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-12-01

    Excess adiposity contributes to cardiometabolic disease. Although adipose depots can be measured using imaging, implementation remains limited in practice. Data comparing surrogate indices of total and visceral adiposity with gold standard measurements in the context of a clinical trial population are lacking. We explored the relationships between adipose distribution indices and imaging assessments of body composition using baseline data from the EMPA-REG H2H SU™ trial. 118 participants from the Phase III trial of empagliflozin 25 mg vs. glimepiride 1-4 mg enrolled in a dedicated sub-study underwent assessment of total fat and fat-free mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry (n = 93) and abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 99). Correlations with waist circumference (WC), estimated total body fat (eTBF), index of central obesity (ICO), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were assessed. eTBF was highly representative of total body fat (Spearman's ρ = 0.73, P < 0.001) but not associated with VAT. WC and ICO were strongly, and VAI to a lesser degree, correlated with VAT (ρ = 0.66, P < 0.001; ρ = 0.52, P < 0.001; ρ = 0.24, P = 0.02, respectively). These findings support the use of eTBF and WC or ICO as surrogate indices for total body fat and VAT, respectively, in the absence of gold standard imaging methodology.

  10. Bayesian estimation of performance measures of cervical cancer screening tests in the presence of covariates and absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Louzada-Neto, Francisco; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Gontijo, Renata Clementino; Sarian, Luis Otávio Zanatta; Syrjänen, Kari Juhani

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a Bayesian analysis to estimate the disease prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity of three cervical cancer screening tests (cervical cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid and Hybrid Capture II) in the presence of a covariate and in the absence of a gold standard. We use Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to obtain the posterior summaries of interest. The estimated prevalence of cervical lesions was 6.4% (a 95% credible interval [95% CI] was 3.9, 9.3). The sensitivity of cervical cytology (with a result of >or= ASC-US) was 53.6% (95% CI: 42.1, 65.0) compared with 52.9% (95% CI: 43.5, 62.5) for visual inspection with acetic acid and 90.3% (95% CI: 76.2, 98.7) for Hybrid Capture II (with result of >1 relative light units). The specificity of cervical cytology was 97.0% (95% CI: 95.5, 98.4) and the specificities for visual inspection with acetic acid and Hybrid Capture II were 93.0% (95% CI: 91.0, 94.7) and 88.7% (95% CI: 85.9, 91.4), respectively. The Bayesian model with covariates suggests that the sensitivity and the specificity of the visual inspection with acetic acid tend to increase as the age of the women increases. The Bayesian method proposed here is an useful alternative to estimate measures of performance of diagnostic tests in the presence of covariates and when a gold standard is not available. An advantage of the method is the fact that the number of parameters to be estimated is not limited by the number of observations, as it happens with several frequentist approaches. However, it is important to point out that the Bayesian analysis requires informative priors in order for the parameters to be identifiable. The method can be easily extended for the analysis of other medical data sets.

  11. Bayesian Estimation of Performance Measures of Cervical Cancer Screening Tests in the Presence of Covariates and Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Louzada-Neto, Francisco; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Gontijo, Renata Clementino; Sarian, Luis Otávio Zanatta; Syrjänen, Kari Juhani

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a Bayesian analysis to estimate the disease prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity of three cervical cancer screening tests (cervical cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid and Hybrid Capture II) in the presence of a covariate and in the absence of a gold standard. We use Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to obtain the posterior summaries of interest. The estimated prevalence of cervical lesions was 6.4% (a 95% credible interval [95% CI] was 3.9, 9.3). The sensitivity of cervical cytology (with a result of ≥ ASC-US) was 53.6% (95% CI: 42.1, 65.0) compared with 52.9% (95% CI: 43.5, 62.5) for visual inspection with acetic acid and 90.3% (95% CI: 76.2, 98.7) for Hybrid Capture II (with result of >1 relative light units). The specificity of cervical cytology was 97.0% (95% CI: 95.5, 98.4) and the specificities for visual inspection with acetic acid and Hybrid Capture II were 93.0% (95% CI: 91.0, 94.7) and 88.7% (95% CI: 85.9, 91.4), respectively. The Bayesian model with covariates suggests that the sensitivity and the specificity of the visual inspection with acetic acid tend to increase as the age of the women increases. The Bayesian method proposed here is an useful alternative to estimate measures of performance of diagnostic tests in the presence of covariates and when a gold standard is not available. An advantage of the method is the fact that the number of parameters to be estimated is not limited by the number of observations, as it happens with several frequentist approaches. However, it is important to point out that the Bayesian analysis requires informative priors in order for the parameters to be identifiable. The method can be easily extended for the analysis of other medical data sets. PMID:19259401

  12. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison.

  13. 54 FR 38044: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By- Product Recovery Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final Rule on National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants.

  14. [Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring: critical review of methodology: (equipment, reproducibility, standards), clinical importance and personal experience].

    PubMed

    Jonard, P; Fiasse, R; Tomé, G; Dive, C

    1990-01-01

    The authors review the recent literature about the methodology of oesophageal pH monitoring, which has a high sensitivity and a high specificity for assessing gastro-oesophageal reflux. Combined electrodes offer most advantages. Ambulatory recording should be done in hospital under standard conditions (meals), particularly for clinical studies. The best clinical indication is to detect pathological reflux in case of atypical symptoms with negative oesophagoscopy. The authors give their normal values in a series of measurements with two systems as well as their results in a series of cases of oesophagitis of various grades.

  15. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. Results GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at . PMID:19171033

  16. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-26

    Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  17. National standards and code compliance for electrical equipment and instruments installed in hazardous locations for the cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    The cone penetrometer is designed to measure the material properties of waste tank contents at the Hanford Site. The penetrometer system consists of a skid-mounted assembly, a penetrometer assembly (composed of a guide tube and a push rod), an active neutron moisture measurement probe, decontamination unit, and a support trailer containing a diesel-engine-driven hydraulic pump and a generator. The skid-mounted assembly is about 8 feet wide by 23 feet long and 15 feet high. Its nominal weight is about 40,000 pounds with the provisions to add up to 54,500 pounds of additional ballast. This document describes the cone penetrometer electrical instruments and how it complies with national standards.

  18. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  19. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Ilmarinen, R; Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Mäkinen, H

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with SCBA (total mass 25.9 kg) on maximal physical work performance, and to evaluate the relationship between individual characteristics and power output with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The subjects were 12 healthy firemen aged 26-46 years. The range of their body mass, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption was 69-101 kg, 10-20% and 2.70-5.86 l.min-1, respectively. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25% (P < 0.001) varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency, and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The reduction of the power output was related to the extra mass of the fire protective clothing and SCBA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Evaluation of hydrocarbon flow standard facility equipped with double-wing diverter using four types of working liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doihara, R.; Shimada, T.; Cheong, K. H.; Terao, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A flow calibration facility based on the gravimetric method using a double-wing diverter for hydrocarbon flows from 0.1 m3 h-1 to 15 m3 h-1 was constructed as a national measurement standard in Japan. The original working liquids were kerosene and light oil. The calibration facility was modified to calibrate flowmeters with two additional working liquids, industrial gasoline (flash point  >  40 °C) and spindle oil, to achieve calibration over a wide viscosity range at the same calibration test rig. The kinematic viscosity range is 1.2 mm2 s-1 to 24 mm2 s-1. The contributions to the measurement uncertainty due to different types of working liquids were evaluated experimentally in this study. The evaporation error was reduced by using a seal system at the weighing tank inlet. The uncertainty due to droplets from the diverter wings was reduced by a modified diverter operation. The diverter timing errors for all types of working liquids were estimated. The expanded uncertainties for the calibration facility were estimated to be 0.020% for mass flow and 0.030% for volumetric flow for all considered types of liquids. Internal comparisons with other calibration facilities were also conducted, and the agreement was confirmed to be within the claimed expanded uncertainties.

  1. [Standard treatment of schizophrenia and legality of personnel equipment in psychiatric hospitals (German Psych-PV): possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Wölfle, M; Onnen, V; Vollmer, E; Steinert, T

    1999-09-01

    Comprehensive insight regarding better treatment and social reintegration of patients with schizophrenia has been gained over the past decade. Implementation of this knowledge into everyday's practice should be a major aim prior to the research on new variants of rehabilitative measures. To which extent this takes place has been poorly discussed until now. Our comprehensive treatment program includes psychoeducation for patients and relatives, cognitive training, social skills training, additional psychoeducation for patients with dual diagnosis and a variety of a traditional group therapies like work therapy. An intensive cooperation is practised with complementary psycho-social services. In n = 89 consecutive admissions lasting at least 2 weeks we examined which patients were reached by these treatment offers. 84% of the patients participated in group therapies, where they passed 6.9 hours weekly on average. Most patients were reached by occupation therapy (62%), followed by physical therapy (54%), unspecific conversation group (54%), psychoeducation (35%), cognitive training (30%), work therapy (26%) and social skills training (7%). The PANSS Positive Scale at admission was negatively correlated with participation in group therapies. The implementation of a variety of psychotherapeutic offers for psychotic patients adequate to the state of the art can be achieved under conditions of standard hospital care in Germany (Psych-PV-law). Required organizational measures therefore are programs offered for patients of several wards in union and participation of employees in education. However, even by such efforts a considerable part of patients is not reached. Strategies to improve treatment results should consider these problems.

  2. Simple visual review of pre- to post-operative renal ultrasound images predicts pyeloplasty success equally as well as geometric measurements: A blinded comparison with a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Kern, Adam J M; Schlomer, Bruce J; Timberlake, Matthew D; Peters, Craig A; Hammer, Matthew R; Jacobs, Micah A

    2017-04-28

    MAG3 diuretic renal scan remains the gold standard for determination of improvement in renal drainage following pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. We hypothesized that (i) a change in geometric measurements between pre-operative and post-operative renal ultrasound (RUS) images and (ii) blinded simple visual review of images both would predict pyeloplasty success. To determine if simple visual review and/or novel geometric measurement of renal ultrasounds can detect pyeloplasty failure. This study was a retrospective, blinded comparison with a gold standard. Included were children aged ≤18 years undergoing pyeloplasty at our institution from 2009 to 2015. For each kidney, representative pre-operative and post-operative RUS images were chosen. Our standard for pyeloplasty success was improved drainage curve on MAG3 and lack of additional surgery. Measurements for collecting system circularity, roundness, and renal parenchymal to collecting system area ratio (RPCSR) were obtained by three raters (Figure), who were blinded to the outcome of the pyeloplasty. Changes in geometric measurements were analyzed as a diagnostic test for MAG3-defined pyeloplasty success using ROC curve analysis. In addition, six reviewers blinded to pyeloplasty success reviewed pre-operative and post-operative images visually for improved hydronephrosis and categorized pyeloplasty as success or failure based on simple visual review of RUS. Fifty-three repaired renal units were identified (50 children). There were five pyeloplasty failures, four of which underwent revision or nephrectomy. While all geometric measurements could discriminate pyeloplasty failure and success, the geometric measurements that discriminated best between pyeloplasty failure and success were change in collecting system roundness and change in RPCSR. Consensus opinion among six blinded reviewers using simple visual review had a sensitivity of 94% and PPV of 100% with respect to identifying pyeloplasty

  3. Transscrotal Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Test for Testis Torsion in Pediatric Acute Scrotum: A Prospective Comparison to Gold Standard Diagnostic Test Study.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Bruce J; Keays, Melise A; Grimsby, Gwen M; Granberg, Candace F; DaJusta, Daniel G; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Sheth, Kunj R; Hill, Martinez; Sanchez, Emma J; Harrison, Clanton B; Jacobs, Micah A; Huang, Rong; Burgu, Berk; Hennes, Halim; Baker, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    A rapid test for testicular torsion in children may obviate the delay for testicular ultrasound. In this study we assessed testicular tissue percent oxygen saturation (%StO2) measured by transscrotal near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test for pediatric testicular torsion. This was a prospective comparison to a gold standard diagnostic test study that evaluated near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings to diagnose testicular torsion. The gold standard for torsion diagnosis was standard clinical care. From 2013 to 2015 males with acute scrotum for more than 1 month and who were less than 18 years old were recruited. Near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings were obtained for affected and unaffected testes. Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 was calculated as unaffected minus affected reading. The utility of near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 to diagnose testis torsion was described with ROC curves. Of 154 eligible patients 121 had near infrared spectroscopy readings. Median near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 in the 36 patients with torsion was 2.0 (IQR -4.2 to 9.8) vs -1.7 (IQR -8.7 to 2.0) in the 85 without torsion (p=0.004). AUC for near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.78). Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 of 20 or greater had a positive predictive value of 100% and a sensitivity of 22.2%. Tanner stage 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain for 12 hours or less had an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-1.0) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.62-0.99), respectively. In all children near infrared spectroscopy readings had limited utility in diagnosing torsion. However, in Tanner 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain 12 hours or less, near infrared spectroscopy discriminated well between torsion and nontorsion. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple and inexpensive method for investigating microbiological, enzymatic, or inorganic catalysis using standard histology and microbiology laboratory equipment: assembly, mass transfer properties, hydrodynamic conditions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Seletzky, J M; Otten, K; Lotter, S; Fricke, J; Peter, C P; Maier, H R; Büchs, J

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a generic, simple, and inexpensive method for performing microbiological, enzymatic, or inorganic catalysis with solids using standard histology and microbiology laboratory equipment. Histology cassettes were used to standardize hydrodynamic conditions and to protect the catalysts and their solid supports. Histology cassettes have the following advantages: they are readily available, inexpensive, solvent and acid resistant, automatable, and the slots in the cassette walls allow liquid to circulate freely. Standard Erlenmeyer flasks were used as reaction vessels. We developed a new camera to observe the movement and position of the histology cassettes as well as the liquid in the Erlenmeyer flasks. The camera produces a stable image of the rotating liquid in the Erlenmeyer flask. This visualization method revealed that in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, stable operating conditions are achieved at a shaking frequency of 300 rpm and a fill volume of 30 ml. In vessels with vertical walls, such as beakers or laboratory bottles, the movement of the histology cassette is not reproducible. Mass transfer characterization using a biological model system and the chemical sulfite-oxidation method revealed that the histology cassette does not influence gas-liquid mass transfer.

  5. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: Gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the “traditional tests” and several “molecular tests” and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics. PMID:23277642

  6. Getting the Gold Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Epner Technology, Inc., worked with Goddard Space Center to apply gold coating to the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mirror. This partnership resulted in new commercial applications for Epner's LaserGold(R) process in the automotive industry. Previously, the company did not have equipment large enough to handle the plating of the stainless steel panels cost effectively. Seeing a chance to renew this effort, Epner Technology and Goddard entered into an agreement by which NASA would fund the facility needed to do the gold-plating, and Epner Technology would cover all other costs as part of their internal research and development. The VCL mirror project proceeded successfully, fulfilling Goddard's needs and leaving Epner Technology with a new facility to provide LaserGold for the automotive industry. The new capability means increased power savings and improvements in both quality and production time for BMW Manufacturing Corporation of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Cadillac of Detroit, Michigan, as well as other manufacturers who have implemented Epner Technology's LaserGold process. LaserGold(R) is a registered trademark of Epner Technology, Inc.

  7. Meta-analysis for the comparison of two diagnostic tests to a common gold standard: A generalized linear mixed model approach.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-08-02

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic studies is still a rapidly developing area of biostatistical research. Especially, there is an increasing interest in methods to compare different diagnostic tests to a common gold standard. Restricting to the case of two diagnostic tests, in these meta-analyses the parameters of interest are the differences of sensitivities and specificities (with their corresponding confidence intervals) between the two diagnostic tests while accounting for the various associations across single studies and between the two tests. We propose statistical models with a quadrivariate response (where sensitivity of test 1, specificity of test 1, sensitivity of test 2, and specificity of test 2 are the four responses) as a sensible approach to this task. Using a quadrivariate generalized linear mixed model naturally generalizes the common standard bivariate model of meta-analysis for a single diagnostic test. If information on several thresholds of the tests is available, the quadrivariate model can be further generalized to yield a comparison of full receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We illustrate our model by an example where two screening methods for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are compared. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of a Citrate-Based Protocol for Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis in AKI Using Standard Dialysis Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164

  9. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  10. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Sonoelastography in the Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Malignant Breast Cancer Compared to Histopathology as a Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hina; Raza, Saleem; Aziz, Sadaf; Ahmad, Asad Maqbool; Tahir, Sadia

    2017-05-01

    To observe the diagnostic accuracy of elastography in detecting malignant breast lesion taking strain ratio of 4.8 and histopathology as gold standard. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, from March to September 2015. Atotal of 137 patients aged 20 to 60 years with clinically palpable breast lump of any size for at least one month duration were included in this study. Patients with purely cystic lesions and those on chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were excluded. Each patient was subjected to sonoelastography followed by ultrasound guided trucut biopsy. The strain ratio cut off value of 4.8 was used to differentiate benign from malignant lesion. Consultant histopathologist's report upon the biopsy specimens was obtained. Results of sonoelastography were compared with histopathology reports. Mean age was 38.20 ±10.63 years. The size of the lesion ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 cm, a mean = 3.97 ±1.26 cm. The duration since the lump was noticed ranged from 12 weeks (3 months) to 20 weeks (5 months) with a mean of 15.09 ±2.56 weeks. Forty-one (29.9%) lesions were labelled malignant on sonoelastography while the actual number of malignant lesions was 35 (25.5%) on histopathology. When the results of sonoelastography were cross-tabulated with histopathology results, the number of TP(true positive), FN (false negative), FP(false positive) and TN (True negative) were 31, 4, 10 and 92 cases, respectively. It yielded 88.57% sensitivity, 90.20% specificity, 75.61% positive predictive value, 95.83% negative predictive value, 89.78% accuracy for sonoelastography in the diagnosis of malignant breast lesion taking histopathology as gold standard with an observed prevalence of malignant breast mass to be 25.55%. Using a strain ratio of 4.8, sonoelastography was found to be 88.57% sensitive, 90.20% specific, and 89.78% accurate in the diagnosis of malignant breast masses.

  12. Performance of microscopy and RDTs in the context of a malaria prevalence survey in Angola: a comparison using PCR as the gold standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of Plasmodium infections in community surveys is essential to successful malaria control. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main techniques used to diagnose malaria in field-based surveys. While microscopy is still considered the gold standard, RDTs are growing in popularity as they allow for rapid and inexpensive diagnosis. Using data from a prevalence survey conducted in north-western Angola in 2010, the authors aimed to compare the performance of microscopy and RDTs in identifying Plasmodium falciparum infections, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard. Methods Results from 3,307 subjects (1,225 preschool-aged children (zero to five year olds), 1,134 school-aged children (six to 15 year olds) and 948 mothers/caregivers (>15 years of age)), tested for P. falciparum infections, were utilized. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of microscopy and Paracheck-Pf® were compared using the McNemar’s test and the weighted generalized score Chi-squared test for paired data. Results The prevalence of P. falciparum infections determined by PCR and microscopy was 15.9% and by Paracheck- Pf® was 16.3%. Compared to microscopy, Paracheck-Pf® had significantly higher sensitivity (72.8% versus 60%), specificity (94.3% versus 92.5%), PPV (70.7% versus 60%) and NPV (94.8% versus 92.5%). Both tests had significantly lower sensitivity in mothers (36.8% for microscopy and 43.7% for Paracheck-Pf®) than in their children (68.4% in zero to five years-old and 60.6% in six to 15 years-old for microscopy and 80.4% in zero to five year-olds and 76.5% in six to 15 year-olds for Paracheck-Pf®). Conclusion Both microscopy and RDTs performed suboptimally when compared to PCR. False negativity could be associated with the low parasite density profile of the samples. False positivity may be related to the well-described limitations of those techniques such as level

  13. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  14. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  15. Usefulness of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy data for general verbal autopsy methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal Autopsy (VA) is widely viewed as the only immediate strategy for registering cause of death in much of Africa and Asia, where routine physician certification of deaths is not widely practiced. VA involves a lay interview with family or friends after a death, to record essential details of the circumstances. These data can then be processed automatically to arrive at standardized cause of death information. Methods The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) undertook a study at six tertiary hospitals in low- and middle-income countries which documented over 12,000 deaths clinically and subsequently undertook VA interviews. This dataset, now in the public domain, was compared with the WHO 2012 VA standard and the InterVA-4 interpretative model. Results The PHMRC data covered 70% of the WHO 2012 VA input indicators, and categorized cause of death according to PHMRC definitions. After eliminating some problematic or incomplete records, 11,984 VAs were compared. Some of the PHMRC cause definitions, such as ‘preterm delivery’, differed substantially from the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 equivalent. There were some appreciable inconsistencies between the hospital and VA data, including 20% of the hospital maternal deaths being described as non-pregnant in the VA data. A high proportion of VA cases (66%) reported respiratory symptoms, but only 18% of assigned hospital causes were respiratory-related. Despite these issues, the concordance correlation coefficient between hospital and InterVA-4 cause of death categories was 0.61. Conclusions The PHMRC dataset is a valuable reference source for VA methods, but has to be interpreted with care. Inherently inconsistent cases should not be included when using these data to build other VA models. Conversely, models built from these data should be independently evaluated. It is important to distinguish between the internal and external validity of VA models. The effects of

  16. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young’s modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young’s modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  17. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    PubMed

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-07

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young's modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young's modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  18. National Accreditation and Its Role in Early Education: An Analysis of Florida's Gold Seal Quality Child-Care Program and Licensing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbottom, Christian; Jones, Ithel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first Florida statewide assessment of the Gold Seal Quality Care program, accreditation, and the relationship with licensing violations. This study analyzed the differences between the Department of Children and Families Gold Seal-Accredited facilities and nonaccredited facilities by comparing the facilities and the…

  19. National Accreditation and Its Role in Early Education: An Analysis of Florida's Gold Seal Quality Child-Care Program and Licensing Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbottom, Christian; Jones, Ithel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first Florida statewide assessment of the Gold Seal Quality Care program, accreditation, and the relationship with licensing violations. This study analyzed the differences between the Department of Children and Families Gold Seal-Accredited facilities and nonaccredited facilities by comparing the facilities and the…

  20. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    PubMed

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare x-ray modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalstra, M.; Schulz, G.; Dagassan-Berndt, D.; Verna, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Müller, B.

    2016-10-01

    An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging modalities.

  2. Improving planning, design, reporting and scientific quality of animal experiments by using the Gold Standard Publication Checklist, in addition to the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob; Leenaars, Marlies; Curfs, Jo; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated serious omissions in the way research that use animals is reported. In order to improve the quality of reporting of animal experiments, the Animals in research: reporting in vivo experiments (ARRIVE) Guidelines were published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in August 2010. However, not only the quality of reporting of completed animal studies needs to be improved, but also the design and execution of new experiments. With both these goals in mind, we published the Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in May 2010, a few months before the ARRIVE guidelines appeared. In this letter, we compare the GSPC checklist with the ARRIVE Guidelines. The GSPC describes certain items in more detail, which makes it both easier to use when designing and conducting an experiment and particularly suitable for making systematic reviews of animal studies more feasible. In order to improve not only the reporting but also the planning, design, execution and thereby, the scientific quality of animal experiments, we strongly recommend to all scientists involved in animal experimentation and to editors of journals publishing animal studies to take a closer look at the contents of both the ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC, and select the set of guidelines which is most appropriate for their particular situation.

  3. How good are experienced cardiologists at predicting the hemodynamic severity of coronary stenoses when taking fractional flow reserve as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Brueren, B R G; ten Berg, J M; Suttorp, M J; Bal, E T; Ernst, J M P G; Mast, E G; Plokker, H W M

    2002-04-01

    Coronary angioplasty should be based on documented ischemia. However, in daily clinical practice the indication for angioplasty is often based on eyeball assessment of the severity of the stenosis. This study was performed to assess the accuracy of eyeball estimation of coronary stenosis when taking functional flow reserve (FFR) as gold standard. Study lesions were where no mutual agreement on the severity of the stenosis was obtained. The procedure consisted of a repeat control angiogram, FFR measurement and in case of FFR<75% percutaneous coronary intervention. The eyeball assessment of the stenosis was written down before further execution of the procedure. FFR was measured with a pressure monitoring guide. Maximal myocardial hyperemia was induced by intravenous adenosine infusion. Fifty-two patients were studied. Agreement between eyeball assessment and FFR existed in a total of 36 cases (69.2%). Over estimation of hemodynamic severity occurred in six cases (11.5%) and under estimation in 10 cases (19.2%). Consequently, the positive predictive value of eyeball assessment for pressure-derived FFR was 63% and the negative predictive value 76%. The assessment of the hemodynamic severity of intermediate coronary stenosis should not be based on eyeball assessment even by experienced interventional cardiologists.

  4. Evaluation of reliability and concurrent validity of two optoelectric systems used for recording maximum vertical jumping performance versus the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Słomka, Kajetan J; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skowronek, Tomasz; Rzepko, Marian; Czarny, Wojciech; Juras, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of two alternative systems used for jumping performance measurement. Two groups of subjects were tested. The first group consisted of 15 male adults (21.3 ± 1.7 years) and the second group consisted of 16 female volleyball players (17.2 ± 0.9 years). We used three different systems of data collection in the study. Two of the used systems are based on optoelectric components. The Optojump Next system is referred to as the optoelectric system, and BTS Smart-E is refered to as the video system. Concurrent validity of these systems was verified with the use of "gold standard" which is force platform. All systems were used to estimate the height of vertical jumps. Both optoelectric systems turned out to be highly reliable with the ICCs = 0.98 for Optojump and 0.9 for BTS Smart. Their concurrent validity with the force platform data was also very high r = 0.99 and r = 0.97, respectively. Comparison of these two systems shows distinct differences between them. Out of the two systems, Optojump system is more suitable for quick and reliable sports testing while when BTS-Smart is better for research and clinical testing.

  5. Array CGH on unstimulated blood does not detect all cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome: a skin biopsy should remain the diagnostic gold standard.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Jennelle C; Hulshizer, Rachael L; Seger, Pam; St Antoine, Angelique; Bair, Jennifer; Kirmani, Salman

    2012-03-01

    A child whose features are consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) did not have detectable tetrasomy 12p due to an additional isochromosome 12p in an unstimulated blood specimen by interphase FISH or array CGH analysis. The diagnosis of PKS was made through these methods solely in a skin biopsy specimen. To determine the sensitivity of our array CGH platform to tetrasomy 12p mosaicism, dilutions of DNA from both the child's skin fibroblasts and a PKS cell line were analyzed. Tetrasomy 12p at 10% mosaicism was identifiable but 5% was below the limit of detection. This result suggests through extrapolation that the tetrasomy 12p is present in <10% of cells in our patient's blood, confirming the tissue-limited mosaicism of PKS. Multiple recent studies show that array CGH provides greater sensitivity than chromosome analysis to detect mosaic abnormalities including that of tetrasomy 12p in blood specimens. However, our case demonstrates that the biology of PKS precludes the exclusive use of array CGH on blood for diagnosis. A tissue sample should continue to be the diagnostic gold standard for PKS.

  6. Comparison of MR-arthrography and CT-arthrography in hyaline cartilage-thickness measurement in radiographically normal cadaver hips with anatomy as gold standard.

    PubMed

    Wyler, A; Bousson, V; Bergot, C; Polivka, M; Leveque, E; Vicaut, E; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2009-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR)-arthrography and multidetector-spiral-computed-tomography (MDSCT)-arthrography in cartilage-thickness measurement, in hips without cartilage loss, with coronal anatomic slices as gold standard. Institutional review board permission to study cadavers of individuals who willed their bodies to science was obtained. Two independent observers measured femoral and acetabular cartilage thicknesses of 12 radiographically normal hips (six women, five men; age range, 52-98 years; mean age, 76.5 years), on MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic reformations, and on coronal anatomic slices, excluding regions of cartilage loss. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences between MR-arthrographic and MDSCT-arthrographic measurement errors compared to anatomy. By MR-arthrography, cartilage was not measurable at approximately 50% of points on sagittal and transverse sections, compared to 0-6% of the points by MDSCT-arthrography. In the coronal plane, the difference between MDSCT-arthrographic and MR-arthrographic measurement errors was not significant (P=0.93). In the coronal plane, MR-arthrography and MDSCT-arthrography were similarly accurate for measuring hip cartilage thickness.

  7. Evaluations of an in-house drug resistance method for HIV-1 drug resistance using ViroSeq™ 2.0 genotyping system as a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Hingankar, Nitin K; Siddhaarth, K; Deshpande, Sohan N; Sen, Sourav; Kabra, Sandhya; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Tripathy, Srikanth P

    2013-04-01

    An in-house method was evaluated for its efficiency to detect the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. This method was compared with the ViroSeq™ Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, US) a gold standard. Sixty-five stored plasma samples, previously tested for HIV-1 drug resistance using the ViroSeq™ method were used to evaluate the in-house method. Out of the sixty five plasma samples, sixty were HIV-1 positive clinical samples; four samples from the Virology Quality Assessment (VQA) program and one positive control from the ViroSeq™ kit were used in this study. The sequences generated by the ViroSeq™ and an in-house method showed 99.5±0.5% and 99.7±0.4% (mean±SD) nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. Out of 214 Stanford HIVdb listed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions, concordance was observed in 203 (94.9%), partial discordance in 11 (5.1%) and complete discordance was absent. The in-house primers are broadly sensitive in genotyping multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes. The amplification sensitivity of the in-house method was 1000 copies/ml. The evaluation of the in-house method provides results comparable with that of ViroSeq™ method thus, making the in-house method suitable for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the developing countries.

  8. Acute appendicitis: should the laparoscopic approach be proposed as the gold standard? Six-year experience in an Emergency Surgery Unit

    PubMed Central

    GUERCIO, G.; AUGELLO, G.; LICARI, L.; DAFNOMILI, A.; RASPANTI, C.; BAGARELLA, N.; FALCO, N.; ROTOLO, G.; FONTANA, T.; PORRELLO, C.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is common in an Emergency Surgery Unit. Although the laparoscopic approach is a method accepted for its treatment, no strong data are available for determining how many procedures must an experienced surgeon carry out for obtaining all the advantages of this technique and if this approach can become the gold standard in the activity of a general emergency unit with senior surgeons variously skilled on the basic laparoscopy. 142 patients that underwent appendectomy (90 laparoscopic, 52 conventional) for acute appendicitis were enrolled in this institutional retrospective cohort study. The surgeons were classified with a descriptor-based grading and divided in two groups regarding the skill. The only relevant result of our study was the significant reduction of conversion rate in case of laparoscopic approach. No strong differences were found concerning the duration of the procedure and the hospital stay between the two groups. The rate of complications were very low in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced surgeons can easily perform a laparoscopic approach independently from the specific skill in this approach. PMID:27938536

  9. Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E K; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

  10. Bomb calorimetry, the gold standard for assessment of intestinal absorption capacity: normative values in healthy ambulant adults.

    PubMed

    Wierdsma, N J; Peters, J H C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E; Mulder, C J J; Metgod, I; van Bodegraven, A A

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal absorption capacity is considered to be the best method for assessing overall digestive intestinal function. Earlier reference values for intestinal function in healthy Dutch adults were based on a study that was conducted in an inpatient metabolic unit setting in a relatively small series. The present study aimed to readdress and describe the intestinal absorption capacity of healthy adults, who were consuming their usual (Western European) food and beverage diet, in a standard ambulatory setting. Twenty-three healthy subjects (aged 22-60 years) were included in the analyses. Nutritional intake (energy and macronutrients) was determined with a 4-day nutritional diary. Subsequently, mean faecal losses of energy (by bomb calorimetry), fat, protein and carbohydrate were determined following a 3-day faecal collection. Finally, intestinal absorption capacity was calculated from the differences between intake and losses. Mean (SD) daily faeces production was 141 (49) g (29% dry weight), containing 891 (276) kJ [10.7 (1.3) kJ g(-1) wet faeces; 22.6 (2.5) kJ g(-1) dry faeces], 5.2 (2.2) g fat, 10.0 (3.8) g protein and 29.7 (11.7) g carbohydrates. Mean (SD) intestinal absorption capacity of healthy subjects was 89.4% (3.8%) for energy, 92.5% (3.7%) for fat, 86.9% (6.4%) for protein and 87.3% (6.6%) for carbohydrates. The present study provides normative values for both stool nutrient composition and intestinal energy and macronutrient absorption in healthy adults on a regular Dutch diet in an ambulatory setting. Intestinal energy absorption was found to be approximately 90%. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. The best fit function for the tee short axis left ventricular ejection fraction and radionuclear "gold standard" relationship is curvilinear.

    PubMed

    Alian, Aymen A; Rafferty, Terence

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the function that best expressed the true shape of the regression line between transgastric short axis (TGSA) transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE)) views of the left ventricle (LV) and radionuclear LVEF. The literature was searched for relevant articles published between 1979 and 2007. Articles that directly compared TGSA LVEF with radionuclear LVEF were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included the provision that TGSA estimations be acquired by manual tracing of the endocardial border. Digital tabular data sets were created from electronically scanned graphic data (Photoshop, Adobe Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA). Software consisted of SPSS (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Analysis was by regression curve fitting with standard parametric and LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) data-driven models. Three articles met our study design criteria. The studies generated a total of 32 patients with 99 data points. These data were pooled and analyzed. The LOWESS regression surface demonstrated non-linearity. The best "goodness of fit" template function was determined by selecting the function with the highest R-squared value. The best fit (R(2) = 0.807) consisted of a polynomial function with a power trajectory. Linear regression analysis provides a linear regression function. Thus, analyses are forced to conform to a straight-line relationship, irrespective of the disposition of the data points. By contrast, parametric and nonparametric regression models allow a choice of functions. This feature permits construction of a more appropriate "goodness of fit" curve. In this study, our purpose was to determine the function that best expressed the true shape of the regression line. Results indicated that the relationship between TEE TGSA and radionuclear LVEF was curvilinear.

  12. Paraesophageal hernia repair in the emergency setting: is laparoscopy with the addition of a fundoplication the new gold standard?

    PubMed

    Klinginsmith, Michael; Jolley, Jennifer; Lomelin, Daniel; Krause, Crystal; Heiden, Jace; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia (PEH) with fundoplication is currently the preferred elective strategy, but emergent cases are often done open without an anti-reflux (AR) procedure. This study examined PEH repair in elective and urgent/emergent settings and investigated patient characteristic influence on the use of adjunctive techniques, such as AR procedures or gastrostomy tube (GT) placement. Utilizing the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Database Resource Manager, selected discharge data were retrieved using International Classification of Disease 9 diagnosis codes for PEH and procedure specific codes. Chi-squared and paired t tests were applied (α = 0.05). Discharge data from October 2010 through June 2014 indicated 7950 patients (≥18 years) underwent PEH surgery, 84.7 % were performed laparoscopically and 15.3 % open. 24.6 % of cases were classified urgent/emergent upon admission, and almost 70 % of these were completed laparoscopically. Open paraesophageal hernia repairs (OHR) represented a higher proportion of urgent/emergent cases but were only 30 % of this total. Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LHR) patients were more likely to receive an AR procedure in all situations (54.9 % LHR vs. 26.3 % OHR). Almost 90 % of elective PEH repairs in this cohort were laparoscopic. Elective cases were more commonly associated with AR procedures than emergent cases which frequently incorporated GT placement. We demonstrate that laparoscopic PEH repair has become accepted in emergent cases. Open PEH repair is often reserved for emergent surgeries and less commonly includes an AR procedure. Laparoscopy with an AR procedure is clearly the standard of care in elective surgery. The decision to perform an open or laparoscopic surgery, with or without adjunctive techniques, may be based more on the physician's comfort with laparoscopic surgery and surgical practices than the patient's condition. Long-term follow-up studies are

  13. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of utilizing the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and the Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment for Spacelab payload instrumentation was determined. Representative shuttle sortie payloads were analyzed for applicability and commonality. Modification of NIM/CAMAC equipment was analyzed for its suitability in Spacelab environments and to determine the cost. NIM/CAMAC equipment usage requirements for Spacelab payloads were converted to pool size requirements and time-phased equipment procurement requirements. A programmatic estimate of the pool equipment costs and a management plan were prepared for the pool concept. The implementation and impact of CAMAC software were assessed.

  14. Redefining Gold Standard Testing for Diagnosing Leptospirosis: Further Evidence from a Well-Characterized, Flood-Related Outbreak in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Nöckler, Karsten; Anne, Mayer-Scholl; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-09-07

    A gap in the leptospirosis field remains the lack of well-characterized sample collections that allow for comparison of new methods to standard ones. In the context of a flood-related outbreak of leptospirosis evaluated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, a specimen bank was obtained with detailed metadata accompanied by gold standard diagnostic test results. Blood samples collected on admission and 14 days later from suspected cases of leptospirosis were tested using microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (17 serovars), an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a locally obtained strain of Leptospira kirschneri as sonicated antigen, a commercially available ELISA based on sonicated Leptospira biflexa, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting the pathogenic Leptospira-specific 16S rRNA gene. Of 62 patients presenting within the first 2 days of illness, 31 had confirmed leptospirosis based either on paired-sample MAT or qPCR. During the acute phase, qPCR was most sensitive, detecting 74% of definitively diagnosed cases; immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA (in-house), IgG ELISA (commercial), and MAT had sensitivities of 35.5%, 12.0%, and 22.6%, respectively, in detecting definitively diagnosed cases using acute phase serum. Of 40 patients with paired sera, 10 were qPCR positive. Of these, five samples were negative by paired-sample MAT. Of the 11 MAT-positive samples, only five were detected using qPCR confirming that both tests are needed for maximal sensitivity. Regional leptospiral serovar-specific IgG ELISA was superior to MAT. Knowing the regionally dominant serovars improves serological sensitivity in the analysis of acute specimens by ELISA, but qPCR was most sensitive in this patient population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Is mediastinoscopy still the gold standard to evaluate mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Sivrikoz, C M; Ak, I; Simsek, F S; Döner, E; Dündar, E

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to define the efficacy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the detection of mediastinal lymph node metastases by comparing the mediastinal findings of F-18 FDG PET/CT with the histopathological results obtained either by mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy in patients with clinically operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This is a prospective, single-institution study of 68 consecutive patients with suspected or pathologically proven, localized, clinically resectable NSCLC (8 females and 60 males; mean age: 60.36 ± 1.01 years, range: 43-78 years). The patients underwent integrated PET/CT scanning at the same PET center. Standard cervical mediastinoscopy and extended mediastinoscopy were performed to sample the lymph nodes. During thoracotomy, complete mediastinal lymph node dissection was routinely performed. Mediastinoscopy gave true positive results in 9 patients and true negative results in 57 patients. There were two false negative results. Mediastinoscopy had a sensitivity of 81.8% (95% CI: 63-82), a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 96-100), a PPV of 100% (95% CI: 77-100), a NPV of 96.6% (95% CI: 93-96), and an accuracy of 97% for the detection of mediastinal lymph node metastases. When PET/CT results were compared with postoperative pathological examination results, PET/CT correctly identified 48 out of 50 patients (96%) who did not have metastatic lymph node involvement. N2/N3 disease was correctly determined by PET/CT in 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) who had positive results on histological analysis. When only N2 and N3 nodal diseases were included in the calculation with the aim of making a comparison with mediastinoscopy (for mediastinal nodes), integrated PET/CT had a sensitivity of 72.7% (95% CI: 51-80), a specificity of 97.7% (95% CI: 92-99), a PPV of 88.9% (95% CI: 62-97), a NPV of 93.3% (95% CI: 88-95) and an accuracy of 92.6% (95% 83-95) for the detection of intrathoracic N2 and N3 nodal metastases. Our data shows that due to its high

  16. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  17. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  18. Statistical evaluation of a commercial Neospora caninum competitive ELISA in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, Mathieu; Hutchins, Wendy; Orsel, Karin

    2014-08-01

    Neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (Cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. In the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. However, there are a number of statistical methods that can help in selecting an appropriate cut-off value and estimating the resulting diagnostic test performances. In this paper, the performance of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) on elk serum samples was evaluated with two statistical approaches: a mixture distribution model fitted to the cELISA results, and a Bayesian latent class analysis combining results from the cELISA and an indirect immuno-fluorescence antibody test. Both methods indicated that the commercial kit could be used on elk serum with the specifications recommended by the manufacturer. In particular, the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a percentage of inhibition cutoff of 30%. The 95% probability interval of the proportion of elk exposed to N. caninum, adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of this test in elk, was estimated between 1.3 and 7.4%. There was no association between the serological status of female elk and their pregnancy status. These results point out to the involvement of elk in a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum in this area.

  19. Deep Brain Stimulation in Anorexia Nervosa: Hope for the Hopeless or Exploitation of the Vulnerable? The Oxford Neuroethics Gold Standard Framework

    PubMed Central

    Park, Rebecca J.; Singh, Ilina; Pike, Alexandra C.; Tan, Jacinta O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric disorders have a long and troubled history (1, 2) but have become much more refined in the last few decades due to the rapid development of neuroimaging and robotic technologies (2). These advances have enabled the design of less invasive techniques, which are more focused, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) (3). DBS involves electrode insertion into specific neural targets implicated in pathological behavior, which are then repeatedly stimulated at adjustable frequencies. DBS has been used for Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders since the 1960s (4–6) and over the last decade has been applied to treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders, with some evidence of benefit in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, and addictions (7). Recent consensus guidelines on best practice in psychiatric neurosurgery (8) stress, however, that DBS for psychiatric disorders remains at an experimental and exploratory stage. The ethics of DBS—in particular for psychiatric conditions—is debated (1, 8–10). Much of this discourse surrounds the philosophical implications of competence, authenticity, personality, or identity change following neurosurgical interventions, but there is a paucity of applied guidance on neuroethical best practice in psychiatric DBS, and health-care professionals have expressed that they require more (11). This paper aims to redress this balance by providing a practical, applied neuroethical gold standard framework to guide research ethics committees, researchers, and institutional sponsors. We will describe this as applied to our protocol for a particular research trial of DBS in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01924598, unique identifier NCT01924598), but believe it may have wider application to DBS in other psychiatric disorders. PMID:28373849

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation in Anorexia Nervosa: Hope for the Hopeless or Exploitation of the Vulnerable? The Oxford Neuroethics Gold Standard Framework.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebecca J; Singh, Ilina; Pike, Alexandra C; Tan, Jacinta O A

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric disorders have a long and troubled history (1, 2) but have become much more refined in the last few decades due to the rapid development of neuroimaging and robotic technologies (2). These advances have enabled the design of less invasive techniques, which are more focused, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) (3). DBS involves electrode insertion into specific neural targets implicated in pathological behavior, which are then repeatedly stimulated at adjustable frequencies. DBS has been used for Parkinson's disease and movement disorders since the 1960s (4-6) and over the last decade has been applied to treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders, with some evidence of benefit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder, and addictions (7). Recent consensus guidelines on best practice in psychiatric neurosurgery (8) stress, however, that DBS for psychiatric disorders remains at an experimental and exploratory stage. The ethics of DBS-in particular for psychiatric conditions-is debated (1, 8-10). Much of this discourse surrounds the philosophical implications of competence, authenticity, personality, or identity change following neurosurgical interventions, but there is a paucity of applied guidance on neuroethical best practice in psychiatric DBS, and health-care professionals have expressed that they require more (11). This paper aims to redress this balance by providing a practical, applied neuroethical gold standard framework to guide research ethics committees, researchers, and institutional sponsors. We will describe this as applied to our protocol for a particular research trial of DBS in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01924598, unique identifier NCT01924598), but believe it may have wider application to DBS in other psychiatric disorders.

  1. Molecular testing for viral and bacterial enteric pathogens: gold standard for viruses, but don't let culture go just yet?

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Balm, Michelle N D; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary diagnostic microbiology is increasingly adopting molecular methods as front line tests for a variety of samples. This trend holds true for detection of enteric pathogens (EP), where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for viruses are well established as the gold standard, and an increasing number of commercial multi-target assays are now available for bacteria and parasites. NAAT have significant sensitivity and turnaround time advantages over traditional methods, potentially returning same-day results. Multiplex panels offer an attractive 'one-stop shop' that may provide workflow and cost advantages to laboratories processing large sample volumes. However, there are a number of issues which need consideration. Reflex culture is required for antibiotic susceptibility testing and strain typing when needed for food safety and other epidemiological investigations. Surveillance systems will need to allow for differences in disease incidence due to the enhanced sensitivity of NAAT. Laboratories should be mindful of local epidemiology when selecting which pathogens to include in multiplex panels, and be thoughtful regarding which pathogens will not be detected. Multiplex panels may not be appropriate in certain situations, such as hospital-onset diarrhoea, where Clostridium difficile testing might be all that is required, and laboratories may wish to retain the flexibility to run single tests in such situations. The clinical impact of rapid results is also likely to be relatively minor, as infective diarrhoea is a self-limiting illness in the majority of cases. Laboratories will require strategies to assist users in the interpretation of the results produced by NAAT, particularly where pathogens are detected at low levels with uncertain clinical significance. These caveats aside, faecal NAAT are increasingly being used and introduce a new era of diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection.

  2. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  3. Multicenter study on costs associated with two surgical procedures: GreenLight XPS 180 W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Benejam-Gual, J M; Sanz-Granda, A; Budía, A; Extramiana, J; Capitán, C

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the costs associated with two surgical procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: GreenLight XPS 180¦W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate. A multicenter, retrospective cost study was carried out from the National Health Service perspective, over a 3-month time period. Costs were broken down into pre-surgical, surgical and post-surgical phases. Data were extracted from records of patients operated sequentially, with IPSS=15, Qmax=15 mL/seg and a prostate volume of 40-80mL, adding only direct healthcare costs (€, 2013) associated with the procedure and management of complications. A total of 79 patients sequentially underwent GL XPS (n: 39) or TURP (n: 40) between July and October, 2013. Clinical outcomes were similar (94.9% and 92.5%, GL XPS and TURP, respectively) without significant differences (P=.67). The average direct cost per patient was reduced by €114 in GL XPS versus TURP patients; the cost was higher in the surgical phase with GL XPS (difference: €1,209; P<.001) but was lower in the post-surgical phase (difference: €-1,351; P<.001). The GreenLight XPS 180-W laser system is associated with a reduction in costs with respect to transurethral resection of prostate in the surgical treatment of LUTS secondary to PBH. This reduction is due to a shorter inpatient length of stay that offsets the cost of the new technology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining Shigella Tn-seq data with gold-standard E. coli gene deletion data suggests rare transitions between essential and non-essential gene functionality.

    PubMed

    Freed, Nikki E; Bumann, Dirk; Silander, Olin K

    2016-09-06

    Gene essentiality - whether or not a gene is necessary for cell growth - is a fundamental component of gene function. It is not well established how quickly gene essentiality can change, as few studies have compared empirical measures of essentiality between closely related organisms. Here we present the results of a Tn-seq experiment designed to detect essential protein coding genes in the bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri 2a 2457T on a genome-wide scale. Superficial analysis of this data suggested that 481 protein-coding genes in this Shigella strain are critical for robust cellular growth on rich media. Comparison of this set of genes with a gold-standard data set of essential genes in the closely related Escherichia coli K12 BW25113 revealed that an excessive number of genes appeared essential in Shigella but non-essential in E. coli. Importantly, and in converse to this comparison, we found no genes that were essential in E. coli and non-essential in Shigella, implying that many genes were artefactually inferred as essential in Shigella. Controlling for such artefacts resulted in a much smaller set of discrepant genes. Among these, we identified three sets of functionally related genes, two of which have previously been implicated as critical for Shigella growth, but which are dispensable for E. coli growth. The data presented here highlight the small number of protein coding genes for which we have strong evidence that their essentiality status differs between the closely related bacterial taxa E. coli and Shigella. A set of genes involved in acetate utilization provides a canonical example. These results leave open the possibility of developing strain-specific antibiotic treatments targeting such differentially essential genes, but suggest that such opportunities may be rare in closely related bacteria.

  5. Stress-only myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: a prospective study on the accuracy and observer agreement with quantitative coronary angiography as the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Ejlersen, June A; May, Ole; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Gitte L; Lauridsen, Jeppe F; Allan, Johansen

    2017-09-06

    Patients with normal stress perfusion have an excellent prognosis. Prospective studies on the diagnostic accuracy of stress-only scans with contemporary, independent examinations as gold standards are lacking. A total of 109 patients with typical angina and no previous coronary artery disease underwent a 2-day stress (exercise)/rest, gated, and attenuation-corrected (AC), 99m-technetium-sestamibi perfusion study, followed by invasive coronary angiography. The stress datasets were evaluated twice by four physicians with two different training levels (expert and novice): familiar and unfamiliar with AC. The two experts also made a consensus reading of the integrated stress-rest datasets. The consensus reading and quantitative data from the invasive coronary angiography were applied as reference methods. The sensitivity/specificity were 0.92-1.00/0.73-0.90 (reference: expert consensus reading), 0.93-0.96/0.63-0.82 (reference: ≥1 stenosis>70%), and 0.75-0.88/0.70-0.88 (reference: ≥1 stenosis>50%). The four readers showed a high and fairly equal sensitivity independent of their familiarity with AC. The expert familiar with AC had the highest specificity independent of the reference method. The intraobserver and interobserver agreements on the stress-only readings were good (readers without AC experience) to excellent (readers with AC experience). AC stress-only images yielded a high sensitivity independent of the training level and experience with AC of the nuclear physician, whereas the specificity correlated positively with both. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements tended to be the best for physicians with AC experience.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAE J2788-certified equipment. It is not acceptable that the refrigerant removed from a mobile air-conditioning (A/C) system with this equipment be directly returned to a mobile A/C system. This information... refrigerant recovery to reduce emissions and provide for accurate recharging of mobile air...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1003...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of...

  8. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 2: Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A representative set of payloads for both science and applications disciplines were selected that would ensure a realistic and statistically significant estimate of equipment utilization. The selected payloads were analyzed to determine the applicability of Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM)/Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment in satisfying their data acquisition and control requirements. The analyses results were combined with the comparable results from related studies to arrive at an overall assessment of the applicability and commonality of NIM/CAMAC equipment usage across the spectrum of payloads.

  9. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS... certificate of conformity can cover that engine or piece of equipment: (1) Correct the problem and retest the...

  10. No Gold Standard Estimation of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Molecular Diagnostic Protocols for Trypanosoma brucei spp. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    de Clare Bronsvoort, Barend Mark; von Wissmann, Beatrix; Fèvre, Eric Maurice; Handel, Ian Graham; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Sue Christina

    2010-01-01

    African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingTrypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypansoma brucei. In Western Kenya and other parts of East Africa two subspecies of T. brucei, T.b. brucei and the zoonoticT.b. rhodesiense, co-circulate in livestock. A range of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) have been developed as important molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiological investigations of T. brucei s.l. in the animal reservoir and of its zoonotic potential. Quantification of the relative performance of different diagnostic PCRs is essential to ensure comparability of studies. This paper describes an evaluation of two diagnostic test systems for T. brucei using a T. brucei s.l. specific PCR [1] and a single nested PCR targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of trypanosome ribosomal DNA [2]. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model was employed to estimate their test performance in the absence of a gold standard test for detecting T.brucei s.l. infections in ear-vein blood samples from cattle, pig, sheep and goat populations in Western Kenya, stored on Whatman FTA cards. The results indicate that the system employing the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR (Se1 = 0.760) had a higher sensitivity than the ITS-PCR (Se2 = 0.640); both have high specificity (Sp1 = 0.998; Sp2 = 0.997). The true prevalences for livestock populations were estimated (pcattle = 0.091, ppigs = 0.066, pgoats = 0.005, psheep = 0.006), taking into account the uncertainties in the specificity and sensitivity of the two test systems. Implications of test performance include the required survey sample size; due to its higher sensitivity and specificity, the T. brucei s.l. specific PCR requires a consistently smaller sample size than the ITS-PCR for the detection of T. brucei s.l. However the ITS-PCR is able to simultaneously screen samples for other pathogenic trypanosomes

  11. Diagnostic performance of ELISA, IFAT and Western blot for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in cats using a Bayesian analysis without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Maria Flaminia; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Vullo, Angela; Masucci, Marisa; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Vitale, Fabrizio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-13

    Anti-Leishmania antibodies are increasingly investigated in cats for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of clinical feline leishmaniosis. The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) are the serological tests more frequently used. The aim of the present study was to assess diagnostic performance of IFAT, ELISA and WB to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies in feline serum samples obtained from endemic (n = 76) and non-endemic (n = 64) areas and from cats affected by feline leishmaniosis (n = 21) by a Bayesian approach without a gold standard. Cut-offs were set at 80 titre for IFAT and 40 ELISA units for ELISA. WB was considered positive in presence of at least a 18 KDa band. Statistical analysis was performed through a written routine with MATLAB software in the Bayesian framework. The latent data and observations from the joint posterior were simulated in the Bayesian approach by an iterative Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique using the Gibbs sampler for estimating sensitivity and specificity of the three tests. The median seroprevalence in the sample used for evaluating the performance of tests was estimated at 0.27 [credible interval (CI) = 0.20-0.34]. The median sensitivity of the three different methods was 0.97 (CI: 0.86-1.00), 0.75 (CI: 0.61-0.87) and 0.70 (CI: 0.56-0.83) for WB, IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Median specificity reached 0.99 (CI: 0.96-1.00) with WB, 0.97 (CI: 0.93-0.99) with IFAT and 0.98 (CI: 0.94-1.00) with ELISA. IFAT was more sensitive than ELISA (75 vs 70%) for the detection of subclinical infection while ELISA was better for diagnosing clinical leishmaniosis when compared with IFAT (98 vs 97%). The overall performance of all serological techniques was good and the most accurate test for anti-Leishmania antibody detection in feline serum samples was WB.

  12. High frequency of contact allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate. An indication of gold allergy?

    PubMed

    Björkner, B; Bruze, M; Möller, H

    1994-03-01

    When gold sodium thiosulfate was added to the patch test standard series, positive reactions were obtained in 8.6% of 823 consecutive patients with suspect contact allergy. The test reactions were clinically of an allergic type and, in several cases, long-lasting. There was no correlation with other allergens in the standard series. In a special study on 38 patients with contact allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate, the following principal findings were obtained: positive patch tests to the compound itself in dilute concentration; positive patch tests to potassium dicyanoaurate; negative patch tests to gold sodium thiomalate, sodium thiosulfate, and metallic gold; positive intradermal tests to gold sodium thiosulfate. Our findings make gold sodium thiosulfate the 2nd most common contact allergen after nickel sulfate. It is suggested that a positive skin test to gold sodium thiosulfate represents gold allergy.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - SAE J2810 Standard for Recovery Only Equipment for HFC-134a Refrigerant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a... heating or use of any device (such as shields, reflectors, special lights, etc.), which could heat... of the container must be blue with a yellow top to indicate the container holds used HFC-134a (R-134a...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover-Only Equipment That Extracts a Single, Specific Refrigerant Other Than CFC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. 2. References 2.1 Applicable Documents—The following publications form a part of this... The equipment must be able to extract from a mobile air conditioning system the refrigerant other than... or equivalent new product specifications before reuse in a mobile air-conditioning system.” The...

  16. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  17. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  18. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...

  19. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  20. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...