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Sample records for goldfish carassius auratus

  1. BIOCHEMISTRY PANEL REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR JUVENILE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    PubMed

    Adamovicz, Laura A; Trosclair, Macy R; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-09-01

    Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish. Robust reference intervals were generated following recommendations of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Linear regression was used to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between body weight and calcium, albumin, total protein, potassium, packed cell volume, and total solids. The results of this study serve as a useful baseline for future reference interval generation in goldfish.

  2. Surgical removal of retrobulbar hemangioma in a goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Bradley J; Raidal, Shane R

    2006-09-01

    The surgical removal of retrobulbar hemangioma is described in a mature fantail goldfish (Carassius auratus) with a 6-week history of a swollen right eye. The fish was anesthetized using alfaxalnone at a concentration in the water of 5 mg/L to facilitate fine-needle aspiration and surgical removal of the eye. The fish was treated with enrofloxacin 5 mg intraperitoneally and recovered with major buoyancy deficits that corrected 20 minutes after treatment with methadone at a dose of 0.4 mg intramuscularly. Histologic examination of the excised tissue demonstrated that the tumor was a compact hemangioma.

  3. Ocular glioneuroma with medulloepitheliomatous differentiation in a goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Luciana; Sirri, Rubina; Gustinelli, Andrea; Quaglio, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Chiocchetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    An intraocular mass in the left eye causing chronic severe exophthalmia in an adult female goldfish (Carassius auratus) is described. The fish shared an aquarium with another goldfish found dead with gross and microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis. Histological examination of the left eye, histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], Alcian blue, Ziehl-Neelsen) and immunohistochemical tests (glial fibrillary acidic protein, human neuronal protein, vimentin, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3) were carried out on the intraocular mass. Neoplastic cells forming an unencapsulated highly cellular proliferation partially covered by an intact corneal epithelium were stained with Alcian blue, which demonstrated an abundant hyaluronic acid-rich extracellular matrix. Multifocally, there were cyst-like dilatations bordered by neuroepithelial cells, which were PAS-positive. The complex neoplastic proliferation was composed of glial-like cells, neuronal-like cells (immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein and human neuronal protein, respectively) and neuroepithelium, which suggested a retinal origin.

  4. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  5. Haematopoietic necrosis in a goldfish (Carassius auratus) associated with an agent morphologically similar to herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Jones, B

    2004-03-01

    One of 14 goldfish (Carassius auratus) died 4 weeks after purchase and was investigated by necropsy and histological examination. Routine formalin fixation of the goldfish was followed by histopathology. Formalin fixed spleen and kidney from the fish was further processed by embedding in epoxy resin and examined by transmission electron microscopy (EM). Severe, diffuse necrosis of haematopoietic tissue in the spleen, thymus and kidney and severe, diffuse hyperplasia in the gill epithelial cells were seen. In the spleen there was severe, diffuse necrosis of lymphocytes and many nuclei with marginated chromatin and intranuclear inclusions were scattered throughout the necrotic tissue. EM of affected tissues demonstrated intranuclear particles morphologically similar to herpesvirus. The presence of an agent similar to a herpesvirus in a goldfish with severe haematopoietic necrosis suggests that the herpesvirus responsible for haematopoietic necrosis in cyprinid species throughout the world has entered the goldfish population in Australia.

  6. Reversible brain swelling in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in response to high external ammonia and anoxia.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Michael P; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Couturier, Christine S; Sidhu, Sanya; Sandvik, Guro K; Nilsson, Göran E

    2015-06-01

    Increased internal ammonia (hyperammonemia) and ischemic/anoxic insults are known to result in a cascade of deleterious events that can culminate in potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals. It is less clear, however, if the brains of fishes respond to ammonia in a similar manner. The present study demonstrated that the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was not only able to endure high environmental ammonia exposure (HEA; 2 to 22 mmol L(-1)) but that they experienced 30% increases in brain water content at the highest ammonia concentrations. This swelling was accompanied by 4-fold increases in plasma total ammonia (TAmm) concentration, but both plasma TAmm and brain water content were restored to pre-exposure levels following depuration in ammonia-free water. The closely related, ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus) responded similarly to HEA (up to 3.6 mmol L(-1)), which was accompanied by 4-fold increases in brain glutamine. Subsequent administration of the glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (MSO), reduced brain glutamine accumulation by 80% during HEA. However, MSO failed to prevent ammonia-induced increases in brain water content suggesting that glutamine may not be directly involved in initiating ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes. Although the mechanisms of brain swelling are likely different, exposure to anoxia for 96 h caused similar, but lesser (10%) increases in brain water content in crucian carp. We conclude that brain swelling in some fishes may be a common response to increased internal ammonia or lower oxygen but further research is needed to deduce the underlying mechanisms behind such responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural characterization of the melano-macrophage centres (MMC) of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Herráez, M P; Zapata, A G

    1991-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the organization of melano-macrophage centres (MMCs) in the peripheral lymphoid organs, including spleen, pro- and mesonephros, of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, in an attempt to clarify their cellular composition, origins and functional relationships. Histological analysis demonstrated a similar organization in the three organs on the basis of closely packed phagocytic cells containing abundant pigment. The MMCs of Carassius auratus are found throughout the parenchyma of spleen and kidney and show a close association with the vascular system, i.e. splenic ellipsoids, sinusoids of red pulp and renal blood sinuses. They exhibit distinct degree of development from small groups of actively phagocytic macrophages to large, totally or partially encapsulated centres, where effete phagocytic cells are filled by cell debris. Ultrastructural and histochemical data suggest that the main inclusion observed in the MMCs of Carassius auratus is lipofuscin. Haemosiderin occurs in lesser amounts and melanin is almost restricted to kidney MMCs,--mainly mesonephros--. Our results suggest various non-specific physiological roles for the teleost MMCs, including tissue breakdown and erythrocyte catabolism.

  8. Temporal discrimination learning of operant feeding in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Philip; Stephenson, David; Wright, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Operant temporal discrimination learning was investigated in goldfish. In the first experiment, there was a fixed daily change in illumination. Eight subjects were trained to operate a lever that reinforced each press with food. The period during which responses were reinforced was then progressively reduced until it was 1 hr in every 24. The final 1-hr feeding schedule was maintained over 4 weeks. The feeding period commenced at the same time each day throughout. The food dispensers were then made inactive, and a period of extinction ensued for 6 days. The pattern of responding suggested that the fish were able to exhibit temporal discrimination in anticipation of feeding time. This pattern of responding persisted for a limited number of days during the extinction procedure. The second experiment produced evidence that operant temporal discrimination could develop under continuous illumination. PMID:16812735

  9. The life cycle of Chloromyxum auratum (Myxozoa) from goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), involves an antonactinomyxon actinospore.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S D; Hallett, S L; Bartholomew, J L

    2007-03-01

    The myxozoan parasite Chloromyxum auratumHallett, Atkinson, Holt, Banner & Bartholomew, 2006, was shown experimentally to have a two-host life cycle which involved a previously undescribed antonactinomyxon actinospore stage. Myxospores obtained from gall bladders of naturally infected feral goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), were used to infect samples of mixed species of oligochaete worms obtained from the same locality as the fish: Fern Ridge Dam, Oregon, USA. After some 110 days post-exposure, actinospores were detected from the water above the oligochaetes. The 18S rDNA sequence of these actinospores was identical to the original myxospores. Spore release was sporadic, of low intensity and short duration, which confounded efforts to identify the host oligochaete species and infect naïve fish. This is the first life cycle that incorporates an actinospore of the collective group Antonactinomyxon, and the first life cycle demonstrated in the laboratory for a species of Chloromyxum.

  10. Influence of dietary fat on the intestinal absorption of lipophilic compounds in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sharifi, M; Connell, W D; Gabric, A

    1997-12-01

    Dietary uptake of a mixture of pp'DDT and four chlorobenzenes from diets with different lipid contents was measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) in order to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption of organic compounds. The results of the experiments suggest that intestinal absorption is basically controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid coassimilation. The extent of dietary uptake as indicated by biomagnification factor was strongly correlated with the chemical log Kow, indicating that uptake of the chemicals from the gastrointestinal fluid is similar to the uptake from other aqueous environments and lipid content of the food in the range used in these experiments (2.9-10.9%) could not influence the uptake of lipophilic chemicals.

  11. Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

  12. Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

  13. Relationship between oxidative stress and brain swelling in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Lisser, David F J; Lister, Zachary M; Pham-Ho, Phillip Q H; Scott, Graham R; Wilkie, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Buildups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). We investigated brain swelling and its possible relationship to oxidative stress in the brain and liver of goldfish acutely exposed to high external ammonia (HEA; 5 mmol/l NH4Cl) at two different acclimation temperatures (14°C, 4°C). Exposure to HEA at 14°C for 72h resulted in increased internal ammonia and glutamine concentrations in the brain, and it caused cellular oxidative damage in the brain and liver. However, oxidative damage was most pronounced in brain, in which there was a twofold increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, a threefold increase in protein carbonylation, and a 20% increase in water volume (indicative of brain swelling). Increased activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the brain suggested that goldfish upregulate their antioxidant capacity to partially offset oxidative stress during hyperammonemia at 14°C. Notably, acclimation to colder (4°C) water completely attenuated the oxidative stress response to HEA in both tissues, and there was no change in brain water volume despite similar increases in internal ammonia. We suggest that ammonia-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for the swelling of goldfish brain during HEA, but further studies are needed to establish a mechanistic link between reactive oxygen species production and brain swelling. Nevertheless, a high capacity to withstand oxidative stress in response to variations in internal ammonia likely explains why goldfish are more resilient to this stressor than most other vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dendritic arbors on the saccule and lagena in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Edds-Walton, P L; Popper, A N

    2000-03-01

    The ear of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) contains three otolithic endorgans: the saccule, lagena, and utricle. The saccule has an auditory function in most teleost fishes for whom data are available, and there is evidence that the lagena is also an auditory endorgan in the goldfish. This study was conducted to compare the innervation of the saccule and the lagena to one another and to previously published data from goldfish and other species. We placed cobaltous-lysine in saccular and lagenar nerves in vivo and permitted uptake over 18-24 h. A total of 59 saccular and 59 lagenar dendritic arbors were labeled in 10 fishes. Our data indicate that arbors on the saccule and lagena have similar morphologies, but differ in relative size. Saccular arbors tend to be smaller than lagenar arbors, with median arbor widths of 50 micrometer on the saccule and 74 micrometer on the lagena. Fiber diameters on the two endorgans are similar. A regional analysis of the saccule indicated that a wide range of arbor sizes are found along the rostral-caudal axis, with larger arbors more common caudally. Our data do not support the presence of two distinct categories of saccular afferents with non-overlapping distributions. Moderate arbor widths (50-99 micrometer) were most common in all regions of the lagena. Maximum arbor width and hair cell density do not appear to be correlated with one another on either the saccule or the lagena. Comparisons with published data from goldfish and oscar revealed similarities and differences that may be attributable to variations in label uptake or transport as well as potential species differences.

  15. Clinical and physiologic effects of sodium chloride baths in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A; Watson, Megan

    2011-12-01

    Sodium chloride (salt; NaCl) has been used for freshwater fish to decrease stress and manage a variety of disease conditions. Recommendations for dose and duration vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse clinical and physiologic side effects of different concentrations of saltwater baths on goldfish. Eleven goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used in a cross-over study to assess the effects of three different salt concentrations (5, 10, and 20 g/L) on plasma biochemistries and clinical response. Baseline plasma chemistries were obtained and analyzed immediately prior to placing the goldfish into the saltwater bath and after the fish was removed. A 2-wk washout period was used in-between each treatment. Significant differences were found in fish in the sodium (10 g/L, P = 0.007; 20 g/L, P = 0.01), chloride (10 g/L, P = 0.006; 20 g/L, P = 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (10 g/L, P = 0.002; 20 g/L, P = 0.004) after their exposure to 10 and 20 g/L saltwater. Glucose levels were found to differ significantly after exposure to all three NaCl concentrations (5 g/L, P = 0.0009; 10 g/L, P = 0.0001; 20 g/L, P = 0.0005). Clinically, 5 g/L and 10 g/L saltwater baths were well tolerated by the fish for the duration of the intended 12-hr treatments, with only one goldfish being removed during the 10 g/L bath at 7 hr for listlessness. The average time goldfish spent in the 20 g/L salt bath was 43 min, with six (54%) of the fish remaining in the 20 g/L salt bath for the intended 60-min treatment period. The remaining 5 (46%) goldfish were removed because they became listless or dyspneic. All of the fish recovered from the treatments without complication. The results of this study suggest that goldfish tolerate saltwater baths but that physiologic disturbances can occur at the higher doses.

  16. Novel Afferent Terminal Structure in the Crista Ampullaris of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, Pamela J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1996-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we have identified a new type of afferent terminal structure in the crista ampullaris of the goldfish Carassius auratus. In addition to the bouton-type afferent terminals previously described in the ear of this species, the crista also contained enlarged afferent terminals that enveloped a portion of the basolateral hair cell membrane. The hair cell membrane was evaginated and protruded into the afferent terminal in a glove-and-finger configuration. The membranes of the two cells were regularly aligned in the protruded region of the contact and had a distinct symmetrical electron density. The electron-dense profiles of these contacts were easily identified and were present in every crista sampled. In some cases, efferent terminals synapsed onto the afferents at a point where the hair cell protruded into the terminal. The ultrastructural similarities of the goldfish crista afferents to calyx afferents found in amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals) are discussed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that structural variation in the vertebrate inner ear may have evolved much earlier in evolution than previously supposed.

  17. Calcium-Fluxing Glutamate Receptors Associated With Primary Gustatory Afferent Terminals In Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huesa, Gema; Ikenaga, Takanori; Böttger, Bärbel; Finger, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors modulate transmission at primary afferent synapses in several glutamatergic systems. In order to test whether primary gustatory afferent fibers express Ca++ permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, we utilized kainate-stimulated uptake of Co++ along with immunocytochemistry for the Ca++-binding proteins (CaBPs), calbindin and calretinin to investigate the primary gustatory afferents in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In goldfish, the primary gustatory nucleus (equivalent to the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract) includes the vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure protruding dorsally from the medulla. Kainate-stimulated uptake of Co++ (a measure of Ca++-fluxing glutamate receptors) shows punctate staining distributed in the distinct laminar pattern matching the layers of termination of the primary gustatory afferent fibers. In addition, CaBP immunocytochemistry, which correlates highly with expression of Ca++ permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, shows a laminar pattern of distribution similar to that found with kainite-stimulated cobalt uptake. Nearly all neurons of the vagal gustatory ganglion show Co++ uptake and are immunopositive for CaBPs. Transection of the vagus nerve proximal to the ganglion results in loss of such punctate Co++ uptake and of punctate CaBP staining as soon as 4 days post-lesion. These results are consonant with the presence of Ca++ fluxing glutamate receptors on the presynaptic terminals of primary gustatory terminals, providing an avenue for modulation of primary gustatory input. PMID:18067143

  18. Nesfatin-1 as a new positive inotrope in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart.

    PubMed

    Mazza, R; Gattuso, A; Filice, M; Cantafio, P; Cerra, M C; Angelone, T; Imbrogno, S

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide Nesfatin-1 is present in both mammals and teleosts in which it elicits anorexigenic effects. In mammals, Nesfatin-1 acts on the heart by inducing negative inotropism and lusitropism, and cardioprotection against ischemic damages. We evaluated whether in teleosts, Nesfatin-1 also influences cardiac performance. In the goldfish (Carassius auratus), mature, fully processed Nesfatin-1 was detected in brain, gills, intestine and skeletal muscle, but not in the cardiac ventricle. However, on the isolated and perfused working goldfish heart, exogenous Nesfatin-1 induced a positive inotropic effect, revealed by a dose-dependent increase of stroke volume (SV) and stroke work (SW). Positive inotropism was abolished by inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC; MDL123330A) and cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA; KT5720), suggesting a cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway. This was confirmed by the increased cAMP concentrations revealed by ELISA on Nesfatin-1-treated hearts. Perfusion with Diltiazem, Thapsigargin and PD98059 showed the involvement of L-type calcium channels, SERCA2a pumps and ERK1/2, respectively. The role of ERK1/2 and phospholamban in Nesfatin-1-induced cardiostimulation was supported by Western blotting analysis. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that in teleosts, Nesfatin-1 potentiates mechanical cardiac performance, strongly supporting the evolutionary importance of the peptide in the control of the cardiac function of vertebrates.

  19. Ground-truthing evoked potential measurements against behavioral conditioning in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Randy J.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become commonly used to measure hearing thresholds in fish. However, it is uncertain how well AEP thresholds match behavioral hearing thresholds and what effect variability in electrode placement has on AEPs. In the first experiment, the effect of electrode placement on AEPs was determined by simultaneously recording AEPs from four locations on each of 12 goldfish, Carassius auratus. In the second experiment, the hearing sensitivity of 12 goldfish was measured using both classical conditioning and AEP's in the same setup. For behavioral conditioning, the fish were trained to reduce their respiration rate in response to a 5 s sound presentation paired with a brief shock. A modified staircase method was used in which 20 reversals were completed for each frequency, and threshold levels were determined by averaging the last 12 reversals. Once the behavioral audiogram was completed, the AEP measurements were made without moving the fish. The recording electrode was located subdermally over the medulla, and was inserted prior to classical conditioning to minimize handling of animal. The same sound stimuli (pulsed tones) were presented and the resultant evoked potentials were recorded for 1000-6000 averages. AEP input-output functions were then compared to the behavioral audiogram to compare techniques for estimating behavioral thresholds from AEP data.

  20. Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage Induced by Chromium in Liver and Kidney of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It exhibits various oxidation states, from divalent to hexavalent forms. Cr has diverse applications in various industrial processes and inadequate treatment of the industrial effluents leads to the contamination of the surrounding water resources. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is the most toxic form, and its toxicity has been associated with oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the toxic potential of Cr (VI) in fish. In this research, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in chromium-induced genotoxicity in the liver and kidney cells of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Goldfish were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions and exposed them to 5% and 10% of 96 hr-LC50 (85.7 mg/L) of aqueous Cr (VI) in a continuous flow through system. Fish were sampled every 7 days for a period of 28 days to analyze the lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) levels and genotoxic potentials in the liver and kidney. LHP levels were analyzed by spectrophotometry while genotoxicity was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. LHP levels in the liver increased significantly at week 1, followed by a decrease. LHP levels in the kidney increased significantly at weeks 1, 2, and 3, and decreased at week 4 compared to the control. The percentage of DNA damage increased in both liver and kidney at both test concentrations. The results clearly indicate that Cr (VI) induces significant levels of DNA damage in liver and kidney cells of goldfish. The induced LHP levels in both organs were concentration-dependent and were directly correlated with the levels of DNA damage. The two tested Cr (VI) concentrations induced significant levels of oxidative stress in both organs, however the kidney appears to be more vulnerable and sensitive to Cr-induced toxicity than the liver. PMID:23700361

  1. Identification, tissue distribution and characterization of two heat shock factors (HSFs) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Sun; Chang, Ziwei; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are synthesized rapidly in response to a variety of physiological or environmental stressors, whereas the transcriptional activation of HSPs is regulated by a family of heat shock factors (HSFs). In vertebrates, multiple HSFs (HSF1-4) have been reported to have different roles in response to a range of stresses. This paper reports the cDNA cloning of two goldfish (Carassius auratus) HSF gene families, HSF1 and three isoforms of HSF2. Both HSF1 and HSF2s showed high homology to the known HSFs from other organisms, particularly the zebrafish. Different patterns of HSF1 and HSF2 mRNA expression were detected in several goldfish tissues, highlighting their distinct roles. In cadmium (Cd)-treated tissues, the responses of HSP70 showed less difference. However, the increase in HSF1 and HSF2 in these tissues differs considerable. In particular, HSF2 was induced strongly in the heart and liver. On the other hand, in heart tissue, HSF1 showed the smallest increment. These results suggest the potential role of HSF2 in assisting HSF1 in these tissues. In another in vitro experiment of hepatocyte cultures, Cd exposure caused similar patterns of goldfish HSF1 and HSF2 mRNA expression and induction of the HSP70 protein. On the other hand, an examination of the characterization of recombinant proteins showed that HSF1 undergoes a conformation change induced by heat shock above 30 °C and approaches each other in the trimer, whereas HSF2 could not sense thermal stress directly. Furthermore, immune-blot analysis of HSFs showed that both monomers and trimmers of HSF1 were observed in cadmium-induced tissues, whereas HSF2 were all in monomeric. These results show that HSF1 and HSF2 play different roles in the transcription of heat shock proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii Hukuda, 1940 (Monogenea) associated with the mortality of goldfish (Carassius auratus) from central China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiao; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-02-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, widely distributed across Eurasia, is one of the earliest fish domesticated for ornamental purposes. A series of diseases break out due to high-density culture of goldfish, causing significant economic losses. Here, we report for the first time an infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii associated with the high mortality of goldfish from a fish farm in Anziying township of Henan province, China, following their transfer to several aquariums. In the first 2 weeks after goldfish (n = 4200, weight 10.24 ± 1.45 g) transfer to aquariums, a total of 3335 goldfish were lost, representing 79.4 % of the initial stocked biomass. The examination showed that no other pathogens were found in this batch of fishes, except for G. kobayashii. The high burdens of G. kobayashii/fish (264.7, range 100-450) were the primary reason for the high mortality, although this was not the sole cause. In addition, the isolate of G. kobayashii from goldfish (C. auratus) in Henan province of central China was described. The morphological characterization was performed using morphometric measurements and drawings of opisthaptoral hard parts of the parasites. The molecular description was performed based on phylogenetic analysis of a reference DNA sequence spanning 5.8S and ITS-2. Importantly, the present study provides for the first time a full 25 point-to-point morphometric measurements and high-resolution images of attachment organ of G. kobayashii.

  3. Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): A model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Yuan; Chang, Mariann; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Abe, Gembu; Ota, Kinya G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Highly divergent morphology among the different goldfish strains (Carassius auratus) may make it a suitable model for investigating how artificial selection has altered developmental mechanisms. Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species. Results: We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish. Although several differences were identified in terms of their yolk size, epiboly process, pigmentation patterns, and development rate, our results indicate that the embryonic features of these two teleost species are highly similar in their overall morphology from the zygote to hatching stage. Conclusions: These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos. Developmental Dynamics 242:1262–1283, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key findings This study provides the first reliable descriptions of normal embryonic stages of wild-type goldfish. The embryonic features of goldfish and zebrafish are almost directly comparable. Goldfish embryos provide a novel model for the investigation of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development. PMID:23913853

  4. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  5. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  6. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  8. Cobalt-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver and kidney of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olha I; Husak, Viktor V; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt is an essential element, but at high concentrations it is toxic. In addition to its well-known function as an integral part of cobalamin (vitamin B₁₂), cobalt has recently been shown to be a mimetic of hypoxia and a stimulator of the production of reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the responses of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to 96 h exposure to 50, 100 or 150 mg L⁻¹ Co²⁺ in aquarium water (administered as CoCl₂). The concentrations of cobalt in aquaria did not change during fish exposure. Exposure to cobalt resulted in increased levels of lipid peroxides in brain (a 111% increase after exposure to 150 mg L⁻¹ Co²⁺) and liver (30-66% increases after exposure to 50-150 mg L⁻¹ Co²⁺), whereas the content of protein carbonyls rose only in kidney (by 112%) after exposure to 150 mg L⁻¹ cobalt. Low molecular mass thiols were depleted by 24-41% in brain in response to cobalt treatment. The activities of primary antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were substantially suppressed in brain and liver as a result of Co²⁺ exposure, whereas in kidney catalase activity was unchanged and SOD activity increased. The activities of glutathione-related enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, did not change as a result of cobalt exposure, but glutathione reductase activity increased by ∼40% and ∼70% in brain and kidney, respectively. Taken together, these data show that exposure of fish to Co²⁺ ions results in the development of oxidative stress and the activation of defense systems in different goldfish tissues.

  9. Control of breathing in in vitro brain stem preparation from goldfish (Carassius auratus; Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Côté, Éric; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In vitro brain stem preparations from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to first determine whether this species possesses central chemoreceptors able to modulate respiratory activity. Preparations were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF); fictive breathing was recorded extracellularly by placing a suction electrode on cranial nerve VII. Reducing the level of O2 in the gas mixture used to bubble the aCSF from a hyperoxic level (80% or 98.7% O2) to a relative hypoxic level (20% or 40% O2) increased the frequency of the fictive respiratory burst (P = 0.0002). Reducing the pH of the aCSF from 7.9 to 7.4 by increasing CO2 in the superfusate did not affect fictive breathing. Chloride-mediated neurotransmission (GABA/glycine) is a major modulator of respiratory activity; however, its effect on the neural circuits that regulate breathing in teleosts remains unknown. Bath application of GABA (0.5, 5.0 mM) decreased burst frequency but not amplitude; this effect was dose dependent (drug × concentration: P = 0.01). Superfusion of the preparations with aCSF containing 1.25 μM of bicuculline methochloride and 1.50 μM of strychnine hydrochloride (GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists, respectively) increased burst frequency (P = 0.002) and amplitude (P < 0.001). We conclude that respiratory activity produced by the goldfish brain stem is not responsive to the moderate CO2 levels used in this study; it may contain O2 chemoreceptors, but the relatively small response could also reflect nonspecific effects of hypoxia on the central nervous system. Cl(-)-mediated neurotransmission inhibits fictive breathing; this aspect of respiratory regulation is similar to other groups of vertebrates.

  10. The genetic map of goldfish (Carassius auratus) provided insights to the divergent genome evolutions in the Cyprinidae family

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, You-Yi; Zheng, Xian-Hu; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Min; Cao, Ding-Chen; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Lv, Wei-Hua; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Peng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was constructed using RNA-sequencing. This map consists of 50 linkage groups with 8,521 SNP markers and an average resolution of 0.62 cM. Approximately 84% of markers are in protein-coding genes orthologous to zebrafish proteins. We performed comparative genome analysis between zebrafish and medaka, common carp, grass carp, and goldfish to study the genome evolution events in the Cyprinidae family. The comparison revealed large synteny blocks among Cyprinidae fish and we hypothesized that the Cyprinidae ancestor undergone many inter-chromosome rearrangements after speciation from teleost ancestor. The study also showed that goldfish genome had one more round of whole genome duplication (WGD) than zebrafish. Our results illustrated that most goldfish markers were orthologous to genes in common carp, which had four rounds of WGD. Growth-related regions and genes were identified by QTL analysis and association study. Function annotations of the associated genes suggested that they might regulate development and growth in goldfish. This first genetic map enables us to study the goldfish genome evolution and provides an important resource for selective breeding of goldfish. PMID:27708388

  11. Possible disruption of pheromonal communication by humic acid in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, P C; Barata, E N; Canario, A V M

    2002-10-30

    Humic acids are large, complex, organic molecules which are ubiquitous components of aquatic environments as products of degradation of plant material. In aqueous solution they form microvesicles. As many teleost pheromones are steroidal in nature, we hypothesised that they would preferentially dissolve in the organic, hydrophobic core of these vesicles instead of in water and therefore be unavailable for detection. This would have obvious and profound effects on many aspects of fish biology. To test this hypothesis we recorded electro-olfactogram (EOG) response of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) olfactory epithelium to the pheromones 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (1720 beta-P), its sulphated conjugate (1720 beta-P-SO(4)) and prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)), all at 10(-11) to 10(-8) M, in the absence and presence of humic acids (1-1000 m x gl(-1)). At nearly all concentrations of humic acid tested, there was a significant attenuation of the amplitude of the initial (phasic) response to 1720 beta-P compared to 1720 beta-P alone. At higher concentrations of humic acid, the EOG response to 1720 beta-P was often completely obliterated, suggesting that the concentration of the pheromone available to the olfactory epithelium was below the threshold of detection. Exposure of the olfactory epithelium to humic acid did not cause any short-term loss of sensitivity to 1720 beta-P per se. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of electro-encephalograms from the olfactory bulb demonstrated that the nervous activity evoked by the same concentration of 1720 beta-P was less intense in the presence of humic acid than its absence. PGF(2alpha) is non-steroidal and much more soluble in water. In contrast to 1720 beta-P, only the higher concentrations of humic acid (100 and 1000 mg x l(-1)) significantly diminished the EOG amplitude. 1720 beta-P-SO(4) is detected via a distinct olfactory mechanism to the free form. Given that the sulphate group increases the water

  12. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  13. Reproductive and stress hormone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lister, A; Nero, V; Farwell, A; Dixon, D G; Van Der Kraak, G

    2008-05-01

    Athabasca oil sands mining in northern Alberta produces process-affected waters that are characterized by the presence of naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high salinity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these process-affected waters on reproductive and stress related endpoints in mature goldfish, Carassius auratus. In two separate studies, testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in the plasma were significantly reduced in both male and female goldfish caged for 19 days in process-affected waters relative to controls. This effect was most pronounced in goldfish caged at a site containing mature fine tailing and tailings pond water (P5). Ovarian and testicular tissues from fish in the caging studies were incubated in vitro to evaluate potential differences in basal steroid production levels and responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Basal levels of testosterone were reduced significantly in males and females from P5 compared with the control pond (P1) demonstrating that the gonads from exposed fish had a diminished steroidogenic capacity. Gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds responded similarly to hCG suggesting that the steroid biosynthetic pathway remained functionally intact. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in male goldfish caged in a pond containing mature fine tailings and capped with uncontaminated water (P3) and in P5 compared with P1. Collectively, these studies suggest that waste products of oil sands mining have the potential to disrupt the normal endocrine functioning in exposed fish through alterations to both reproductive and glucocorticoid hormone biosynthesis. In additional laboratory studies, exposure of goldfish to a naphthenic acid extract for 7 days failed to replicate the effects of processes-affected waters on plasma steroid levels and the causative agent(s) responsible for the effects on steroid biosynthesis remains to be identified.

  14. A major substrate for MPF: cDNA cloning and expression of polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 gamma from goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Mika; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2002-02-01

    One of the eukaryotic polypeptide chain elongation factors, EF-1 beta gamma delta complex, is involved in polypeptide chain elongation via the GDP/GTP exchange activity of EF-1 alpha. In the complex, EF-1 gamma has been reported to be a major substrate for maturation promoting factor (MPF). Here, we present the cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of goldfish, Carassius auratus, EF-1 gamma from the goldfish ovary. The cloned cDNA was 1490 bp in length and encoded 442 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly homologous to EF-1 gamma from other species. Although, the phosphorylation site identified in Xenopus EF-1 gamma was not conserved in the goldfish homologue, phosphorylation analysis showed that the goldfish EF-1 gamma was phosphorylated by MPF. We concluded that EF-1 gamma is a substrate for MPF during oocyte maturation in goldfish.

  15. Anatomical distribution and daily profile of gper1b gene expression in brain and peripheral structures of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Gueguen, Marie-M; Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Kah, Olivier; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The functional organization of the circadian system and the location of the main circadian oscillators vary through phylogeny. Present study investigates by in situ hybridization the anatomical location of the clock gene gPer1b in forebrain and midbrain, pituitary, and in two peripheral locations, the anterior intestine and liver, in a teleost fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Moreover, the daily expression profiles of this gene were also studied by quantitative Real Time-PCR. Goldfish were maintained under a 12L-12D photoperiod and fed daily at 2 h after lights were switched on. A wide distribution of gPer1b mRNA in goldfish brain and pituitary was found in telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei (including the homologous to mammalian SCN), habenular nucleus, optic tectum, cerebellum and torus longitudinalis. Moreover, gPer1b expression was observed, for the first time in teleosts, in the pituitary, liver and anterior intestine. Day/night differences in gper1b mRNA abundance were found by in situ hybridization, with higher signal at nighttime that correlates with the results obtained by RT-PCR, where a rhythmic gPer1b expression was found in all tissues with acrophases at the end of the night. Amplitudes of gper1b rhythms vary among tissues, being higher in liver and intestine than in the brain, maybe because different cues entrain clocks in these locations. These results support the existence of functional clocks in many central and peripheral locations in goldfish coordinated, ticking at the same time.

  16. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  17. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  18. Quantitative analysis of fish schooling behavior with different numbers of medaka ( Oryzias latipes) and goldfish ( Carassius auratus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leem, Joo-Baek; Jeon, Wonju; Yun, Chi-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Fish form schools of various sizes, according to species or environmental conditions, to attain several advantages, such as protection from predators or to improve efficiency in searching for prey. Thus, quantifying the mechanisms of how group size affects schooling behavior may contribute to better understanding fish biology and the evolution of the collective behavior of fishes. In the present study, we explored how school size affected the behavior of medaka ( Oryzias latipes) and goldfish ( Carassius auratus). Size groups of 10 to 40 individuals were placed in a circular aquarium (100 cm diameter, 30 cm height, 5 cm water depth) and videoed for 4 hours. Eight to 10 video clips of 3 seconds in length for each group size were evaluated for 6 physical parameters of fish schooling behavior. Regardless of species, the mean distance among individuals increased with increasing school size. However, due to variations in certain physical parameters, the schooling pattern of goldfish was more elongated than medaka, possibly related to body size, or indicating species-specific differences in schooling characteristics. Our experimental datasets could be incorporated into theoretical mathematical models of fish schooling behavior, by contributing new information about school size and species differences.

  19. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-03-24

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish.

  20. The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

  1. A multi-biomarker assessment of single and combined effects of norfloxacin and sulfamethoxazole on male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Wu, Donghai; Yan, Zhenhua

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the sublethal effects of norfloxacin alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated, the biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxides dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, vitellogenin (Vtg) in serum and DNA damage in gonad were determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days of exposure. Brain AChE activity was significantly inhibited by norfloxacin (≥0.4 mg/L) after 4 and 7 days and the mixtures with sulfamethoxazole (≥0.24 mg/L) after 4 days of exposure, and significant concentration-response relationships were obtained. Liver EROD, GST and SOD activities were significantly increased by the individual and mixed pharmaceuticals in most cases and exhibited analogously bell-shaped concentration-response curves. Serum Vtg was increased by the highest concentration of norfloxacin and two higher concentrations of the mixtures. Higher concentrations of the test antibiotics induced significant DNA damage in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicated that selected antibiotics possesses cytotoxic and genotoxic potential against the non-target organism C. auratus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India.

  3. Cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart★

    PubMed Central

    Roell, Julia; Das, Tanmoy L.; Brown, Evelyn; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. Here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (Carassius auretus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. We observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and melanomacrophages. These inflammatory cells were identified in the lumen of the spongy heart, within the site of the wound, and attached to endocardial cells adjacent to the site of injury. Marked accumulation of collagen fibers and increased connective tissue were also observed during the first and second week in a transition zone between healthy and injured myocardium as well as in adjacent sub-epicardial regions. The accumulation of collagen and connective tissue however did not persist. The presence of capillaries was also noted in the injured area during repair. The replacement of the cauterized region of the ventricle by myocardial tissue was achieved by 6 weeks. The presence of ethynyl deoxyuridine-positive cardiac myocytes and partially differentiated cardiac myocytes during repair suggest effective cardiac myocyte driven regeneration mechanisms also operate in the injured goldfish heart, and are similar to those observed in zebrafish and giant danio. Our data suggest the ability for cardiac regeneration may be widely conserved among cyprinids. PMID:24548889

  4. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of monocrotophos on the reproductive axis in the male goldfish (Carassius auratus): potential mechanisms underlying vitellogenin induction.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Ru, Shaoguo; Bing, Xin; Wang, Wei

    2010-06-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been banned in many countries. Both vitellogenin mRNA expression and secretion were significantly induced in male goldfish by exposure to an MCP-based pesticide, suggesting that MCP has significant estrogenic properties. To elucidate the mechanisms of action of MCP on vitellogenin induction, we used radioimmunoassay to examine the effect of MCP treatment on plasma 17beta-estradiol and testosterone levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus). We also investigated the potential impacts of MCP treatment on aromatase expression, on the synthesis and secretion of pituitary gonadotropins and on the regulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones by real-time PCR and radioimmunoassay. Experiments were carried out during the period of gonadal late recrudescence following a 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00 mg L(-1) of a pesticide containing 40% MCP in a semi-static exposure system. The results indicated that males in each MCP treatment group had much higher plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol, suggesting that the induction of VTG production by MCP was indirectly caused by elevated levels of endogenous 17beta-estradiol. MCP-induced plasma 17beta-estradiol levels via interference with the reproductive axis at multiple potential sites in male goldfish: (a) MCP exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of gonadal aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens, consequently reducing plasma levels of testosterone and increasing plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol; (b) MCP treatment increased follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit mRNA expression and protein secretion and decreased luteinizing hormone beta subunit mRNA expression and protein secretion, thus interfering with gonadotropin synthesis and secretion at the pituitary level and leading to the disruption of reproductive endocrine control and androgen and estrogen balance.

  6. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Two functional growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor) type 1a and 2a in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tohru; Matsuda, Kouhei; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2010-10-07

    Here we report the identification and characterization of ghrelin (GRLN) receptors in goldfish Carassius auratus. We identified four distinct mRNAs generated from four different genes. Those were roughly divided into two types, based on the number of amino acids and amino acid sequence similarity; one composed of 360-amino acids, which is similar to zebrafish GHS-R1a (showing 94-96% identity) and the other encodes a 366- or 367-amino acid protein, which demonstrated 95% identity to zebrafish GHS-R2a. We therefore designated these proteins as goldfish GHS-R1a type 1 (1a-1) and type 2 (1a-2) and GHS-R2a type 1 (2a-1) and type 2 (2a-2). GHS-R1a and 2a proteins share 74% sequence identity with each other. In functional analyses, three of these four receptors (except 2a-2 receptor), were activated by goldfish GRLN or GHS. The GRLN activity was inhibited by [D-Lys(3)] GHRP-6 but not by des-acyl goldfish GRLN. Expression levels of GHS-R1a mRNA were 2- to 50-folds higher than those of GHS-R2a, and GHS-R2a-2 mRNA expression was 1/25 of GHS-R2a-1. GHS-R1a-1 and 1a-2 mRNAs were mainly detected in the central nervous system (CNS), pituitary, liver, intestine and testis, whereas GHS-R2a-1 and 2a-2 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in the CNS, body kidney, ovary and testis. A 7-day fasting led to a decrease in GHS-R1a-1 mRNA expression in the vagal lobe, but stimulated GHS-R1a-2 mRNA in the liver, although no change was observed in GHS-R2a mRNAs. These results indicate that goldfish has four GHS-Ra that is divided into two types, 1a and 2a; and each receptor expression is separately regulated with GHS-R1a acts on energy metabolism.

  8. Toral lateral line units of goldfish, Carassius auratus, are sensitive to the position and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gunnar; Klein, Adrian; Mogdans, Joachim; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-09-01

    We recorded the responses of lateral line units in the midbrain torus semicircularis of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to a 50-Hz vibrating sphere and determined the unit's spatial receptive fields for various distances between fish and sphere and for different directions of sphere vibration. All but one unit responded to the vibrating sphere with an increase in discharge rate. Only a proportion (25%) of the units exhibited phase-locked responses. Receptive fields were narrow or broad and contained one, two or more areas of increased discharge rate. The data show that the receptive fields of toral lateral line units are in many respects similar to those of brainstem units but differ from those of afferent nerve fibres. The responses of primary afferents represent the pressure gradient pattern generated by a vibrating sphere and provide information about sphere location and vibration direction. Across the array of lateral line neuromasts, the fish brain in principle can derive this information. Nevertheless, toral units tuned to a distinct sphere location or sensitive to a distinct sphere vibration direction were not found. Therefore, it is conceivable that the torus semicircularis uses a population code to determine spatial location and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

  9. Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase reactivity in the central nervous system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Giraldez-Perez, Rosa M; Gaytan, Susana P; Ruano, Diego; Torres, Blas; Pasaro, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The nitrergic system has been inferred from cells positive to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry and/or to the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry in different species of vertebrates. The aim of the present work was to systematically study the distribution of cell producing nitric oxide in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) brain. To reach this goal, we firstly studied co-localization for NADPHd and nNOS techniques and demonstrated an extensive double labeling. Then, we studied the distribution through the brain by the two separate methods and found labeled cells widely distributed in brain and spinal cord. In the telencephalon, such cells were in both dorsal and ventral areas. In the diencephalon, the cells were found in some nuclei of the preoptic area and hypothalamus, habenula, pretectum, and dorsal and ventral thalamic regions. In the midbrain, cells were observed in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, and tegmental nuclei. In the rhombencephalon, cells were found in the cerebellum, the reticular formation, the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the nuclei of the cranial nerves. Labeled cells were also observed in the gray area of the spinal cord. Cognizing that a direct comparison of the present results with those reported in other vertebrates is not clear-cut because of homologies; we conclude that the nitrergic system is roughly similar from fish to mammals.

  10. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  11. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) matching geometric and featural cues: a reinterpretation of some of the data of Vargas, López, Salas, and Thinus-Blanc (2004).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ken

    2005-11-01

    Vargas, López, Salas, and Thinus-Blanc showed that goldfish (Carassius auratus) can use both geometric and featural cues in relocating a target corner in a rectangular enclosure. When featural cues (arrangement of striped walls) were put in conflict with geometric cues, results differed according to target location during training. Vargas, López, et al. explained the results of their cue conflict in terms of 2 different strategies: mapping and cue guidance. I provide an alternative, more parsimonious interpretation in which the same strategy of attempting to match as many cues as possible applies to both cases.

  13. PROPOFOL AS AN IMMERSION ANESTHETIC AND IN A MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION (MAC) REDUCTION MODEL IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    PubMed

    Balko, Julie A; Wilson, Sarah K; Lewbart, Gregory A; Gaines, Brian R; Posner, Lysa P

    2017-03-01

    Propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). Objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction model. Using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/L propofol. Data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. Baseline MAC (Dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were anesthetized with propofol on 4 consecutive days with MAC determination on the fifth day, weekly, for 1 mo. Using a crossover design, MAC of propofol (n = 15) was determined 1 hr following administration of i.m. butorphanol 0.05, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg, ketoprofen 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, morphine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, or saline 1 ml/kg. Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P < 0.05) and Tango's score confidence interval. Propofol at 1 mg/L did not produce anesthesia. Induction time with 10 mg/L (112, 84-166 s) was faster than 5 mg/L (233, 150-289 s; P = 0.0078). Heart and opercular rates for 5 and 10 mg/L were 36 (24-72) beats/min, 58 (44-68) operculations/min and 39 (20-48) beats/min, 57 (48-80) operculations/min, respectively. Recovery time was 249 (143-396) s and 299 (117-886) s with 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Response to supramaximal stimulation was not significantly different with 5 mg/L (1/8) compared with 10 mg/L (0/8). Baseline and weekly MAC following daily exposure was 8.4 and 9.0, 8.1, 8.1, and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. MAC reduction was no more than 8% following any drug or dosage. Propofol at 5 and 10 mg/L produced anesthesia, and anesthetic needs were similar following repeated exposure. Propofol was not suitable to test MAC reduction in goldfish in this study.

  14. Circadian clock genes of goldfish, Carassius auratus: cDNA cloning and rhythmic expression of Period and Cryptochrome transcripts in retina, liver, and gut

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, E.; Haque, R.; Iuvone, P.M.; Azpeleta, C.; Alonso-Gómez, A.L.; Delgado, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Clock genes are known to be the molecular core of biological clocks of vertebrates. They are expressed not only in those tissues considered central pacemakers, but also in peripheral tissues. In the present study, partial cDNAs for six of the principal clock genes (Period 1-3 and Cryptochrome 1-3) were cloned from a teleost fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). These genes showed high homology (approximately 90%) with the respective cDNAs of zebrafish (Danio rerio), the only other teleost from which clock genes have been cloned. The daily expression pattern of each gene in retina, gut and liver of goldfish was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR and cosinor analysis. All clock genes analyzed in the retina showed circadian rhythmicity; however, only Per 2-3 and Cry 2-3 were rhythmic in goldfish liver and gut. The amplitude and phase of the expression in liver and gut were different from those found in goldfish retina. Such differences suggest that other cues, such as feeding time, may contribute to the entrainment of oscillators in goldfish liver and gut. Our results support the use of goldfish as a teleost model to investigate the location and functioning of the circadian oscillators. PMID:19346448

  15. A novel hematopoietic granulin induces proliferation of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hanington, Patrick C; Barreda, Daniel R; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2006-04-14

    Granulins are a group of highly conserved growth factors that have been described from a variety of organisms spanning the metazoa. In this study, goldfish granulin was one of the most commonly identified transcripts in the differential cross-screening of macrophage cDNA libraries and was preferentially expressed in proliferating macrophages. Unlike mammalian granulins, which possess 7.5 repeats of a characteristic signature of 12 cysteine residues, the goldfish granulin encoded a putative peptide possessing only 1.5 cysteine repeats. Northern blot and real-time PCR analyses indicated that goldfish granulin was expressed only in the hematopoietic tissues of the goldfish, specifically the kidney and spleen, and in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We expressed granulin using a prokaryotic expression system and produced an affinity-purified rabbit anti-goldfish granulin IgG. Recombinant goldfish granulin induced a dose-dependent proliferative response of goldfish macrophages that was inversely related to the myeloid differentiation stage of the cells studied. The highest proliferative response was observed in macrophage progenitor cells and monocytes. This proliferative response of macrophages was abrogated by the addition of anti-granulin IgG. These results indicate that goldfish granulin is a growth factor that positively modulates cell proliferation at distinct junctures of macrophage differentiation.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat(®) for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat(®) on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat(®) were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat(®), when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat(®) without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells. PMID:28894641

  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-07-27

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, George; Hanington, Patrick C; Wilson, Elaine C; Grayfer, Leon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, activation and de-activation. It is one of the first cytokines released during an immune response and plays a strong immunomodulatory role in the activation and subsequent de-activation of macrophages and other immune cells. TGF-beta is a highly conserved molecule, and members of the TGF superfamily can be found in organisms as evolutionarily distant as arthropods. In this manuscript, we described the identification of a goldfish TGF-beta molecule, which was highly expressed in the skin, kidney and spleen of the goldfish and its expression was up-regulated in macrophages treated with LPS or recombinant goldfish TNF-alpha. Goldfish TGF-beta shared a high amino acid identity with, and was phylogenetically related to, TGF-beta1 of other teleost fish, birds, amphibians and mammals. Recombinant goldfish TGF-beta (rTGF-beta) induced the proliferation of a goldfish fibroblast cell line (CCL71) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rTGF-beta down-regulated the nitric oxide response of TNF-alpha-activated macrophages. This is the first report of teleost TGF-beta function in an ectothermic vertebrate.

  20. Localization of a putative epiboly-determining factor in oocytes of the goldfish ( Carassius auratus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Cui; Wu, Xian-Han

    1996-09-01

    It is unknown whether cytoplasmic determinants in goldfish eggs are asymetrically localized before maturation. In this study fully grown goldfish oocytes with intact germinal vesiles (GVs) were ligated with baby hair loops along desired planes into two parts, matured in vitro, and inseminated. Embryos developed from the animal halves with GV of oocytes ligated along the equator were unable to undergo epiboly, while those developed from the GV-containing parts of oocytes ligated along the animal-vegetal axis were able to. Also, embryos developed from the animal halves obtained from fertilized eggs could undergo epiboly. From these results, it was postulated that the goldfish's premature oocyte possessed a putative factor in the vegetal hemisphere which was responsible for epiboly of the embryonic cells.

  1. Biochemical bases for environmental adaptation in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ): resistance to ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Schenone, G.; Arillo, A.; Margiocco, C.; Melodia, F.; Mensi, P.

    1982-10-01

    Goldfish specimens were exposed for 24-48 hr to 20, 40, 600, and 2500 micrograms N/liter unionized ammonia (UIA). This treatment causes, in the brain, increases in total ammonia, glutamine, lactate, and succinate and decreases in glutamate, glucidic stores, total NADH, and ATP. Most of these effects have already been reported in ammonia-treated trout. It is therefore suggested that the cerebral biochemical mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in these two species are fundamentally the same. The most important metabolic alterations, however, appear for UIA concentrations which are higher than those necessary to produce the same effects in trout, in accordance with the greater resistance of goldfish to ammonia. Some of the physiological-biochemical adaptations which are at the root of this phenomenon have been pointed out and discussed. In the liver of the ammonia-treated goldfish total ammonia, glutamine, glutamate, and succinate all increase, while lactate, glycine, and taurine decrease; liver glucidic stores remain unaltered. These results indicate a difference in the metabolic responses of goldfish and trout liver.

  2. Sorting food from stones: the vagal taste system in Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Finger, Thomas E

    2008-02-01

    The sense of taste, although a relatively undistinguished sensory modality in most mammals, is a highly developed sense in many fishes, e.g., catfish, gadids, and carps including goldfish. In these species, the amount of neural tissue devoted to this modality may approach 20% of the entire brain mass, reflecting an enormous number of taste buds scattered across the external surface of the animal as well as within the oral cavity. The primary sensory nuclei for taste form a longitudinal column of nuclei along the dorsomedial surface of the medulla. Within this column of gustatory nuclei, the sensory system is represented as a fine-grain somatotopic map, with external body parts being represented rostrally within the column, and oropharyngeal surfaces being represented caudally. Goldfish have a specialization of the oral cavity, the palatal organ, which enables them to sort food particles from particulate substrate material such as gravel. The palatal organ taste information reaches the large, vagal lobe with a complex laminar and columnar organization. This lobe also supports a radially-organized reflex system which activates the musculature of the palatal organ to effect the sorting operation. The stereotyped, laminated structure of this system in goldfish has facilitated studies of the circuitry and neurotransmitter systems underlying the goldfish's ability to sort food from stones.

  3. [Effect of food deprivation on quantitative and time characteristics of feeding of goldfish Carassius auratus in norm and under action of adrenaline].

    PubMed

    Garina, D V

    2011-01-01

    There was studied effect of intraperitoneally administered adrenaline (0.14 mg/kg) on volume and time characteristics of feeding (duration of single, grouped, and total nutrition) of goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) previously maintained on normal and restricted (for 10 and 15 days) diet. The fish on restricted diet demonstrated the biphasic alimentary response to the adrenaline administration, similar with that in the normally fed fish: a decrease of volume, duration of the grouped and total feeding at the first phase of action of hormone and an increase--at the second phase; however, the value of the response at the first phase of the hormone action was lower, whereas at the second phase--higher than in the fish obtaining a sufficient amount of food prior to the experiment. Duration of the single feeding rose in fish of all groups including the control one, the maximum increase being observed in the goldfish submitted to food deprivation. The glycogen content in hepatopancreas of the normally fed goldfish exceeded by the end of the experiment 4.5-6 times that in the food-deprived ones. The obtained results confirm suggestion that a decrease of the level of reserve substances in the body leads to a decrease of the fish receptivity to the stress hormone--adrenaline and, hence, to a change of the value of its effects on the food-searching goldfish activity, with preservation of dynamics of the parameters.

  4. Effects of Chlorpheniramine and L-histidine on vestibular compensation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Piratello, Aline Cristina; Mattioli, Rosana

    2004-09-02

    Histamine is thought to be involved in the recovery of vestibular function after damage to the vestibular receptors of the inner ear. This study evaluated the effects of post-operative treatment using Chlorpheniramine (H1 histamine antagonist) and L-histidine, (a histaminergic precursor), after hemilabyrinthectomy in goldfish. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the labyrinth induces a transient postural imbalance in response to light. After the lesion, the animals were injected intraperitoneally, during 12 consecutive days, with Chlorpheniramine, L-histidine and saline. All the substances were administered in a volume of 1 ml/kg body weight. Another group, which served as a non-lesion control, did not receive hemilabyrinthectomy or systemic injections. Chlorpheniramine accelerated the functional recovery when compared with that of the saline group. These data suggest that the inhibition of the histaminergic system facilitates the functional recovery in goldfish.

  5. Hexavalent chromium-induced multiple biomarker responses in liver and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2011-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is a constituent of chromite ore. Although it is known to have several industrial and technological applications, its release into the aquatic environment as a result of chemical spill or inadequate waste discharge may hamper the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Cr (VI) on multiple biomarkers responses in goldfish under subchronic exposure conditions. Laboratory-acclimatized fish were exposed to 4.25 ppm and 8.57 ppm Cr (VI) for four weeks using a continuous flow-through system. During exposure, fish samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for multiple biomarkers including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein (MT), and total protein in liver and kidney. Study results indicated that the CAT activity and total protein levels in Cr (VI) - treated goldfish did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from their respective controls during experimentation. However, highly significant up-regulations (P < 0.05) of SOD, GPx, and MT expression in Cr (VI) - treated goldfish were recorded at different exposure times depending on Cr (VI) concentration, test organ, and/or biomarker of interest. For example, significantly higher liver GPx levels were found at weeks 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm, while kidney GPx levels were significantly higher at weeks 1, 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 2, 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm concentration. In summary, Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress was characterized by statistically significant increases in SOD, GPx, and MT expression in goldfish tissues; with the kidney showing a relatively higher sensitivity to Cr (VI) toxicity compared with the liver.

  6. Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Multiple Biomarker Responses in Liver and Kidney of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is a constituent of chromite ore. Although it is known to have several industrial and technological applications, its release into the aquatic environment as a result of chemical spill or inadequate waste discharge may hamper the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Cr (VI) on multiple biomarkers responses in goldfish under sub-chronic exposure conditions. Laboratory-acclimatized fish were exposed to 4.25 ppm and 8.57 ppm Cr (VI) for four weeks using a continuous flow-through system. During exposure, fish samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for multiple biomarkers including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein (MT), and total protein in liver and kidney. Study results indicated that the CAT activity and total protein levels in Cr (VI) – treated goldfish did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from their respective controls during experimentation. However, highly significant up-regulations (p<0.05) of SOD, GPx, and MT expression in Cr (VI) – treated goldfish were recorded at different exposure times depending on Cr (VI) concentration, test organ, and/or biomarker of interest. For example, significantly higher liver GPx levels were found at weeks 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm, while kidney GPx levels were significantly higher at weeks 1, 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 2, 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm concentration. In summary, Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress was characterized by statistically significant increases in SOD, GPx, and MT expression in goldfish tissues; with the kidney showing a relatively higher sensitivity to Cr (VI) toxicity compared to the liver. PMID:20549632

  7. Pharmacokinetics of morphine after intramuscular injection in common goldfish Carassius auratus and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Kolsrud, Hanne Hustoft; Ranheim, Birgit; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2009-12-22

    Teleost fish have a nociceptive system and likely perceive pain. This warrants the development of analgesic protocols both for experimental surgery and for various husbandry procedures. Morphine is the standard analgesic against which the efficacy of other analgesics is assessed, and is the analgesic that has been most used in fish. The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of morphine after an intramuscular (i.m.) injection in common goldfish and Atlantic salmon, and to illustrate the whole-body distribution of morphine in salmon following i.m. injection of tritiated morphine. In the kinetic experiment, goldfish and salmon were respectively i.m. injected with 40 and 100 mg morphine kg(-1) in the right dorsal epaxial musculature. Blood was drawn at predetermined time points. Plasma was analysed for morphine and metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Morphine had a Tmax (time at which the maximum plasma concentration was measured) of 0.5 h in both species. The Cmax (maximum plasma concentration) showed substantial inter-individual variation, with a mean (90% CI) of 187 (167 to 199) mg l(-1) in salmon and 37 (29 to 43) mg l(-1) in goldfish, as determined by bootstrap analysis. The mean elimination half-lives were 12.5 and 13.5 h in goldfish and in salmon, respectively. The degree of metabolism to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) was low, with levels of M3G exceeding those of M6G. The distribution study demonstrated that the levels of tritiated morphine in the anterior kidney surpassed those in the other organs. A substantial amount seemed to be excreted through the gastrointestinal tract, while little tritium activity could be detected in the central nervous system.

  8. ERK signaling pathway regulates embryonic survival and eye development in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Wang, L; Li, T-T; Li, X; Huang, X-Q; Chen, X-W; Li, Z-L; Lv, X-M; Liu, F-Y; Luo, Z-W; Liu, M; Hu, X-H; Hu, W-F; Huang, Z-X; Yi, M; Liu, S-J; Liu, Y-Z; Li, D W-C

    2013-07-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the three major types of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Previous studies showed that ERKs mediate various signaling pathways for cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and transformation in mammals. In the present study, we use goldfish as a model system and demonstrate that ERK kinases play important roles in promoting embryonic survival and regulate development of eye and trunk in vertebrates. ERKs are highly expressed in multiple tissues including lens epithelial cells, lens fiber cells, retina, brain, muscle and heart of adult goldfish. Injection of the dominant negative ERK mutant (DNM-ERK) into the fertilized eggs of goldfish significantly inhibited ERK activity at blastula stage, and completely blocked ERK activity at gastrula and later stages. As a result, the blastula cells were induced into apoptosis, and majority of the injected embryos were lethal at embryonic stages. At the molecular level, inhibition of ERK activity by DNM-ERKs suppressed phosphorylation of Bad at Ser-112 to promote apoptosis. Similar results were observed when MEK activity was inhibited by U0126 treatment. The survived embryos display significant abnormality in the phenotypes of both eye and trunk. Associated with the abnormality in the eye development, phosphorylation in Pax-6 and expression of HSF4 were significantly decreased and expression of the β-crystallin gene was also downregulated. These results provide novel information regarding the roles of ERKs in regulating vertebrate development.

  9. Sorting Food from Stones: The Vagal Taste System in Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    The sense of taste, although a relatively undistinguished sensory modality in most mammals, is a highly developed sense in many fishes, e.g. catfish, gadids, and carps including goldfish. In these species, the amount of neural tissue devoted to this modality may approach 20% of the entire brain mass, reflecting an enormous number of taste buds scattered across the external surface of the animal as well as within the oral cavity. The primary sensory nuclei for taste form a longitudinal column of nuclei along the dorsomedial surface of the medulla. Within this column of gustatory nuclei, the sensory system is represented as a fine-grain somatotopic map, with external body parts being represented rostrally within the column, and oropharyngeal surfaces being represented caudally. Goldfish have a specialization of the oral cavity, the palatal organ, which enables them to sort food particles from particulate substrate material such as gravel. The palatal organ taste information reaches the large, vagal lobe with a complex laminar and columnar organization. This lobe also supports a radially-organized reflex system which activates the musculature of the palatal organ to effect the sorting operation. The stereotyped, laminated structure of this system in goldfish has facilitated studies of the circuitry and neurotransmitter systems underlying the goldfish’s ability to sort food from stones. PMID:18228077

  10. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Potassium transmembrane fluxes in anoxic hepatocytes from goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Mut, P N; Espelt, M V; Krumschnabel, G; Schwarzbaum, P J

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that anoxic goldfish hepatocytes can maintain the transmembrane gradients of Na(+), H(+) and Ca(2+), cyanide (CN) intoxication leads to a rapid breakdown of K(+) homeostasis. In this study, [(86)Rb(+)] K(+) fluxes across the plasma membrane of goldfish hepatocytes were studied in order to identify the possible causes of this imbalance. Four minutes of cyanide incubation induced an acute and stable 61% decrease of K(+) influx (mostly driven by Na,K-ATPase activity), whereas K(+) efflux increased by 24.3%, this imbalance yielding a net K(+) efflux of 0.279+/-0.024 nmol 10(-6) cells(-1) min(-1). This uncoupling was not observed when glycolytic ATP production was inhibited with iodoacetic acid. Although the CN-induced decrease of K(+) influx was fully reversible upon washout of the inhibitor, it could not be prevented by any of the following treatments: (1) addition of 2% bovine serum albumin, which binds extracellular fatty acids known to activate specific K(+) channels; (2) addition of ascorbate, which acts as a radical scavenger; (3) inclusion of 5 mM glucose as an extracellular carbon source; and (4) removal of medium oxygen (obtained by nitrogen bubbling). Regarding the elevation of K(+) efflux in the presence of CN, neither ATP-dependent K(+) channels nor the KCl cotransporter appeared to be activated, whereas BaCl(2), an inhibitor of voltage-gated K(+) channels, decreased K(+) efflux of CN-intoxicated cells to control levels. In summary, these results indicate that, in goldfish hepatocytes, the CN-induced K(+) imbalance results from acute Na,K-ATPase inhibition together with the activation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels, the latter probably resulting from transient membrane depolarization.

  12. Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Jan A; Sassine, J; Trudeau, Vance L; Moon, Thomas W

    2010-10-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in wastewater and bioaccumulates in wild-caught fish, especially in brain, liver and muscle tissues. Previous studies indicated that FLX is pharmacologically active in fish species exerting anorexigenic effects, but it is not clear whether waterborne FLX has any potential effects on regulating food intake and energy metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effect of two doses of FLX, an environmental concentration of 540 ng/L, and 100-times this concentration (54 μg/L), on feeding and key metabolic parameters in goldfish. Fish were exposed for a period of 28 days and changes in food intake and body mass were assessed. Pair-fed groups were maintained to discern primary FLX-induced effects from secondary metabolic responses induced by the decreased food intake. Additionally, an untreated control group and a fasted group were used to further compare physiological changes in the context of nutritional status of the animals. Significant decreases in food intake and weight gain were recorded in goldfish exposed to 54 μg/L FLX. Furthermore a significant decrease occurred in circulating glucose levels in the group exposed to 540 ng/L FLX. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we investigated gene expression of feeding neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine brain of goldfish as well as gene expression and enzymatic activity of glycolytic and gluconeogenetic enzymes in liver and muscle tissues. The results confirm brain gene expression patterns in line with potential anorexigenic effects in the hypothalamus, with increased expression in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and decreased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY). With respect to glucose metabolism, liver gene expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase decreased and muscle hexokinase activity increased in fish exposed to 540 ng/L FLX. Overall, this study demonstrated anorectic properties of FLX at a dose of 54 μg/L FLX

  13. A hindbrain segmental scaffold specifying neuronal location in the adult goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Gilland, E; Straka, H; Wong, T W; Baker, R; Zottoli, S J

    2014-07-01

    The vertebrate hindbrain develops as a series of well-defined neuroepithelial segments or rhombomeres. While rhombomeres are visible in all vertebrate embryos, generally there is not any visible segmental anatomy in the brains of adults. Teleost fish are exceptional in retaining a rhombomeric pattern of reticulospinal neurons through embryonic, larval, and adult periods. We use this feature to map more precisely the segmental imprint in the reticular and motor basal hindbrain of adult goldfish. Analysis of serial sections cut in three planes and computer reconstructions of retrogradely labeled reticulospinal neurons yielded a segmental framework compatible with previous reports and more amenable to correlation with surrounding neuronal features. Cranial nerve motoneurons and octavolateral efferent neurons were aligned to the reticulospinal scaffold by mapping neurons immunopositive for choline acetyltransferase or retrogradely labeled from cranial nerve roots. The mapping corresponded well with the known ontogeny of these neurons and helps confirm the segmental territories defined by reticulospinal anatomy. Because both the reticulospinal and the motoneuronal segmental patterns persist in the hindbrain of adult goldfish, we hypothesize that a permanent "hindbrain framework" may be a general property that is retained in adult vertebrates. The establishment of a relationship between individual segments and neuronal phenotypes provides a convenient method for future studies that combine form, physiology, and function in adult vertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus) ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    PubMed Central

    Lado, Wudu E.; Spanswick, David C.; Lewis, John E.; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA) to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB). Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107) revealed five (I–V) distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I < II < IV < III = V), time constant (TC: I = II < IV < III = V), and threshold current (Ithreshold: I > II = IV > III = V). Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%), II (40%), III (0%), IV (34%), and V (2%)]. PMID:25071430

  15. Comparison of the Toxicokinetics and Bioaccumulation Potential of Mercury and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Drouillard, Ken G; Branfireun, Brian; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-09-15

    Both mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demonstrate food web biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems, yet their toxicokinetics have not been simultaneously contrasted within a common fish species. This study quantifies uptake and elimination rates of Hg and PCBs in goldfish. Fish were exposed to contaminated food containing PCBs and Hg to determine dietary chemical assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and elimination coefficients (ktot). To test first-order kinetics, three exposure regimes were established by varying the proportion of contaminated fish incorporated into the food. Dietary AEs were 98 ± 10, 75 ± 12, and 40 ± 9% for MeHg, THg, and PCBs, respectively. The ktot values were 0.010 ± 0.003 and 0.010 ± 0.002 day(-1) for THg and MeHg, respectively. No significant differences were found in ktot among the dosing levels for either THg or MeHg, confirming that Hg elimination is a first-order process. For PCB, ktot ranged from 0.007 to 0.022 day(-1) and decreased with an increase in hydrophobicity. This study revealed that Hg had an AE higher than that of PCBs, while the ktot of Hg was similar to those measured for the most hydrophobic PCBs. We conclude that Hg has a bioaccumulation potential in goldfish 118% higher than the highest PCB BMF observed for congeners with a log KOW of >7.

  16. Effect of cadmium on the extracellular Na⁺, K⁺, and Ca²⁺ in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Zhiwei; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the toxic effect of cadmium on extracellular Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the gill and small intestine of goldfish Carassius auratus was determined with the technique of ion chromatograph. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the two factors (Cd(2+) treatment and time) and the interaction factor had significant effect on the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill. 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) significantly increased Ca(2+) level in the small intestine, but Ca(2+) level in the gill was significantly decreased by 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24, 48, and 72 h. Na(+) and K(+) level in the small intestine and gill was increased by 1.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at three time points, but increased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at a certain different time. In addition, Na(+) level was significantly decreased by 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) at 24 or 48 h in the small intestine and gill. The results indicated that Cd(2+) played an important role in regulating the level of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill of goldfish C. auratus. A method was constructed to investigate the extracellular Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) in the tissues of gold fish with ion chromatography.

  17. Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Jan A; Lado, Wudu E; Zamora, Jake M; Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Langlois, Valérie S; Metcalfe, Chris D; Chang, John P; Moon, Thomas W; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-11-15

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is a pharmaceutical acting as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and is used to treat depression in humans. Fluoxetine and the major active metabolite norfluoxetine (NFLX) are released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. They have been found to bioconcentrate in wild fish, raising concerns over potential endocrine disrupting effects. The objective of this study was to determine effects of waterborne FLX, including environmental concentrations, on the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish. We initially cloned the goldfish serotonin transporter to investigate tissue and temporal expression of the serotonin transporter, the FLX target, in order to determine target tissues and sensitive exposure windows. Sexually mature male goldfish, which showed the highest levels of serotonin transporter expression in the neuroendocrine brain, were exposed to FLX at 0.54μg/L and 54μg/L in a 14-d exposure before receiving vehicle or sex pheromone stimulus consisting of either 4.3nM 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (17,20P) or 3nM prostaglandin F₂(α) (PGF₂(α)). Reproductive endpoints assessed included gonadosomatic index, milt volume, and blood levels of the sex steroids testosterone and estradiol. Neuroendocrine function was investigated by measuring blood levels of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, pituitary gene expression of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and neuroendocrine brain expression of isotocin and vasotocin. To investigate changes at the gonadal level of the reproductive axis, testicular gene expression of the gonadotropin receptors, both the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were measured as well as expression of the growth hormone receptor. To investigate potential impacts on spermatogenesis, testicular gene expression of the spermatogenesis marker vasa was measured and histological samples of testis were analyzed qualitatively

  18. Repeated exposure of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222).

    PubMed

    Posner, Lysa Pam; Scott, Gregory N; Law, J McHugh

    2013-06-01

    Goldfish that have been repeatedly exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) require greater concentration of the drug to attain equivalent planes of anesthesia, but the mechanism for this increased anesthetic need is unknown. Minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) is a commonly used method with which to compare anesthetics. It was hypothesized that fish exposed to MS-222 daily would have an increased MAC. It was also hypothesized that fish exposed daily to MS-222 would develop histomorphologic changes to their gills to explain the increasing demand. Forty-nine Serasa comet goldfish were enrolled and were divided into three populations (n = 15, n = 15, and n = 19). In trial 1, using an up-down method, MAC was determined daily after 4 min of exposure to MS-222 for which the starting concentration was 160 mg/L. In trial 2, MAC was determined following 2 min of exposure to MS-222 for which the starting concentration was 260 mg/L. In trial 3, four naive fish were euthanatized and gills collected for histology and electron microscopy (EM). The remaining fish were exposed to MS-222 daily for 4 wk. Four fish were euthanatized and their gills submitted for similar examination at 2 wk and 4 wk. MAC for fish exposed to MS-222 for 4 min increased from 120 to 160 mg/L. The regression line had a slope of 1.51 +/- 0.26 (R2 = 0.65; P < 0.0001). MAC for fish exposed to MS-222 for 2 min increased from 210 pmm to 220 mg/L; the regression line had a slope of 0.52 +/- 0.38 (R2 = 0.12; P = 0.2). Histologic and EM examination of gills did not show morphologic changes indicative of a reaction to MS-222. Goldfish in this study had an increased requirement for MS-222 following daily exposure for 4 min but not following daily exposure for 2 min at a higher concentration. The cause of this increased anesthetic need is not related to morphologic changes to the gills.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase in the peripheral nervous system of the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Brüning, G; Hattwig, K; Mayer, B

    1996-04-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase was located in various organs of the goldfish by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Positive cells were detected throughout the digestive tract. A particularly dense plexus of nitric-oxide-synthase-containing fibers was present at the opening of the pneumatic duct into the esophagus and at the intestinal sphincter separating the esophagus and the intestinal bulb. The nitroxergic innervation was mainly confined to the muscularis. The muscular layer of the swim bladder and of the pneumatic duct was densely equipped with stained neurons and fibers. In the heart, the majority of small neurons located at the sinu-atrial junction was found to be positive for nitric oxide synthase. The muscularis of the urinary duct was supplied by fibers originating from many intramural ganglia harboring intensely stained neurons. These results suggest that nitric oxide represents a widespread transmitter in the peripheral nervous system of teleost species.

  20. Effects of fluoxetine on the reproductive axis of female goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Jan A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Crump, Kate; Xiong, Huiling; Zhao, E; Popesku, Jason; Anisman, Hymie; Cossins, Andrew R; Xia, Xuhua; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-11-12

    We investigated the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on neuroendocrine function and the reproductive axis in female goldfish. Fish were given intraperitoneal injections of fluoxetine twice a week for 14 days, resulting in five injections of 5 microg fluoxetine/g body wt. We measured the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in addition to their metabolites with HPLC. Homovanillic acid, a metabolite in the dopaminergic pathway, increased significantly in the hypothalamus. Plasma estradiol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and were significantly reduced approximately threefold after fluoxetine treatment. We found that fluoxetine also significantly reduced the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)beta1 mRNA by 4-fold in both the hypothalamus and the telencephalon and ERalpha mRNA by 1.7-fold in the telencephalon. Fluoxetine had no effect on the expression of ERbeta2 mRNA in the hypothalamus or telencephalon. Microarray analysis identified isotocin, a neuropeptide that stimulates reproductive behavior in fish, as a candidate gene affected by fluoxetine treatment. Real-time RT-PCR verified that isotocin mRNA was downregulated approximately sixfold in the hypothalamus and fivefold in the telencephalon. Intraperitoneal injection of isotocin (1 microg/g) increased plasma estradiol, providing a potential link between changes in isotocin gene expression and decreased circulating estrogen in fluoxetine-injected fish. Our results reveal targets of serotonergic modulation in the neuroendocrine brain and indicate that fluoxetine has the potential to affect sex hormones and modulate genes involved in reproductive function and behavior in the brain of female goldfish. We discuss these findings in the context of endocrine disruption because fluoxetine has been detected in the environment.

  1. Effects of light-emitting diode spectra on the vertebrate ancient long opsin and gonadotropin hormone in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-08-05

    We determined the molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (photoperiodic) regulation of sexual maturation in fish, we examined the expression of sexual maturation-related hormones and vertebrate ancient long opsin (VAL-opsin) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to different light spectra (red and green light-emitting diodes). We further evaluated the effect of exogenous gonadotropin hormone (GTH) on the expression of VAL-opsin under different light conditions. Our results demonstrated that the expression of GTHs was higher in the fish exposed to green light, and VAL-opsin levels were increased in the fish receiving GTH injection. Therefore, we have uncovered a molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (light)-induced trigger for sexual maturation: VAL-opsin is activated by green light and GTH, which promotes the expression of sexual maturation genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracts deriving from olive mill waste water and their effects on the liver of the goldfish Carassius auratus fed with hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Alesci, Alessio; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Palombieri, Deborah; Zaccone, Daniele; Dugo, Giacomo; Bruno, Maurizio; Vadalà, Rossella; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Pergolizzi, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The present research aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of polyphenols derived from waste water from a olive mill, obtained by non-plastic molecular imprinting device, in a hypercholesterolemic diet on Carassius auratus, commonly known as goldfish that was selected as experimental model. The study was conducted with morphological and histochemical analyses and also the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Results show the beneficial activity of polyphenols with a reduction of the damage in the steatotic group, confirming that they may be suggested in the treatment of diseases by lipid accumulation, and used as any addition in feed for farmed fish, in order to improve the organoleptic and nutritional quality. The beneficial effects of waste oil extract should be suggested in the contexts of research programmes focused on the products to the health system. Furthermore, the olive mill waste water polyphenols free can be used as natural fertilizers.

  3. The identification of heat shock protein genes in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and their expression in a complex environment in Gaobeidian Lake, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianshe; Wei, Yanhong; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Hong; Xu, Muqi; Dai, Jiayin

    2007-04-01

    The enhanced expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) can be detected in response to high temperatures, as well as to many kinds of stressors, including pollutants. Partial cDNA sequences encoding HSP30, HSP70, HSP90 beta, and heat shock cognate (HSC) 70, and full-length cDNA sequences encoding HSP27, HSP47 and HSP60 were cloned from goldfish (Carassius auratus). The expression of these genes was investigated in goldfish inhabiting Gaobeidian Lake in Beijing, China. The water of this lake is moderately polluted and has a higher temperature due to the water being used as a coolant in the nearby thermal power plant. All HSP sequences tested were highly conserved compared with their corresponding genes in other species. A significant up-regulation in HSP30 and HSP70 transcripts was exhibited in goldfish collected in winter in Gaobeidian Lake. The up-regulation in HSP27 and HSP90 beta transcript, as well as HSP30, was observed on the day of collection in summer. The up-regulation of these HSPs suggested that fish under these specific environmental conditions were experiencing a complex stress process. The expression of HSP30 was found to be more prominent among the fishes in Gaobeidian Lake than at the cleaner reference site (Huairou Reservoir). In the latter case, the HSP30 expression was almost non-detectable, suggesting the possibility of using it as a biomarker for complex environmental pollution.

  4. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  5. Determination of the gut retention of plastic microbeads and microfibers in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Grigorakis, Stefan; Mason, Sherri A; Drouillard, Ken G

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic habitats and commonly found in the gut contents of fish yet relatively little is known about the retention of these particles by fish. In this study, goldfish were fed a commercial fish food pellet amended with 50 particles of one of two microplastics types, microbeads and microfibers. Microbeads were obtained from a commercial facial cleanser while microfibers were obtained from washed synthetic textile. Following consumption of the amended pellet, fish were allowed to feed to satiation on non-amended food followed by fasting for periods ranging from 1.5 h to 6 days. Fish sacrificed at different time points were dissected to remove gut contents and the digesta contents retention and microplastic retention was determined. Although a small number of microplastic particles were retained in fish GI-tracts after 6 days (0-3 particles/50), the retention of microplastics was generally similar to the retention of bulk digesta contents. According to a breakpoint regression model fitted to digesta contents and microplastic particles, the 50% and 90% evacuation times were 10 h and 33.4 h, respectively. The results of this study indicate that neither microbeads nor microfibers are likely to accumulate within the gut contents of fish over successive meals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of etidronate on calcification of scales and ribs in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Masaharu

    2012-04-01

    Effects of etidronate on the calcification of scales and ribs were investigated in goldfish. Daily intraperitoneal injections of etidronate at doses of 1 and 10 mgP/kg body weight for 2 weeks inhibited calcification of ontogenic scales and ribs without affecting the accretion of organic matrices. Removal of some scales induced their regeneration within the two-week period. Their newly formed organic matrix was fully uncalcified in fish treated with 10 mgP/kg, whereas in those treated with 1 mgP/kg, the regenerating scales were only partially calcified. Daily administration of etidronate 10 mgP/kg resulted in an increase of body weight. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of etidronate on the calcification of osseous tissues in mammals can be expected also on comparable tissues in fishes. An appropriate dose of etidronate that inhibits hard tissue calcification but not affects the body growth in fish seemed to exist between 1 and 10 mgP/kg.

  7. In vitro assessment of interactions between appetite-regulating peptides in brain of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    Orexins, apelin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) are important appetite-regulating factors produced by the brain of both mammals and fish. These peptide systems and their target areas are widely distributed within the central nervous system. Although morphological connections between some of these systems have been demonstrated in the brain, little is known about the functional interactions between these systems, in particular in fish. In order to better understand the interactions between appetite-related peptides, the effects of in vitro treatments of hindbrain, forebrain and hypothalamus--a major feeding regulating area--fragments with MCH, apelin and orexin on the expression of MCH, apelin, orexin, CART (forms 1 and 2) and NPY were assessed. Overall, the apelin and orexin systems stimulate each other and stimulate the NPY system while inhibiting the CART system, which is consistent with the known orexigenic actions of these two peptides. The actions of MCH remain unclear: although it appears to interact positively with orexigenic systems--as it stimulates both the orexin and apelin systems and its expression is increased by apelin--it also increases the hypothalamic expression of CART2--but not CART1--an anorexigenic factor, and inhibits the NPY system in all brain regions examined. This study suggests that MCH, apelin, orexin, CART and NPY do influence each other within the brain of goldfish and that these interactions might differ in nature and strength according to the peptide form and the brain region considered.

  8. Small and large number discrimination in goldfish (Carassius auratus) with extensive training.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Caroline M; Barbato, Stephanie; O'Leary, Taylor; Wilcox, K Tyler

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies on relative quantity discrimination in birds and mammals with training procedures have employed hundreds or thousands of trials whereas studies with fish typically use dozens of trials. The goal of this study was to examine whether more extensive training improves the performance of fish tested on stimuli in the small (<4) and large (>4) number range. Goldfish were trained with dot array stimuli using the ratio 0.5 (2 vs. 4, 6 vs. 12) across two blocks of training sessions with a total of approximately 1200 trials. They were tested after each block of training sessions with the ratios 0.33 (1 vs. 3, 5 vs. 15), 0.5 (2 vs. 4, 6 vs. 12), and 0.67 (2 vs. 3, 10 vs. 15). Performance exceeded 90% correct on both test blocks. Accuracy was not affected by manipulating the surface area, density, or space of stimuli. Performance was best on the ratio 0.5 in test block 1, but ratio-independent in test block 2. There was no difference in performance in the small vs. large number range across the study. These results suggest that fish given extensive training can achieve accuracy on a numerical task comparable to well-trained birds, humans, or non-human primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression patterns of runx2, sparc, and bgp during scale regeneration in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Iimura, Kurin; Tohse, Hidekazu; Ura, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yasuaki

    2012-05-01

    Teleost fish scale is a dermal skeleton equipped with a strong regenerative ability. Owing to this regenerative ability, teleost fish scale can be used as a model for the regeneration of the dermal skeleton. However, there is insufficient fundamental knowledge of the regeneration, and this limits the usage of fish scale. In this study, as a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of the cellular differentiation during scale regeneration, we cloned the cDNAs for osteoblast-related proteins (Runx2, Sparc, and Bgp) in goldfish, and analyzed their expressions during scale regeneration. The expression profiles of these genes during scale regeneration were similar to those during mammalian osteoblastic differentiation. Specifically, runx2 expression was increased at the earliest time point, followed by sparc expression and then bgp expression. In the earlier stages, these genes were expressed in cells that formed cellular condensations and the flat cells surrounding them in the scale pocket. As the regeneration proceeded, the expressions became restricted to the episquamal, hyposquamal, and marginal scleroblasts and the cells around the marginal area of the regenerating scale. These results strongly suggest that (1) the differentiation mechanism of scleroblasts is similar to that of mammalian osteoblasts and odontoblasts, (2) scleroblast differentiation occurs around the cellular condensations at the early regeneration stage and is restricted to the marginal area of the scale at the later stage, and (3) the differentiation mechanisms are similar between the episquamal scleroblasts that produce the external layer and the hyposquamal scleroblasts that produce the basal plate. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. GABAergic Projections to the Oculomotor Nucleus in the Goldfish (carassius Auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Luque, M. Angeles; Torres-Torrelo, Julio; Carrascal, Livia; Torres, Blas; Herrero, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe), were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons. PMID:21331170

  11. Diversity of culturable bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Haruo; Kitao, Shun; Narisawa, Satoshi; Minamishima, Ryosuke; Itoi, Shiro

    2017-01-26

    Intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (QS) system. The 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera Aeromonas (184 isolates), Citrobacter (11), Enterobacter (2), Shewanella (28), Vagococcus (1), and Vibrio (4). Among these genera, the two most abundant species were Aeromonas veronii (163 isolates) and Shewanella xiamenensis (27). In addition, 142 obligate anaerobes consisting of Cetobacterium somerae (139 isolates), Clostridium frigidicarnis (2), and Cetobacterium sp. (1) were also isolated. One hundred seventy isolates (74.2%) belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shewanella, and Vibrio produced AHL, while 155 (67.7%) and 91 (39.7%) isolates possessed the luxR and luxI gene homologs, respectively. None of the obligate anaerobes produced AHL or possessed luxRI homologs. Total viable counts ranged from 1.2 × 10(7) to 2.2 × 10(9) CFU/g, which were accounted for 0.8 to 15.2% of direct counts. Aeromonas veronii, S. xiamenensis, and C. somerae were detected from five goldfish at densities ranging from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.7 × 10(9) CFU/g, indicating that these bacteria are dominant components of the culturable gut flora in goldfish. In addition, members of the genera Aeromonas and Shewanella appeared to communicate with each other by using the QS system to some extent when the concentration of AHL reaches a certain threshold. It is therefore suggested that bacteria with the ability to disrupt AHL secretion in intestinal environments are potential candidates for probionts for preventing opportunistic infections in freshwater fish such as goldfish.

  12. Time-dependent bidirectional effects of chronic caffeine on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex after hemilabyrinthectomy in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Goodson, N B; Brockhoff, B L; Huston, J P; Spieler, R E

    2015-04-30

    Caffeine works through a variety of complex mechanisms to exert an often bidirectional set of functional and structural neurological changes in vertebrates. We investigated the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex (DLR) in hemilabyrinthectomized common goldfish, Carassius auratus. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the vestibular organs results in a temporary loss of gravitationally modulated postural control which is quantifiable via the DLR. We compared the functional recovery over 24 days of post-surgery goldfish continuously held in a caffeine solution of 2.5mg/L (n=10), 5.0mg/L (n=10), 10.0mg/L (n=11), or 0.0mg/L control (n=9). Comparison to a sham surgery group (n=11) indicated statistically significant changes in the DLR of all hemilabyrinthectomized fish on day 1. The control group recovered over the study period and approached, but did not reach sham surgery DLR. Although the caffeine-treated fishes appeared to initiate some postural recovery within the first 2 weeks, beginning on day 10, all caffeine groups diverged from the control group with a deterioration of postural control. All three caffeine groups were significantly deficient in comparison with the control on days 10-24. These results suggest that caffeine exposure can at first be benign, but that high dosage or prolonged exposure hinders functional recovery.

  13. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A steroidal pheromone and spawning stimuli act via different neuroendocrine mechanisms to increase gonadotropin and milt volume in male goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Stacey, N E

    1997-02-01

    In goldfish (Carassius auratus), pheromonal 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P) and spawning stimuli (interaction with a sexually active female releasing prostaglandin pheromone) both increase gonadotropin-II (GtH-II) and milt volume. In the goldfish pituitary, GtH-II release is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and inhibited by dopamine (DA). In this study, we investigated the possibility that 17,20beta-P and spawning stimuli act via separate neuroendocrine mechanisms by determining whether their effects on GtH-II could be selectively disrupted by injection of DA type-2 receptor (D-2) agonists (bromocryptine and LY171555) or a goldfish GnRH antagonist, [Ac-Delta3-Pro1, 4FD-Phe2, d-Trp3,6]-mGnRH (analog E). D-2 agonists blocked 17,20beta-P-induced increases in GtH-II and milt volume but did not affect spawning-induced responses. GnRH antagonist blocked 17,20beta-P-induced increases in GtH-II and milt volume, and spawning-induced GtH-II increase, but did not affect spawning-induced increase in milt volume. These results suggest that (1) pheromonal 17,20beta-P and spawning stimuli increase GtH-II increase via distinct neuroendocrine mechanisms, (2) the effect of pheromonal 17,20beta-P on increasing milt volume is GtH-II-dependent, and (3) the effect of spawning stimuli on increasing milt volume is GtH-II-independent.

  15. Effects of acidic water in combination with aluminum on swimming behavior and survival of yolk-sac larval in Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh; Azarin, Hajar

    2013-12-01

    Yolk-sac fry of Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to various concentrations of Al and pH for 3, 7 and 10 days. In this study number of dead fish, total length of larvae, yolk sac length, swimming activity, the number of gill cover movements and the number of heart beat was measured. The lowest and highest number of gill cover movements belong to the waters containing 50 mg L-1 of aluminum, pH 5.25 and acidic waters with pH 6.7 respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of heartbeat between control group and larvae exposure to acidic waters with pH 6.7 and waters containing 150 mgL-1 of aluminum and the highest number of heartbeat belong to these larvae than other experiment doses. The larval of Goldfish in the all experiment doses lost their swimming ability after 3 days. The highest number of swimming larvae and also lowest number of non-swimming larvae significantly belong to control group compared to other experiment doses (p < 0.05). The larval in the control group only were maintained their swimming activity after 7 and 10 days and in the all experiment treatments lost their swimming ability. There was significant difference in the number of dead larvae and the number of non-swimming larvae between control group and larvae exposure to acidic waters and waters containing 300 mgL-1 of aluminum and pH 4.75 (p < 0.05) and lowest number of non-swimming larvae was observed in the control group. Also the highest of yolk sac length belong to the waters containing 600 mgL-1 of aluminum and pH 4.75. The larvae of Goldfish were not survived in the waters containing 300 and 600 mgL-1 of aluminum and waters with low acidity after 7 days.

  16. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.0.5). Also, Fish fed 2% GOS supplemented diet showed increased skin mucus immune response (total protein and lysozyme activity) compared other groups (P < 0.0.5); except in case of ALP activity. Molecular studies on appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P < 0.0.5). These results showed immunomodulatory effects of dietary GOS on serum and skin mucus response as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines in goldfish, though this supplement decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  17. Effects of copper exposure on the hatching status and antioxidant defense at different developmental stages of embryos and larvae of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianghui; Jiang, Hongxia; Wang, Shuping; Wu, Xiangmin; Fei, Wei; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of copper exposure on hatching status and antioxidant defense at different stages of embryos and larvae of goldfish Carassius auratus. In this study, day-old embryos were randomly grouped after fertilization and then exposed to copper concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0mgL(-1). Copper-exposed fish embryos were sampled every 24h to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, cumulative mortality and larval deformity were also investigated. The findings showed that cumulative mortality and larval deformity rate increased gradually with copper concentration increase. SOD and CAT activities were inhibited at higher copper concentrations. At a lower concentration (0.1mgL(-1)), SOD activity increased in larvae, whereas CAT activity showed no significant change (p>0.05). MDA, as the lipid peroxidation product, gradually accumulated in embryos and larvae with increasing copper concentration and the extension of exposure time. At 0.4mgL(-1) and more, copper toxicity was shown in embryos and larvae. In conclusion, copper-exposed effects on hatching status and antioxidant defense in C. auratus embryos and larvae showed concentration- and time-dependent patterns. The biochemical parameters in this study can be used as effective indicators for evaluating the responses of copper-exposed fish embryos. In addition, this study demonstrates that 0.4mgL(-1) copper (corresponding to 1mgL(-1) copper sulfate), used to kill parasites in aquaculture, is not safe concentration, because it can result in toxicity to larvae. Therefore, the copper concentration to kill pathogen should be less than 0.4mgL(-1) for C. auratus.

  18. Gill and liver histopathological changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Nero, V; Farwell, A; Lister, A; Van der Kraak, G; Lee, L E J; Van Meer, T; MacKinnon, M D; Dixon, D G

    2006-03-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) produces significant volumes of process-affected water containing elevated levels of naphthenic acids (NAs), ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sublethal response of aquatic organisms exposed to oil sands constituents in experimental aquatic environments that represent possible reclamation options has been studied. In this study, the effects of process-affected waters on gill and liver tissues in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and caged goldfish (Carassius auratus) held in several reclamation ponds at Syncrude's Mildred Lake site have been assessed. Following a 3-week exposure, significant gill (epithelial cell necrosis, mucous cell proliferation) and liver (hepatocellular degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration) histopathological changes were noted in fish held in waters containing high levels of oil sands process-affected water. In addition, measurements of gill dimensions (gill morphometrical indices) proved sensitive and provided evidence of a physiological disturbance (gas exchange) with exposure to oil sands materials. Due to the complexity of oil sands process-affected water, the cause of the alterations could not be attributed to specific oil sands constituents. However, the histopathological parameters were strong indicators of exposure to oil sands process-affected water and morphometrical data were sensitive indicators of pathological response, which can be used to identify the interactive effects of ionic content, NAs, and PAHs in future laboratory studies.

  19. Characterization of fish schooling behavior with different numbers of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) using a Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wonju; Kang, Seung-Ho; Leem, Joo-Baek; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Fish that swim in schools benefit from increased vigilance, and improved predator recognition and assessment. Fish school size varies according to species and environmental conditions. In this study, we present a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) that we use to characterize fish schooling behavior in different sized schools, and explore how school size affects schooling behavior. We recorded the schooling behavior of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) using different numbers of individual fish (10-40), in a circular aquarium. Eight to ten 3 s video clips were extracted from the recordings for each group size. Schooling behavior was characterized by three variables: linear speed, angular speed, and Pearson coefficient. The values of the variables were categorized into two events each for linear and angular speed (high and low), and three events for the Pearson coefficient (high, medium, and low). Schooling behavior was then described as a sequence of 12 events (2×2×3), which was input to an HMM as data for training the model. Comparisons of model output with observations of actual schooling behavior demonstrated that the HMM was successful in characterizing fish schooling behavior. We briefly discuss possible applications of the HMM for recognition of fish species in a school, and for developing bio-monitoring systems to determine water quality.

  20. Accumulation and toxicity of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles through waterborne and dietary exposure of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects, and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a 10-fold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain, and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p ≥ 0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p < 0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  2. Modulation of 17β-estradiol induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) by benzo[a]pyrene and ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic environment is challenged with complex mixtures of chemicals that may interact biochemically with each other in non-target aquatic organisms through a combination of actions, resulting in unpredictable mixture toxicity. This study focuses on the interactive effects of chemicals, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and ketoconazole (KCZ), on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (Carassius auratus). The possible interactions between BaP or KCZ and E2 were investigated on the expression of cytochromeP4501A (CYP1A, biotransformation enzyme) and on its corresponding catalytic activity 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD activity), as well as on the expression of CYP19 (steroidogenic enzyme) and E2 bioaccumulation in liver. Exposure to E2 caused a significant increase in estrogenic responses corresponding with the E2 bioaccumulation. When comparing results to the E2 exposure group, co-exposure to BaP resulted in an increase in the cyp1a mRNA expression and its corresponding EROD activity and a marked decrease in the E2 bioaccumulation, but the expression of aromatase was not altered. Conversely, co-treatment with KCZ significantly suppressed the E2-modulated expression of metabolism and synthesis enzymes, which were accompanied by an increase in the E2 bioaccumulation. These data suggest that the modulation of E2-induced estrogenic responses by BaP and KCZ were correlated to the alterations of E2 bioaccumulation in goldfish, leading to a combination of changes in the capacity of biotransformation and steroidogenesis. The complex interactions between chemicals with different modes of actions highlight the need for caution in determining the safety of combined pollution in the aquatic environment.

  3. Tissue-specific expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in goldfish (Carassius auratus) is modulated by macronutrient composition of diets.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Bertucci, Juan I; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I; Unniappan, Suraj

    2016-05-01

    The macronutrient composition of diets is a very important factor in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Several lines of research in mammals have shown that macronutrients differentially regulate metabolic hormones, including ghrelin and nesfatin-1 that have opposing effects on energy balance. This study aimed to determine whether macronutrients modulate the expression of ghrelin and the nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) encoded nesfatin-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were fed once daily on control, high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat and very high-fat diets for 7 (short-term) or 28 (long-term) days. The expression of preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyl transferase (goat), growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 (ghs-r1) and nucb2/nesfatin-1 mRNAs was quantified in the hypothalamus, pituitary, gut and liver. Short-term feeding with fat-enriched diets significantly increased nucb2 mRNA levels in hypothalamus and liver, preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary, and ghs-r1 expression in gut. Fish fed on a high-protein diet exhibited a significant reduction in preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNAs in the liver. After long-term feeding, fish fed on high-carbohydrate and very high-fat diets had significantly increased preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary. Feeding on a high-carbohydrate diet also upregulated goat and ghs-r1 transcripts in gut, while feeding on a high-fat diet elicited the same effect only for ghs-r1 in liver. Nucb2 expression increased in pituitary, while it decreased in gut after long-term feeding of a high-protein diet. Collectively, these results show for the first time in fish that macronutrients differentially regulate the expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in central and peripheral tissues of goldfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M.; Bertucci, Juan I.; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L.; Valenciano, Ana I.; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  5. Thyroid disruption in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to leachate from a municipal waste treatment plant: Assessment combining chemical analysis and in vivo bioassay.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yufeng; Tian, Hua; Dong, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-06-01

    Several classes of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) have been found in refuse leachate, but the potential impacts of leachate on the thyroid cascade of aquatic organisms are yet not known. In this study, we chemically analyzed frequently reported TDCs, as well as conducted a bioassay, to evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting effects of leachate. We used radioimmunoassay to determine the effects of leachate exposure on plasma 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus). We also investigated the impacts of leachate treatment on hepatic and gonadal deiodinases [types I (D1), II (D2), and III (D3)] and gonadal thyroid receptor (TRα-1 and TRβ) mRNA expressions by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated the presence of five TDCs (bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate); their mean concentrations in the leachate were 18.11, 2.76, 4.86, 0.21, and 9.16 μg/L, respectively. Leachate exposure induced plasma T3 and TSH levels in male fish, without influencing the plasma T4 levels. The highly elevated D2 mRNA levels in the liver were speculated to be the primary reason for the induction of plasma T3 levels. Disruption of thyroid functions by leachate was also suggested by the up-regulation of D1 and D2 as well as TRα-1 mRNA levels in the gonads. Prominent thyroid disruptions despite the very low TDC concentrations in the exposure media used in the bioassay strongly indicated the existence of unidentified TDCs in the leachate. Our study indicated the necessity of conducting in vivo bioassays to detect thyroid dysfunctions caused by leachate.

  6. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  8. Thermal optima and tolerance in the eurythermic goldfish (Carassius auratus): relationships between whole-animal aerobic capacity and maximum heart rate.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Elizabeth O; Anttila, Katja; Farrell, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    The wide thermal tolerance range of a eurythermic fish (goldfish, Carassius auratus) was used to evaluate how temperature performance curves derived from maximum heart rate (fH) related to those for aerobic scope. For acclimation temperatures of 12°, 20°, and 28°C, optimum temperatures derived from aerobic scope curves (Topt) were 19.9° ± 0.4°, 19.3° ± 0.8°, and 28.7° ± 0.8°C, respectively. The Arrhenius breakpoint temperatures (TAB) for maximum fH were 21.5° ± 0.6°, 23.8° ± 0.9°, and 24.6° ± 0.5°C, respectively. The TQB (temperature where the incremental Q10 of maximum fH decreased abruptly below 1.9) was 24.0° ± 0.7° and 29.8° ± 0.6°C for the 12° and 28°C acclimation temperatures, respectively, and was within the Topt window (11.5°-30.3° and 26.9°-30.5°C, respectively), but TQB for the 20°C acclimation temperature (27.3° ± 0.6°C) was higher than the Topt window (15.4°-23.2°C). Warm acclimation increased the upper critical temperature (Tcrit; from 37.2° ± 0.7° to 44.7° ± 11.8°C) as well as the temperature that triggered a cardiac arrhythmia (Tarr; from 31.1° ± 0.7° to 39.3° ± 0.4°C). In conclusion, we propose that maximum fH and its associated rate transition temperatures (TAB, TQB, and Tarr) can be used to estimate the upper thermal tolerance of eurythermic as well as stenothermic fish independent of acclimation temperature. All the same, great care is needed with such evaluations. For the goldfish, while TAB and TQB were always within the Topt window for 90% of maximum aerobic scope and Topt was closely associated with TAB for 12°C-acclimated fish, TQB had the closest association after 28°C acclimation, and both TAB and TQB were above the Topt window after 20°C acclimation.

  9. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-{beta} estradiol and nonylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M. . E-mail: alberta.polzonetti@unicam.it

    2005-12-15

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17{beta} and different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ER{beta}-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17{beta}) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10{sup -7} M of estradiol-17{beta}. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17{beta} and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17{beta} plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ER{beta}-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17{beta} and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin

  10. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  11. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  12. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  13. CRYOPRESERVATION OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus) SPERMATOZOA: EFFECTS OF EXTENDER SUPPLEMENTED WITH TAURINE ON SPERM MOTILITY AND DNA DAMAGE.

    PubMed

    Kutluyer, Filiz; Öğretmen, Fatih; Inanan, Burak Evren

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids, present in seminal plasma at high concentration, protect spermatozoa against cell damage during cryopreservation. Experiments were designed to analyze the effect of semen extender supplemented with taurine on post-thawed sperm motility and duration, as well as DNA damage. Extenders were supplemented with 1, 2 or 4 mM taurine. Semen samples were diluted at the ratio of 1:9 with the extenders. Diluted samples were aspirated into 0.25 ml French straws and 0.1 ml pellets. DNA damage was assessed with the comet assay after cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of sperm motility were significantly increased by taurine. Additionally, sperm motility and the motility period in pellets were higher than in straws. The best concentration of taurine was 4 mM, and the highest post-thaw motility rate (72.50 ± 3.54 %) and duration (17.50 ± 0.71 s) were obtained from the extender with 4 mM in pellets. DNA damage was decreased after taurine supplementation. Pellets could be used for goldfish sperm cryopreservation. The addition of 4 mM taurine increases the post-thaw motility and decreases DNA damage on goldfish semen.

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m(2)). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H2O2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H2O2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of a secondary treated bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent in both sexes of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Diniz, M S; Peres, I; Castro, L; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Pereira, R; Duarte, A C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of a secondary treated effluent from a modern pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus on both sexes of goldfish. The effects in the exposed fish were investigated by measuring biomarkers which have been used to assess the effects of BKME on aquatic biota, with particular emphasis in fish. However, few studies have been focused on effluents from pulp mill plants processing eucalyptus. The relative proportion of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG) induction were analyzed in the livers of males and females goldfish, exposed to different concentrations of a bleached Kraft pulp mill (BKPM) effluent. Somatic indices such as HSI (hepatosomatic index) and GSI (gonadosomatic index) were calculated and a significant reduction was found in males GSI. A significant increase of HSI was recorded for both sexes exposed to 50% BKPM effluent. Exposure to BKPM effluent induced CYP1A synthesis in both sexes and decreased VTG synthesis in females according to the different effluent concentrations suggesting that the secondary treated effluent contained compounds that affect fish negatively. The results suggest that BKPM effluent can cause sex-related biochemical changes in xenobiotic metabolism.

  16. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite.

  17. Physiological and molecular responses of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) kidney to metabolic acidosis, and potential mechanisms of renal ammonia transport.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Michael J; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-07-01

    Relative to the gills, the mechanisms by which the kidney contributes to ammonia and acid-base homeostasis in fish are poorly understood. Goldfish were exposed to a low pH environment (pH 4.0, 48 h), which induced a characteristic metabolic acidosis and an increase in total plasma [ammonia] but reduced plasma ammonia partial pressure (PNH3). In the kidney tissue, total ammonia, lactate and intracellular pH remained unchanged. The urinary excretion rate of net base under control conditions changed to net acid excretion under low pH, with contributions from both the NH4 (+) (∼30%) and titratable acidity minus bicarbonate (∼70%; TA-HCO3 (-)) components. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), urea and Na(+) excretion rates were also elevated while Cl(-) excretion rates were unchanged. Renal alanine aminotransferase activity increased under acidosis. The increase in renal ammonia excretion was due to significant increases in both the glomerular filtration and the tubular secretion rates of ammonia, with the latter accounting for ∼75% of the increase. There was also a 3.5-fold increase in the mRNA expression of renal Rhcg-b (Rhcg1) mRNA. There was no relationship between ammonia secretion and Na(+) reabsorption. These data indicate that increased renal ammonia secretion during acidosis is probably mediated through Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins and occurs independently of Na(+) transport, in contrast to branchial and epidermal models of Na(+)-dependent ammonia transport in freshwater fish. Rather, we propose a model of parallel H(+)/NH3 transport as the primary mechanism of renal tubular ammonia secretion that is dependent on renal amino acid catabolism.

  18. Stimulatory effect of the secretogranin-ll derived peptide secretoneurin on food intake and locomotion in female goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Mikwar, M; Navarro-Martin, L; Xing, L; Volkoff, H; Hu, W; Trudeau, V L

    2016-04-01

    Secretoneurin (SN) is a conserved peptide derived by proteolytic processing from the middle domain of the ∼600 amino acid precursor secretogranin-II (SgII). Secretoneurin is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine cells and neurons and has important roles in reproduction as it stimulates luteinizing hormone release from the pituitary. A potential new role of SN in goldfish feeding is the subject of this study. Firstly, we established that acute (26 h; p<0.0001) and short-term (72 h; p=0.016) fasting increased SgIIa precursor mRNA levels 1.25-fold in the telencephalon, implicating SN in the control of feeding. Secondly, we determined that intracerebroventricular injections of the type A SN (SNa; 0.2 and 1 ng/g BW) increased food intake and locomotor behavior by 60 min. Fish injected with the lower and higher doses of SNa (0.2 and 1 ng/g) respectively exhibited significant 1.77- and 2.58-fold higher food intake (p<0.0001) than the saline-injected control fish. Locomotor behavior was increased by 1.35- and 2.26-fold for 0.2 ng/g SNa (p=0.0001) and 1 ng/g SNa (p<0.0001), respectively. Injection of 1 ng/g SNa increased mRNA levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y 1.36-fold (p=0.038) and decreased hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript by 33% (p=0.01) at 2h and 5h post-injection, respectively. These data suggest interactions of SNa with stimulatory and inhibitory pathways of food intake control in fish.

  19. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  20. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus); however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr), deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3), tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh), and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3) and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4), and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  1. Monocrotophos Pesticide Decreases the Plasma Levels of Total 3,3′,5-Triiodo-l-Thyronine and Alters the Expression of Genes Associated with the Thyroidal Axis in Female Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus); however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr), deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3), tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh), and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3′,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3) and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3′,5,5′-l-thyroxine (TT4), and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish. PMID:25268935

  2. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The interactive effect of digesting a meal and thermal acclimation on maximal enzyme activities in the gill, kidney, and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Leah A; Bucking, Carol

    2017-04-05

    Surrounding environmental temperatures affect many aspects of ectotherm physiology. Generally, organisms can compensate at one or more biological levels, or allow temperature to dictate processes such as enzyme activities through kinetic effects on reaction rates. As digestion also alters physiological processes such as enzyme activities, this study determined the interacting effect of thermal acclimation (8 and 20 °C) and digesting a single meal on maximal enzyme activities in three tissues of the goldfish (Carrassius auratus). Acclimation to elevated temperatures decreased branchial Na(+), K(+), ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, acclimation to elevated temperatures had no effect on citrate synthase (CS) or pyruvate kinase (PK) activity in any tissue, nor were renal NKA or glutamine synthetase (GS) activities impacted. Warm water-acclimation exaggerated the positive impact of digestion on intestinal and branchial NKA activities and intestinal GS activity only, but digestion had no effect in the kidney. CS and PK did not display intestinal zonation; however, there was a distinct increase towards the distal intestine in NKA and GS activities. Zonation of NKA was more prominent in warm-acclimated animals, while acclimation temperature did not affect intestinal heterogeneity of GS. Finally, the impact of tissue protein content on enzyme activity was discussed. We conclude that the intestine and gill of warm-acclimated goldfish exhibited an augmented capacity for increasing several enzyme activities in response to digestion while the kidney was unaffected by thermal acclimation or digesting a single meal. However, this amplified capacity was ameliorated by alterations in tissue protein content. Amplified increases in NKA activity may ultimately have implications for ATP demand in these tissues, while increased GS activity may beneficially increase ammonia-detoxifying capacity in the intestine.

  4. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate. PMID:24398883

  5. Organ-dependent response in antioxidants, myoglobin and neuroglobin in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to MC-RR under varying oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Okogwu, Okechukwu Idumah; Xie, Ping; Zhao, Yanyan; Fan, Huihui

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom, a common phenomenon nowadays often results in the depletion of dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and releases microcystin-RR (MC-RR) in the water. Information on the combined effects of MC-RR and hypoxia on the goldfish is lacking, therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effect of two doses of MC-RR on the antioxidants and globin mRNA of goldfish under normoxia, hypoxia and reoxygenation. The result showed that MC-RR at both doses (50 and 200 μg kg(-1) body weight) significantly (p<0.05) induced superoxide dismutase activities in the liver and kidney but catalase activities and total antioxidant capacity were low in these organs during hypoxia and reoxygenation compared to normoxia and control. Myoglobin and neuroglobin mRNAs in MC-RR group were significantly induced in the brain only and are believed to protect the brain from oxidative damage. However, other organs were unprotected and extensive damage was observed in the liver cells. Our results clearly demonstrated that MC-RR and hypoxia-reoxygenation transitions were synergistically harmful to the goldfish and could impair its adaptation to hypoxia, especially during reoxygenation.

  6. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism.

  7. Effects of Hypoxia-Induced Gill Remodelling on the Innervation and Distribution of Ionocytes in the Gill of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Tzaneva, Velislava; Vadeboncoeur, Claudia; Ting, Jaimee; Perry, Steve F

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) on the gills of goldfish acclimated to 7°C leads to preferential distribution of branchial ionocytes to the distal edges of the ILCM, where they are likely to remain in contact with the water and hence remain functional. Upon exposure to hypoxia, the ILCM retracts, and the ionocytes become localized to the lamellar surfaces and on the filament epithelium, owing to their migration and the differentiation of new ionocytes from progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that the majority of the ionocytes receive neuronal innervation, which led us to assess the consequences of ionocyte migration and differentiation during hypoxic gill remodelling on the pattern and extent of ionocyte neuronal innervation. Normoxic 7°C goldfish (ILCM present) possessed significantly greater numbers of ionocytes/mm2 (951.2 ± 94.3) than their 25°C conspecifics (ILCM absent; 363.1 ± 49.6) but a statistically lower percentage of innervated ionocytes (83.1% ± 1.0% compared with 87.8% ± 1.3%). After 1 week of exposure of goldfish to hypoxia, the pool of branchial ionocytes was composed largely of pre-existing migrating cells (555.6 ± 38.1/mm2) and to a lesser extent newly formed ionocytes (226.7 ± 15.1/mm2). The percentage of new (relative to pre-existing) ionocytes remained relatively constant (at ∼30%) after 1 or 2 weeks of normoxic recovery. After hypoxia, pre-existing ionocytes expressed a greater percentage of innervation than newly formed ionocytes in all treatment groups; however, their percentage innervation steadily decreased over 2 weeks of normoxic recovery. PMID:23818320

  8. Elevated CO2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-04-05

    Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400±10μL/L) or elevated (600±10μL/L) CO2 for 30days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO2 levels.

  9. Beta-sitosterol and 17beta-estradiol alter gonadal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Woodhouse, Amanda; Moon, Thomas W; Trudeau, Vance L; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2007-03-01

    Fish exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol (beta-sit) have decreased circulating hormone and cholesterol concentrations, and decreased gonadal intra-mitochondrial cholesterol pools. The current study examined the potential for beta-sit to alter abundance of the key cholesterol transport protein, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, which delivers cholesterol to the first and rate-limiting steroidogenic enzyme P450 side chain cleavage (P450(scc)) inside the mitochondria. Plasma testosterone (T) and lipids (cholesterol, lipoproteins and triglycerides) were also measured. Goldfish were exposed to 200 microg/g beta-sit (97% pure or as a 72.6% pure phytosterol mixture) and 10 microg/g 17beta-estradiol (E(2); estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21-days or for five-months. Plasma T was significantly decreased in male fish exposed to the phytosterol mixture following the long-term exposure (p<0.001). There were no differences in total cholesterol concentrations among treatments in the short- or long-term exposure, but male fish in the long-term exposure had significantly lower HDL as compared to control fish (p<0.025) with a corresponding increase in LDL. StAR transcript levels were unchanged following the short-term exposure, but were reduced after five months in male beta-sit fish (p=0.05) and E(2)-treated female fish (p=0.05). This reduction in StAR transcript abundance in conjunction with decreased plasma T and altered plasma lipoprotein fractions demonstrates a non-estrogenic effect of beta-sit. This is the first study to show that beta-sit has the capacity to alter gonadal StAR transcript abundance, offering a mechanism by which beta-sit disrupts reproductive endocrine endpoints.

  10. Combined effects of high environmental ammonia, starvation and exercise on hormonal and ion-regulatory response in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Kumar, Vikas; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-06-15

    Due to eutrophication, high environmental ammonia (HEA) has become a frequent problem in aquatic environments, especially in agricultural or densely populated areas. During certain periods, e.g. winter, feed deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural waters. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by genes expression. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia toxicity was tested in function of nutrient status (fed versus starved) and swimming performance activity (routine versus exhaustive). Goldfish, a relatively tolerant cyprinid, were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) for a period of 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days and were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (kept unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Results showed that the activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in the gills was stimulated by HEA and disturbance in ion balance was obvious with increases in plasma [Na⁺], [Cl⁻] and [Ca²⁺] after prolonged exposure. Additionally, osmoregulation and metabolism controlling hormones like cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were investigated to understand adaptive responses. The expression kinetics of growth, stress and osmo-regulatory representative genes such as Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ), prolactin receptor (PRLR), cortisol receptor (CR) and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α(3) were examined. Overall effect of HEA was evident since Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentration, expression level of CR and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α₃ mRNA in fed and starved fish were increased. On the contrary, transcript level of PRLR was reduced after 4 days of HEA; additionally T3 level and

  11. Identification of the putative goldfish (Carassius auratus) magnesium transporter SLC41a1 and functional regulation in the gill, kidney, and intestine in response to dietary and environmental manipulations.

    PubMed

    Kodzhahinchev, Vladimir; Kovacevic, Drago; Bucking, Carol

    2017-04-01

    While magnesium requirements for teleost fish highlight the physiological importance of this cation for homeostasis, little is known regarding the molecular identity of transporters responsible for magnesium absorption or secretion. The recent characterization of the vertebrate magnesium transporter solute carrier 41a1 (SLC41a1) in the kidney of a euryhaline fish has provided a glimpse of possible moieties involved in piscine magnesium regulation. The present study obtained a novel SLC41a1 coding sequence for Carassius auratus and demonstrated ubiquitous expression in all tissues examined. Transcriptional regulation of SLC41a1 in response to dietary and environmental magnesium concentrations was observed across tissues. Specifically, decreased environmental magnesium correlated with decreased expression of SLC41a1 in the intestine, whereas the gill and kidney were unaffected. Dietary magnesium restriction correlated with decreased expression of SLC41a1 in the intestine and gill, while again no effects were detected in the kidney. Finally, elevated dietary magnesium correlated with increased expression of SLC41a1 in the kidney, while expression in the intestine and gill remained stable. Plasma magnesium was maintained in all treatments, and dietary assimilation efficiency increased with decreased dietary magnesium. Consumption of a single meal failed to impact SLC41a1 expression, and transcript abundance remained stable over the course of digestion in all treatments. Transcriptional regulation occurred between 7 and 14days following dietary and environmental manipulations and short-term regulation (e.g. <24h) was not observed. Overall the data supports transcriptional regulation of SLC41a1 reflecting a possible role in magnesium loss or secretion across tissues in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gamma-vinyl GABA) alter neurotransmitter concentrations in the nervous tissue of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) but not the cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    PubMed

    Sloley, B D; McKenna, K F

    1993-02-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+) and gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gamma-vinyl GABA) are drugs demonstrated to alter catecholamine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in vertebrate nervous tissue. MPTP and MPP+, which are potent and selective vertebrate neurotoxins, are effective in depleting noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations in goldfish. However, only MPP+ depletes dopamine in the central nervous tissues of the cockroach, and only when injected directly into the nervous tissue. Systemic injection of gamma-vinyl GABA, a selective GABA transaminase inhibitor in vertebrates, increases GABA concentrations in goldfish but not cockroach nervous tissue. Incubations of both goldfish hypothalamus and cockroach nervous tissue demonstrated the presence of GABA transaminase activity in vitro. However, the GABA transaminase activity obtained from goldfish tissues was much more sensitive to inhibition by gamma-vinyl GABA than that obtained from cockroach nervous tissue. These results demonstrate that MPTP, MPP+ and gamma-vinyl GABA are useful pharmacological tools which can alter neurotransmitter concentrations in a lower vertebrate. Unfortunately, they possess limited effectiveness in the cockroach.

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio in this study. The genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is 31.61% A, 25.81% T, 26.62% G, 15.96% C, with an A+T bias of 57.42%. The complete mitogenome data provides useful genetic markers for the studies on the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  15. Histopathological findings on Carassius auratus hepatopancreas upon exposure to acrylamide: correlation with genotoxicity and metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Larguinho, Miguel; Costa, Pedro M; Sousa, Gonçalo; Costa, Maria H; Diniz, Mário S; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-12-01

    Acrylamide is an amide used in several industrial applications making it easily discharged to aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity of acrylamide to aquatic organisms is scarcely known, although previous studies with murine models provided evidence for deleterious effects. To assess the effects of acrylamide to freshwater fish, goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were exposed to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide and analysed for genotoxic damage, alterations to detoxifying enzymes and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in total DNA strand breakage, the formation of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities and in the levels of hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, acrylamide induced more histopathological changes to pancreatic acini than to the hepatic parenchyma, regardless of exposure concentration, whereas hepatic tissue only endured significant alterations at higher concentrations of exposure. Thus, results confirm the genotoxic potential of acrylamide to fish and its ability to induce CYP1A, probably as a direct primary defence mechanism. This strongly suggests the substance's pro-mutagenic potential in fish, similarly to what is known for rodents. However, the deleterious effects observed in the pancreatic acini, more severe than in the liver, could indicate a specific, albeit unknown toxic mechanism of acrylamide to fish that overran the organism's metabolic defences against a chemical agent rather than causing a general systemic failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) in goldfish (Carassius auratus): role in the regulation of feeding and locomotor behaviors and interactions with the orexin system and cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART).

    PubMed

    Abbott, Meagan; Volkoff, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    TRH is a peptide produced by the hypothalamus which major function in mammals is the regulation of TSH secretion by the pituitary. In fish, TRH does not appear to affect TSH secretion, suggesting that it might regulate other functions. In this study, we assessed the effects of central (intracerebroventricular, icv) injections of TRH on feeding and locomotor behavior in goldfish. TRH at 10 and 100 ng/g, but not 1 ng/g, significantly increased feeding and locomotor behaviors, as indicated by an increase in food intake and in the number of total feeding acts as compared to saline-injected fish. In order to assess possible interactions between TRH and other appetite regulators, we examined the effects of icv injections of TRH on the hypothalamic expression of orexin, orexin receptor and CART. The mRNA expression levels of all three peptides were significantly increased in fish injected with TRH at 100 ng/g as compared to saline-injected fish. Fasting increased TRH, orexin, and orexin receptor hypothalamic mRNA levels and decreased CART hypothalamic mRNA levels. Our results suggest that TRH is involved in the regulation of feeding/locomotor activity in goldfish and that this action is associated with a stimulation of both the orexin and CART systems.

  17. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ~60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Irisin in goldfish (Carassius auratus): Effects of irisin injections on feeding behavior and expression of appetite regulators, uncoupling proteins and lipoprotein lipase, and fasting-induced changes in FNDC5 expression.

    PubMed

    Butt, Zahndra Diann; Hackett, Jessica Dalton; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine. Irisin injections (100ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake and increases in brain orexin, CART1 and CART2, UCP2, BDNF, muscle UCP2 and intestine LPL mRNA expressions but did not affect blood glucose levels, brain AgRP, TH, UCP1, UCP3 and LPL or muscle UCP1, UCP3 and LPL expressions. A partial goldfish FNDC5 cDNA was isolated and the expressions of FDNC5, UCPs, LPL and BDNF were also compared between fed and fasted fish. Fasting induced decreases FNDC5 mRNA expression in the brain and intestine, but not in muscle. Fasting also induced increases in brain BDNF and LPL expressions and increases in UCP1, UCP2, UCP3 and LPL expressions in muscle. Our result suggest that irisin is an anorexigenic factor in fish and its actions might be in part mediated by appetite-regulating factors such as CART and orexins as well as UCP2 and brain factors such as BDNF.

  19. Oxidative stress responses in blood and gills of Carassius auratus exposed to the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide Tattoo.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Drohomyretska, Ivanna Z; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-11-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, particularly dithiocarbamates, in agriculture often leads to contamination of freshwater ecosystems. To our knowledge, the mechanisms of toxicity to fish by the carbamate fungicide Tattoo that contains mancozeb [ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)] have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Tattoo on goldfish gills and blood, tissues that would have close early contact with the pollutant. Exposure of goldfish Carassius auratus to 3, 5 or 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo for 96h resulted in moderate lymphopenia (by 8 percent) with a concomitant increase in both stab (by 66-88 percent) and segmented (by 166 percent) neutrophils. An increase in the content of protein carbonyl groups in blood (by 137-184 percent) together with decreased levels of protein thiols (by 23 percent) and an enhancement of lipid peroxide concentrations (by 29 percent) in gills after exposure to 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo demonstrated the induction of mild oxidative stress in response to Tattoo exposure. At the same time, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes were enhanced in gills: superoxide dismutase by 18-25 percent and catalase by 27 percent. A 34 percent increment in low molecular mass thiol concentrations (mainly represented by glutathione) also occurred in gills and could be related to increased activity (by 13-30 percent) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that Tattoo exposure perturbs free radical processes, i.e. induces mild oxidative stress and enhances the activity of certain antioxidant and associated enzymes in goldfish gills. It is clear that goldfish respond to the presence of waterborne pesticide by adjusting antioxidant defenses through upregulation of activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [A new pathogen of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio-Shewanella putrefaciens].

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Bi, Keran

    2012-05-04

    We studied a novel disease occurred among cultured Carassius auratus gibelio at a farm located in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province. The dominant bacteria were isolated from diseased fish. The pure culture of the isolated strain was analyzed using conventional physiological and biochemical tests, together with 16S rDNA gene sequencing. An experimental infection of Carassius auratus gibelio with the isolated strain was performed to fulfill the Koch postulates. K-B method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. The causal agent of the disease was finally proved to be one species of bacteria that was identified as Shewanella putrefaciens. Experimental infection with S. putrefaciens resulted in the same gross signs as naturally infected fish and the same bacteria were recovered in a pure culture from freshly dead fish. The LD50 of S. putrefacien was calculated as 2.1 x 10(3) cfu/g. The result of drug sensitivity test showed that S. putrefaciens was sensitive to Pipemidic acid, Nalidixic acid, Fluperacid, Enoxacin, Florfenicol, Rifampicin, Minocycline, Fleroxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefalexin, Ceftazidine, Roxithromycin and Levofloxacin. This is the first report on a new pathogen of Carassius auratus gibelio, revealing that S. putrefaciens as a potential new pathogen may pose a threat to the culture of Carassius auratus gibelio.

  1. Chlorpheniramine impairs functional recovery in Carassius auratus after telencephalic ablation.

    PubMed

    Garção, D C; Canto-de-Souza, L; Romaguera, F; Mattioli, R

    2009-04-01

    We determined the effect of an H1 receptor antagonist on the functional recovery of Carassius auratus submitted to telencephalic ablation. Five days after surgery the fish underwent a spatial-choice learning paradigm test. The fish, weighing 6-12 g, were divided into four groups: telencephalic ablation (A) or sham lesion (S) and saline (SAL) or chlorpheniramine (CPA, ip, 16 mg/kg). For eight consecutive days each animal was trained individually in sessions separated by 24 h (alternate days). Training trials (T1-T8) consisted of finding the food in one of the feeders, which were randomly blocked for each subject. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of SAL or CPA 10 min after the training trials. The time spent by the animals in each group to find the food (latency) was analyzed separately at T1 and T8 by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. At T1 the latencies (mean +/- SEM) of the A-SAL (586.3 +/- 13.6) and A-CPA (600 +/- 0) groups were significantly longer than those of the S-SAL (226.14 +/- 61.15) and S-CPA (356.33 +/- 68.8) groups. At T8, the latencies of the A-CPA group (510.11 +/- 62.2) remained higher than those of the other groups, all of which showed significantly shorter latencies (A-SAL = 301.91 +/- 78.32; S-CPA = 191.58 +/- 73.03; S-SAL = 90.28 +/- 41) compared with T1. These results support evidence that training can lead to functional recovery of spatial-choice learning in telencephalonless fish and also that the antagonist of the H1 receptor impairs it.

  2. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  3. Correlations of Gut Microbial Community Shift with Hepatic Damage and Growth Inhibition of Carassius auratus Induced by Pentachlorophenol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haifeng; Zhao, Fuzheng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Gao, Shixiang

    2015-10-06

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0-100 μg/L pentachlorophenol (PCP) for 28 days to investigate the correlations of fish gut microbial community shift with the induced toxicological effects. PCP exposure caused accumulation of PCP in the fish intestinal tract in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while hepatic PCP reached the maximal level after a 21 day exposure. Under the relatively higher PCP stress, the fish body weight and liver weight were reduced and hepatic CAT and SOD activities were inhibited, demonstrating negative correlations with the PCP levels in liver and gut content (R < -0.5 and P < 0.05 each). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that PCP exposure increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the fish gut. Within the Bacteroidetes phylum, the Bacteroides genus had the highest abundance, which was significantly correlated with PCP exposure dosage and duration (R > 0.5 and P < 0.05 each). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Bacteroides showed quantitatively negative correlations with Chryseobacterium, Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, and Legionella in the fish gut, and the Bacteroidetes abundance, Bacteroides abundance, and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio played crucial roles in the reduction of body weight and liver weight under PCP stress. The results may extend our knowledge regarding the roles of gut microbiota in ecotoxicology.

  4. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  5. GPER/GPR30, a membrane estrogen receptor, is expressed in the brain and retina of a social fish (Carassius auratus) and colocalizes with isotocin.

    PubMed

    Mangiamele, Lisa A; Gomez, Julia R; Curtis, Nancy J; Thompson, Richmond R

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol rapidly (within 30 minutes) influences a variety of sociosexual behaviors in both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates, including goldfish, in which it rapidly stimulates approach responses to the visual cues of females. Such rapid neuromodulatory effects are likely mediated via membrane-associated estrogen receptors; however, the localization and distribution of such receptors within the nervous system is not well described. To begin to address this gap, we identified GPER/GPR30, a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor, in goldfish (Carassius auratus) neural tissue and used reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization to test if GPR30 is expressed in the brain regions that might mediate visually guided social behaviors in males. We then used immunohistochemistry to determine whether GPR30 colocalizes with isotocin-producing cells in the preoptic area, a critical node in the highly conserved vertebrate social behavior network. We used quantitative (q)PCR to test whether GPR30 mRNA levels differ in males in breeding vs. nonbreeding condition and in males that were socially interacting with a female vs. a rival male. Our results show that GPR30 is expressed in the retina and in many brain regions that receive input from the retina and/or optic tectum, as well as in a few nodes in the social behavior network, including cell populations that produce isotocin. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:252-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The insemination of goldfish ( Carassium auratus) oocyte matured in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renxue; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Shicui; Ma, Yingjie; Wu, Shangqin; Shi, Yingxian

    1991-03-01

    Full maturation of goldfish oocyte was induced in vitro by 17 α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone. The oocyte maturation involves GV migration to the periphery of the oocyte and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In the experiment, incubation duration for GVBD varied in different broods of oocytes. Generally, if the duration for GVBD was shorter than 6 h, oocytes would have a better chance to survive after maturation and insemination. The maturation of nucleus (GV) and cytoplasm are not synchronous. Cytoplasm maturation occurs several hs after GVBD. Oocytes inseminated 8 9 h after GVBD have the highest fertilizing and hatching rate. Fertilized ova matured in vitro can develop to sexually mature adults capable of reproduction.

  7. The study of adrenal chromaffin of fish, Carassius auratus (Toleostei).

    PubMed

    Sampour, M

    2008-04-01

    In C. auratus the adrenal chramaffin tissue is situated around the posterior cardinal veins, in the head kidney. Chromaffin tissue consists of two types of cells containing secretory granules, adrenaline and nor adrenaline cells. The cells produced catecholamine hormones. Adrenaline cell contains electron-lucent granules, whereas nor adrenaline cells possesses electron-dense granules. Cholinergic fibers embedded in the head kidney innervated the chromaffin cell. Two types of secretory structures, synaptic vesicles and secretory granules are found within the presynaptic terminal. Secretory granules discharge their contests, as neuropeptide in non synaptic area of nerve terminal by exocytosis, whereas synaptic vesicles discharge their contents as neurotransmitters at the synaptic thickening (active zone) in the presynaptic terminal by exocytosis.

  8. The effects of temperature on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio and Spinibarbus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2011-07-01

    To test whether the effects of temperature on the metabolic mode changed among different fish species, we investigated the specific dynamic action (SDA) and swimming performance of fasting and fed fish at 15 and 25°C in three juvenile Cyprinidae fish species: goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis). Both taxon and temperature had significant effects on the resting oxygen consumption rate (M˙O(rest)), SDA and swimming performance (p<0.05). In addition, the effect of temperature differed significantly among the different species (interaction effect, p<0.05). Under the low temperature condition, digestion had no effect on either critical swimming speed (U(crit)) or the active MO(2) (MO(active)) for all fish species (additive metabolic mode). When the temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, the metabolic scope (MS) for digestion increased approximately 182, 49 and 17%, and the MS for locomotion increased approximately 129, 58 and 138% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. The total metabolic demands for both digestion and locomotion (i.e., the sum of digestive MS and locomotive MS) increased approximately 143, 56 and 112% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. The total MS for both digestion and locomotion (the difference between MO(active) in fed fish and MO(rest) in fasting fish) increased approximately 106, 58 and 78% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. Thus, the MS for locomotion in fed goldfish decreased due to the large increase in digestive function at the high temperature, and the U(crit) of fed goldfish decreased by 11% compared to that of fasting fish (p<0.05) (digestion-priory metabolic mode). The metabolic mode of qingbo changed to locomotion-priority mode, as illustrated by the large increase in locomotive MS in response to the increase in temperature. In the common carp, temperature had no effect on metabolic mode as illustrated by the parallel increases in

  9. Sensitive apoptosis induced by microcystins in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Hangjun; Chen, Yingxu

    2006-08-01

    Microcystins including leucine-arginine l-amino acid (MCLR) and arginine-arginine l-amino acid (MCRR) can inhibit several serine/threonine protein phosphatases. In this study, we focused on the efficient biomarker for analyzing toxic cyanobacteria blooms using in vitro apoptosis bioassay. We explored the existence of sensitive apoptosis induced by MCLR and MCRR on isolated lymphocytes of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at a low exposure level. Apoptosis was detected in vitro and was clearly distinguished by condensation of nuclear chromatin and formation of apoptotic bodies, after 2 h exposure at 1, 5, 10 nM MCLR and MCRR, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis further revealed DNA fragmentation (DNA ladder) caused by apoptosis. We found that MCLR and MCRR can induce lymphocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner with flow cytometry analysis. Our study provides the first evidence that microcystins can induce fish lymphocytes apoptosis and may impair fish immune function.

  10. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp (Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Weng, Shaoping; Feng, Zhiqin; Luan, Tiangang

    2008-10-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17beta-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (10 microg/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased estrogens levels (up to two times) and decreased androgen level in serum (down to 20-30%)], which might subsequently induce vitellogenin synthesis in liver. Environmental realistic concentrations of NP might be on the verge of inducing significant estrogenic effects in male silver carps. High amounts of NP and DES might be accumulated in fish serum, and the uptake by fish was possibly responsible for their quick attenuation in experimental tank water. NP and DES might have different metabolic mechanisms, the estrogenic effects of DES were more significant than those of NP.

  11. Demonstrating That Habitat Structure Facilitates Coexistence of Prey & Predator: A Laboratory Investigation Using Goldfish & Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.; Embrey, Tracey R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory investigation to demonstrate that habitat structure promotes increased organism abundance and species diversity by reducing predator effects on prey abundance. Investigates the effects of goldfish (Carassius auratus) predators on Gammarus sp. (an amphipod) and Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) prey in the absence and presence of a…

  12. Demonstrating That Habitat Structure Facilitates Coexistence of Prey & Predator: A Laboratory Investigation Using Goldfish & Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.; Embrey, Tracey R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory investigation to demonstrate that habitat structure promotes increased organism abundance and species diversity by reducing predator effects on prey abundance. Investigates the effects of goldfish (Carassius auratus) predators on Gammarus sp. (an amphipod) and Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) prey in the absence and presence of a…

  13. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  14. Interactive effects of selected pharmaceutical mixtures on bioaccumulation and biochemical status in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of fluoxetine (FLU), roxithromycin (ROX) and propranolol (PRP) on the bioaccumulation and biochemical responses in the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 7 days of binary exposure (ROX + FLU and PRP + FLU), the addition of waterborne FLU at nominal concentrations of 4, 20 and 100 μg L(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of ROX and PRP in fish livers in most cases, although elevated ROX and PRP bioaccumulation levels were not observed in muscles or gills. The inductive response of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) to PRP and that of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin O-dibenzyloxylase (BFCOD) to ROX were inhibited by the co-administration of FLU at all tested concentrations. Correspondingly, marked inhibition of CYP1A and CYP3A mRNA expression levels was observed in the livers of fish co-treated with FLU + PRP and FLU + ROX relative to their PRP- and ROX-only counterparts, respectively. In addition, as reflected by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, co-exposure to ROX + FLU and PRP + FLU seemed to induce stronger antioxidant responses than single pharmaceutical exposure in fish livers. This work indicated that the interactive effects of pharmaceutical mixtures could lead to perturbations in the bioaccumulation and biochemical responses in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Yan, Zhenhua; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Peifang

    2016-05-01

    The tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L) for 14 days. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. The highest tissue concentration of ketoconazole was observed in the liver with the bioconcentration factor of 257.2, which is lower than the estimated BCF value. The ability of crucian carp to metabolize ketoconazole was confirmed and the results pointed out the existence of seven metabolites likely formed via oxidation of imidazole ring and the metabolic alteration of the piperazine rings. In addition, acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase changed significantly after 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure (P < 0.05), which indicated that the accumulation and metabolism of ketoconazole in fish tissues may account for the biological effects.

  16. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apoptotic responses of Carassius auratus lymphocytes to nodularin exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hangjun; Shao, Dandan; Wu, Yingzhu; Cai, Chenchen; Hu, Ciming; Shou, Xiaolu; Dai, Bingru; Ye, Binhui; Wang, Mengdi; Jia, Xiuying

    2012-12-01

    Nodularin, a metabolite of Nodularin spumigena, is widely detected in water blooms worldwide and causes serious negative effects on fish. The apoptosis-related cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of nodularin on Carassius auratus lymphocytes were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that nodularin-treated lymphocytes display a series of morphological changes, including condensed cytoplasm, nuclear chromatin agglutination and marginalization. DNA fragmentation was verified by the DNA-ladder and formation of sub-G1 DNA peaks. These cell characteristics confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells incubated with 1, 5, 10, and 100 μg/L nodularin for 12 h reached 15.76%, 17.36%, 20.34% and 44.21%, respectively; controls showed low rates of apoptosis (2.4%). The mechanism of apoptosis induced by nodularin was determined, and results showed that nodularin exposure caused a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in a dose-dependent manner, upregulation of intracellular Ca²⁺, downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 without caspase-8. In summary, all the results suggest that nodularin induces lymphocyte apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and destroys the immune response of fish.

  18. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  19. Effects of montmorillonite on alleviating dietary Cd-induced oxidative damage in carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Gwan; Dai, Wei; Xu, Zirong; Li, Guanghuan

    2011-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary Cd-induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney of carp (Carassius auratus). One hundred eighty carp were randomly divided into four groups and fed with a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% MMT, Cd-comtaminated basal diet (120 mg Cd/kg dry weight) and Cd-contaminated basal diet supplemented with 0.5% MMT, respectively. After 60 days, fish were sacrificed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidative indices in liver and kidney. The results showed that the exposure of carp to dietary Cd caused decreases in glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content and total antioxidant capacity level, while MMT supplemented in diet compensated Cd-induced decreases in above antioxidant indices to some extent in liver and kidney. As compared with the control group, increases in MDA content were observed in both measured tissues of carp exposed to dietary Cd, while MDA content decreased in carp exposed to Cd-contaminated basal diet supplemented with MMT in comparison with the Cd-contaminated group. It was suggested that MMT, when co-administered with Cd in diet, could alleviate dietary Cd-induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney of carp.

  20. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  1. In vivo anthelmintic activity of chelidonine from Chelidonium majus L. against Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Pan, Xiao-yi; Hao, Gui-jie; Li, Xi-Lian; Xu, Yang; Shen, Jin-Yu; Ru, Hong-shun; Yin, Wen-lin

    2011-11-01

    Dactylogyrus intermedius is one of the most common and serious cause of parasitic diseases of freshwater fish in aquaculture, and can cause morbidity and high mortality in most species of freshwater fish worldwide. To attempt controlling this parasite and explore novel potential antiparasitic agents, the present study was designed to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of Chelidonium majus L. whole plant and to isolate and characterize the active constituents against D. intermedius. The ethanol extract from C. majus whole plant showed significant anthelmintic activity against D. intermedius [EC(50) (median effective concentration) value = 71.5 mg L(-1)] and therefore subjected to further isolation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. A quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius was obtained and identified as chelidonine. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy tests exhibited that chelidonine was 100% effective against D. intermedius at a concentration of 0.9 mg L(-1), with EC(50) value of 0.48 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure, which is more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value = 1.3 mg L(-1)). In addition, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for chelidonine against the host (Carassius auratus) was 4.54 mg L(-1). The resulting therapeutic index for chelidonine was 9.46. These results provided evidence that chelidonine might be potential sources of new antiparasitic drugs for the control of Dactylogyrus.

  2. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  3. Short-term effects of genistein on gamete quality, steroidogenesis and histological changes in gonads in gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine effects of genistein or 17ß-estradiol (E2) on reproductive physiology in gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, during prespawning phase. Maturing gibel carp of both sexes received intraperitoneal injections of E2 (10 µg/g body weight), one...

  4. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  5. Intraspecific scaling of the resting and maximum metabolic rates of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M (0.776) and MMR = 0.753M (0.785). The scaling exponents for RMR (b r) and MMR (b m) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling.

  6. Behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Ma, Binni; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. However, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. The present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of sertraline (4.36, 21.3 and 116 μg L(-1)) for 7 d. Bioconcentration factor values were in the range of 19.5-626 in liver, 6.94-285 in brain, 4.01-146 in gill and 0.625-43.1 in muscle during the entire period of exposure. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were selected as biochemical endpoints associated with MOAs. Swimming activity, shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were determined to assess behavioral responses. Fish plasma levels of sertraline exceeding human therapeutic doses were also predicted from external exposure concentrations. Significant enhancements in CAT, GPx, AChE and swimming activities and decreases in shoaling tendency, feeding rate and food consumption were observed when fish plasma levels exceeded human therapeutic thresholds. Shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were correlated with the activities of SOD, CAT and GST. A significant positive correlation between swimming activity and AChE activity was also observed. As such, our study provides important AOPs linking biochemical responses with ultimate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioconcentration, metabolism and effects of diphenhydramine on behavioral and biochemical markers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Hou, Kangkang; Qin, Donghong; Yan, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine used to alleviate human allergies, is widespread in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the biochemical and behavioral effects of DPH on non-target aquatic animals. In the present study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, biochemical and behavioral effects were investigated in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of DPH (0.84, 4.23, 21.7 and 112 μg L(-1)) for 7d. DPH can accumulate in crucian carp, and high concentrations have been observed in the liver and brain with maximum bioconcentration factors of 148 and 81.6, respectively. A portion of the absorbed DPH was metabolized by the crucian carp to N-demethyl DPH and N,N-didemethyl DPH via N-demethylation. Direct fluorimetric assay was employed to assess metabolic activity, while oxidative stress and neurotransmission biomarkers were determined by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. DPH was found to increase hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in crucian carp with maximal induction of 119%. Concerning the oxidative stress status, DPH significantly inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD, 37-58%) and glutathione S-transferase (GST, 43-65%) activities and led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 67-140%) levels and catalase (CAT, 38-143%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, 39-189%) activities in fish liver. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also induced in DPH-exposed crucian carp with maximal induction of 174%. In addition, shoaling was significantly enhanced, while swimming activity and feeding rates were markedly suppressed at DPH concentrations equal to or higher than 21.7 μg L(-1). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and MDA) and behavioral parameters. Collectively, our results confirmed that DPH can accumulate and be metabolized in fish and exert a negative effect at different levels of biological organization. Copyright

  8. Active biomonitoring of complex pollution in Taihu Lake with Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Lu, G H; Ji, Y; Zhang, H Z; Wu, H; Qin, J; Wang, C

    2010-04-01

    Carassius auratus bred in clean water were selected to conduct active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures in Meiliang and Gong bays in the northern polluted area of Taihu Lake. The biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipoperoxidation (as TBARS) in liver were determined as biomarkers during the field exposure period. At the same time, the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in the surface sediments of biomonitoring sites were measured. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 248.8 to 375.9microgkg(-1) dry weight, PCB from 1.26 to 2.41microgkg(-1), OCP from 0.15 to 2.06microgkg(-1), and heavy metal from 126.3 to 210.0mgkg(-1). The results indicate that complex pollution by persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals is present in the northern end of Taihu Lake and the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. Moreover, Meilaing Bay is a more stressful place to fish living there. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated by combining different biomarkers to single value, which can be used to describe the toxically-induced stress level of populations in different areas. Pollutant concentrations were displayed as star plots and compared to IBR star plots. There was a visual correlation between the PCB gradient and the OCP gradient measured in the sediments and the IBR variation.

  9. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  10. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp.

  11. Reinforcing properties of the substance P C-fragment analog DiMe-C7 in Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, R; Coelho, J; Martins, A

    1996-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether two substance P (SP) fragments have reinforcing effects in Carassius auratus when the fish were tested in a place-preference experimental model. Fish were placed in a 3-compartment box in which one compartment gives access to two others that are not connected. The time spent in each compartment was recorded for 10 min in order to determine which one was preferred. Twenty-four hours later the fish were given one of the following ip treatments: 1) group VEH (N = 12), injected with teleost saline, 2) group DiMe-C7 (N = 12), injected with 33 micrograms/kg DiMe-C7, and 3) group SP1-7 (N = 12), injected with 167 micrograms/kg SP1-7. Immediately after treatment the fish were kept for 30 min in the compartment that was the least preferred on the day before and this procedure was repeated for 3 days. On the fifth day the fish were retested for 10 min to determine the time spent in each compartment. Two-way analysis of variance with treatments and testing as factors indicated a main effect (P < 0.0025) as well as a testing effect (P < 0.009). The post-hoc Scheffé multiple comparison test indicated that only the DiMe-C7 group presented an increase in the time spent in the paired compartment after treatment. We suggest that the C-terminal fragment of SP has reinforcing effects in Carassius auratus.

  12. Acute toxicity to goldfish of mixtures of chloramines, copper, and linear alkylate sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.F.; McKee, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus) of mixtures of chloramines, copper, and linear alkylate sulfonate (LAS) was studied by continuous-flow toxicity tests during an exposure period of 96 hours. The individual toxicities of these three chemicals are either additive or synergistic in mixtures, depending on the rate of toxic action of the individual chemical, the toxicity ratio of the chemicals in the mixtures, and the concentration of the mixtures.

  13. 2-Chlorophenol induced hydroxyl radical production in mitochondria in Carassius auratus and oxidative stress--an electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Sui, Yun-xia; Wang, Xiao-rong; Tian, Yuan

    2008-04-01

    In our previous study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Carassius auratus following 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) administration was provided. To further investigate the potential pathway of ROS production, liver mitochondria of C. auratus was isolated and incubated with 2-CP for 30 min. An EPR analysis indicated ROS was produced, and intensities of ROS increased with increasing concentrations of 2-CP. The ROS was then assigned OH by comparing with Fenton reaction. Either catalase or superoxide dismutase, extinguished OH completely in the mitochondria mixture. These facts suggested that O2(.-) and H2O2 contributed to the formation of OH in mitochondria in C. auratus stressed by 2-CP. Combining previous references and our own data, it is reasonable to suggest that 2-CP is first oxidized by H2O2 present in vivo to form phenoxyl radical under the catalytic action of cellular peroxidase (1); phenoxyl radical oxidizes mitochondria NADH to NAD in the presence of NADH (2); NAD reacts with oxygen in vivo to produce O2(.-) (3); O2(.-) is spontaneously dismutated by SOD to form H2O2 and O2, which creates a renewable supply of H2O2 as the initiators of the chain reactions until NADH is consumed (4); simultaneously with reaction (4), O2(.-) reacts with H2O2 to form OH radical via the Haber-Weiss reaction (5). A strong negative correlation (r=-0.9278, p<0.01) between glutathione (GSH) pool and OH production was observed after fish were i.p. injected with 2-CP (250 mg kg(-1)), indicating the depletion of GSH caused by OH.

  14. Interactions of Glial Proteins from the Regenerating Goldfish (C. auratus) Optic Nerve with Retinotectal Axons,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    regenerating goldfish optic nerve with retinotectal.. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael A. Deaton, Susan E. Bock, and John A. Freeman 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...nerve sheath cells during development. Soc Neurosci 1983; 9: Abstr No. 17.33. 26. Ignatius MJ, Gebicke- Harter PJ, Skene JHP, Schilling JW, Weisgraber

  15. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Valérie; Rioux, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide induces apoptosis in Carassius auratus lymphocytes, a possible role in pathogenesis of bacterial infection in fish.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-Xin; Peng, Bo; Dong, Wei-Ren; Yang, Zai-Feng; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, is capable of eliciting a wide variety of pathophysiological effects, including endotoxin shock, tissue injury and lethality in both humans and animals. It is also a potent stimulant to initiate the proliferation, differentiation and activation of B lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in changes of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL-8 and IL-12, and enhancement of immune responses. However, little is known about its effect on the induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes. In the present study, the lymphocytes from Carassius auratus were employed for this purpose. The cells were exposed to LPS at various doses for different time periods. By careful apoptotic characteristic analysis, such as condensation of nuclear chromatin, fragmentation of genomic DNA and formation of apoptotic bodies, it provided the first evidence that LPS had apoptotic-inducing effect on fish lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LPS exposure induced significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi), depletion of ATP production, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, up-regulation of Bax and mitochondrial NO-synthase (mNOS) expression, and selective activation of caspase-9 rather than caspase-8. Each of these observations suggests that the LPS-induced apoptosis in C. auratus lymphocytes occurs largely via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This observation was different from the mechanism behind the LPS-induced apoptosis in mammalian macrophages/thymocytes that occurs via the TNF-alpha-mediated death-receptor pathway. Our study suggested the existence of a possible novel role in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish and even in mammals, which may contribute to the therapy of bacterial diseases. Also, it will help to gain more insights into the mechanisms of septic shock and of LPS

  17. Abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in the allotetraploid of Carassius auratus red var. (♀)×Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    PubMed

    Qin, Qinbo; Wang, Yude; Wang, Juan; Dai, Jing; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2014-09-02

    Allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood. Tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nRB) (4n=148, RRBB) of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC) (2n=100, RR) (♀)×Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB) (2n=48, BB) (♂) generated gametes of different size. To test the genetic composition of these gametes, the gynogenetic offspring and backcross progenies of 4nRB were produced, and their genetic composition were examined by chromosome analysis and FISH. Our results suggest that 4nRB can produce several types of gametes with different genetic compositions, including allotetraploid (RRBB), autotriploid (RRR), autodiploid (RR), and haploid (R) gametes. This study provides direct evidence of abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in an allotetraploid fish.

  18. Evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and copper to Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingbao; He, Qun; Meng, Lingjun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and copper have been recently regarded as ubiquitous environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, data on their possible combined toxic effects on aquatic organisms are still lacking. In this study, a systematic experimental approach was used to assess the impacts of these chemicals and their mixtures on hepatic antioxidant status of Carassius auratus after 4 days. Oxidative stress was apparently observed for joint exposure by determining biochemical parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response index was calculated to rank the toxicity order, from which the synergistic effect was tentatively proposed for joint-toxicity action. In addition, these treatments significantly altered trace element homeostasis in different fish tissues, and the concentration distribution of these test chemicals was also measured. Taken together, these results provided some valuable toxicological data on the joint effects of perfluorinated compounds and heavy metals on aquatic species, which can facilitate further understanding on the potential risks of other coexisting pollutants in the natural aquatic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Identification of a C1q family member associated with cortical granules and follicular cell apoptosis in Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jie; Chen, Bo; Yue, Huamei; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-07-16

    C1q family proteins with C1q domain have been reported in vertebrates, but their biological roles are currently unknown. In this study, a C1q-like factor, designated Carassius auratus gibelio ovary-specific C1q-like factor (CagOC1q-like), was identified as a cortical granules component. Immunofluorescence localization revealed that the C1q family member was specifically expressed in follicular epithelial cells, and associated with cortical granules in fully grown oocytes. Moreover, it was discharged to the perivitelline space and egg envelope upon fertilization. As it is the first identified C1q family member that is expressed in follicular cells that surround oocyte, CagOC1q-like was applied to detection of follicular cell apoptosis and deletion. The entire cytological process of follicular cell apoptosis and deletion was clearly seen from double visualizations of follicular cells with CagOC1q-like immunofluorescence and apoptotic follicular cells labeled by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) during oocyte maturation and ovulation.

  1. Preliminary study on the relationship between dexamethasone and pathogen susceptibility on crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Dong-Liang; Tu, Xiao; Song, Chen-Guang; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. The effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. The fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group D), 3 days (group C), 6 days (group B), and 9 days (group A), respectively. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly declined in group A, B and C. Relative immune gene expression such as il-1β, cxcl-8, tnfα and crp in kidney were down-regulation compared to group D. After that crucian carp were infected with A. hydrophila, crucian carp treated by dexamethasone had higher mortality (group A 95%, group B 76%, group C 31%) when compared to group D (4% mortality); the amount of pathogen in was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in liver, kidney and spleen of fish in group A-C compared to group D. These results implicated that higher susceptibility caused by dexamethasone may be induced by the decrease of lysozyme activity and the down-regulation of some immune genes.

  2. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and its interaction with antioxidant system in Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiao-rong; Ji, Liang-liang; Su, Yan

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, direct evidence of hydroxyl radical production in livers of Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was provided using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin-trapping. A dose-effect relationship was obtained between hydroxyl radical intensities and PCP exposure. It was observed that hydroxyl radical was significantly induced by 0.001 mg l(-1) (below the criteria for Chinese fishery water quality) of PCP exposure. A strong positive correlation (r=0.9581, p<0.001) was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities within 7d of PCP exposure, which suggests that hydroxyl radical are mainly produced from PCP itself. However, no correlation was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities after 7d, and a higher intensity of hydroxyl radical could still be observed when the PCP liver concentrations decreased to a lower level, which suggests that other mechanisms may possibly contribute to hydroxyl radical production after 7d. The glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased below that of the control level during the entire period of PCP exposure (0.05 mg l(-1)), which suggested oxidative stress occurred.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  4. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2015-06-01

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 μg/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·μg/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 μg/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·μg/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The oxidative stress in the liver of Carassius auratus exposed to acesulfame and its UV irradiance products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuhang; Geng, Jinju; Li, Fuchang; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2016-11-15

    Acesulfame (ACE) is listed as an emerging contaminant due to its environmental persistence and wide occurrence in the environment. ACE can be degraded partially in the regular UV disinfection process but the eco-toxicity of its irradiation products remains unclear. This study focused on the possible oxidative status change in the liver of Carassius auratus exposed to ACE and its irradiation products. The UV degradation of ACE follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, and eight irradiation products were identified. Fish were exposed 7days to 0.1 and 10mg/L ACE (ACE group) and ACE after UV irradiance (ACE-UV group). The oxidative stress in fish liver exposed to ACE group had no distinct change. However, in the ACE-UV group, the quantity of OH was induced by 17.96-55% and the MDA content increased by 16.28-68.28% compared to control. Time-effect exposure in the ACE-UV group showed that in the first 3days the quantity of OH reached its peak, causing severe inhibition of SOD and continuous inducement of GPx. GSH helped scavenge OH and decreased below control after 3days. An increased toxicity of ACE after UV irradiance was observed and its transfer after into aquatic environment needs to be recognized as an environmental risk.

  7. Modulatory effects of deltamethrin on antioxidant defense mechanisms and lipid peroxidation in Carassius auratus gibelio liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Diana; Marinescu, Diana; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Staicu, Andreea Cristina; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2010-04-01

    Pyrethroids, such as deltamethrin, are toxic substances that lead to generation of reactive oxygen species, which harm living organisms. We assessed the level and patterns of imbalance evolved by a single dose of 2 microg/L deltamethrin on the lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system of Carassius auratus gibelio liver and intestine, and monitored the recovery dynamics of these parameters during a 14-day post-exposure period. LPO and antioxidative defense mechanisms displayed different responses in the investigated tissues. Sudden increase of LPO in the liver, persisting at this elevated level throughout the test period, was observed on the third day post-exposure, while in the intestine significant enhancement of this parameter was recorded from the seventh day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) showed a transient increase in the liver, and was depleted in the intestine by the second day of exposure, with signs of recovery by the end of the experimental tenure. In the liver of fish a temporary inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and activation of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes was observed, with maximum thresholds recorded on the third and second days, respectively. In the intestine a relevant increase in CAT and GST activity up to the second day and almost complete recovery by the end of the experiment was recorded, while for GR a continuous enhancement was apparent.

  8. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  9. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  10. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Luo, Kaikun; Liu, Yun

    2014-03-15

    Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp.

  11. Rapid genomic changes in allopolyploids of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    PubMed

    Qin, Qinbo; Lai, Zhengfa; Cao, Liu; Xiao, Qiong; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-10-05

    To better understand genomic changes in the early generations after polyploidisation, we examined the chromosomal consequences of genomic merger in allotetraploid hybrids (4 nF1) (AABB, 4n = 148) of Carassius auratus red var. (RCC) (AA, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (BSB) (BB, 2n = 48) (♂). Complete loss of the paternal 5S rDNA sequence and the expected number of maternal chromosomal loci were found in 4 nF1, suggesting directional genomic changes occurred in the first generations after polyploidisation. Recent studies have reported instability of newly established allotetraploid genomes. To assess this in the newly formed 4 nF1 genome, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation on an allotetraploid gynogenetic hybrid (4 nG) (AABB, 4n = 148) and an allopentaploid hybrid (5 nH) (AABBB, 5n = 172) from 4 nF1 (♀) × BSB (♂) with 5S rDNA gene and centromere probes from RCC, the original diploid parent. The expected numbers of maternal chromosomal loci were found in 4 nG, while chromosomal locus deletions and chromosome recombinations were detected in 5 nH. These observations suggest that abnormal meiosis did not lead to obvious genomic changes in the newly established allotetraploid genomes, but hybridisation with the original diploid parent resulted in obvious genomic changes in the newly established allotetraploid genomes, as was found for the maternal genome.

  12. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  13. Antioxidant responses in Carassius auratus and Lolium perenne exposed to the laboratory pollution.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jing; Feng, Mingbao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xinghao

    2014-03-01

    Experiments conducted in the laboratories can produce numerous wastes, which could potentially affect the health of the researchers. In this study, the antioxidant responses in liver of Carassiua auratus and leaf of Lolium perenne were investigated after chronic exposure to the air pollution in four different laboratories. The obtained data showed that oxidative stress was induced in some laboratories, as indicated by some significantly altered biochemical parameters. Additionally, the toxicity order was tentatively proposed based on these responses. The results indicated that these biochemical indices can be used as the oxidative stress biomarkers to assess the effect of environmental pollution on the living organisms, and this study can facilitate the understanding of the risk assessment of laboratory pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Zou, Tuomi; Chen, Yubao; Chen, Lin; Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Zhao, Rurong; Zhou, Yi; Long, Yu; You, Cuiping; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-29

    Crucian carp (abbreviated CC) belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC), triploid (abbreviated 3nCC) and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC) population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  15. Effects of inducers of cytochrome P450s on enrofloxacin N-deethylation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guihong; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Yuan; Fang, Wenhong; Zhou, Junfang; Zhao, Shu; Ma, Licai

    2016-09-01

    In this study with crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), the effect on enrofloxacin (EF) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) and on the activity of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) was estimated following the oral administration of rifampicin (RIF) (12mg/kg) and β-naphthoflavone (BNF) (12mg/kg), respectively. First, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to detect the pharmacokinetics of EF with continual blood sampling. In RIF-treated, BNF-treated and control groups, the value of the CmaxCF/CmaxEF ratio was 4.41, 0.81 and 0.95, and the corresponding value of the AUC0-t-CF/AUC0-t-EF ratio was 3.69, 1.84 and 1.76, respectively. In the RIF-treated, BNF-treated and control groups, the MRT values of EF were 26.57, 27.45 and 30.88h, and the corresponding values for CF were 5.79, 35.18 and 38.11h, respectively. Based on these results for crucian carp, the accumulation and elimination of EF and CF in the RIF-treated group were more rapid than in BNF-treated and control groups. Second, liver microsomes were pretreated with the inducer of CYP1A for BNF and that of CYP3A for RIF, and then the enzymatic activities of CYP1A and CYP3A were measured, respectively. The activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and erythromycin-N-demethylation (ERND) increased significantly (P<0.05) for CYP1A and CYP3A, respectively. However, in further experiments on the formation of CF, the level of EF N-deethylation was significantly induced by RIF and inhibited by ketoconazole (KTZ) for CYP3A but had no influence for CYP1A, BNF and berberine chloride (BER). We concluded that CYP3A might be responsible for the N-deethylation of EF and because of this activity, could also serve as a toxicity biomarker in crucian carp.

  16. Resistance to change in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Igaki, Takeharu; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2004-05-31

    Resistance to change has been studied in several species such as humans, rats, and pigeons. We conducted two experiments using goldfish as subjects to examine the generality of the findings on resistance to change in a phylogenetically more primitive species. In Experiment 1, five goldfish (Carassius auratus) were trained on two-component multiple schedules with different variable-interval schedules in effect. When responding was disrupted by presenting free food during intercomponent intervals or by extinction, resistance to change was greater in the component with the higher reinforcement rates. In Experiment 2, identical variable-interval schedules were presented in two multiple-schedule components, but in one of the components response-independent food was delivered concurrently according to variable-time schedules. Baseline response rates were the same for both components, which is inconsistent with previous findings with other species that the addition of response-independent food decreases response rates. However, response rates in the component with added response-independent food showed the greater resistance to change, which is similar to findings in other species. The convergence of these results across various species confirms the generality of the findings on resistance to change.

  17. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  18. The toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus) under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Qu, R-J; Wang, X-H; Feng, M-B; Li, Y; Liu, H-X; Wang, L-S; Wang, Z-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus. The acute toxicity of Cd(2+) to P. phosphoreum and D. magna at five pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating EC50 values. We determined that Cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and D. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of Cd than P. phosphoreum. To evaluate Cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in C. auratus at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, 9.0), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the level of glutathione and the malondialdehyde content in the liver were measured. Oxidative damage was observed after 7d Cd exposure at pH 9.0. An important finding of the current research was that Cd(2+) was generally more toxic to the three test organisms in alkaline environments than in acidic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postembryonic staging of wild‐type goldfish, with brief reference to skeletal systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ing‐Jia; Chang, Chun‐Ju; Liu, Shi‐Chieh; Abe, Gembu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artificial selection of postembryonic features is known to have established morphological variation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Although previous studies have suggested that goldfish and zebrafish are almost directly comparable at the embryonic level, little is known at the postembryonic level. Results: Here, we categorized the postembryonic developmental process in the wild‐type goldfish into 11 different stages. We also report certain differences between the postembryonic developmental processes of goldfish and zebrafish, especially in the skeletal systems (scales and median fin skeletons), suggesting that postembryonic development underwent evolutionary divergence in these two teleost species. Conclusions: Our postembryonic staging system of wild‐type goldfish paves the way for careful and appropriate comparison with other teleost species. The staging system will also facilitate comparative ontogenic analyses between wild‐type and mutant goldfish strains, allowing us to closely study the relationship between artificial selection and molecular developmental mechanisms in vertebrates. Developmental Dynamics 244:1485–1518, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26316229

  20. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  1. Accumulation and health risk assessment of trace elements in Carassius auratus gibelio from subsidence pools in the Huainan coalfield in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lanlan; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yuan

    2017-08-30

    Microelement (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were determined in the muscle, skin, gill, and liver tissues of Carassius auratus gibelio collected from subsidence pools at three different coal mines in the Huainan coalfield in China. The concentrations of elements in the water were within the allowable levels for raising fish. However, the higher levels of these metals in sediment may pose potential harm on fish. It was found that the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn in all fish tissues were higher, while As, Cd, and Pb levels were relatively low. Microelement accumulation appeared to be more widespread in subsidence pools than that in natural water. Elements accumulated in fish tissues differently: the highest metal concentrations were generally found in the liver tissues of the fish analyzed, whereas the lowest were recorded in the muscles. The mean element concentrations in muscle tissue from C. auratus gibelio collected from subsidence pools (As, 0.16 mg/kg; Cd, 0.06 mg/kg; Cr, 6.21 mg/kg; Cu, 1.61 mg/kg; Ni, 3.88 mg/kg; Pb, 1.76 mg/kg; and Zn, 12.80 mg/kg dry weight) were far below the allowable limit of the hygienic standard in fish proposed by the Ministry of Health in China, suggesting that the fish were safe for human consumption. A health risk assessment also suggested there was no risk from the analyzed elements for inhabitants near the Huainan coalfield that consume fish.

  2. Sexual bipotentiality of behavior in male and female goldfish.

    PubMed

    Saoshiro, Seiji; Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2013-01-15

    It is known that in goldfish Carassius auratus, a non-sex changing fish, prostaglandin (PG) treatment can induce female-typical sex behavior in males, and androgen treatment can induce male-typical sex behavior in females. These facts suggest that goldfish have a sexually bipotential brain even after attaining sexual maturity unlike mammals which have sexually differentiated brain. In the present study, in order to further characterize the brain function of goldfish, whether hormonal treatments which induce heterotypical sexual behavior suppress the occurrence of sex-typical behavior and whether sex-typical and heterotypical behavior can be induced in a relatively short time were examined. In the first series of experiments, male goldfish were shown to retain their ability to perform male-typical sex behavior within a week after being induced to perform female-typical behavior. Likewise, female goldfish were also shown to retain their female-typical sex behavior a week after being induced to perform male-typical behavior. In the second series of experiments, when PG-injected experimental males were placed with both PG-injected females and sexually mature males, the experimental males performed male- and female-typical behavior alternately with the females and the males, respectively during 90 min test period. When methyltestosterone-treated experimental females were injected with PG and placed with both PG-injected females and mature males, the experimental females performed male- and female-typical behavior alternately during 90 min test period. The results of the present study are consistent with the current knowledge that goldfish possess a sexually bipotential brain that can regulate both male and female-typical sex behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    PubMed

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  4. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  5. Induced All-Female Autotriploidy in the Allotetraploids of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    PubMed

    Qin, Qinbo; Wang, Juan; Dai, Jing; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-10-01

    Following activation by UV-irradiated BSB sperm, the fertilized eggs of tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nF1) (4n = 148, AABB) of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC) (2n = 100, AA) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB) (2n = 48, BB) (♂) developed into normal live gynogenetic offspring without chromosome doubling treatment. Some of these were autotriploids with three sets of red crucian carp chromosomes (abbreviated as G1) (3n = 150, AAA). G1 were all-females, and can produce unreduced (3n) eggs at age 1 year. After activation by UV-irradiated BSB sperm, the fertilized eggs of G1 developed into a second generation of autotriploid gynogenetic offspring (abbreviated as G2) (3n = 150) without chromosome doubling treatment. G1 were obviously different from both 4nF1 and RCC in their morphological traits and showed a significantly higher growth rate than RCC. In aquaculture, the autotriploid fish could provide an important source of gametes for the production of all-female triploid fish and for the establishment of autotriploid gynogenetic lines.

  6. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    PubMed

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  7. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  8. Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the effects of roxithromycin in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in the presence of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Sun, Hongwei; Ma, Binni

    2017-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are increasingly entering the aquatic environment and may interact with other co-existing contaminants, such as antibiotics. However, whether these interactions may affect their bioavailability in aquatic organisms is the subject of considerable debate. The primary objective of this study was to assess the risks arising from the coexistence of roxithromycin (ROX) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in waters containing natural organic matter (NOM), focusing on the distribution and bioaccumulation of ROX in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), and the related biochemical status. There were no significant differences in ROX bioaccumulation in fish following exposure to ROX with and without NOM. However, the further addition of MWCNTs significantly facilitated the bioaccumulation of ROX in the liver (32-80%), gill (15-74%), intestine (51-113%), and bile (15-67%) in different exposure periods. Meanwhile, a 0.3-fold increase in the metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative stress in the liver were markedly accelerated by the co-exposed MWCNTs compared to ROX alone. The findings imply that the ROX adsorbed on MWCNTs may be a higher threat to fish than ROX alone. The high and fast release of ROX from MWCNTs in bile salts and serum albumin may contribute to the enhancement in bioaccumulation and bioactivity of ROX in fish with MWCNTs.

  9. Antioxidant status and Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to different combustion products of Nafion 117 membrane: an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chao; Qin, Li; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-03-01

    Nafion 117 membrane (N117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), has been widely applied in numerous chemical technologies. Its increasing production and utilization will inevitably lead to the problem of waste disposal, with incineration as an important method. However, toxicity data of its combustion products on aquatic organisms have been seldom reported. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the antioxidant response and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in liver of Carassius auratus exposed to different combustion products of N117 for 5, 15, and 30 days. The concentrations of fluorine ion (F(-)) in the aquaria among the exposure durations were analyzed using the ion chromatography system. The results showed that these treatments have the capability to induce oxidative stress and suppress Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, as indicated by some significant alterations on these measured toxicity end-points in fish liver. According to the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the toxicity intensity of these experimental treatments was tentatively ranked. Taken together, these observations provided some preliminary data on the potential toxicity of the combustion products of N117 on aquatic organisms and could fill the information gaps in the toxicity database of the current-use PEM.

  10. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc JB; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. PMID:23983078

  11. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Milt production in goldfish: regulation by multiple social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stacey, N; Fraser, E J; Sorensen, P; Van der Kraak, G

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies in goldfish (Carassius auratus) demonstrate that milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume is increased both by a preovulatory steroidal pheromone, 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P), that acts by increasing serum concentrations of gonadotropin II (GTH-II), and by a post-ovulatory prostaglandin (PG) pheromone, that acts by stimulating sexual interactions. Here, we show that male goldfish also increase milt volume when isolated for 24 h, or when placed with another male injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 12 h. In contrast to the milt increase induced by pheromonal 17,20 beta-P, the milt increase following isolation or exposure to hCG-injected males was not associated with increased serum GTH-II. Serum growth hormone also was unaffected, although serum testosterone increased in isolated males. The absence of GTH-II increase following isolation or exposure to hCG-injected males and the long latency time for these two types of responses, suggests these effects are mediated by a novel mechanism as yet undescribed. The present findings suggest that sperm competition has selected for complex mechanisms regulating milt production and fertility in goldfish: males regulate milt production not only in response to stimulatory pheromonal cues from ovulatory females, but also in response to unknown stimulatory and inhibitory cues from male competitors.

  13. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics study on a goldfish model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoguang; Wang, Junsong; Li, Minghui; Liu, Qingwang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-11-05

    A goldfish (Carassius auratus) model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was constructed by a single dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) according to previously reported methods. Global metabolite changes in brain of the MPTP induced goldfish model of PD were investigated. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics combined with various statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) found significant increase of leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, alanylalanine, creatinine, myo-inositol, 18:2 fatty acid, total fatty acids, arachic alcohol, taurine and significant decrease of N-acetylaspartate, (phospho)creatine, (phospho)choline, betaine, glutamine, 3-hexenedioate, acetamide, malonate, isocitrate, scyllo-inositol, phosphatidylcholines, cholesterols, n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in brain of MPTP induced PD goldfish. These disturbed metabolite levels were involved in oxidative stress, energy failure, neuronal cell injury and death, consistent with those observed in clinical PD patients, and rodents and primates model of PD, indicating that the acute MPTP model of goldfish was an ideal and valuable model for PD research. In addition, several unusual metabolites in brain were significantly changed between MPTP induced PD and control goldfish, which might also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. This study also demonstrated the applicability and potential of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach for evaluation of animal models of disease induced by chemicals, such as MPTP-induced PD goldfish.

  14. Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanism underlying gray-to-red body color formation in red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Jinhui; Peng, Liangyue; Ren, Li; Zhang, Huiqin; Zou, Lijun; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Yamei

    2017-07-05

    Red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) is an ornamental fish with vivid red/orange color. It has been found that the adult body color of this strain forms a gray-to-red change. In this study, skin transcriptomes of red crucian carp are first obtained for three different stages of body color development, named by gray-color (GC), color-variation (CV), and red-color (RC) stages, respectively. From the skins of GC, CV, and RC, 103,229; 108,208; and 120,184 transcripts have been identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that 2483, 2967, and 4473 unigenes are differentially expressed between CV and GC, RC and CV, and RC and GC, respectively. A part of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in the signaling pathway of pigment synthesis, such as the melanogenesis genes (Mitfa, Pax3a, Foxd3, Mc1r, Asip); tyrosine metabolism genes (Tyr, Dct, Tyrp1, Silva, Tat, Hpda); and pteridine metabolism genes (Gch, Xdh, Ptps, Tc). According to the data of transcriptome and quantitative PCR, the expression of Mitfa and its regulated genes which include the genes of Tyr, Tyrp1, Dct, Tfe3a, and Baxα, decreases with gray-to-red change. It is suggested that Mitfa and some genes, being related to melanin synthesis or melanophore development, are closely related to the gray-to-red body color transformation in the red crucian carp. Furthermore, the DEGs of cell apoptosis and autophagy pathway, such as Tfe3a, Baxα, Hsp70, Beclin1, Lc3, Atg9a, and Atg4a, might be involved in the melanocytes fade away of juvenile fish. These results shed light on the regulation mechanism of gray-to-red body color transformation in red crucian carp, and are helpful to the selective breeding of ornamental fish strains.

  16. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    PubMed

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  17. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Body Weight in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) Using 2b-RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyang; Fu, Beide; Pang, Meixia; Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2017-08-07

    A high-resolution genetic linkage map is essential for a wide range of genetics and genomics studies such as comparative genomics analysis and QTL fine mapping. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is widely distributed in Eurasia, and is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed for crucian carp using 2b-RAD technology. The consensus map contains 8487 SNP markers, assigning to 50 linkage groups (LGs) and spanning 3762.88 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.44 cM and genome coverage of 98.8%. The female map had 4410 SNPs, and spanned 3500.42 cM (0.79 cM/marker), while the male map had 4625 SNPs and spanned 3346.33 cM (0.72 cM/marker). The average recombination ratio of female to male was 2.13:1, and significant male-biased recombination suppressions were observed in LG47 and LG49. Comparative genomics analysis revealed a clear 2:1 syntenic relationship between crucian carp LGs and chromosomes of zebrafish and grass carp, and a 1:1 correspondence, but extensive chromosomal rearrangement, between crucian carp and common carp, providing evidence that crucian carp has experienced a fourth round of whole genome duplication (4R-WGD). Eight chromosome-wide QTL for body weight at 2 months after hatch were detected on five LGs, explaining 10.1-13.2% of the phenotypic variations. Potential candidate growth-related genes, such as an EGF-like domain and TGF-β, were identified within the QTL intervals. This high-density genetic map and QTL analysis supplies a basis for genome evolutionary studies in cyprinid fishes, genome assembly, and QTL fine mapping for complex traits in crucian carp. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  18. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P < 0.05). Evaluation of appetite related gene expression showed down-regulation of ghrelin in probiotic fed fish compared those of control treatment (P < 0.05). However, administration of different levels of L. acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different catalytic properties and inhibitor responses of the goldfish brain and ovary aromatase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Mak, P; Tchoudakova, A; Callard, G; Chen, S

    2001-08-01

    The brain and ovarian aromatase isozymes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) are encoded by different CYP19 genes. This study measured aromatase activity in the goldfish brain tissues. For a direct comparison of the properties of the two aromatase isozymes, Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with brain- and ovary-derived cDNAs (respectively, p450 arom B and -A) and the properties of the expressed isozymes were compared. The kinetic parameters of the two isozymes were determined using androstenedione and testosterone as substrates and compared to those of human aromatase. Inhibition profile analyses on the two isozymes were performed using seven inhibitors [4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, bridge (2,19-methyleneoxy)androstene-3,17-dione, aminoglutethimide (AG), CGS 20267, ICI D1033, and vorozole]. Except for AG, the compounds tested were found to be much stronger inhibitors against the ovary enzyme than the brain enzyme. In addition, the ovary isoform was more sensitive to two phytoestrogens, chrysin and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, than the brain form. These studies reveal that catalytic properties of the goldfish aromatase isoforms are significantly different from those of human aromatase. In addition, differences in the K(i) values of aromatase inhibitors for the two goldfish isoforms suggest structural variance in the active sites of these isozymes.

  20. Endocrine and milt responses of male crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.) to periovulatory females under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Olsén, K H; Sawisky, G R; Stacey, N E

    2006-12-01

    Laboratory studies in domesticated goldfish (Carassius auratus) show that, during the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, females release a complex steroidal pheromone that induces in males a rapid increase of plasma LH, which in turn increases strippable milt (sperm and seminal fluid) prior to ovulation and spawning. The objective of this study was to determine if the same phenomenon occurs in a wild congener, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius), under field conditions where fish are held in natural waters under ambient temperature and photoperiod. During the spawning season in June 2003, crucian carp were trapped in a small pond near Uppsala, Sweden, and held separately by sex in floating net pens. Addition of untreated females to male pens did not change male LH concentrations or milt volume during the 17 h sampling period. In contrast, addition of females injected with Ovaprim (to induce an LH surge and ovulation) increased male LH concentrations at all sample times (5, 9, 13, and 17h) following female addition and increased milt volumes at all but the first (5h) sample time. Similar increases in male LH and milt that also occurred when untreated females ovulated spontaneously after addition to male pens suggest it is female ovulatory condition, rather than injection of ovaprim per se, that induced male LH and milt responses. Males also increased LH and milt 9h after addition of females injected with the goldfish pheromonal steroid 4-pregnen-17,20beta-diol-3-one (17,20betaP), suggesting that similar responses to ovaprim-injected females were due, at least in part, to release of preovulatory pheromonal steroid(s). The clear and consistent effects of ovulatory females on male LH and milt, and the fact that crucian carp adapted well to confinement, ovulated spontaneously, and exhibited apparently normal spawning behavior, all suggest that this species can serve as a useful cyprinid model to study reproductive processes in natural conditions.

  1. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Kreitsberg, Randel; Baršienė, Janina; Freiberg, Rene; Andreikėnaitė, Laura; Tammaru, Toomas; Rumvolt, Kateriina; Tuvikene, Arvo

    2013-12-01

    In North-East Estonia, considerable amounts of toxicants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, heavy metals) leach into water bodies through discharges from the oil-shale industry. In addition, natural and anthropogenic hypoxic events in water bodies affect the health of aquatic organisms. Here we report a study on the combined effects of contaminated sediment and hypoxia on the physiology of gibel carp (Carssius auratus gibelio). We conducted a laboratory exposure study that involved exposure to polluted sediments from oil-shale industries (River Purtse) and sediments from a relatively clean environment (River Selja), together with sediments spiked with PAHs. The oxygen content (saturation vs. hypoxia (< 2 mg/L)) was changed to reflect hypoxia. A multi-biomarker approach was chosen to enable the combined effects to be assessed comprehensively and integratively. We used HPLC to measure the PAH concentration in sediment and fish muscle, fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) analyses to indicate the presence of PAH metabolites in fish bile, and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes as markers of geno- and cyto-toxicity; and we monitored the change in body condition and measured EROD activity to indicate CYP1A induction. High levels of PAH conjugates in fish bile were found in the group exposed to the Purtse River sediment under hypoxia. The results suggested that induction of the CYP1A gene was modulated by hypoxia as well as by heavy metals. We found a correlation between several erythrocyte abnormalities (8-shaped nuclei and blebbed nuclei) and PAH metabolite content in fish. In conclusion, a measurable effect of pollution from the oil-shale industry on fish health parameters was clear under different oxygen levels.

  2. Characterization of triacetyl-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in carp and goldfish.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akikazu; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-01-15

    A triacetyl form of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) was found in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), by selective detection of mass profile for cell secretory granules using direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis during the investigation of fish pituitaries. The structure of triacetyl-α-MSH in carp and goldfish was further analyzed using a collision-induced dissociation with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and determined to be N,O-diacetyl Ser as the N-terminal residue and O-acetyl Tyr at position 2. These modifications for α-MSH in carp and goldfish are structurally different from that of medaka hormone, in which [N,O-diacetyl Ser(1), O-acetyl Ser(3)]-α-MSH has been identified. The profiles of four α-MSH variants, des-, mono-, di- and tri-acetyl forms in goldfish and medaka pituitaries were also examined by direct tissue MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and the percentages as a total of α-MSH molecules were compared for fish reared in a white or black tank for 5 days. Among structural variants, diacetyl-α-MSH was the predominant form in goldfish and N-desacetyl-α-MSH in medaka, respectively. In both species, the relative level of the predominant form in the pituitary of white-adapted fish tended to be lower than that of black-adapted fish. In goldfish, no significant difference was observed in the relative content of triacetyl-α-MSH in both backgrounds, whereas the lowest content of triacetyl-α-MSH was found in black-adapted medaka. These preliminary data indicate that it is difficult to elucidate the relations between the physiological roles and acetylated pattern of α-MSH molecule, depending on species.

  3. Thelohanellus wangi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea), a new gill parasite of allogynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) in China, causing severe gill myxosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S; Xi, B W; Wang, J G; Xie, J; Zhang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus wangi n. sp., infecting the allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), in a fry nursery farm in Jiangsu Province, China. Polysporous gray white round or ovoid plasmodia, 500-1,500 μm in size, were found exclusively in the gill filaments. The diagnostic characteristics of the myxospores are as follows: spore melon seed shaped in frontal view with smooth surface and asymmetrical valves; convex-shaped in sutural view with straight or slightly bent and thick sutural line, averaging 20.2 (16.5-22.3) × 9.9 (9.1-10.8) × 9.3 μm (8.2-10.4) in size; and one elliptical polar capsules with subulate anterior end and round posterior end, averaging 10.1 (8.4-11.2) × 6.5 μm (6.1-7.0) in size. Polar filaments coil six to seven turns and are slightly oblique to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsule. An elongate melon seed-shaped mucus envelope surrounds almost completely the spore, but with largest distance in posterior end between spore valve and mucus envelope. Granular sporoplasm contains two slightly oval nuclei, and no iodinophilous vacuole is observed. Histopathological analysis showed that the plasmodia embedded in the gill filaments and occasionally extended into the connective tissue of the gill arch. No significant inflammatory responses were provoked by the infection. The development of parasite is asynchronous, with mature spores centrally locating and trophozoites and pre-sporogonic stages peripherally locating within the plasmodia. Overall prevalence was 74% (37/50). Infection intensity was usually high, with about 10-30 cysts per fish. Phylogenetical analysis shows that T. wangi n. sp. is most closely related to several Thelohanellus species infecting cyprinid fish and formed a Thelohanellus clade based on the ribosomal DNA data. The cysts of this myxosporean were only found from fry seed with body length below 7 cm, generally from late April to early June when the fry fish of

  4. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure, nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in gold fish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and starvation (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling) in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Both groups of fish were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days. Measurements of weight gain (%), oxygen consumption (MO2), ammonia excretion rate, ammonia quotient (AQ), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit), plasma and muscle ammonia accumulation, plasma lactate, liver and muscle glycogen, lipid and protein content were done at various time intervals during the experimental periods. Overall, ammonia excretion rates, plasma ammonia accumulation and AQ were significantly affected by food regime in ammonia free water. HEA, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly altered all the studied parameters among fed and starved groups in days-dependent manner. Results show that weight gain (%), MO2, Ucrit, protein content in liver and muscle, and glycogen content in muscle among starved fish under HEA were considerably reduced compared to control and fed fish. Additionally a remarkable increase in plasma ammonia level, muscle ammonia, lactate accumulation and AQ was seen. However in fed fish, MO2, ammonia excretion rate, AQ and lactate level augmented after exposure to HEA. These results indicate that starved fish appeared more sensitive to HEA than fed fish. Furthermore, as expected, the toxic effect of ammonia exposure in both feeding treatments was exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming (swum at 3/4th Ucrit). Such effects were more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that starvation can instigate fish more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise. Therefore, it was evident from our study that feeding ameliorates ammonia handling and reduces its toxicity during both routine and exhaustive swimming. Moreover, recovery was

  5. Role of oleoylethanolamide as a feeding regulator in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana B; Armirotti, Andrea; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J; Piomelli, Daniele; de Pedro, Nuria

    2014-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of OEA in feeding regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain OEA and their regulation by nutritional status. OEA was detected in all studied tissues (liver, intestinal bulb, proximal intestine, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon and brainstem). Food deprivation (48 h) reduced intestinal OEA levels and levels increased upon re-feeding, suggesting that this compound may be involved in the short-term regulation of food intake in goldfish, as a satiety factor. Next, the effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of OEA on feeding, swimming and plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides were analysed. Food intake, swimming activity and circulating triglyceride levels were reduced by OEA 2 h post-injection. Finally, the possible interplay among OEA and other feeding regulators (leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, orexin and monoamines) was investigated. OEA actions on energy homeostasis in goldfish could be mediated, at least in part, through interactions with ghrelin and the serotonergic system, as OEA treatment reduced ghrelin expression in the intestinal bulb, and increased serotonergic activity in the telencephalon. In summary, our results indicate for the first time in fish that OEA could be involved in the regulation of feeding, swimming and lipid metabolism, suggesting a high conservation of OEA actions in energy balance throughout vertebrate evolution. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Does speaker presentation affect auditory evoked potential thresholds in goldfish?

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Wysocki, Lidia Eva

    2009-11-01

    The auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique has proved to be a very versatile and successful approach in studying auditory sensitivities in fishes. The AEP protocol introduced by Kenyon, Ladich and Yan in 1998 using an air speaker with the fish positioned at the water surface gave auditory thresholds in goldfish very close to behavioural values published before. This approach was subsequently modified by several laboratories, raising the question whether speaker choice (air vs. underwater) or the position of subjects affect auditory threshold determination. To answer these questions, the hearing specialist Carassius auratus was measured using an air speaker, an underwater speaker and alternately positioning the fish directly at or 5cm below the water surface. Mean hearing thresholds obtained using these 4 different setups varied by 5.6dB, 3.7dB and 4dB at 200Hz, 500Hz and 1000Hz, respectively. Accordingly, pronounced differences in AEP thresholds in goldfish measured in different laboratories reflect other factors than speaker used and depth of the test subjects, namely variations in threshold definition, background noise, population differences, or calibration errors.

  7. Integrated Biomarker Responses of Effluents from Municipal Sewage Treatment Works in Goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G. H.; Xia, J.; Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, C.

    2010-11-01

    The organic toxicants were extracted from the effluents from municipal sewage treatment works (STWs) in Nanjing (Chengbei, Suojincun and Jiangxinzhou STWs) by using solid phase extraction. AChE, GST, EROD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were determmed after exposure of the extracted components. The extracts of water samples from the three STWs induced AChE, GST, EROD and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. The responses of enzymatic activities were mostly significant for those exposures of intermediate polar components, weakly polar components and/or nonpolar hexane extracts. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index were calculated and used to evaluate an integrated impact of organic toxicants from different sampling sites. The order of negative biological effects of the three STWs was Jiangxinzhou>Chengbei>Suojincun.

  8. Toxicity and accumulation of zinc pyrithione in the liver and kidneys of Carassius auratus gibelio: association with P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tao; Fu, Gui-Hong; Liu, Teng-Fei; Hu, Kun; Li, Hao-Ran; Fang, Wen-Hong; Yang, Xian-Le

    2017-02-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent; therefore, it is widely used in industry and civilian life. It is discharged into the aquatic environment with industrial and civilian waste water. Carassius sp. is one of the most widely distributed and farmed fish in China. The effects of aquatic ZPT on Carassius sp. remain unknown. In this study, we determined the acute toxicity of ZPT on Carassius sp. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50 96 h) of ZPT on Carassius sp. cultivated in freshwater or water with 1.5 or 3 ‰ salinity was 0.163, 0.126, and 0.113 mg/L, respectively. ZPT has a higher affinity to the liver than the kidney, with a prolonged tissue residual time. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette transporter, was found to be induced in the liver and kidney tissues of these Carassius spp. after ZPT treatment, based on the determination of its mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The ZPT accumulation and magnitude of P-gp induction were also affected by the salinity of the cultivation water. These results suggest that aquatic ZPT is potentially toxic to Carassius sp. We speculate that P-gp induction may play a protective role for Carassius sp. Our findings provide a basis for assessing the potential risk of ZPT to aquatic animals including Carassius sp.

  9. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish--molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Bartošová, P; Pecková, H; Tyml, T; Atkinson, S; Bartholomew, J; Sipos, D; Eszterbauer, E; Dyková, I

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoans are a group of diverse, spore-forming metazoan microparasites bound to aquatic environments. Sphaerospora dykovae (previously S. renicola) causes renal sphaerosporosis and acute swim bladder inflammation (SBI) in juvenile Cyprinus carpio carpio, in central Europe. A morphologically similar species with comparably low pathogenicity, S. angulata has been described from C. c. carpio, Carassius auratus auratus and Carassius gibelio. To clarify uncertainties and ambiguities in taxon identification in these hosts we decided to re-investigate differences in spore morphology using a statistical approach, in combination with SSU and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. We found that developing spores of S. angulata and S. dykovae cannot be distinguished morphologically and designed a duplex PCR assay for the cryptic species that demonstrated S. dykovae is specific to C. c. carpio, whereas S. angulata infects C. a. auratus and C. gibelio. The molecular identification of myxozoan blood stages in common carp and goldfish, which had previously been ascribed to Sphaerospora spp. showed that approximately 75% of blood stages were from non-sphaerosporid coelozoic species infecting these cyprinids and more than 10% were from an alien species, Myxobilatus gasterostei, developing in sticklebacks. We hereby report non-selective myxozoan host invasion and multi-species infections, whose role in SBI still requires clarification.

  10. Acute exposure to the penconazole-containing fungicide Topas partially augments antioxidant potential in goldfish tissues.

    PubMed

    Husak, Viktor V; Mosiichuk, Nadia M; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2017-03-01

    Penconazole is a systemic fungicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation Topas. Although triazole fungicides are widely found in the aquatic environment, little is known about their acute toxicity on fish. In this study we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to Topas on some parameters of homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the levels of markers of oxidative stress and parameters of the antioxidant defense system of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Gills appeared to be the main target organ of Topas toxicity, showing the greatest number of parameters affected. Gills of Topas-treated fish showed a higher content of low (L-SH) and high (H-SH) molecular mass thiols and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as reduced carbonyl protein content (CP), as compared with those in the control group. In the liver, goldfish exposure to 15-25mgL(-1) Topas resulted in a higher L-SH and H-SH content, but lower CP levels and activity of GST. In kidney, Topas exposure resulted in higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and G6PDH, but lower L-SH content and activity of GST. The results of this study indicate that acute goldfish exposure to the triazole fungicide Topas increased efficiency of the antioxidant system in fish gills, liver, and kidney. This could indicate the development of low intensity oxidative stress which up-regulates defense mechanisms responsible for protection of goldfish against deleterious ROS effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Temporal precision and reliability in the velocity regime of a hair-cell sensory system: the mechanosensory lateral line of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; van Hemmen, J Leo; Jung, Sarah N; Chagnaud, Boris P; Scholze, Björn; Engelmann, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Fish and aquatic frogs detect minute water motion by means of a specialized mechanosensory system, the lateral line. Ubiquitous in fish, the lateral-line system is characterized by hair-cell based sensory structures across the fish's surface called neuromasts. These neuromasts occur free-standing on the skin as superficial neuromasts (SN) or are recessed into canals as canal neuromasts. SNs respond to rapid changes of water velocity in a small layer of fluid around the fish, including the so-called boundary layer. Although omnipresent, the boundary layer's impact on the SN response is still a matter of debate. For the first time using an information-theoretic approach to this sensory system, we have investigated the SN afferents encoding capabilities. Combining covariance analysis, phase analysis, and modeling of recorded neuronal responses of primary lateral line afferents, we show that encoding by the SNs is adequately described as a linear, velocity-responsive mechanism. Afferent responses display a bimodal distribution of opposite Wiener kernels that likely reflected the two hair-cell populations within a given neuromast. Using frozen noise stimuli, we further demonstrate that SN afferents respond in an extremely precise manner and with high reproducibility across a broad frequency band (10-150 Hz), revealing that an optimal decoder would need to rely extensively on a temporal code. This was further substantiated by means of signal reconstruction of spike trains that were time shifted with respect to their original. On average, a time shift of 3.5 ms was enough to diminish the encoding capabilities of primary afferents by 70%. Our results further demonstrate that the SNs' encoding capability is linearly related to the stimulus outside the boundary layer, and that the boundary layer can, therefore, be neglected while interpreting lateral line response of SN afferents to hydrodynamic stimuli.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of cat, gpx1 and Cu/Zn-sod genes in pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) and antioxidant enzyme modulation induced by hexavalent chromium in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Liang, Hongwei; Zou, Linhu; Sun, Jiejie; Zhang, Yingying; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Wang, Zaizhao

    2013-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) is a common pollutant transient metal with high toxicity in the environment. The toxicological effects partly result from oxidative damage due to the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the reductive process of Cr(6+). To explore the influence of ROS induced directly by Cr(6+) on the oxidative stress generation and antioxidant system, the full length cDNAs of antioxidant-related genes cat, gpx1 and Cu/Zn-sod were successfully acquired from pengze crucian carp first and analyzed. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the antioxidant genes encompassing catalase (cat), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx1), antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx and total protein content were further studied in the gill, intestine and liver of pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) juveniles upon acute exposure to Cr(6+) at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/L for 4 days. Differential significant changes of the antioxidant enzymes and gene expression were observed in different tissues. The findings contribute to better understanding the antioxidant mechanisms induced by Cr(6+) and selecting the organic-specific sensitive biomarkers to monitor the safety of the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  14. Introduced Goldfish Affect Amphibians through Inhibition of Sexual Behaviour in Risky Habitats: an Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians. PMID:24312432

  15. Question of reference frames: visual direction-selective neurons in the accessory optic system of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Masseck, Olivia Andrea; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2009-11-01

    We investigated if visual direction-selective neurons in the pretectal area (APT) of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) preferred visual stimuli resulting from rotations around axes corresponding to the best responsive axes of the semicircular canals [optic flow that is consistent to a maximal activation of the horizontal canal pair (yaw), to a maximal activation of the right anterior/left posterior semicircular canal pair (RALP), and to a maximal activation of the left anterior/right posterior semicircular canal pair (LARP)]. Our sample of neurons recorded in the left pretectum had two preferred axes of rotation: first, rotation around the yaw axis and second, rotation around the RALP axis. Both axes of rotation correspond to best responsive axes of the semicircular canals. For this reason, coding in a reference frame defined by the vestibular system or the pulling direction of the eye muscles is suggested. In our population of recorded APT neurons, we did not find segregation of different preferred axes of rotation into different anatomical structures. Furthermore in all axes no bias for clockwise or counterclockwise rotations was obvious. This is particularly noteworthy for the yaw axis because preference for temporo-nasal and naso-temporal rotations was found at the same recording side. Hence we conclude that in fish the accessory optic system may consist of one nucleus on each side of the midbrain only, the APT. Segregation into different nuclei coding for different axes and different senses of rotation probably first developed in amphibians.

  16. The Goldfish SG2NA Gene Encodes Two α-Type Regulatory Subunits for PP-2A and Displays Distinct Developmental Expression Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hai-Li; Peng, Yun-Lei; Gong, Lili; Liu, Wen-Bin; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Jiao; Zheng, Chun-Bing; Fu, Hu; Yuan, Dan; Zhao, Junqiong; Chen, Pei-Chao; Xie, Si-si; Zeng, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Ya-Mei; Liu, Yun; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    SG2NA is a member of the striatin protein family. In human and mouse, the SG2NA gene encodes two major protein isoforms: SG2NAα and SG2NAβ. The functions of these proteins, except for acting as the regulatory subunits for PP-2A, remain largely unknown. To explore the possible functions of SG2NA in lower vertebrates, we have isolated two SG2NA cDNAs from goldfish, Carassius auratus. Our results reveal that the first cDNA contains an ORF of 2118 bp encoding a deduced protein with 705 amino acids, and the second one 2148 bp coding for a deduced protein of 715 amino acids. Comparative analysis reveals that both isoforms belong to the α-type, and are named SG2NAα and SG2NAα+. RT-PCR and western blot analysis reveal that the SG2NA gene is differentially expressed in 9 tissues examined. During goldfish development, while the SG2NA mRNAs remain relatively constant in the first 3 stages and then become decreased and fluctuated from gastrula to larval hatching, the SG2NA proteins are fluctuated, displaying a peak every 3 to 4 stages. Each later peak is higher than the earlier one and the protein expression level becomes maximal at hatching stage. Together, our results reveal that SG2NA may play an important role during goldfish development and also in homeostasis of most adult tissues. PMID:19838339

  17. Expression pattern of the zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) gene during ovarian development and the location of ZP3 protein in oocytes in a natural, wild triploid crucian carp mutant, Carassius auratus var. Pingxiangnensis.

    PubMed

    Shi, J W; Sheng, J Q; Peng, K; Wang, J H; Yi, W J; Wu, H J; Gu, Q; Hong, Y J

    2013-11-18

    Carassius auratus var. Pingxiangnensis (designated CaP), distributed in the Pingxiang region of Jiangxi Province, China, is a natural, wild triploid crucian carp mutant that has two reproductive development modes: gynogenesis and bisexual reproduction. Little information is available about the expression pattern of the zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) gene during ovarian development and the location of the ZP3 protein in oocytes of this fish. In this study, we obtained the full-length cDNA of ZP3 (CaP_ZP3). CaP_ZP3 contains an open reading frame of 1305 bp that encodes 435 amino acid residues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the CaP_ZP3 mRNA expression levels in the ovary at different stages of maturation. Results revealed high levels of CaP_ZP3 expression in 4- to 8-month-old ovaries (stage II-stage III), with a significant decline in 9- to 12-month-old ovaries (stages IV-stage V). The high levels of CaP_ ZP3 transcripts during the early growth period suggest an important role for CaP_ZP3 in early oocyte development. In addition, a polyclonal antibody was prepared against CaP_ZP3, and the immunofluorescence localization was determined. CaP_ZP3 protein was detected close to the oocyte plasma membrane. The results also showed that no fluorescent signal was detected in stage I and II oocytes. CaP_ZP3 protein is primarily detected in stage III oocytes, and the protein accumulates as oocytes develop into stage IV oocytes. These results suggested that the transcription and translation of the CaP_ZP3 gene is asynchronous and that the transcription of the CaP_ZP3 protein occurs prior to its translation in this triploid fish.

  18. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  19. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    SciTech Connect

    Pasmanik, M.; Callard, G.V.

    1988-08-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of (/sup 3/H)T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish.

  20. Elevations in gonadotrophin concentrations and milt volumes as a result of spawning behavior in the goldfish.

    PubMed

    Kyle, A L; Stacey, N E; Peter, R E; Billard, R

    1985-01-01

    In many male mammals and birds, exposure to sexual stimuli results in acute elevations of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T); a similar phenomemon has now been observed in the male goldfish (Carassius auratus). Mature males placed with either a receptive female or stimulus pairs of spawning goldfish had gonadotrophin (GtH) concentrations and expressible milt (sperm) volumes that were significantly greater than those of males kept in all-male groups. This stimulatory effect lasted from 20 min to at least 2 hr for GtH (20 degrees) and from less than or equal to 1 hr to greater than or equal to 24 hr for milt (14 degrees). When males were separated from the spawning pair by either a solid or perforated clear partition, no elevations of GtH or milt levels occurred. In contrast, these values increased in males placed in contact with a spawning pair, even when that pair contained no female, but a male induced to perform female sexual behavior by treatment with prostaglandin. These results suggest that, in goldfish, access to a spawning situation is necessary for rapid elevations in GtH and milt. Furthermore, it appears that the males must be sexually active in order for these physiological changes to occur, as males that failed to engage in courtship behavior with a spawning pair had GtH and milt values not different from isolated fish. This suggests that male sexual behavior and elevations in milt and GtH are concurrent events that share a common activation pathway in the brain. The increase in milt may be due to both neurally and hormonally mediated events that ensure milt availability for imminent spawning activity.

  1. Steroid sensitive kiss2 neurones in the goldfish: evolutionary insights into the duplicate kisspeptin gene-expressing neurones.

    PubMed

    Kanda, S; Karigo, T; Oka, Y

    2012-06-01

    The KISS1/Kiss1/kiss1 gene product kisspeptin is suggested to be involved in the steroid feedback system in vertebrates. In addition to kiss1, kiss2 has been identified in many vertebrates, including some mammals, suggesting that the both genes were originally expressed in the common ancestor of teleosts and tetrapods. Moreover, peptides from both genes have been shown to activate the kisspeptin receptors. To investigate the involvement of kiss1 or kiss2 neurones in steroid feedback, we used a seasonal breeder, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). We found that kiss2 is expressed in the preoptic area (POA), nucleus lateralis tuberis and nucleus recessus lateralis, and that kiss1 is expressed in the habenula. Greater mRNA expression in breeding than in nonbreeding condition animals and conspicuous up-regulation of gene expression by gonadal steroids was seen only in the kiss2 neurones of the POA. Furthermore, double in situ hybridisation suggested that these neurones express oestrogen receptors. Given that amphibians express kiss2 in POA and mammalian anteroventral periventricular nucleus/POA Kiss1 neurones show similar expression dynamics as goldfish POA Kiss2 neurones, we hypothesise that kiss1 and kiss2 share the same evolutionary origin; and, after the loss of kiss2, kiss1 became active for steroid feedback in mammals. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  3. The molecular characterizations of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD and its responses of mRNA expression and enzyme activity to Aeromonas hydrophila or lipopolysaccharide challenge in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianghui; Qiao, Dan; Zhao, Xianliang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-08-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the prime antioxidant enzymes, present the first line of defense against oxidative stress caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in organism. In the study, two distinct members of SOD family were cloned and analyzed in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus (designated as CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD, respectively). The full-length cDNA of CaCu/ZnSOD is 759 bp, containing a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, a ORF (including stop codon, TAG) of 465 bp and a 3'-UTR of 255 bp. The ORF of CaCu/ZnSOD encodes a protein of 154 amino acids (aa), in which, two Cu/ZnSOD signature ((45)GFHVHAFGDNT(55) and (139)GNAGGRLACGVI(150)) and four conserved amino acids for Cu/Zn(2+)-binding sites (H64, H72, H81 and D84) were observed. The full-length CaMnSOD cDNA (960 bp) consists of a 5'-UTR of 114 bp, a ORF of 675 bp and a 3'-UTR of 231 bp, the ORF of CaMnSOD encodes a 224 aa protein with a 26 aa mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) in the N-terminus, and four conserved amino acids for manganese binding (H52, H100, D185 and H189) were observed. Multiple alignment and the structural analysis revealed two Cu/ZnSOD signature motifs and a MnSOD signature motif as well as the invariant binding sites for Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) in CaCu/ZnSOD and Mn(2+) in CaMnSOD. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaCu/ZnSOD was homologous to cytosolic Cu/ZnSODs, and CaMnSOD was high similarity with mitochondrial MnSODs from other fish. The tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD were highly expressed in liver, heart and muscle. The dynamic expressions of CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD were observed after the challenges with Aeromonas hydrophila or LPS, which generally increased in liver, gill, kidney and spleen, while, the mRNA expressions were down-regulated at some time points in head kidney. The enzyme activities increased after A. hydrophila or LPS challenge, compared to the control. In this study, the molecular structures and functional

  4. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Myxobolus pronini n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the abdominal cavity and visceral serous membranes of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in Russia and China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Batueva, Marina-D; Zhao, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Tong-Tong; Li, Ai-Hua

    2016-10-25

    Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. Myxobolus pronini n. sp. was found free in the abdominal cavity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in Lake Baikal watershed, Russia, and embedded in the visceral serous membranes of the same fish species in Lake Taibai, Hubei province, China. The morphometric data of the plasmodia and mature spores exhibited some differences between the Russian and Chinese isolates, but SSU rDNA sequences indicated that these two geographical isolates are conspecific. The mature spores from the two locations are obovate in frontal view, with wider anterior than posterior end and lemon-shaped in sutural view. Spores of the Russian isolate were 14.3-16.2 (mean 15.1 ± 0.2) μm long, 9.6-10.8 (10.1 ± 0.1) μm wide and 6.4-7.4 (6.7 ± 0.15) μm thick; those of the Chinese isolate were 13.8-15.6 (14.7 ± 0.24) μm long, 9.6-13.3 (9.6 ± 0.65) μm wide and 6.2-7.2 (6.6 ± 0.16) μm thick. The newly-generated rDNA sequences (including SSU rDNA, ITS and LSU rDNA) from the two isolates represented some variations within the intraspecific range. Homology search by BLAST showed that the newly obtained rDNA sequences do not match any sequences available on GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned partial SSU rDNA sequences indicated that this novel species clustered with several gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus spp. with round anterior end of spores. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on all obtained ITS sequences showed that distinct genetic geographical differentiation occurred for this new parasite. Myxobolus

  5. Different expression profiles of Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP 5a) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Podok, Patarida; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP5a) play important roles in innate immunity. In a previous study to identify differentially expressed immune-related genes, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) assay was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) infected with Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were identified to be the three most significantly up-regulated genes (Xu et al., Archives of Virology, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2011-9). In this study, the complete open reading frames (ORF) of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a genes were cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNAs of the three genes contained an ORF of 597, 945 and 882 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 198, 314 and 293 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three genes shared high homology to other bony fish species including Zebrafish. Interestingly, the ITLN gene of crucian carp lacked a 10 aa peptide that was found in the C-terminal of other fish species. A real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to quantitatively examine their tissue distribution. We found that IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were expressed at low levels in all of the tissues examined. To monitor the response of these genes to CyHV- 2 or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) infection, we determined the expression level of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a at different time points after infection in kidney. Significant up-regulation of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a was only observed 72 h post-CyHV-2 injection (P < 0.01), whereas significant up-regulation was observed as early as 6 h after infection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that host innate immune response to CyHV-2, at least in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were involved, was slow in comparison to that induced by A. hydrophila. It suggested that CyHV-2 might suppress host innate response during early infection. The lack of

  6. Toxicity of environmental Gesagard to goldfish may be connected with induction of low intensity oxidative stress in concentration- and tissue-related manners.

    PubMed

    Mosiichuk, Nadia M; Husak, Viktor V; Maksymiv, Ivan V; Hlodan, Oksana Y; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-08-01

    Prometryn is a selective herbicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation, Gesagard. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposure for 96h to 0.2, 1, or 5mgL(-1) Gesagard 500FW (corresponding to 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5mgL(-1) of prometryn) on indices of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, and thiol content) and activities of antioxidant and related enzymes in gills, liver, and kidney was studied. Gills appeared to be the most resistant to Gesagard treatment, reacting to only the highest concentration of herbicide with enhanced levels of low molecular mass thiols and activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase. Goldfish exposure to 0.2-5mgL(-1) Gesagard resulted in enhancement of carbonyl protein level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), but reduced the lipid peroxide (LOOH) content and activity of glutathione peroxidase in liver. Kidney appeared to be the main target organ of Gesagard toxicity, showing the greatest number of parameters affected even under low concentrations of herbicide. An increase in the content of L-SH and activity of SOD was accompanied with decreased activities of catalase, GST, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and reduced levels of LOOH in kidney of Gesagard treated fish. The treatment also induced various histological changes in goldfish liver and kidney which could be related to their dysfunction. The present study indicates that Gesagard induced oxidative stress of differing intensities in the three goldfish tissues and demonstrated that kidney would be the best target organ to analyze, reveal, and monitor Gesagard effects on fish.

  7. The Mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains Mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. The toxicity of Mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. This work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg L(-1) of Tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg L(-1) of Mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus). In liver, Tattoo exposure resulted in increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70%-79%, catalase by 23%-52% and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 49%. The content of protein carbonyls (CP) in liver was also enhanced by 92%-125% indicating extensive damage to proteins. Similar increases in CP levels (by 98%-111%) accompanied by reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (by 13%-15%) was observed in kidney of fish exposed to Tattoo; however, SOD activity increased by 37% in this tissue after treatment with 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo. In brain, a rise in lipid peroxide level (by 29%) took place after exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo and was accompanied by elevation of high-molecular mass thiols (by 14%). Tattoo exposure also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in glutathione reductase activity (by 26%-37%) in brain. The data collectively show that exposure of goldfish to 3-10 mg L(-1) of the carbamate fungicide Tattoo resulted in the development of mild oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant defense systems in goldfish tissues. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  8. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  9. Effect of pH on the accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol in goldfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at various pH values were investigated to explore how pH-dependent accumulation might influence PCP toxicity. Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) were exposed to 5 mu g PCP/L in a static system buffered with 7.5 mM bicine or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (BES) at pH 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0. The amount of PCP in the fish, concentration of PCP in water, and the total amount of metabolites in the system were measured after exposure of fish from 1 to 96 hr. The distribution of PCP within the fish was altered by changes in the external pH. The pH-associated changes in distribution may have altered access of PCP to sites of metabolism, thereby altering the metabolic clearance. The pH-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of PCP resulted in a decrease in its bioconcentration factor with an increase in pH and account both for the decreased capacity of the fish to accumulated PCP and for its reduced LC50.

  10. Role of the lateral line mechanosensory system in directionality of goldfish auditory evoked escape response

    PubMed Central

    Mirjany, Mana; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Goldfish (Carassius auratus) escape responses to sudden auditory stimuli are mediated by a pair of reticulospinal neurons, the Mauthner (M-) cells, which integrate mechanosensory inputs from the inner ear and the lateral line (LL) to initiate a fast directional response away from the aversive stimulus. This behavior is context dependent; when near an obstruction the fish may rather turn towards the sound to avoid hitting the object. Mechanisms underlying this directionality remain unknown. Here we investigate the contribution of the LL system to auditory evoked escapes and provide behavioral evidence that it transmits stimulus – and environmental-dependent information that determines the initial response direction of the escape. We quantified escape latency, probability and directionality following abrupt sound stimuli before and after removal of the entire LL with 0.03 mmol l–1 cobalt chloride (CoCl2), 0.002% gentamicin or selective posterior LL nerve (pLLn) transection. CoCl2 significantly increased escape onset latency without affecting probability and reduced open field directionality from 77% to chance, 52%. This effect on directionality was also observed with gentamicin. Transection of the pLLn had no effect on directionality, indicating the anterior LL nerve (aLLn) afferents are more likely to transmit directional information to the M-cell. When the fish were near a wall, the error rate was quadrupled by both CoCl2 and pLLn transection. Visual elimination had no influence on directionality unless combined with LL elimination. PMID:21957099

  11. Gap Junction Contributions to the Goldfish Electroretinogram at the Photopic Illumination Level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doh-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. To understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the ERG b-wave. Many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons through gap junctions. The photopic (cone-dominated) ERG, stimulated by a small light beam, was recorded from goldfish (Carassius auratus) using a corneal electrode. Data were obtained before and after intravitreal injection of agents into the eye under a photopic illumination level. Several agents were used to affect gap junctions, such as dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, the gap junction blocker meclofenamic acid (MFA), and mixtures of these agents. The ERG b-waves, which were enhanced by MFA, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), SKF 38393, and sulpiride, remained following application of a further injection of a mixture with MFA. The ERG b-waves decreased following NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), SCH 23390, and quinpirole administration but were enhanced by further injection of a mixture with MFA. These results indicate that gap junction activity influences b-waves of the ERG related to NO and dopamine actions. PMID:22802705

  12. The goldfish immune response. I. Characterization of the humoral response to particulate antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Desvaux, F X; Charlemagne, J

    1981-01-01

    Anti-red blood cells (RBC) and anti-hapten antibody synthesis were studied in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Spontaneous haemagglutination titres were found against all the antigens tested. A weak secondary response was observed in RBC-primed fish boosted during the end-phase of the primary antibody production. However, when the second antigenic challenge was performed during the early exponential phase of a primary stimulation, an important amplified response was obtained. The antibody production and immunological memory can be dissociated: no antibody synthesis occurred in glutaraldehyde-fixed RBC (F-RBC) primed was obtained when untreated or F-RBC were given to F-RBC primed animals. The amplified response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was significantly inhibited when fish were primed with a mixture of SRBC and Xenopus red blood cells (XRBC), demonstrating an antigenic competition phenomenon. Studies on anti-trinitrobenzene responses confirm the efficiency of E. coli lipopolysaccharide as a carrier for fish anti-hapten immunization. The kinetics and regulation of antibody synthesis in fish are discussed in relation to the described results. PMID:7275178

  13. Objective threshold estimation and measurement of the residual background noise in auditory evoked potentials of goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianqiang; Braun, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of papers using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) published over the last 10 years (Table I) demonstrates that most AEP studies in animals have used subjective methods for auditory threshold determination. Subjective methods greatly reduce the value of statistical hypothesis testing and jeopardize tests of hypothetical experimental group differences in hearing sensitivity. Correspondingly, many attempts have been made to develop objective threshold determination methods, but these have not been used widely. Further, they seldom include an appreciation of the effects of residual noise in the AEP. In this study, AEPs evoked by tonal and noise stimuli in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were recorded and the residual background noise was measured and analyzed in detail. High variability was found in residual noise, but can be effectively controlled with a simple modification of averaging routines. Considerable interobserver disagreements were found using subjective threshold estimation. An objective method of threshold determination was developed based on comparison between AEP amplitude and controlled residual noise, using a signal detection theory approach to set specific threshold criteria. The usefulness of AEP in hypothesis testing for auditory function requires more control over residual background noise amplitudes and the use of objective threshold determination techniques. PMID:19045791

  14. Role of the lateral line mechanosensory system in directionality of goldfish auditory evoked escape response.

    PubMed

    Mirjany, Mana; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S

    2011-10-15

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) escape responses to sudden auditory stimuli are mediated by a pair of reticulospinal neurons, the Mauthner (M-) cells, which integrate mechanosensory inputs from the inner ear and the lateral line (LL) to initiate a fast directional response away from the aversive stimulus. This behavior is context dependent; when near an obstruction the fish may rather turn towards the sound to avoid hitting the object. Mechanisms underlying this directionality remain unknown. Here we investigate the contribution of the LL system to auditory evoked escapes and provide behavioral evidence that it transmits stimulus - and environmental-dependent information that determines the initial response direction of the escape. We quantified escape latency, probability and directionality following abrupt sound stimuli before and after removal of the entire LL with 0.03 mmol l(-1) cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), 0.002% gentamicin or selective posterior LL nerve (pLLn) transection. CoCl(2) significantly increased escape onset latency without affecting probability and reduced open field directionality from 77% to chance, 52%. This effect on directionality was also observed with gentamicin. Transection of the pLLn had no effect on directionality, indicating the anterior LL nerve (aLLn) afferents are more likely to transmit directional information to the M-cell. When the fish were near a wall, the error rate was quadrupled by both CoCl(2) and pLLn transection. Visual elimination had no influence on directionality unless combined with LL elimination.

  15. The satiety factor oleoylethanolamide impacts hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Velasco, Cristina; Isorna, Esther; De Pedro, Nuria; Delgado, María J; Soengas, José L

    2016-12-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an acylethanolamide synthesized mainly in the gastrointestinal tract with known effects in mammals on food intake and body mass through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type α (PPARα). Since we previously demonstrated that acute treatment with OEA in goldfish resulted in decreased food intake and locomotor activity, as in mammals, we hypothesize that OEA would be involved in the control of energy metabolism in fish. Therefore, we assessed the effects of acute (for 6 h) and chronic (for 11 days) treatments with OEA (5 µg g(-1) body mass) on metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus). In the chronic treatment, OEA impairs the increase in body mass and reduces locomotor activity, without any signs of stress. The lipolytic capacity in liver decreased after both acute and chronic OEA treatments, whereas lipogenic capacity increased after acute and decreased after chronic treatment with OEA. These results are different from those observed to date in mammalian adipose tissue, but not so different from those known in liver, and might be attributed to the absence of changes in the expression of pparα, and/or to the increase in the expression of the clock gene bmal1a after chronic OEA treatment. As for glucose metabolism, a clear decrease in the capacity of hepatic tissue to use glucose was observed in OEA-treated fish. These results support an important role for OEA in the regulation of liver lipid and glucose metabolism, and could relate to the metabolic changes associated with circadian activity and the regulation of food intake in fish.

  16. Low toxic herbicide Roundup induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish tissues.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Kubrak, Olha I; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2009-08-01

    The formulation of Roundup consists of the herbicide glyphosate as the active ingredient with polyethoxylene amine added as a surfactant. The acute toxicity of Roundup (particularly of glyphosate) to animals is considered to be low according to the World Health Organization, but the extensive use of Roundup may still cause environmental problems with negative impact on wildlife, particularly in an aquatic environment where chemicals may persist for a long time. Therefore, we studied the effects of Roundup on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in goldfish, Carassius auratus. The fish were given 96 h exposure to Roundup at concentrations of 2.5-20 mg L(-1). Exposure to Roundup did not affect levels of lipid peroxides (LOOH) in goldfish brain or liver, and in kidney only the 10 mg L(-1) treatment elevated LOOH by 3.2-fold. Herbicide exposure also had no effect on the concentrations of protein thiols or low molecular mass thiols in kidney, but selective suppression of low molecular mass thiols by 26-29% occurred at some treatment levels in brain and liver. Roundup exposure generally suppressed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish tissues. For example, SOD activities were reduced by 51-68% in brain, 58-67% in liver and 33-53% in kidney of Roundup treated fish. GST activity decreased by 29-34% in liver. However, catalase activity increased in both liver and kidney of herbicide-exposed fish. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a systematic response by the antioxidant systems of fish to Roundup exposure.

  17. Oxidative stress as a mechanism for toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D): studies with goldfish gills.

    PubMed

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2013-12-01

    The effects of exposure to the widely used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L(-1)), slightly toxic (10 mg L(-1)), and highly toxic (100 mg L(-1)) concentrations were analyzed in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus, a popular fish model for ecotoxicological research. Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D concentration and then allowed to recover for further 96 h. Among markers of oxidative stress, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D did not affect carbonyl protein levels in the gills, but fish exposure to 100 mg L(-1) of 2,4-D enhanced lipid peroxide concentrations (by 58 %) and oxidized glutathione levels (by 49 %), the latter also significantly increasing (by 33 %) oxidized/total glutathione ratio. Activities of three enzymes of antioxidant defence also increased under 2,4-D exposure: superoxide dismutase (by 29-35 %), catalase (by 41 %), and glutathione peroxidase (by 19-33 %). Activities of other antioxidant associated enzymes as well as other potential markers of stress (e.g. aminotransferase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, lactate metabolism) showed little or no response in gills to 2,4-D exposure. However, virtually all affected parameters returned to control values during recovery period. A combination of selected indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, measured in fish gills, may provide to be effective biomarkers to assess environmental hazards of 2,4-D to freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Optimization of somatic cell injection in the perspective of nuclear transfer in goldfish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer has the potential to become one strategy for fish genetic resources management, by allowing fish reconstruction from cryopreserved somatic cells. Survival rates after nuclear transfer are still low however. The part played by unsuitable handling conditions is often questioned, but the different steps in the procedure are difficult to address separately. In this work led on goldfish (Carassius auratus), the step of somatic cells injection was explored. Non-enucleated metaphase II oocytes were used as a template to explore the toxicity of the injection medium, to estimate the best location where the cell should be injected, and to assess the delay necessary between cell injection and oocyte activation. Results Trout coelomic fluid was the most suitable medium to maintain freshly spawned oocytes at the metaphase II stage during oocyte manipulation. Oocytes were then injected with several media to test their toxicity on embryo development after fertilization. Trout coelomic fluid was the least toxic medium after injection, and the smallest injected volume (10 pL) allowed the same hatching rates as the non injected controls (84.8% ± 23). In somatic cell transfer experiments using non enucleated metaphase II oocytes as recipient, cell plasma membrane was ruptured within one minute after injection. Cell injection at the top of the animal pole in the oocyte allowed higher development rates than cell injection deeper within the oocyte (respectively 59% and 23% at mid-blastula stage). Embryo development rates were also higher when oocyte activation was delayed for 30 min after cell injection than when activation was induced without delay (respectively 72% and 48% at mid-blastula stage). Conclusions The best ability of goldfish oocytes to sustain embryo development was obtained when the carrier medium was trout coelomic fluid, when the cell was injected close to the animal pole, and when oocyte activation was induced 30 min after somatic cell

  19. The goldfish hAT-family transposon Tgf2 is capable of autonomous excision in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luo-Dan; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Tian, Yu-Mei; Chen, Jie; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2014-02-15

    The goldfish (Carassius auratus) Tgf2 transposon is a vertebrate DNA transposon that belongs to the hAT transposon family. In this study, we constructed plasmids containing either the full-length Tgf2 transposon (pTgf2 plasmid) or a partially-deleted Tgf2 transposon (ΔpTgf2 plasmid), and microinjected these plasmids into fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs at the one- to two-cell stage. DNA extracted from the embryos was analyzed by PCR to assess transient excision, if any, of the exogenous plasmid and to verify whether Tgf2 is an autonomous transposon. The results showed that excision-specific bands were not detected in embryos injected with the ΔpTgf2 plasmid, while bands of 300-500bp were detected in embryos injected with pTgf2, which indicated that the full-length Tgf2-containing plasmid could undergo autonomous excision in zebrafish embryos. DNA cloned from 24 embryos injected with pTgf2 was sequenced, and the results suggested that Tgf2 underwent self-excision in zebrafish embryos. Cloning and PCR analysis of DNA extracted from embryos co-injected with ΔpTgf2 and in vitro-transcribed transposase mRNA indicated that partially-deleted-Tgf2-containing ΔpTgf2 plasmid also underwent excision, in the presence of functional transposase mRNA. DNA cloned from 25 embryos co-injected with ΔpTgf2 and transposase mRNA was sequenced, and the results suggested that partially-deleted Tgf2 transposons plasmids were excised. These results demonstrated that excisions of Tgf2 transposons were mediated by the Tgf2 transposase, which in turn confirmed that Tgf2 is an autonomous transposon.

  20. Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 causing mass mortality in goldfish: applying electron microscopy to histological samples for diagnostic virology.

    PubMed

    Lovy, J; Friend, S E

    2014-02-04

    In June 2013, a major fish kill of adult goldfish Carassius auratus occurred in Runnemede Lake, New Jersey, USA: an estimated 3000 to 5000 fish died within ~5 d. Necropsy of 4 moribund fish revealed severely pale gills, and histopathology showed type I and II fusion of the gills, diffuse necrosis of hematopoietic tissue in anterior and posterior kidney, and multifocal necrosis of the spleen. Within necrotic areas, pyknosis and enlarged nuclei with marginalized chromatin were observed. Cyprinid herpesvirus-2, the etiological agent for herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease, was confirmed in all 4 fish using PCR. We assessed the efficacy of identifying herpesviral infections (viral morphogenesis and cellular ultrastructure) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when applied to tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and tissue that was removed from paraffin blocks. Both sample types could be used to detect the virus within cells at similar concentrations. Tissues reprocessed from 10% NBF contained all the known stages of viral morphogenesis including empty capsids, capsids with an inner linear concentric density, capsids with an electron-dense core, and in the cytoplasm, mature capsids containing an envelope. Paraffin-embedded tissues showed similar stages, but viral capsids with an inner linear concentric density were rare and mature enveloped virions were not observed. In previously paraffin-embedded tissues, cellular membranes were not preserved, making identification of cell types and organelles difficult, whereas membrane preservation was good in tissues processed from 10% NBF. The results demonstrated that routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be successfully utilized to diagnose herpesviruses, and formalin-fixed tissue could be used to describe viral morphogenesis by TEM, making this a useful and reliable method for diagnostic virology when other samples are not available.

  1. Aspects of the hormonal regulation of appetite in fish with emphasis on goldfish, Atlantic cod and winter flounder: notes on actions and responses to nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Xu, Meiyu; MacDonald, Erin; Hoskins, Leah

    2009-05-01

    In vertebrates including fish, food intake regulation involves intricate networks of hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Under optimum conditions, nutritional intake is adequate for basal metabolic needs, growth, development, reproduction, and deposition of energy stores. As fish represent a very diverse group, different fish species live in very different environments and are exposed to variations in a wide range of factors, including not only internal factors, such as nutritional/metabolic status and reproductive events but also environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. These physiological responses often include changes in appetite that might occur through modulations of the gene expression and action of feeding-regulating hormones. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited and based primarily on studies involving a few fish species. This review will give a brief overview of our current knowledge of the regulation of feeding by three central (NPY, OX and CART) and two peripheral (ghrelin and GRP) appetite-related factors in a freshwater species, the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and two marine species, cod (Gadus morhua) and winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus).

  2. The Goldfish over the Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Carlos E.; Santos, Antonio, C. F.; Lopes, Eric B.; Santos, Walter S.

    2013-01-01

    A goldfish isn't always visible inside its fishbowl. If the fish gets sufficiently close to the bowl glass, it will disappear for certain angles of observation. In a recent paper in this journal, Zhu and Shi explained the effect in terms of total internal reflection. We show in what follows that the phenomenon involves some richer optics: a…

  3. Do goldfish miss the fundamental?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Richard R.

    2003-10-01

    The perception of harmonic complexes was studied in goldfish using classical respiratory conditioning and a stimulus generalization paradigm. Groups of animals were initially conditioned to several harmonic complexes with a fundamental frequency (f0) of 100 Hz. ln some cases the f0 component was present, and in other cases, the f0 component was absent. After conditioning, animals were tested for generalization to novel harmonic complexes having different f0's, some with f0 present and some with f0 absent. Generalization gradients always peaked at 100 Hz, indicating that the pitch value of the conditioning complexes was consistent with the f0, whether or not f0 was present in the conditioning or test complexes. Thus, goldfish do not miss the fundmental with respect to a pitch-like perceptual dimension. However, generalization gradients tended to have different skirt slopes for the f0-present and f0-absent conditioning and test stimuli. This suggests that goldfish distinguish between f0 present/absent stimuli, probably on the basis of a timbre-like perceptual dimension. These and other results demonstrate that goldfish respond to complex sounds as if they possessed perceptual dimensions similar to pitch and timbre as defined for human and other vertebrate listeners. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  4. The Goldfish over the Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Carlos E.; Santos, Antonio, C. F.; Lopes, Eric B.; Santos, Walter S.

    2013-01-01

    A goldfish isn't always visible inside its fishbowl. If the fish gets sufficiently close to the bowl glass, it will disappear for certain angles of observation. In a recent paper in this journal, Zhu and Shi explained the effect in terms of total internal reflection. We show in what follows that the phenomenon involves some richer optics: a…

  5. The Goldfish Over the Rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Carlos E.; Santos, Antonio C. F.; Lopes, Eric B.; Santos, Walter S.

    2013-12-01

    A goldfish isn't always visible inside its fishbowl. If the fish gets sufficiently close to the bowl glass, it will disappear for certain angles of observation. In a recent paper in this journal, Zhu and Shi explained the effect in terms of total internal reflection. We show in what follows that the phenomenon involves some richer optics: a rainbow defines one of the boundaries of the "blind zone" where the fish disappears.

  6. Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width Δν = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having Δν = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

  7. Why goldfish? Merits and challenges in employing goldfish as a model organism in comparative endocrinology research.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Sundarrajan, Lakshminarasimhan; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-02-07

    Goldfish has been used as an unconventional model organism to study a number of biological processes. For example, goldfish is a well-characterized and widely used model in comparative endocrinology, especially in neuroendocrinology. Several decades of research has established and validated an array of tools to study hormones in goldfish. The detailed brain atlas of goldfish, together with the stereotaxic apparatus, are invaluable tools for the neuroanatomic localization and central administration of endocrine factors. In vitro techniques, such as organ and primary cell cultures, have been developed using goldfish. In vivo approaches using goldfish were used to measure endogenous hormonal milieu, feeding, behaviour and stress. While there are many benefits in using goldfish as a model organism in research, there are also challenges associated with it. One example is its tetraploid genome that results in the existence of multiple isoforms of endocrine factors. The presence of extra endogenous forms of peptides and its receptors adds further complexity to the already redundant multifactorial endocrine milieu. This review will attempt to discuss the importance of goldfish as a model organism in comparative endocrinology. It will highlight some of the merits and challenges in employing goldfish as an animal model for hormone research in the post-genomic era.

  8. Color properties of the motion detectors projecting to the goldfish tectum: I. A color matching study.

    PubMed

    Maximov, Vadim; Maximova, Elena; Damjanović, Ilija; Maximov, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Responses of direction-selective and orientation-selective motion detectors were recorded extracellularly from the axon terminals of ganglion cells in the superficial layers of the tectum opticum of immobilized goldfish, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782). Color stripes or edges moving on some color background (presented on the CRT monitor with known emission spectra of its phosphors) served as stimuli. It was shown that stimuli of any color can be more or less matched with the background by varying their intensities what is indicative of color blindness of the motion detectors. Sets of stimuli which matched the background proved to represent planes in the three-dimensional color space of the goldfish. A relative contribution of different types of cones to the spectral sensitivity was estimated according to orientation of the plane of color matches. The spectral sensitivity of any motion detector was shown to be determined mainly by long-wave cones with a weak negative (opponent) contributions of middle-wave and/or short-wave ones. This resulted in reduced sensitivity in the blue-green end of the spectrum, what may be considered as an adaptation to the aquatic environment where, because of the substantial light scattering of a blue-green light, acute vision is possible only in a red region of the spectrum.

  9. Enkephalin in the goldfish retina

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.Y.; Fry, K.R.; Lam, D.M.; Watt, C.B.

    1986-12-01

    Enkephalin-like immunoreactive amacrine cells were visualized using the highly sensitive avidin-biotin method. The somas of these cells were situated in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers. Enkephalin-stained processes were observed in layers 1, 3, and 5 of the inner plexiform layer. The biosynthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in the goldfish retina was studied by means of a pulse-chase incubation with /sup 35/S-methionine. A /sup 35/S-labeled compound, which comigrated with authentic Met5-enkephalin on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was synthesized and was bound competitively by antibodies to enkephalin and by opiate receptors. This compound was tentatively identified as Met5-enkephalin. The newly synthesized /sup 35/S-Met5-enkephalin was released upon depolarization of the retina with a high K+ concentration. This K+-stimulated release was greatly suppressed by 5 mM Co/sup 2 +/, suggesting that the release was Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent. Using a double-label technique, enkephalin immunoreactivity and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake were colocalized to some amacrine cells, whereas others labeled only for enkephalin or GABA. The possible significance of enkephalin-GABA interactions is also discussed.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a native of Asia. It is now found on every continent except Antarctica (Jester 1974) and in all 48 contiguous States (Sigler 1958). The northern limit to carp distribution appears to be the 18° C isotherm (Keleher 1956). The common carp hybridizes in nature with the goldfish (Carassius auratus) (Bardach et al. 1972; Smith 1979).

  11. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Liu, X; Liu, W; Lu, C

    2012-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (EF) was investigated after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in 300 healthy allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26°C. The plasma concentrations of EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time data were described by an open two-compartment model. The elimination half-life (T(1/2β)), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and total body clearance of EF were 63.5 h, 239.6 μg·h/mL and 0.04 L/h/kg, respectively. Following p.o. administration, the plasma concentration-time data showed a double peak-shaped curve, indicating the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation of EF in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), T(1/2β) and AUC of EF were 4.5 μg/mL, 62.7 h and 205.9 μg·h/mL, respectively. Absorption of EF was very good with a bioavailability (F) of 86%, which could be correlated with the unique structure of the alimentary canal in allogynogenetic silver crucian. CF, an active metabolite of EF, was not detected in this study.

  12. Reward and learning in the goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lowes, G; Bitterman, M E

    1967-07-28

    An experiment with goldfish showed the effects of change in amount of reward that are predicted from reinforcement theory. The performance of animals shifted from small to large reward improved gradually to the level of unshifted large-reward controls, while the performance of animals shifted from large to small reward remained at the large-reward level. The difference between these results and those obtained in analogous experiments with the rat suggests that reward functions differently in the instrumental learning of the two animals.

  13. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior. PMID

  14. Cell volume regulation in goldfish intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Groot, J A

    1981-11-01

    1. Ion and water content of goldfish intestinal mucosa, stripped free from muscular layers were measured under various incubation conditions. 2. Ouabain induces an increase in cation content that is electrically compensated for by chloride. The increase in solute content is accompanied by an increase in water content. 3. When extracellular chloride is partially replaced by sulphate, ouabain does induce cell shrinkage. 4. Anoxia induces a rapid increase in cell volume that is restored by oxygenation of the incubation solution. Ouabain prevents the restoration of volume. 5. It is concluded that the classical ouabain-sensitive Na/K pump participates in the maintenance of cellular volume. We suggest that the constancy in volume after ouabain poisoning as is reported for many tissues might be due to a low chloride conductance of its membranes. 6. Anisotonic media (range: 0.6-1.2 isotonicity), made by variation on mannitol concentration, induce changes in cell water content that deviates from the simplified van't Hoff equation by about 10%. No change in water content after the initial increase was found. 7. We conclude that goldfish enterocytes do not possess a mechanism for rapid volume readjustment.

  15. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatic oxidative stress and catalyst metals accumulation in goldfish exposed to carbon nanotubes under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghao; Qu, Ruijuan; Huang, Qingguo; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of Carassius auratus. A semi-static test system was used to expose C. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5mg/L CNTs at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver on the 3rd and 12th day. The results showed that there was a significant increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in fish exposed to CNTs, indicating that CNTs exposure induces an oxidative stress response in fish. According to integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the effect of these three CNTs on liver can be ordered as SWCNTs>OH-MWCNTs>COOH-MWCNTs and they are more toxic to fish in an alkaline environment. Moreover, the concentrations of catalyst metals (Co, Ni, and Mo) and bioelements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se) in liver were changed, depending on the CNTs concentration, the pH level, and the exposure duration. Generally, all CNTs groups showed that catalyst metals could be concentrated significantly into the liver of fish, and changes in hepatic Cu, Zn, Fe, and Se contents are consistent with the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    excluding salmon) while salmon were most predominant during spring 2010 and 2011 months. Four species of salmon and trout , unmarked and marked, were...salmonid catch), followed by chum salmon (10%), marked Chinook salmon (8%), coho salmon (8%), and steelhead trout (ə%). • The densities of juvenile...native 0.002 Carassius auratus Cyprinidae goldfish Non-native 0.002 Oncorhynchus mykiss Salmonidae steelhead trout Native 0.001 Lampetra spp

  18. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  19. Seasonal acclimatization of brain lipidome in a eurythermal fish (Carassius carassius) is mainly determined by temperature.

    PubMed

    Käkelä, Reijo; Mattila, Minja; Hermansson, Martin; Haimi, Perttu; Uphoff, Andreas; Paajanen, Vesa; Somerharju, Pentti; Vornanen, Matti

    2008-05-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is an excellent vertebrate model for studies on temperature adaptation in biological excitable membranes, since the species can tolerate temperatures from 0 to +36 degrees C. To determine how temperature affects the lipid composition of brain, the fish were acclimated for 4 wk at +30, +16, or +4 degrees C in the laboratory, or seasonally acclimatized individuals were captured from the wild throughout the year (temperature = +1 to +23 degrees C), and the brain glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid compositions were analyzed in detail by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Numerous significant temperature-related changes were found in the molecular species composition of the membrane lipids. The most notable and novel finding was a large (approximately 3-fold) increase of the di-22:6n-3 phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine species in the cold. Since the increase of 22:6n-3 in the total fatty acyl pool of the brain was small, the formation of di-22:6n-3 aminophospholipid species appears to be a specific adaptation to low temperature. Such highly unsaturated species could be needed to maintain adequate membrane fluidity in the vicinity of transporters and other integral membrane proteins. Plasmalogens increased somewhat at higher temperatures, possibly to protect membranes against oxidation. The modifications of brain lipidome during the 4-wk laboratory acclimation were, in many respects, similar to those found in the wild, which indicates that the seasonal changes observed in the wild are temperature dependent rather than induced by other environmental factors.

  20. Application of dopaminergic antagonist: Metoclopramide, in reproduction of crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Cejko, Beata Irena; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of Ovopel (two pellets/kg body weight), a complex of [D-Ala(6) Pro(9)NEt-mGnRH] and dopamine antagonist (DA e.g. Metoclopramide, MET), was compared with the application MET alone at the dose of 20mg/kg body weight in spawning crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) in the present study. Ovulation and spermation rates were greater after MET application (90% and 100%, respectively) in comparison to the Ovopel (80% and 87.5%, respectively) when used as a broodstock reproductive stimulation agent. Sperm quality (CASA parameters) after MET treatment was very acceptable without a significant decrease in comparison to the samples from Ovopel-treated crucian carp when spermation stimulation treatments were employed. Though there were no differences in egg and sperm production between Ovopel and MET treatments, hatching rates were significantly greater after MET (84.4%) compared with Ovopel (76.2%) treatment. The usefulness of MET application without GnRHa addition for stimulation of reproduction was ascertained in the present study for the first time in crucian carp.

  1. Isolation increases milt production in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Fraser, E Jane; Stacey, Norm

    2002-10-01

    Milt volume in goldfish is increased by female steroid and prostaglandin pheromones, by exposure to males with elevated gonadotropin levels, and by isolation from conspecifies. This study examined various aspects of the isolation effect on milt volume and serum gonadotropin II (GTH II). The latency of isolation-induced milt increase in this study (12-24 hr) was longer than the latencies to pheromone-induced milt increase in previous work (0.5-6.0 hr), was not affected by the time of day at which males were isolated, persisted for at least 72 hr in isolated males, and was terminated within 24 hr in males that were returned to groups. Isolated males maintained high milt production when separated from tank mates by a perforated barrier or when exposed to visual and odor cues from males in other tanks, suggesting that the unknown conspecific cues that maintain low milt production in groups operate at close range. Isolation appears to increase milt through a mechanism different from that mediating response to female pheromones because: (1) unlike female pheromones, which consistently increase serum GTH II, no isolation or regrouping treatment in this study affected male GTH II concentration; and (2) the effects of isolation and of exposure to the female pheromone 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) are additive. Finally, males that were previously isolated or exposed to 17,20 beta-P increased milt (but not GTH II) in grouped males, suggesting that the effects of isolation and pheromone exposure can indirectly stimulate male conspecifics. Although the biological function of the isolation effect is not clear, we propose that it illustrates the effect of removal from inhibitory cues normally received from male conspecifies.

  2. In vitro generation of viral-antigen dependent cytotoxic T-cells from ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii

    SciTech Connect

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Ototake, Mitsuru; Nakao, Miki

    2009-06-20

    Little is known about antigen-specific T-cell responses to viruses in teleosts due to a lack of a suitable experimental system using inbred or clonal animals. In the present study we have successfully induced an in vitro generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) from isogeneic ginbuna crucian carp. Responder cells (primarily lymphocytes) from crucian carp haematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected fish were capable of proliferating after stimulation in vitro with CHNV-infected syngeneic stimulator cells (primarily lymphocytes and macrophages). The effector cells collected 8 and 12 days after the in vitro stimulation efficiently lysed CHNV-infected syngeneic cells, but not CHNV-infected allogeneic cells or different virus (EVA)-infected syngeneic cells. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that some effector cells binding to a CHNV-infected target were TCRbeta or CD8alpha positive. These results provide evidence that the teleost effector cells generated in vitro correspond to virus-specific CTL and they recognize virus-infected target cells in a similar manner of mammalian counterparts.

  3. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2 in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Lingbing; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6 mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field. PMID:24574914

  4. Effects of cold acclimation and storage temperature on crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in a waterless preservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Peng; Chen, Tianji; Shen, Jiang

    2014-06-01

    The research aims to explore the impact of cold acclimation and storage temperature on crucian carp in a waterless preservation. It is conducted by studying the influence of cold acclimation on crucian carp in temperatures of 5 and 1 °C h(-1), followed by having them preserved under waterless conditions at 4 and 0 °C for 24 h to analyze their aerobic and anaerobic capacities. The research findings revealed that the temperature drop at 1 °C h(-1) is conducive to preserving the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase was maintained, and the brain succinate dehydrogenase remained unchanged. With regards to alanine transaminase, its activity, being sensitive to the changes of storage temperatures, was maintained when the temperature was decreased to 0 °C and malondialdehyde was accumulated at the same temperature. Stored in cold environment, blood catalase was accumulated; however, obvious changes were not found in the liver. It is likely that cold acclimation contributes to retaining aerobic and anaerobic metabolism under waterless preservation as well as decreasing the damage of blood oxidation.

  5. Molecular characterization of growth differentiation factor 9 and its spatio-temporal expression pattern in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Chen, Aqin; Yang, Zhigang; Wei, Hua; Leng, Xiangjun

    2012-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily with a key role in regulating follicle development. In this study, the GDF9 full-length genomic DNA and cDNA were isolated and characterized from the gibel carp ovary using rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and LD-PCR. The full-length genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of GDF9 are 3979 and 2044 bp which code 428 amino acid residues with a specific RKKR protease cleavage site of TGF-β superfamily. Sequence analysis showed that gibel carp was similar to zebrafish and other fish species. Spatio-temporal expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR revealed that GDF9 mRNA was largely expressed in ovary and testis. GDF9 is mainly present at stage I follicles indicating its important role in early follicles development. The same result was obtained in immunohistochemistry localization of GDF9 protein. Within the follicle, the follicle layer cells were barely expressed whereas GDF9 mRNA was mostly expressed in the oocytes. Supplemented with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in isolated follicles, the expression of GDF9 mRNA was increased firstly and then decreased. The results of this study indicated that GDF9 gene played a role in fish during development of follicles, especially in the early stage follicles.

  6. Characterization of bmp15 and its regulation by human chorionic gonadotropin in the follicle of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Qin; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Leng, Xiang-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP15) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily with a key role in regulating follicle development in mammals and birds. However, potential ovarian roles of BMPs remain unexplored in teleosts. In this study, the full-length sequences of bmp15 were obtained using rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA sequence of bmp15 is 2217 bp which contained 214 bp 5'-UTR and 845 bp 3'-UTR. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence of bmp15 is 1158 bp, encoding a predicted protein of 385 amino acid residues. BMP15 has a specific RXXR protease cleavage site of TGF-β superfamily (is RIRR) and six conserved cysteine residues. Using real-time quantitative PCR revealed that bmp15 mRNA was largely expressed in the ovary and testis and mostly in oocytes within the follicle, slightly expressed in muscle, liver and pituitary. BMP15 is mainly present at stage I follicles by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Phylogenetic analysis showed that gibel carp bmp15 was similar to bmp15 of zebrafish and other fish species. Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in isolated follicles of gibel carp in vitro showed altered bmp15 mRNA expression: when treated with 10 ng/mL hCG for 10h, the expression level of bmp15 was significantly increased. However, with proceeding cultivation, the expression level of BMP15 mRNA decreased. The results of this study indicate that bmp15 may play a key role during development of follicles in gibel carp, especially in early stage follicles.

  7. Effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes P4501A and P4503A in Carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp).

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Li, X-C; Sun, B-B; Fang, W-H; Zhou, S; Hu, L-L; Zhou, J-F

    2012-06-01

    Currently, although enrofloxacin (EF) as a widely used veterinary medicine has begun to apply to treating fish bacterial infections, the researches on the effects of EF on their main drug metabolic enzymes are limited. To investigate the effects of EF on fish cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A and 3A, the enzymatic activities and expressions (mRNA and protein) of crucian carp CYP1A and CYP3A after EF administration were examined. For CYP1A, in the in vivo experiments, EF exhibited potent inhibition on the CYP1A-related ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as CYP1A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels, at 24 h after administration with different EF dosages (3, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg); Furthermore, CYP1A enzymatic activity and expressions at both protein and mRNA levels decreased more with increasing EF dosages. Additionally, the in vitro experimental results showed that, after incubated with microsomes, EF did not change the EROD activity through interacting directly with CYP1A. For CYP3A, the in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrated that EF could inhibit the CYP3A-related erythromycin N-demethylase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while it did not suppress CYP3A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels after administration with EF for a short period (no more than 24 h); however, after injection with EF at a high dose (10 mg/kg) for a long period, the CYP3A protein and mRNA reached their lowest levels at 96 and 48 h, respectively. These results indicate that EF can suppress CYP1A expressions in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting further its catalytic activity; meanwhile, both the interactions of EF with CYP3A and the expressions decrease (protein and mRNA) caused by EF contribute to the CYP3A inhibition.

  8. Why Does the Goldfish Disappear in the Fishbowl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yuhua; Shi, Fengliang

    2009-01-01

    You may have observed that a small goldfish swimming in a spherical fishbowl can suddenly disappear. Why does this happen? The effect is due to total internal reflection. In this paper we find the locations of the fish and the observer's eye for which the fish cannot be seen.

  9. Why Does the Goldfish Disappear in the Fishbowl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yuhua; Shi, Fengliang

    2009-01-01

    You may have observed that a small goldfish swimming in a spherical fishbowl can suddenly disappear. Why does this happen? The effect is due to total internal reflection. In this paper we find the locations of the fish and the observer's eye for which the fish cannot be seen.

  10. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  11. Male primer endocrine responses to preovulatory female cyprinids under natural conditions in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Stacey, N E; Van Der Kraak, G J; Olsén, K H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated two related aspects of male-female reproductive interactions in the family Cyprinidae: (1) whether ovulating female rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) induce endocrine and gonadal priming responses in conspecific males, a phenomenon which has been described only in species from the subfamily Cyprininae such as goldfish, Carassius auratus, crucian carp Carassius carassius and common carp, Cyprinus carpio and (2) whether the stimuli mediating these responses are species-specific. Field studies of three sympatric European cyprinids, two leuciscins (S. erythrophthalmus and white bream Blicca bjoerkna) and one cyprinin (C. carassius), were conducted on fishes captured in Sweden in the spawning season and held in net pens under natural conditions. As previously reported in C. carassius, male S. erythrophthalmus increased milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume and plasma concentrations of the sperm maturation hormone 4-pregnen-17,20β-diol-3-one (17,20β-P) when they were held with female S. erythrophthalmus induced to ovulate by injection of Ovaprim (GnRH analogue plus dopamine antagonist). Male S. erythrophthalmus had larger milt volumes than male C. carassius prior to and following exposure to ovulatory conspecifics, but exhibited a smaller proportional milt increase in response to stimulation, suggesting species differences in sperm allocation at spawning. The presence of female S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not affect milt volumes of C. carassius under two experimental conditions: (1) ovulating S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not increase the milt volumes of C. carassius and (2) S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not interfere with the milt volume increase induced in male C. carassius by ovulating conspecifics. These results suggest that, as in C. auratus, C. carassius and C. carpio (subfamily Cyprininae), female S. erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) release a preovulatory pheromone that exerts

  12. Statistical Analysis on Phototaxis of Goldfish in an Experimental Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tadashi; Terao, Kunio

    1986-10-01

    Phototactic responses of a goldfish in a vessel are discussed according to the experimental results by an optical apparatus connected to a microcomputer. Assuming that the fish performs the lactic response not only to the incident light but the wall of the vessel, one can determine the one-dimensional position distribution of the fish in the light beam as a steady state solution of the telegraph equation with a drift term. It is found that the fish is uniformly attracted to the light source all over the vessel, but attracted to the wall only within a certain distance.

  13. Ghrelin does not affect gastrointestinal contractility in rainbow trout and goldfish in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Itoh, Kentaro; Yaosaka, Noriko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsuda, Kouhei; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-15

    Ghrelin has been identified in rainbow trout and goldfish, and it has been shown to regulate growth hormone release and food intake in these species as seen in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of ghrelin in regulation of gastrointestinal contractility in both fishes. Neither rainbow trout ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected the contractility of gastrointestinal strips of rainbow trout. Similarly, goldfish ghrelin-17 and rat ghrelin did not cause marked contraction in the goldfish intestinal bulb. Detail examinations using the goldfish intestine revealed that human neurotensin, substance-P, goldfish neuromedine-U and carbachol showed apparent contractile activities in the intestinal strips. Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-20 Hz) caused a frequency-dependent contraction of the intestinal bulb. Atropine partially inhibited and tetrodotoxin abolished the EFS-induced contraction. Pretreatments with goldfish ghrelin-17 and rat ghrelin did not modify the EFS-induced contraction. The mRNAs of two types of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), GHS-R1a-1 and GHS-R1a-2, were detected in the goldfish intestine, and the expression level of GHS-R1a-2 was 4-times higher than that of GHS-R1a-1. The expression levels of GHS-R1a-1 and GHS-R1a-2 in four regions of the goldfish intestine (intestinal bulb, intestine-1, intestine-2 and intestine-3) were almost the same. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect gastrointestinal contractility of the rainbow trout and goldfish, although GHSR-like receptor/GHS-R1a is expressed entire intestine. These results suggest diversity of ghrelin function in vertebrates.

  14. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified brain acetylcholinesterase of three freshwater fishes by organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Shaonan, Li; Xianchuan, Xie; Guonian, Zhu; Yajun, Tan

    2004-07-14

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was purified from the brain of three fresh-water fishes, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and rainbow trout (Oncorrhychus mykiss, formerly named Salmo gairdneri) by PEG2000/phosphate-salt two phases extraction, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified enzymes by organophosphates were then studied. Although the crude enzyme from the trout displayed a different specific activity, kinetic curve, Vmax, and sensitivity to inhibition by oxidized malathion and triazopos compared with the two cyprinoids (i.e. topmouth gudgeon and goldfish), the purified enzymes of all the three species showed no significant difference in all aspects. The result suggested a negligible intrinsic difference of brain AChEs among the tested species.

  15. Dynamic Characteristics of Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Spekreijse, Henk

    1972-01-01

    A cross-correlation technique has been applied to quantify the dependence of the dynamic characteristics of retinal ganglion cell responses in goldfish on intensity, wavelength, spatial configuration, and spot size. Both theoretical and experimental evidence justify the use of the cross-correlation procedure which allows the completion of rather extensive measurements in a relatively short time. The findings indicate the following. (a) The shape of the amplitude characteristics depends on the energy per unit of time (power) falling within the center of a receptive field rather than on the intensity of the stimulus spot. For spot diameters of up to 1 mm, identical amplitude characteristics can be obtained by interchanging area and intensity. Therefore the receptor processes do not contribute to the change in the amplitude characteristics as a function of the power of the stimulus light. (b) For high frequencies the amplitude characteristics obtained as a function of power join together in a common envelope if plotted on an absolute sensitivity scale. For spontaneous ganglion cells this envelope holds over a range of three log units and the shape is identical for central and peripheral processes. (c) The amplitude characteristics of the central and peripheral processes converging to a ganglion cell are identical, irrespective of the sign (on or off) and the spectral coding of the response. Therefore we have no evidence for interneurons in the goldfish retina unique to the periphery of the receptive field. PMID:5007262

  16. Goldfish hippocampal pallium is essential to associate temporally discontiguous events.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Gómez, A; Martín-Monzón, I; Reiriz, M; Rodríguez, F; Salas, C

    2017-03-01

    There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not for delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time. Although the involvement of the hippocampus in encoding relational memories based on a temporal frame-work has been extensively studied in mammals, there is scarce evidence about the possible contribution of the hippocampus of non-mammalian vertebrates to the temporal, non-spatial dimension of relational memories. The present work was aimed to determine if the ventral part of the lateral division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dlv) of goldfish, proposed as homologous to the hippocampus of mammals, is also involved in trace classical conditioning. With this purpose, goldfish with lesions in Dlv, complete telencephalon ablation and sham operation, were trained in delay and trace heart rate classical conditioning. Dlv lesions severely impaired the acquisition of the conditioned response when a stimulus-free time gap was elapsed between the CS and the US (trace conditioning), but not when both stimuli overlapped in time (delay conditioning), revealing that this region, like the hippocampus of mammals, is essential to form the temporal associative memories required by trace conditioning. Present data suggest that the presence of a hippocampal pallium involved in relational, episodic-like memory that preserves both the spatial and the temporal dimensions of past events, could be a primitive feature of the vertebrate brain that has been conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Structure and innervation of extraocular muscles of Carassius.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, D F; Mark, R F; Marotte, L R; Proske, U

    1975-01-01

    The extraocular muscles of the carp Carassius contain two types of muscle fibre. Large white fibres have ribbon-shaped peripheral myofibrils and triads located at the Z line. Small red fibres, rich in mitochondria, have polygonal-shaped myofibrils and triads at the A-I junction. Silver- and cholinesterase-stained preparations show that the large fibres are innervated by axons which spiral around them and exhibit intense cholinesterase activity over long distances. Axons supplying small muscle fibres run across bundles of fibres, making one contact with each fibre. By electron microscopy the nerve endings on each fibre type appear identical, both having a smooth post-junctional muscle membrane. The differences in structure and innervation pattern of the two fibre types are discussed in relation to their possible functional roles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1184453

  18. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  19. The conus valves of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Icardo, JM; Schib, JL; Ojeda, JL; Durán, AC; Guerrero, A; Colvee, E; Amelio, D; Sans-Coma, V

    2003-01-01

    The conus (bulbo-ventricular) valves of teleosts perform a key function in the control of blood backflow during ventricular diastole. However, the structural characteristics of these valves are almost unknown. This paper presents a systematic anatomical, histological and structural study of the conus valves of the adult gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus). S. auratus shows two major left and right valves consisting of the leaflet and the supporting sinus. Each valvar leaflet can be divided into a stout proximal body and a flap-like distal region. The proximal body is structured into three layers: a luminal fibrosa, a dense cellular core and a parietal fibrosa. The luminal fibrosa is a collagenous structure extending the entire length of the leaflet, while the parietal fibrosa is restricted to the most proximal area. The dense cellular core consists of fibroblastic cells and a matrix rich in glycoconjugates, collagen and elastin. The histochemical and structural data suggest that the luminal fibrosa bears most of the force associated with valvar closure, while the cellular core acts as a cushion dampening vibrations and absorbing the elastic recoil. The sinus wall is a fibrous layer which shows proximal–distal differences in thickness. It also shows compositional differences that can be related to mechanical function. We describe the presence of a fibrous cylinder formed by the sinus wall, the fibrous interleaflet triangles and the fibrous layer that covers the inner surface of the conus myocardium. This fibrous cylinder constitutes the structural nexus between the ventricle, the conus and the bulbus arteriosus, provides support for the conus valves and separates the valvar complex from the surrounding tissues. The structure of the conus valves in S. auratus is different from that found in other vertebrates. Anatomical similarities between the conus valves and the mammalian arterial valves are emphasized. Each phyletic group appears to have developed specific

  20. Goldfish and oscars have comparable responsiveness to dipole stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauroth, Ines Eva; Mogdans, Joachim

    2009-12-01

    The relative roles of the fish lateral line and inner ear for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli are poorly investigated. Here, we studied responsiveness to a 100 Hz vibrating sphere (dipole stimulus) of goldfish and oscars, two species that differ in peripheral lateral line morphology, inner ear morphology, mechanical linkage between inner ear and swim bladder, and inner ear sensitivity. We measured unconditioned dipole-evoked changes in breathing activity in still water and in the presence of a 5-cm s-1 background flow. In still water, individuals from both species responded to sound pressure levels (SPLs) between 92 and 109 dB SPL re 1 μPaRMS. Responsiveness was not affected by background flow or by temporary inactivation of the lateral line. The data suggest that fish with different lateral line and inner ear morphologies have similar sensitivities to vibrating sphere stimuli and can detect and respond to dipole sources equally well in still water and in moderate background flows. Moreover, behavioral responses were not dependent on a functional lateral line, suggesting that in this type of experiment, the inner ear is the dominant sense organ for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli.

  1. Dynamical analysis reveals individuality of locomotion in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, H; Cellucci, C J; Rapp, P E; Korn, H; Faber, D S

    2004-02-01

    Goldfish swimming was analysed quantitatively to determine if it exhibits distinctive individual spatio-temporal patterns. Due to the inherent variability in fish locomotion, this hypothesis was tested using five nonlinear measures, complemented by mean velocity. A library was constructed of 75 trajectories, each of 5 min duration, acquired from five fish swimming in a constant and relatively homogeneous environment. Three nonlinear measures, the 'characteristic fractal dimension' and 'Richardson dimension', both quantifying the degree to which a trajectory departs from a straight line, and 'relative dispersion', characterizing the variance as a function of the duration, have coefficients of variation less than 7%, in contrast to mean velocity (30%). A discriminant analysis, or classification system, based on all six measures revealed that trajectories are indeed highly individualistic, with the probability that any two trajectories generated from different fish are equivalent being less than 1%. That is, the combination of these measures allows a given trajectory to be assigned to its source with a high degree of confidence. The Richardson dimension and the 'Hurst exponent', which quantifies persistence, were the most effective measures.

  2. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  3. Evolutionary developmental transition from median to paired morphology of vertebrate fins: Perspectives from twin-tail goldfish.

    PubMed

    Abe, Gembu; Ota, Kinya G

    2016-12-07

    Vertebrate morphology has been evolutionarily modified by natural and/or artificial selection. The morphological variation of goldfish is a representative example. In particular, the twin-tail strain of ornamental goldfish shows highly diverged anal and caudal fin morphology: bifurcated anal and caudal fins. Recent molecular developmental genetics research revealed that a stop codon mutation in one of the two recently duplicated chordin genes is important for the highly diverged fin morphology of twin-tail goldfish. However, some issues still need to be discussed in the context of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). For example, the bifurcated anal and caudal fins of twin-tail goldfish provided early researchers with insights into the origin of paired fins (pectoral and pelvic fins), but no subsequent researchers have discussed this topic. In addition, although the fossil jawless vertebrate species Euphanerops is also known to have had a bifurcated anal fin, how the bifurcated anal fin of twin-tail goldfish is related to that of fossil jawless vertebrate species has never been investigated. In this review, we present an overview of the early anatomical and embryological studies of twin-tail goldfish. Moreover, based on the similarity of embryonic features between the secondarily bifurcated competent stripe in twin-tail goldfish and the trunk bilateral competent stripes in conventional gnathostomes, we hypothesized that they share the same molecular developmental mechanisms. We also postulate that the bifurcated anal fin of Euphanerops might be caused by the same type of modification of dorsal-ventral patterning that occurs in the twin-tail goldfish, unlike the previously suggested evolutionary process that required the co-option of paired fin developmental mechanisms. Understanding the molecular developmental genetics of twin-tail goldfish allows us to further investigate the evolutionary developmental mechanisms of the origin of paired fins.

  4. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  5. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    PubMed

    Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) with intralamellar sporulation in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Yuan, S; Zhao, Y L; Fang, P; Chen, H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-09-01

    Allogynogenetic gibel carp is one of the most important freshwater cultured species in China. However, myxosporidiosis represents a severe threat to prevent the sustainable development of aquaculture of this species. During the investigation of myxosporean diversity of reared allogynogenetic gibel carp in East China, a new myxosporean with typical characteristics of Myxobolus was found from 169 out of 210 (80.4 %) examined samples, designated as Myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. by combing comparative analysis of morphological and molecular data. The diagnostic features of this species are reminiscent with Myxobolus pyramidis Chen, 1958 as follows: round or ellipsoidal, grayish white, cyst-like polysporous plasmodia, averaging 219.3 ± 11.9 (98.7-421.7) × 158.4 ± 9.7 μm (79.9-191.8) in size; spores flat-pear shaped in frontal view with tapering anterior and rounded posterior ends and lemon-shaped in sutural view, averaging 11.0 ± 0.31 (10.5-11.9) × 10.2 ± 0.25 (9.2-10.7) × 6.3 ± 0.23 μm (5.9-6.9) in size; and two equal pyriform polar capsules averaging 5.5 ± 0.3 (4.5-6.1) × 3.4 ± 0.26 μm (2.9-4.0) in size with convergent longitudinal axes and polar filaments wounded in seven to eight coils, perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Spore surface was smooth and two spore valves were symmetrical, with a thin and straight sutural ridge. Occasionally, abnormal spores with typical Henneguya-like caudal appendage and atypical papillary caudal appendage could be observed. The sporogenesis is asynchronous. Histopathological investigation showed that the plasmodia developed inside the capillary network of gill lamellae, belonging to the intralamellar vascular type, and no significant inflammatory responses were provoked by the infection. Homology search by BLAST showed that the newly obtained sequence did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned sequences indicated that M. sheyangensis n. sp. positioned in a clade composed of Myxobolus species infecting the gill of several freshwater cyprinid fish.

  7. Involvement of aurantiactinomyxon in the life cycle of Thelohanellus testudineus (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio, with morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan Dan; Zhai, Yan Hua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Si Jia; Gu, Ze Mao

    2017-07-13

    During the investigation of actinosporean fauna diversity from commercial fish ponds in Hubei Province, China, a novel aurantiactinomyxon type was found from Branchiura sowerbyi. Spore body of the aurantiactinomyxon was ellipsoidal in side view and triangular in apical view, 15.5 ± 0.5 (14.5-16.4) μm in diameter; three leaf-like caudal processes were approximately equal, measuring 13.2 ± 0.9 (11.5-16.2) μm long and 7.4 ± 0.4 (6.7-8.0) μm wide at the base; three polar capsules were located at the apex of spore body, globular in apical view, 2.2 ± 0.1 (2.0-2.3) μm in diameter, and pyriform in side view, 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.3-2.9) μm in length and 2.0 ± 0.2 (1.8-2.4) μm in width; a total of 32 germ cells were observed within the sporoplasm. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the development was asynchronous between pansporocysts but synchronous within a pansporocyst. The formation of sporoblast and the development of sporogonic stage were also described and discussed. The 18S ribosomal DNA sequences of the current aurantiactinomyxon type corresponded to that of a previously reported Thelohanellus testudineus, suggesting that the newly identified aurantiactinomyxon type is the actinosporean stage in the life cycle of T. testudineus.

  8. Molecular cloning of Pcc-dmrt1s and their specific expression patterns in Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) affected by 17α-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao; Liang, Hongwei; Xu, Peng; Li, Meng; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-08-01

    Dmrt1, an important transcription factor associated with testicular differentiation, is conserved among teleost, which could also be detected in ovaries. In the present study, three isoforms of Pcc-dmrt1s (Pcc-dmrt1a, Pcc-dmrt1b and Pcc-dmrt1c) resulting from alternative splicing of the dmrt1 gene were cloned and characterized in the triploid gynogenetic fish, the Pengze crucian carp. Their mRNA expression profiling was investigated in juvenile developmental stages, tissues of the adult fish, and the juveniles under 84.2 ng/L 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) treatments. Results showed that their putative proteins shared high identities to Dmrt1 in cyprinid fish species. Gene expression profiling in the developmental stages showed that all the three target genes had a highest/lowest expression at 56/40 days post-hatching (dph), respectively. The period of 40 dph appeared to be a key time during the process of the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp. The tissue distribution results indicated that Pcc-dmrt1s were predominantly expressed in hepatopancreas, brain, spleen and ovary of the female fish. MT significantly increased the mRNA expression of Pcc-dmrt1a (all 4-week exposures) and Pcc-dmrt1b (except for week 2), while repressed Pcc-dmrt1c transcripts at all exposure period except for week 2. MT extremely significant repressed cyp19a1a transcripts for 1 week. The present study indicated that MT could influence the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp by disturbing gene expressions of Pcc-dmrt1s and cyp19a1a. Furthermore, the present study will be of great significance to broaden the understanding of masculinizing pathway during ovary development in gynogenetic teleost.

  9. Effects of repeated handling and air exposure on the immune response and the disease resistance of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) over winter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingyuan; Wang, Cuicui; Tu, Yongqin; Hu, Huihua; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2015-12-01

    High mortalities and suppressed immune functions of farmed fish over winter are the universal problems in aquaculture. It is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance in the overwintering fish. A recent study suggested that repeated handling increased innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Senegalese sole. Therefore, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resistance in gibel carp over winter. The experiment was executed in field net cages (2 m × 2 m × 2 m) from Dec. 4, 2012 to Apr. 2, 2013. Three cages with 50 fish per cage were randomly designed as the control group and did not receive any interfere over winter. The other three cages received repeated handling with an air exposure for 5 min every week during the experiment. Fish were not fed over winter. At the end of the trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1). The results showed that no significant difference of final body weight was found between groups. The spleen and kidney somatic index increased in the control fish after bacterial challenge and showed a rising trend but not a statistical change in repeated handled fish. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased in the control fish at 6 h post bacterial challenge and then declined. However, repeated handled fish did not show any significant change in plasma cortisol levels after challenge. The reduced inducement of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expressions by repeated handling was found in gibel carp post bacterial challenge. After overwintering, the repeated handled fish exhibited increased catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Enhanced plasma CAT activities and reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were found in repeated handled fish over time against invading bacteria. Up-regulation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and interleukin 11 (IL11) was observed in repeated handled fish over time after bacterial challenge. The overexpression of IL11 was significantly reduced by repeated handling against invading bacteria compared to the control group. The present results implied that a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway was involved in the innate immune responses of gibel carp by repeated handling over winter against invading bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the early previtellogenic oocyte without zona radiata. In these oocytes, mercury accumulates into an ooplasmic region that seems to correspond to the Balbiani body (32-65 microm oocyte diameter), throughout the cytoplasm (84-116 microm oocyte diameter) and in the cortical cytoplasm (approximately 180 microm oocyte diameter). The second mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the late previtellogenic oocyte with cortical alveoli (229-330 microm oocyte diameter). Ultrastructural observations have shown grains of silver-enhanced mercury inside coated vesicles, the cortical lysosome-like bodies or multivesicular bodies and cortical alveoli. Immunohistochemistry reaction for caspase-3 was positive in nuclei of the early previtellogenic oocyte and Balbiani body.

  11. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8-14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics.

  13. Haloperidol and chlorpheniramine interaction in inhibitory avoidance in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Faganello, F R; Medalha, C C; Mattioli, R

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible interaction between histaminergic and dopaminergic systems in learning and memory processes, in an inhibitory avoidance test in goldfish. Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, was administrated pre-training and the chlorpheniramine (CPA), a histaminergic antagonist, post-training. The inhibitory avoidance procedure was performed in 3 days, using a rectangular aquarium divided into two compartments (black and white), with a central door. On the first day, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On the second day, they were injected with 2 mg/kg of haloperidol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 20 min before training. Then, the animals were placed in the white compartment, the central door was opened and the time spent for crossing between compartments was recorded. After the fish crossed the line between compartments a 45 g weight was dropped. This procedure was done five times in a row. Immediately after the fifth trial, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either saline or CPA (0.4, 1.0, 4.0, 8.0 or 16 mg/kg). On the next day (test) the time to cross was recorded again. On the training trials, the animals treated with DMSO or haloperidol presented a significant increase in the latencies indicating learning (Friedman P = 0.0062 and 0.0001). The latencies in the test day showed that groups pre-treated with haloperidol and treated with CPA presented a dose-dependent increase in latencies, and those treated with the 16 mg/kg CPA group showed a significant increase (ANOVA two-way followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) P < 0.01). Thus, it can be suggested that the facilitatory action occurs due to an additive interaction between both systems, in a dose-dependent way.

  14. Thyroid hormone and reproduction: regulation of estrogen receptors in goldfish gonads.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik R; Allan, Euan R O; Pang, Flora Y; Habibi, Hamid R

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates. However, little information is available on the mechanisms by which this happens. As a first step in determining these mechanisms, we test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor subtypes (ERalpha, ERbeta-1, and ERbeta-2) are regulated by the thyroid hormone, (T(3)), in the gonads of goldfish. All three subtypes were down-regulated by T(3) in the testis or ovary. We also found evidence that T(3) decreased pituitary gonadotropin expression and decreased transcript for gonadal aromatase. Collectively, it appears that T(3) acts to diminish estrogen signaling by (1) decreasing pituitary LH expression and thus steroidogenesis, (2) down-regulating gonadal aromatase expression and thus decreasing estrogen synthesis from androgens, and (3) decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the ER subtypes. Goldfish are seasonal breeders, spawning once a year, and thus have two distinct periods of growth: somatic and reproductive. Circulating thyroid hormone levels have been found to increase just after spawning. Therefore, we propose that this may be an endocrine mechanism that goldfish use to switch their energy expenditure from reproductive to growth efforts in the goldfish. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The liver of goldfish as a component of the circadian system: Integrating a network of signals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2015-09-15

    The circadian system drives daily physiological and behavioral rhythms that allow animals to anticipate cyclic environmental changes. The discovery of the known as "clock genes", which are very well conserved through vertebrate phylogeny, highlighted the molecular mechanism of circadian oscillators functioning, based on transcription and translation cycles (∼ 24 h) of such clock genes. Studies in goldfish have shown that the circadian system in this species is formed by a net of oscillators distributed at central and peripheral locations, as the retina, brain, gut and liver, among others. In this work we review the existing information about the hepatic oscillator in goldfish due to its relevance in metabolism, and its key role as target of a variety of humoral signals. Different input signals modify the molecular clockwork in the liver of goldfish. Among them, there are environmental cues (photocycle and feeding regime) and different encephalic and peripheral endogenous signals (orexin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids). Per clock genes seem to be a common target for different signals. Thus, this genes family might be important for shifting the hepatic oscillator. The physiological relevance of the crosstalking between metabolic and feeding-related hormones and the hepatic clock sets the stage for the hypothesis that these hormones could act as "internal zeitgebers" communicating oscillators in the goldfish circadian system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of the Pattern Edge in Goldfish Visual Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-01-01

    To understand the function of edges in perception of moving objects, we defined four questions to answer. Is the focus point in visual motion detection of a moving object: (1) the body or the edge of the object, (2) the leading edge or trailing edge of the object, (3) different in scotopic, mesopic and photopic luminance levels, or (4) different for colored objects? We measured the Optomotor Response (OMR) and Edge Triggering Response (ETR) of goldfish. We used a square and sine wave patterns with black and red stripes and a square wave pattern with black and grey stripes to generate OMR's and ETR's in the goldfish. When we used black and red stripes, the black leading edges stimulated an ETR under scotopic conditions, red leading edges stimulated an ETR under photopic conditions, and both black and red leading edges stimulated an ETR under mesopic luminance levels. For black and gray stripes, only black leading edges stimulated an ETR in all three light illumination levels. We observed less OMR and ETR results using the sine wave pattern compared to using the square wave pattern. From these results, we deduced that the goldfish tend to prefer tracking the leading edge of the pattern. The goldfish can also detect the color of the moving pattern under photopic luminance conditions. We decided that ETR is an intriguing factor in OMR, and is suitable as a method of behavioral measurement in visual system research. PMID:21311683

  17. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-30

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  18. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  19. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  20. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  1. Effects of hyperglycemia on bone metabolism and bone matrix in goldfish scales.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Andoh, Tadashi; Okesaku, Wakana; Tazaki, Yuya; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sugitani, Kayo; Kobayashi, Isao; Suzuki, Nobuo; Chen, Wenxi; Ikegame, Mika; Hattori, Atsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Increased risk of fracture associated with type 2 diabetes has been a topic of recent concern. Fracture risk is related to a decrease in bone strength, which can be affected by bone metabolism and the quality of the bone. To investigate the cause of the increased fracture rate in patients with diabetes through analyses of bone metabolism and bone matrix protein properties, we used goldfish scales as a bone model for hyperglycemia. Using the scales of seven alloxan-treated and seven vehicle-treated control goldfish, we assessed bone metabolism by analyzing the activity of marker enzymes and mRNA expression of marker genes, and we measured the change in molecular weight of scale matrix proteins with SDS-PAGE. After only a 2-week exposure to hyperglycemia, the molecular weight of α- and β-fractions of bone matrix collagen proteins changed incrementally in the regenerating scales of hyperglycemic goldfish compared with those of euglycemic goldfish. In addition, the relative ratio of the γ-fraction significantly increased, and a δ-fraction appeared after adding glyceraldehyde-a candidate for the formation of advanced glycation end products in diabetes-to isolated type 1 collagen in vitro. The enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of osteoblast and osteoclast markers were not significantly different between hyperglycemic and euglycemic goldfish scales. These results indicate that hyperglycemia is likely to affect bone quality through glycation of matrix collagen from an early stage of hyperglycemia. Therefore, non-enzymatic glycation of collagen fibers in bone matrix may lead to the deterioration of bone quality from the onset of diabetes.

  2. Detection of pentachlorophenol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in fish bile and exposure water

    SciTech Connect

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1988-08-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pentachlorophenol (PCP) that were present in the bile and exposure water of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to develop methodology to quantify PCP and its metabolites. Reverse phase HPLC with radioactivity detection separated PCP and its metabolites, and was used to verify a method of quantification that used differential extraction and scintillation counting. Extractions of aqueous phase at pH 2 or 8, with butanol, ethyl acetate, or ether indicated that ether at pH 8 best separated PCP from its metabolites. The sulfate conjugate of PCP was the major metabolite produced when goldfish were exposed to 125 micrograms UC-PCP/l. It was present primarily in the exposure water, but also appeared in the bile.

  3. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Torresdal, Jack D.; Farrell, Aidan D.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species’ range from two isolated ‘sky islands’ to three. PMID:28052079

  4. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A.; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M.; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years. PMID:26544185

  5. Plumage pigment differences underlying the yellow-red differentiation in the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus).

    PubMed

    Hudon, Jocelyn; Wiebe, Karen L; Pini, Elena; Stradi, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Elucidating the processes that create species differences is a central goal of evolutionary biology. The Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) exists as two well-differentiated subspecies groups in North America, the Yellow-shafted (auratus group) and Red-shafted Flickers (cafer group), which differ strikingly in the color of the underside and rachises of flight feathers, and of malar and nuchal patches. We investigated the physiological basis of these conspicuous phenotypic differences by identifying and quantifying the pigments involved. The yellow feathers of auratus contained carotenoids commonly found in nature (lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and β-carotene). The orange to red shafts/vanes of cafer and hybrids contained these carotenoids as well as mono- and diketo-carotenoids (notably adonirubin, α-doradexanthin, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin), representing oxygenated products at carbon C4(4') of the carotenoids present in auratus. Oxygenation of feather carotenoids at C4(4') correlated closely with shaft/vane redness. Carotenoid hydroxylation at C3(3') and the proportion of carotenoids with ε end-rings also varied with color and belie differences in the activity of several carotenoid-modifying enzymes between the two subspecies groups. Curiously, occasional yellow feathers in red-shafted individuals had the carotenoids of auratus, hence the differences are not constitutive in cafer, underscoring regulatory differences. The red malar stripe of cafer, the black malar stripe and red nuchal patch of auratus all contained similar types and amounts of carotenoids, mostly 3-hydroxy-4-keto-carotenoids. The biochemical differences between two strongly differentiated forms we uncovered shed light on how plumage coloration can change over evolutionary time and point to further avenues of research.

  6. THE BIOSYNTHESIS AND CONTENT OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID IN THE GOLDFISH RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Dominic M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Goldfish retinas incubated with L-glutamate-14C (UL) were found to synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid-14C (GABA-14C) The accumulation of newly synthesized GABA was enhanced by physiological stimulation of the retina with flashing light; and this increase was directly proportional to the logarithm of the light intensity. The total GABA content was also higher in light-stimulated than in dark-adapted retinas, although the glutamate content remained unchanged No differences were found in the cell-free activities of glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4 1.1 15) and GABA-glutamate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19) extracted from light-stimulated and dark-adapted retinas. These findings, together with other physiological and morphologcal evidence, suggest that GABA plays a functional role in synaptic transmission in the goldfish retina PMID:4339278

  7. Identification of a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor structural subunit expressed in goldfish retina

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A new non-alpha (n alpha) member of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family designated GFn alpha-2 has been identified in goldfish retina by cDNA cloning. This cDNA clone encodes a protein with structural features common to all nAChR subunits sequenced to date; however, unlike all known alpha-subunits of the receptor, it lacks the cysteine residues believed to be involved in acetylcholine binding. Northern blot analysis shows multiple transcripts hybridizing to the GFn alpha-2 cDNA in goldfish retina but undetectable levels of hybridizable RNA in brain, muscle, or liver. S1 nuclease protection experiments indicate that multiple mRNAs are expressed in retina with regions identical or very similar to the GFn alpha-2 sequence. In situ hybridization shows that the gene encoding GFn alpha-2 is expressed predominantly in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. PMID:2465296

  8. Modulation of calcium signalling by the endoplasmic reticulum in Carassius neurons.

    PubMed

    Lukyanets, Igor A; Lukyanetz, Elena A

    2013-04-19

    It is known that endoplasmic reticulum (ER), being a calcium store participates in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration. Ca-ATPase of the ER is one of the crucial agents providing the calcium-accumulating function of this intracellular structure. We studied the role of the ER in modulation of calcium signalling in Carassius neurons using a Ca2+-imaging technique. We tested the role of the ER in the maintenance of a steady state calcium level in the cytoplasm and in modulation of Ca2+ transients evoked by cell depolarizations. The ER calcium stores were depleted using inhibitors of ER Ca-ATPase, which provided blocking of Ca2+ uptake by the ER. Our experiments firstly showed that the ER can significantly modulate the characteristics of intracellular calcium signals in Carassius neurons during their activity. These findings also indicate that the ER modulates the shape of Ca2+ signals rather than the basal level of intracellular Ca2+ in these neurons.

  9. Accumulation of stress protein 72 (HSP72) in muscle and spleen of goldfish taken into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Tsuji, K.; Ohmura, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Wang, X.; Takahahsi, A.; Nagaoka, S.; Takabayashi, A.

    Using Western blot analysis, here, we report the levels of HSP72 in several organs from goldfish which were taken into space on the NASA space shuttle. A remarkable accumulation of HSP72 was detected in muscle and spleen of those fish taken into space as compared with controls. These results suggested that the HSP72 induction is a kind of stress response at the molecular level introduced by the space environment consisting of microgravity and/or cosmic radiation as stressors.

  10. Norepinephrine turnover in the goldfish brain is modulated by sex steroids and GABA.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, V L; Sloley, B D; Peter, R E

    1993-10-08

    It is known that norepinephrine (NE) is important in the neuroendocrine control of pituitary gonadotropin II (GTH-II) and growth hormone (GH) release but very little is known about the factors regulating NE neurons in the goldfish brain. Female gonad-intact goldfish were implanted intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/g) with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2) to elevate serum steroid levels. High-performance liquid chromatography measurements showed that steroid implantation had no effect on NE content in the telencephalon, including preoptic area (TEL-POA), or the hypothalamus (HYP). The turnover rate of NE was estimated from the rate of depletion of NE content from tissues following inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (240 micrograms/g). The present study demonstrates that E2 can decrease NE turnover rates in TEL-POA and HYP of sexually regressed goldfish (August). The results in recrudescent fish (November), however, indicate a more complex interaction of E2 with NE neurons since E2 increased NE turnover in TEL-POA and HYP in these animals. Testosterone (T) has less prominent effects on NE turnover rates in TEL-POA and HYP; the only significant effect of T-implantation was a small reduction of NE turnover in the TEL-POA of sexually recrudescent fish. Elevation of endogenous brain GABA concentrations by injection of the GABA transaminase inhibitor, gamma-vinyl-GABA (300 micrograms/g), significantly reduced NE turnover in TEL-POA. These data demonstrate that goldfish NE neurons in the TEL-POA are sensitive to regulation by changes in circulating sex steroids and by increases in brain GABA.

  11. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  12. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Remarks on the validity of Myxobolus ampullicapsulatus and Myxobolus honghuensis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) based on SSU rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Li, N N; Tang, F H; Dong, J L

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we isolated three populations of Myxobolus ampullicapsulatus from the gills of crucian carp, Carassius auratus auratus, two from Yongchuan, Chongqing area and one from Poyang Lake, Jiangxi area, China, sequenced their complete small subunit ribosome RNA gene, analyzed their genetic distance and gene similarity, and explored their relationship based on Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of their small subunit ribosomal DNA. The results combined with their morphological characteristics suggest that M. ampullicapsulatus infecting the gills and pharynx of allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, should be Myxobolus honghuensis. This study highlights the importance of DNA sequence comparisons for distinguishing Myxobolus species and indicates that the intra-species identification for the two Myxobolus species mentioned in the present research should be less than ten variation sites. In morphology, M. honghuensis Liu et al. (2012) parasitic on the gills of C. auratus auratus (goldfish) was collected from Chongqing area, and its mature spore was 16.5-19.5 × 8.5-10.0 μm in size, polar capsule was 7.0-10.0 × 2.5-4.0 μm in size, and polar filament had 9-10 coils. M. honghuensis Liu et al. (2012) isolated from the pharynx of C. auratus gibelio was sampled in Hubei area, and its mature spore was 15.1-19.5 × 9.0-11.3 μm in size, polar capsule was 7.9-8.1 × 3.0-4.5 μm in size, and polar filament had 7-8 coils.

  14. Corticotropin-releasing hormone mediates alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced anorexigenic action in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kouhei; Kojima, Kenji; Shimakura, Sei-Ichi; Wada, Kohei; Maruyama, Keisuke; Uchiyama, Minoru; Kikuyama, Sakae; Shioda, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) both suppress food intake, and the alpha-MSH- or CRH-signaling pathway has possible potency to mediate anorexigenic actions induced by most other neuropeptides in goldfish. Therefore, using specific receptor antagonists, we examined whether the anorexigenic actions of alpha-MSH and CRH mutually interact. The inhibitory effect of ICV injection of the alpha-MSH agonist, melanotan II (MT II), on food intake was abolished by treatment with a CRH 1/2 receptor antagonist, alpha-helical CRH((9-41)), whereas the anorexigenic action of ICV-injected CRH was not affected by treatment with a melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist, HS024. This led us to investigate whether alpha-MSH-containing neurons in the goldfish brain have direct inputs to CRH-containing neurons, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. alpha-MSH- and CRH-like immunoreactivities were distributed throughout the brain, especially in the diencephalon. alpha-MSH-containing nerve fibers or endings lay in close apposition to CRH-containing neurons in a region of the hypothalamus, the nucleus posterioris periventricularis (NPPv). These results indicate that, in goldfish, alpha-MSH-induced anorexigenic action is mediated by the CRH-signaling pathway, and that CRH plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding behavior as an integrated anorexigenic neuropeptide in this species.

  15. The changes of serum testosterone level and hepatic microsome enzyme activity of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) exposed to a sublethal dosage of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yin, Daqiang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2008-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), which was reported to be a typical persistent organic pollutant and environmental endocrine disruptor, may cause threat to aquatic species. In this study, serum testosterone concentration, activity of liver microsome ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) exposed to PCP for 7 and 15 d, respectively, were examined. The results showed that testosterone concentration was induced remarkably after 7 d (P<0.05), and the testosterone concentrations in 15 d treatment crucian carp were higher than those in 7 d treatment. It was found that there were significant effects on activities of EROD and GST after crucian carp were exposed to PCP for 7 and 15 d (P<0.05), compared to the controls. EROD and GST activities increased with increase in PCP concentration and also with increase in time on exposure. The results indicated that serum testosterone, EROD and GST were sensitive endpoints to PCP. PCP may have endocrine disrupting activities and may affect the reproductive success of this species. It is possible that the changes of hepatic microsome enzyme activities may result in alterations of serum testosterone levels in crucian carp.

  16. Brief communication: a cranial morphometric assessment of the taxonomic affinities of Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy, 1812 primates: Colobinae) with a reassessment of the T. auratus type specimen.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; Balzeau, Antoine; Callou, Cécile; Fitriana, Yuliana Sulistya

    2011-10-01

    The debate over the taxonomic position and affinities of Trachypithecus auratus has been ongoing since its identification by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1812. The type specimen of this species is housed in Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris (MNHN-ZM 2005-912). This point is debated due to the complex and fluctuating taxonomy of Southeast Asian Colobinae (Brandon-Jones et al.: Int J Primatol 25 (2004) 97-164) and to the fact that this individual is represented by a mounted skeleton. By means of 3D medical imaging methodologies we describe for the first time the cranial anatomy of the specimen MNHN-ZM 2005-912 and compare it with other Trachypithecus species, in order to test the molecular systematic hypotheses for affinities among the T. auratus-T. cristatus group. We ascertain the taxonomic attribution of this individual to the species Trachypithecus auratus species. The most diagnostic characters shared by the type specimen and Trachypithecus auratus compared to other species of Trachypithecus are the rounded orbits and the straight facial profile. We then try to clarify the inconsistencies concerning the geographical provenance of the type. The island of Java appears to be the most probable locality from a cluster analysis based on linear morphometry. After this approach and a discriminant analysis, a northeastern Javanese provenance of this specimen, as proposed by Brandon-Jones et al. (Int J Primatol 25 (2004) 97-164) is dubious. Finally we provide 3D models of the skull and the endocast, and a list of cranial landmark coordinates of the holotype for future research.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  18. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Chettri, J Kumar; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of Rh glycoproteins, ammonia excretion and Na+ fluxes in three freshwater teleosts when exposed chronically to high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Nawata, C Michele; Blust, Ronny; Wood, Chris M; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-08-01

    We investigated relationships among branchial unidirectional Na(+) fluxes, ammonia excretion, urea excretion, plasma ammonia, plasma cortisol, and gill transporter expression and function in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (HEA). The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed chronically (12-168 h) to 1 mmol l(-1) ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9). During HEA exposure, carp and goldfish elevated ammonia excretion (JAmm) and Na(+) influx rates ( ) while trout experienced higher plasma ammonia (TAmm) and were only able to restore control rates of JAmm and . All three species exhibited increases in Na(+) efflux rate ( ). At the molecular level, there was evidence for activation of a 'Na(+)/NH4(+) exchange metabolon' probably in response to elevated plasma cortisol and TAmm, though surprisingly, some compensatory responses preceded molecular responses in all three species. Expression of Rhbg, Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b), H(+)-ATPase (V-type, B-subunit) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) mRNA was upregulated in goldfish, Rhcg-a and NKA in carp, and Rhcg2, NHE-2 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger) and H(+)-ATPase in trout. Branchial H(+)-ATPase activity was elevated in goldfish and trout, and NKA activity in goldfish and carp, but NKA did not appear to function preferentially as a Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase in any species. Goldfish alone increased urea excretion rate during HEA, in concert with elevated urea transporter mRNA expression in gills. Overall, goldfish showed more effective compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective.

  20. Goldfish neurokinin B: Cloning, tissue distribution, and potential role in regulating reproduction.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Ye, Gang; Liu, Xiaochun; Peng, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-09-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which encode several NKBs, including NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-11, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKBa-10 and NKBb-11 are closely related to mammalian NKB, while NKB-13s are more conserved in teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in various tissues showed that TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization further detected TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs in several regions of the brain known to be involved in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism, as well as in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. To investigate the potential role of NKBs in reproduction, goldfish were injected intraperitoneally with synthetic NKBa-13, -10, NKBb-13, or -11 peptides and the mRNA levels of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropin subunits were measured. NKBa-13, -10, or NKBb-13, but not -11, significantly increased hypothalamic salmon GnRH and pituitary FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels in both female and male goldfish. Finally, ovariectomy increased, while estradiol replacement reduced, TAC3a mRNA levels without affecting TAC3b expression in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that NKBa-13, -10, and NKBb-13 play a role in mediating the estrogen negative feedback regulation of gonadotropins.

  1. Endogenous hypothalamic somatostatins differentially regulate growth hormone secretion from goldfish pituitary somatotropes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yunker, Warren K; Smith, Sean; Graves, Chad; Davis, Philip J; Unniappan, Surajlal; Rivier, Jean E; Peter, Richard E; Chang, John P

    2003-09-01

    Using Southern blot analysis of RT-PCR products, mRNA for three different somatostatin (SS) precursors (PSS-I, -II, and -III), which encode for SS(14), goldfish brain (gb)SS(28), and [Pro(2)]SS(14), respectively, were detected in goldfish hypothalamus. PSS-I and -II mRNA, but not PSS-III mRNA, were also detected in cultured pituitary cells. We subsequently examined the effects of the mature peptides, SS(14), gbSS(28), and [Pro(2)]SS(14), on somatotrope signaling and GH secretion. The gbSS(28) was more potent than either SS(14) or [Pro(2)]SS(14) in reducing basal GH release but was the least effective in reducing basal cellular cAMP. The ability of SS(14), [Pro(2)]SS(14), and gbSS(28) to attenuate GH responses to GnRH were comparable. However, gbSS(28) was less effective than SS(14) and [Pro(2)]SS(14) in diminishing dopamine- and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-stimulated GH release, as well as GH release resulting from the activation of their underlying signaling cascades. In contrast, the actions of a different 28-amino-acid SS, mammalian SS(28), were more similar to those of SS(14) and [Pro(2)]SS(14). We conclude that, in goldfish, SSs differentially couple to the intracellular cascades regulating GH secretion from pituitary somatotropes. This raises the possibility that such differences may allow for the selective regulation of various aspects of somatotrope function by different SS peptides.

  2. Secretoneurin is a potential paracrine factor from lactotrophs stimulating gonadotropin release in the goldfish pituitary.

    PubMed

    Zhao, E; Grey, Caleb L; Zhang, Dapeng; Mennigen, Jan A; Basak, Ajoy; Chang, John P; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-11-01

    Secretoneurin (SN) is a functional neuropeptide derived from the evolutionarily conserved part of precursor protein secretogranin II (SgII). In the time course study, SN (10 nM) stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) production and secretion after 6 h of static incubation of goldfish pituitary cells. Due to the existence of SN-immunoreactivity (SN-IR) in goldfish lactotrophs, endogenous SN might exert a paracrine effect on LH in the pituitary. In an in vitro immunoneutralization experiment, coincubation with anti-SN antiserum reduces the stimulatory effect of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) on LH release by 64%. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrate that sGnRH significantly increases the expression of the major SgII-derived peptide (∼57 kDa, with SN-IR) and prolactin (PRL) after 12 h in the static culture of goldfish pituitary cells. Furthermore, there exists a significant correlation between the levels of these two proteins (R = 0.76, P = 0.004). Another ∼30 kDa SgII-derived peptide containing SN is only observed in sGnRH-treated pituitary cells. Consistent with the Western blot analysis results, real-time RT-PCR analysis shows that a 12-h treatment with sGnRH induced 1.6- and 1.7-fold increments in SgII and PRL mRNA levels, respectively. SgII gene expression was also associated with PRL gene expression (R = 0.66; P = 0.02). PRL cells loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye, fura 2/AM, respond to sGnRH treatment with increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration level, suggesting a potential mechanism of GnRH on PRL cells and thus SgII processing and SN secretion. Taken together, endogenous lactotroph-generated SN, under the control of hypothalamic GnRH, exerts a paracrine action on neighboring gonadotrophs to stimulate LH release.

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates GH release while inhibiting ghrelin- and sGnRH-induced LH release from goldfish pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Grey, Caleb L; Chang, John P

    2013-06-01

    Goldfish GH-releasing hormone (gGHRH) has been recently identified and shown to stimulate GH release in goldfish. In goldfish, neuroendocrine regulation of GH release is multifactorial and known stimulators include goldfish ghrelin (gGRLN19) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), factors that also enhance LH secretion. To further understand the complex regulation of pituitary hormone release in goldfish, we examined the interactions between gGHRH, gGRLN19, and sGnRH on GH and LH release from primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells in perifusion. Treatment with 100nM gGHRH for 55min stimulated GH release. A 5-min pulse of either 1nM gGRLN19 or 100nM sGnRH induced GH release in naïve cells, and these were just as effective in cells receiving gGHRH. Interestingly, gGHRH abolished both gGRLN19- and sGnRH-induced LH release and reduced basal LH secretion levels. These results suggest that gGHRH does not interfere with sGnRH or gGRLN19 actions in the goldfish somatotropes and further reveal, for the first time, that GHRH may act as an inhibitor of stimulated and basal LH release by actions at the level of pituitary cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nesfatin-1-Like Peptide Encoded in Nucleobindin-1 in Goldfish is a Novel Anorexigen Modulated by Sex Steroids, Macronutrients and Daily Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Sundarrajan, Lakshminarasimhan; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid anorexigen encoded in a secreted precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 was named so due to its high sequence similarity with nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1). It was recently reported that NUCB1 encodes an insulinotropic nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP) in mice. Here, we aimed to characterize NLP in fish. RT- qPCR showed NUCB1 expression in both central and peripheral tissues. Western blot analysis and/or fluorescence immunohistochemistry determined NUCB1/NLP in the brain, pituitary, testis, ovary and gut of goldfish. NUCB1 mRNA expression in goldfish pituitary and gut displayed a daily rhythmic pattern of expression. Pituitary NUCB1 mRNA expression was downregulated by estradiol, while testosterone upregulated its expression in female goldfish brain. High carbohydrate and fat suppressed NUCB1 mRNA expression in the brain and gut. Intraperitoneal injection of synthetic rat NLP and goldfish NLP at 10 and 100 ng/g body weight doses caused potent inhibition of food intake in goldfish. NLP injection also downregulated the expression of mRNAs encoding orexigens, preproghrelin and orexin-A, and upregulated anorexigen cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript mRNA in goldfish brain. Collectively, these results provide the first set of results supporting the anorectic action of NLP, and the regulation of tissue specific expression of goldfish NUCB1. PMID:27329836

  5. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  6. Comparison of the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides by semipermeable membrane devices and caged fish (Carassius carassius) in Taihu Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ke, R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, S.; Wang, Z.; Huckins, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was studied in Taihu Lake, a shallow, freshwater lake in China. Crucian carp and SPMDs were deployed side by side for 32 d. The first-order uptake rate constants of individual PAHs and OCPs for the two matrices were calculated and compared to relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the matrices to dissolved water concentrations. On a wet-weight basis, total concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp fillets averaged 49.5 and 13.6 ng/g, respectively, after the 32-d exposure, whereas concentrations in whole SPMDs averaged 716.9 and 62.3 ng/g, respectively. The uptake rate constants of PAHs and OCPs by SPMDs averaged seven- and fivefold higher, respectively, than those for crucian carp; however, the patterns of uptake rate constants derived from test chemical concentrations in the crucian carp and SPMDs were similar. Although equilibrium was not reached for some PAHs and OCPs during the 32-d exposure period, a reasonably good correlation between the concentration factors (CFs) and octanol/water partition coefficient (K ow) values of PAHs and OCPs in SPMDs (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) was observed when potential sorption to dissolved organic carbon was taken into account. Similar efforts to correlate the CFs and Kow values of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) were less successful, likely because of PAH metabolism by finfish. Overall, the present results suggest that SPMDs may serve as a surrogate for contaminant monitoring with fish in freshwater lake environments. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  7. Dynamics of Goldfish Subregional Hippocampal Pallium Activity throughout Spatial Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Francisco M; Uceda, Sara; Arias, Jorge L; Salas, Cosme; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure the level of activation along the rostrocaudal axis of the ventral (Dlv) and dorsal parts of the dorsolateral division (Dld) and in the dorsoposterior division (Dp) of the goldfish telencephalic pallium throughout the time course of the learning process of a spatial memory task. The results revealed a significant increase in spatial memory-related metabolic activity in the Dlv, but not in the Dld, suggesting that the Dlv, but not the Dld, is comparable to the amniote hippocampus. Regarding the Dlv, the level of activation of the precommissural Dlv significantly increased at training onset but progressively declined to finally return to the basal pretraining level when the animals mastered the spatial task. In contrast, the commissural Dlv activation persisted even when the acquisition phase was completed and the animal's performance reached an asymptotic level. These results suggest that, like the dentate gyrus of mammals, the goldfish precommissural Dlv seems to respond nonlinearly to increments of change in sensory input, performing pattern separation under highly dissimilar input patterns. In addition, like the CA3 of mammals, the commissural Dlv likely operates in a continuum between two modes, a pattern

  8. Four Myxobolus spp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from the gill lamellae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) in the western part of Japan, with the description of three new species (M. tanakai n. sp., M. paratoyamai n. sp., and M. ginbuna n. sp.).

    PubMed

    Kato, Eigo; Kasai, Akihiro; Tomochi, Hisayuki; Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-07-05

    Approximately three dozen Myxobolus spp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) have been described to parasitize the gills of carp of the genera Cyprinus and Carassius. Hitherto, these fish were often introduced to temperate waters worldwide as food and ornamental fish from Asia, their place of origin. The present study examined the myxosporean infection of seven common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and seven Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) collected from the Fushinogawa River around the university in Yamaguchi City, Japan, during the period April 2015 to October 2016. In total, four Myxobolus spp. were detected in the gill lamellae of Cy. carpio and Ca. langsdorfii, i.e., two species in each species of fish. The four species were characterized morphologically and genetically based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). A new species, Myxobolus tanakai n. sp., from four individuals of Cy. carpio had an elongated pyriform spore (15.4-18.6 μm by 6.3-8.4 μm), resembling the spore shape of Myxobolus koi from Cy. carpio or Carassius auratus in Japan, China, and the USA, but bigger than it (13.2-15.6 μm by 6.6-7.8 μm). The new species formed a clade with M. koi but was distinct from any of the isolates of this species (nucleotide identities less than 98.6%). The second new species, Myxobolus paratoyamai n. sp., from a single Cy. carpio with its one prominent and one rudimentary polar capsule closely resembled the spore morphology of Myxobolus toyamai from Cy. carpio or Carassius gibelio in Japan, China, and the USA. However, the isolate formed a clade with Myxobolus longisporus from Cy. rubrofuscus in China rather than with M. toyamai isolates (nucleotide identities less than 97.9% with known species). Another new species, Myxobolus ginbuna n. sp., from two individuals of Ca. langsdorfii had similar-shaped spores to Myxobolus wulii, but the dimensions were smaller (11.7-13.9 μm by 8.5-9.8 μm vs. 17.6-18.5 μm by 8.9-10.0 μm). This new species

  9. Signal transduction mechanism for glucagon-induced leptin gene expression in goldfish liver

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Tang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Xiao; Huang, Wen; Ren, Chun-hua; Hu, Chao-qun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a peripheral satiety hormone that also plays important roles in energy homeostasis in vertebrates ranging from fish to mammals. In teleost fish, however, the regulatory mechanism for leptin gene expression still remains unclear. In this study, we found that glucagon, a key hormone in glucose homeostasis, was effective at elevating the leptin-AI and leptin-AII transcript levels in goldfish liver via both in vivo intraperitoneal injection and in vitro cells incubation approaches. The responses of leptin-AI and leptin-AII mRNA to glucagon treatment were highly comparable. In contrast, blockade of local glucagon action could reduce the basal and induced leptin-AI and leptin-AII mRNA expression. The stimulation of leptin levels by glucagon was caused by the activation of adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic-AMP (cAMP)/ protein kinase A (PKA), and probably cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) cascades. Our study described the effect and signal transduction mechanism of glucagon on leptin gene expression in goldfish liver, and may also provide new insight into leptin as a mediator in the regulatory network of energy metabolism in the fish model. PMID:27994518

  10. Regeneration of descending projections to the spinal motor neurons after spinal hemisection in the goldfish.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akihito; Goris, Richard C; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2007-06-25

    Following spinal transection, descending spinal projections from goldfish brainstem neurons spontaneously regenerate beyond the lesion site. The nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nFLM), which has a critical role in swimming, also sends regenerated axons over a long distance to the ipsilateral spinal cord. To examine whether regenerated axons re-innervate the appropriate targets, we injected rhodamine dextran amine (RDA) into the nFLM of spinally transected goldfish and examined anterogradely labeled axons in the spinal cord. In intact controls, there were many RDA-labeled boutons or varicosities in the spinal cord in close apposition to both neurons positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and those negative for CGRP. This suggests that the nFLM neurons project axons directly to the motoneurons and interneurons in the spinal cord. Four days after hemisection 1 mm caudal to the rostral end of the spinal cord, the number of RDA-labeled boutons in close apposition to the spinal neurons was significantly decreased on the side ipsilateral to the injection. Six to twelve weeks after spinal hemisection, regenerated axons ran through the repaired lesion site, and the number of RDA-labeled boutons or varicosities in close apposition to the ipsilateral spinal neurons had returned to the control level. These findings suggest that the midbrain-spinal pathway, critical for locomotion in fish, spontaneously regenerates beyond the lesion site to re-innervate the appropriately innervated targets after spinal lesion.

  11. Signal transduction mechanism for glucagon-induced leptin gene expression in goldfish liver.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Tang, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Xiao; Huang, Wen; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a peripheral satiety hormone that also plays important roles in energy homeostasis in vertebrates ranging from fish to mammals. In teleost fish, however, the regulatory mechanism for leptin gene expression still remains unclear. In this study, we found that glucagon, a key hormone in glucose homeostasis, was effective at elevating the leptin-AI and leptin-AII transcript levels in goldfish liver via both in vivo intraperitoneal injection and in vitro cells incubation approaches. The responses of leptin-AI and leptin-AII mRNA to glucagon treatment were highly comparable. In contrast, blockade of local glucagon action could reduce the basal and induced leptin-AI and leptin-AII mRNA expression. The stimulation of leptin levels by glucagon was caused by the activation of adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic-AMP (cAMP)/ protein kinase A (PKA), and probably cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) cascades. Our study described the effect and signal transduction mechanism of glucagon on leptin gene expression in goldfish liver, and may also provide new insight into leptin as a mediator in the regulatory network of energy metabolism in the fish model.

  12. cAMP regulates axon outgrowth and guidance during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Rodger, J; Goto, H; Cui, Q; Chen, P B; Harvey, A R

    2005-11-01

    Increased cAMP improves neuronal survival and axon regeneration in mammals. Here, we assess cAMP levels and identify activated pathways in a spontaneously regenerating central nervous system. Following optic nerve crush in goldfish, almost all retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survive and regenerate retinotectal topography. Goldfish received injections of a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP), a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720), both compounds combined, or PBS (control). RGC survival in experimental groups was unaffected at any stage. The rate of axon regeneration was accelerated by the activator and decelerated both by the inhibitor and by combined injections, suggesting a PKA-dependent pathway. In addition, errors in regenerate retinotectal topography were observed when agents were applied in vivo and RGC response to the guidance cue ephrin-A5 in vitro was altered by the inhibitor. Our results highlight that therapeutic manipulation of cAMP levels to enhance axonal regeneration in mammals must ensure that topography, and consequently function, is not disrupted.

  13. ACTH4 -10, Substance P, and Dizolcipine (Mk-801) Accelerate Functional Recovery After Hemilabyrinthectomy in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, R.; Huston, J. P.; Spieler, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the goldfish model of hemilabyrinthectomy for investigating potential recovery-promoting drugs. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the labyrinth induces a postural imbalance in response to light (Dorsal Light Reflex), from which the animals can recover over time. The behavioral effects of two neuropeptides were tested–namely, of substance P and ACTH4-10, both of which are known to promote functional recovery in several other lesion models. Furthermore, the effect of MK- 801, an antagonist of the glutamatergic NMDAreceptor subtype, was tested because this substance has also been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect. After lesion of the right labyrinth, the animals (n=12) were treated intraperitoneally daily either with vehicle (n=12), substance P (n=11), ACTH4-10 (n=12), or MK- 801 (n=12). Another group (n=11), which served as a non-lesion control, did not receive hemilabyrinthectomy or systemic injections. The lesion group, treated post-operatively with vehicle, did not recover from the postural deviation over the 24-d testing period. In contrast, all three test substances accelerated the functional recovery after unilateral labyrinthectomy. The decrease of the dorsal light reflex persisted even after cessation of drug treatment after 20d. The results indicate that using the dorsal light reflex in the model of hemilabyrinthectomy in goldfish provides a useful approach to studying the ability of potential new neurotrophic or neuroprotective drugs to promote functional recovery. PMID:11486488

  14. Interaction between colour and spatial coded processes converging to retinal glanglion cells in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, H; van den Berg, T J

    1971-07-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made from ganglion cell units in the isolated goldfish retina. The discharge patterns of these units are spatial and colour coded.2. Even for weak stimuli these ganglion cell responses are highly distorted. To a first approximation a rectifying element can account for the observed distortion.3. A method is introduced to determine whether the interaction between the spatial and colour-coded processes occurs preceding or after the rectifying stage.4. With various stimulus patterns such as checkerboards, bars, annuli, etc., not only the location of the interaction point but also the mode of operation underlying the colour and spatial interactions has been studied.5. The presented data indicate that for the common phasic ganglion cells in the goldfish retina spatial and colour interaction occurs preceding the rectifying stage. Moreover an algebraic mode of operation governs this interaction.6. The charm of the presented method lies in the fact that no assumptions need to be made about the dynamics of the various retinal transformations converging to the ganglion cells. Neither is a description required for the non-linear (rectifying) element in order to answer the question of the location and the mode of operation of the colour and spatial interaction mechanism.

  15. Linking nutrient inputs, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton dynamics and the recruitment of pink snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in a temperate bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Kerry P.; Longmore, Andrew R.; Hamer, Paul A.; Lee, Randall; Swearer, Stephen E.; Jenkins, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Survival of larval fish is often linked to production of preferred prey such as copepods, both inter- and intra-annually. In turn, copepod production depends not only the quantity of food, but also on the nutritional quality, edibility and/or toxicity of their micro-algal food. Hence, larval fish survival can become de-coupled from levels of nutrient input depending on the resulting composition of the plankton. Here we use a plankton dynamics model to study nutrient input, phytoplankton composition and copepod, Paracalanus, production in relation to interannual variation in recruitment of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The model was able to simulate the ratio of diatoms to flagellates in the plume of the main river entering Port Phillip Bay. Interannual variability in the copepod, Paracalanus, abundance during the C. auratus spawning period over 5 years was accurately predicted. The seasonal peak in Paracalanus production depended on the timing and magnitude (match-mismatch) of nutrient inputs and how these were reflected in temporal change in the diatom:flagellate ratio. In turn, the model-predicted Paracalanus abundance was strongly related to inter-annaul variability in abundance of snapper, C. auratus, larvae over 7 years. Years of highest larval C. auratus abundance coincided with a matching of the spawning period with the peak in Paracalanus abundance. High freshwater flows and nutrient inputs led to an early seasonal dominance of diatoms, and consequently reduced abundances of copepods over the C. auratus spawning period with correspondingly low abundances of larvae. Conversely years of very low rainfall and nutrient input also led to low phytoplankton and copepod concentrations and larval C. auratus abundances. Highest abundances of larval C. auratus occurred in years of low to intermediate rainfall and nutrient inputs, particularly when pulses of nutrients occurred in the spring period, the latter supporting the match

  16. Identification of keratins and analysis of their expression in carp and goldfish: comparison with the zebrafish and trout keratin catalog.

    PubMed

    García, Dana M; Bauer, Hermann; Dietz, Thomas; Schubert, Thomas; Markl, Jürgen; Schaffeld, Michael

    2005-11-01

    With more than 50 genes in human, keratins make up a large gene family, but the evolutionary pressure leading to their diversity remains largely unclear. Nevertheless, this diversity offers a means to examine the evolutionary relationships among organisms that express keratins. Here, we report the analysis of keratins expressed in two cyprinid fishes, goldfish and carp, by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, complementary keratin blot binding assay, and immunoblotting. We further explore the expression of keratins by immunofluorescence microscopy. Comparison is made with the keratin expression and catalogs of zebrafish and rainbow trout. The keratins among these fishes exhibit a similar range of molecular weights and isoelectric points, with a similar overall pattern on two-dimensional gels. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy studies of goldfish and carp tissues have revealed the expression of keratins in both epithelial and mesenchymally derived tissues, as reported previously for zebrafish and trout. We conclude that keratin expression is qualitatively similar among these fishes, with goldfish and carp patterns being more similar to each other than to zebrafish, and the cyprinid fishes being more similar to each other than to the salmonid trout. Because of the detected similarity of keratin expression among the cyprinid fishes, we propose that, for certain experiments, they are interchangeable. Although the zebrafish distinguishes itself as being a developmental and genetic/genomic model organism, we have found that the goldfish, in particular, is a more suitable model for both biochemical and histological studies of the cytoskeleton, especially since goldfish cytoskeletal preparations seem to be more resistant to degradation than those from carp or zebrafish.

  17. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release responses to endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormones in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Christian; Booth, Morgan; Habibi, Hamid R; Chang, John P

    2008-08-01

    The possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mediating the stimulatory actions of two endogenous goldfish gonadotropin-releasing hormones (salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II) on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was examined. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of ERK and phosphorylated (p)ERK in goldfish brain, pituitary, liver, ovary, testis and muscle tissue extracts, as well as extracts of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells and HeLa cells. Interestingly, a third ERK-like immunoreactive band of higher molecular mass was detected in goldfish tissue and pituitary cell extracts in addition to the ERK1-p44- and ERK2-p42-like immunoreactive bands. Incubation of primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells with either a PKC-activating 4beta-phorbol ester (TPA) or a synthetic diacylglycerol, but not a 4alpha-phorbol ester, elevated the ratio of pERK/total (t)ERK for all three ERK isoforms. The stimulatory effects of TPA were attenuated by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the MEK inhibitor PD98059. sGnRH and cGnRH-II also elevated the ratio of pERK/tERK for all three ERK isoforms, in a time-, dose- and PD98059-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with PD98059 reduced the sGnRH-, cGnRH-II- and TPA-induced increases in gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels in Northern blot studies and sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-elicited LH release in cell column perifusion studies with goldfish pituitary cells. These results indicate that GnRH and PKC can activate ERK through MEK in goldfish pituitary cells. More importantly, the present study suggests that GnRH-induced gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release involve MEK/ERK signaling in goldfish.

  18. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Visual input controls the functional activity of goldfish Mauthner neuron through the reciprocal synaptic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moshkov, Dmitry A; Shtanchaev, Rashid S; Mikheeva, Irina B; Bezgina, Elena N; Kokanova, Nadezhda A; Mikhailova, Gulnara Z; Tiras, Nadezhda R; Pavlik, Lyubov' L

    2013-03-01

    Goldfish are known to exhibit motor asymmetry due to functional asymmetry of their Mauthner neurons that induce the turns to the right or left during free swimming. It has been previously found that if the less active neuron is subjected to prolonged aimed visual stimulation via its ventral dendrite, the motor asymmetry of goldfish is inverted, testifying that this neuron becomes functionally dominant, while the size of the ventral dendrite under these conditions is reduced 2-3 times compared to its counterpart in mirror neuron. Earlier it has been also revealed that training optokinetic stimulation induces adaptation, a substantial resistance of both fish motor asymmetry and morphofunctional state of Mauthner neurons against prolonged optokinetic stimulation. The aim of this work was to study the cellular mechanisms of the effect of an unusual visual afferent input on goldfish motor asymmetry and Mauthner neuron function in norm and under adaptation. It was shown that serotonin applied onto Mauthner neurons greatly reduces their activity whereas its antagonist ondansetron increases it. Against the background of visual stimulation, serotonin strengthens functional asymmetry between neurons whereas ondansetron smoothes it. Taken together these data suggest the involvement of serotonergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the regulation of Mauthner neurons by vision. Ultrastructural study of the ventral dendrites after prolonged optokinetic stimulation has revealed depletions of numeral axo-axonal synapses with specific morphology, identified by means of immunogold label as serotonergic ones. These latter in turn are situated mainly on shaft boutons, which according to specific ultrastructural features are assigned to axo-dendritic inhibitory synapses. Thus, the excitatory serotonergic synapses seem to affect Mauthner neuron indirectly through inhibitory synapses. Further, it was morphometrically established that adaptation is accompanied by the significant

  20. Formulation of a fish feed for goldfish with natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp waste.

    PubMed

    Weeratunge, W K O V; Perera, B G K

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid, which exhibits many important biological activities including a high degree of antioxidant capacity (AOC) and antibacterial activity, hence has a significant applicability in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An attempt was made towards optimization of astaxanthin extraction conditions using three different extraction conditions and a solvent series, from uncooked, cooked and acid-treated shrimp waste, which is a readily available and cheap source of the pigment. The astaxanthin extracts were analyzed by comparing their UV-visible absorbance spectra and thin layer chromatograms with a standard astaxanthin sample. The percentage of astaxanthin in each crude sample was determined using the Beer-Lambert law. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the disk diffusion assay were used to investigate the antioxidant capacities and antibacterial activities of extracted astaxanthin samples respectively. The extracted astaxanthin was incorporated into fish feeds to test its ability to enhance the skin color of goldfish. The best astaxanthin percentage of 68 % was observed with the acetone:ethyl acetate (1:1) solvent system facilitated by maceration of cooked and acid treated shrimp, whereas the best crude yield of 33 % was found to be in the acetone extract of the acid-treated shrimp sample. The highest AOC of 65 µg pyrogallol equivalents/mg was observed for the EtOAc extract obtained by maceration of acid-treated shrimp waste. The highest AOC by sonication and soxhlet extraction methods were also obtained with the EtOAc solvent. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against four selected bacterial strains. The newly formulated astaxanthin enriched fish feed was economical and indicated a significant improvement of the skin color and healthiness of goldfish compared to the control feeds. Biologically active astaxanthin can be successfully extracted from shrimp waste in higher percentages. The extraction technique and the

  1. Neurochemical analysis of brain monoamines after L-histidine and chlorpheniramine administration in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Medalha, Carla C; Santangelo, Erika M; Mattioli, Rosana

    2003-10-09

    This study investigated the effects of chlorpheniramine (CPA) and L-histidine (LH) administration on catecholaminergic levels in goldfish brain using neurochemical analysis. Fifty-eight animals were used. After 20 min of i.p. administration of the drugs or saline the animals were decapitated, and the telencephalon and the diencephalon were dissected. We also measured catecholamines in a non-injected (NI) group. Results showed lower homovanillic acid (HVA) levels after treatment with 100 mg/kg of LH when compared to saline and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were lower in the saline group when compared to the NI group. In the diencephalon the NI group and animals treated with CPA at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg had lower HVA levels. Results suggest that LH had an inhibitory effect on dopaminergic activity and an anxiolytic-like effect for CPA results is suggested.

  2. Cadmium and lead accumulation by goldfish exposed to aqueous refuse incinerator fly ash leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The increased use of incineration with modern emission control devices for reducing the mass of municipal solid waste is resulting in ever greater quantities of ash to be disposed. Heavy metals present in the original refuse are concentrated in the ash and landfill disposal of it has prompted public concern of possible contamination of groundwater through leaching. Several investigators have reported the presence of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in aqueous leachates of refuse incinerator ashes in laboratory studies. It was of interest to determine the effect of such leachates on fish. In the work reporter here, goldfish were exposed to aqueous leachates of municipal refuse incinerator ash. Visual observations of fish behavior, heavy metal analysis and histologic examination of tissues were then carried out.

  3. How can humans, in air, hear sound generated underwater (and can goldfish hear their owners talking)?

    PubMed

    Leighton, T G

    2012-03-01

    The air/water interface at the top of a body of water is often treated from below as a pressure release boundary, which it closely matches. The small discrepancy in that match, however, is enough to enable humans in air to hear sounds generated underwater, which would not be possible across a pressure release boundary. A discussion of this phenomenon, designed for teaching purposes and using no more acoustics than would be contained in a first-year undergraduate syllabus in acoustics, leads to a discussion of whether goldfish can hear their owners speaking. The analysis is then used to illustrate the care needed when comparing sound levels in air and water, a process which continues to lead to erroneous statements in the media and some academic articles. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Proteoglycan regulation of goldfish retinal explant growth on optic tectal membranes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yung-Kang; Elam, John S

    2003-05-14

    Regenerating goldfish retinal explants cultured on poly-L-lysine overlaid with membranes isolated from 21-day regenerating 1/3 anterior optic tectum (Ant. OTec) exhibited extensive defasciculated neurite outgrowth. Heparatinase treatment of membranes caused the complete inhibition of neurite outgrowth on that substrate. Western blot analysis showed that the OTec membranes contain a 300 kDa heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Explants cultured on 21-day regenerating 1/3 Ant. OTec membranes in the presence of 1 mM beta-xyloside, an axonal proteoglycan synthesis inhibitor, showed a significant reduction in the number of neurites per explant and in the average neurite length. Taken all together, the present results provide evidence that a 300-kDa membrane HSPG present in the Ant. OTec is necessary for axonal outgrowth and that axonal PGs are involved in modulating outgrowth on 21-day regenerating 1/3 Ant. OTec membranes.

  5. Use of pneumocystoplasty for overinflation of the swim bladder in a goldfish.

    PubMed

    Britt, Tara; Weisse, Chick; Weber, E Scott; Matzkin, Zach; Klide, Alan

    2002-09-01

    A Ryukin goldfish was evaluated because of a 6-month history of progressive abdominal distention and positive buoyancy. Overinflation of the swim bladder was diagnosed, and the fish was anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate. Archimedes' principle was used to determine the volume of swim bladder that was removed surgically. The caudal swim bladder was exteriorized through an abdominal incision and 2 surgical clips were placed across it to limit its size. After surgery, the fish remained in a state of negative buoyancy in sternal and lateral recumbency on the bottom of the tank. Sutures were removed 15 days after surgery, but the fish died 24 days after surgery. A full necropsy could not be performed because of autolysis of the tissues, but the surgical clips and the swim bladder appeared unremarkable. Pneumocystoplasty may be a viable treatment for this condition.

  6. Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates.

  7. Retention of retinal axon collateral is responsible for induced ipsilateral retinotectal projections in adult goldfish.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Tsai, C

    1991-01-01

    In normal goldfish, optic axons innervate only the contralateral optic tectum. When one eye was enucleated and the optic nerve of the other eye crushed, the regenerating optic axons innervated both optic tecta. We studied the presence of bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells by double retrograde cell labeling methods using Nuclear Yellow and True Blue dyes. About 10% of the retinal ganglion cells were double labeled and these cells were found throughout the retina. In addition, HRP application to the ipsilateral tectum revealed retrogradely-labeled retinal ganglion cells of all morphological types. These results suggest that induced ipsilateral projections are formed by regenerating axon collaterals and that all cell types are involved in the generation of normal mirror image typography.

  8. Anxiolytic-like effect of chlorpheniramine in inhibitory avoidance in goldfish submitted to telencephalic ablation.

    PubMed

    Faganello, Flávia Roberta; Mattioli, Rosana

    2007-01-30

    The aim of the present study was to verify the consequences of telencephalic ablation on the learning of inhibitory avoidance and anxiety in goldfish. The animals were submitted to telencephalic ablation or sham operations five days prior to the experimental procedure. The inhibitory avoidance procedure was performed in 3 days using a rectangular aquarium divided into two compartments (black and white) with a central door. On the first day, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On the second and third days, they were injected with saline (SAL), 16 mg/kg Chlorpheniramine (CPA), 40% Propylene glycol (PPG) or 1 mg/kg Diazepam (DZP) twenty minutes before training. Then the animals were placed in the white compartment, the central door was opened and the time spent for crossing between compartments was recorded. After the fish crossed the line between the compartments a 45-g weight was dropped. This procedure was performed three times in a row. The groups submitted or not to telencephalic ablation and treated with SAL presented a difference between training sessions; however, the groups treated with CPA, PPG or DZP did not show any differences between them. These results suggest that the treatment with CPA, PPG or DZP impaired the acquisition of inhibitory avoidance conditioning in animals regardless of telecenphalic ablation. In conclusion, telencephalic ablation does not disrupt the animals' capacity to learn the inhibitory avoidance task, and based on the fact that CPA showed similar effects to those of DZP on the animals submitted or not to telencephalic ablation, we suggest that the CPA presents an anxiolytic-like effect mediated by the diencephalon in goldfish.

  9. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain.

    PubMed

    Rash, J E; Kamasawa, N; Vanderpool, K G; Yasumura, T; O'Brien, J; Nannapaneni, S; Pereda, A E; Nagy, J I

    2015-01-29

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at "large myelinated club ending (LMCE)" synapses on Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical "pre-potentials" immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified "mixed" (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with connexin35 (Cx35) restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and connexin34.7 (Cx34.7) restricted to apposing M-cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of connexin36 (Cx36) on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on

  10. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain

    PubMed Central

    Rash, John E.; Kamasawa, Naomi; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Yasumura, Thomas; O'Brien, John; Nannapaneni, Srikant; Pereda, Alberto E.; Nagy, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at “large myelinated club ending” synapses on Mauthner cells of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical “pre-potentials” immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified “mixed” (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with Cx35 restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and Cx34.7 restricted to apposing Mauthner cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of Cx36 on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on opposite sides of the same gap junction or

  11. Axonal regeneration through the fibrous scar in lesioned goldfish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Takeda, A; Atobe, Y; Kadota, T; Goris, R C; Funakoshi, K

    2015-01-22

    Spontaneous nerve regeneration beyond the scar frequently occurs in fish after spinal cord lesions, in contrast to mammals. Here we examined the spatiotemporal relationship between the fibrous scar and axonal regeneration in the goldfish. Within 1 week after hemisection of the spinal cord, the open wound was closed by a fibrous scar that was demarcated from the surrounding nervous tissue by the glia limitans, which was immunoreactive for laminin. Within 1 week after hemisection, regenerating axons entered the fibrous scar, and were surrounded by laminin-coated tubular structures continuous with the glia limitans. Regenerating axons that initially entered the fibrous scar were usually accompanied by glial processes. Within 2-3 weeks after hemisection, the tubular structures became enlarged, and the regenerating axons increased in number, fasciculating in the tubules. Glial processes immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acid protein and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons then entered the tubular structures to associate with the regenerating axons. The tubular structures developed further, creating tunnels that penetrated the fibrous scar, through which the regenerating axons passed. At 6-12 weeks after hemisection, the fibrous scar was smaller and the enlarged tunnels contained many glial processes and several axons. The findings of present study demonstrated that, following spinal lesions in goldfish, regenerating axons enter and pass the scar tissue. The regenerating axons first enter the fibrous scar with glial elements and then grow through laminin-coated tubular structures within the fibrous scar. Invasion by glial processes and neuronal elements into the tubular structures reduces the fibrous scar area and allows for more regenerating axons to pass beyond the fibrous scar. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic recovery in goldfish: A comparison of recovery from severe hypoxia exposure and exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Mandic, Milica; Lau, Gigi Y; Nijjar, Manu M S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2008-11-01

    Severe hypoxia exposure and exhaustive exercise in goldfish both elicit a strong activation of substrate-level phosphorylation with the majority of the metabolic perturbations occurring in the white muscle. Approximately half of the muscle glycogen breakdown observed during severe hypoxia exposure was accounted for by ethanol production and loss to the environment, which limited the extent of muscle glycogen recovery when animals were returned to normoxic conditions. Ethanol production in goldfish is not solely a response to anoxia/hypoxia exposure however, as a transient increase in ethanol production was observed during the early stages of recovery from exhaustive exercise. These data suggest that ethanol production is a ubiquitous "anaerobic" end product, which accumulates whenever metabolic demands exceed mitochondrial oxidative potential. Exhaustive exercise and hypoxia exposure both caused a 7 to 8 micromol g(-1) wet mass increase in muscle [lactate] and the rates of recovery following these perturbations were similar. The rates of muscle PCr and pHi recovery after hypoxia exposure and exhaustive exercise were similar with levels returning to controls values within 0.5 h. Surprisingly, liver [glycogen] was not depleted during exposure to severe hypoxia, however, during recovery from both hypoxia and exercise dramatically different responses in liver [glycogen] were noted. During the early stages of recovery, liver [glycogen] transiently increased to high levels after exhaustive exercise, while during recovery from hypoxia there was a transient decrease in liver glycogen over the same time frame. Overall, this points to the liver playing a dramatically different role in facilitating recovery from exercise compared with hypoxia exposure.

  13. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W.; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847

  14. Gold-FISH: A correlative approach to microscopic imaging of single microbial cells in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seki, David; Woebken, Dagmar; Eickhorst, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used for the phylogenetic identification, detection, and quantification of single microbial cells environmental microbiology. Oligonucleotide probes that match the 16S rRNA sequence of target organisms are generally applied and the resulting signals are visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, the detection of the microbial cells of interest is limited by the resolution and the sensitivity of light microscopy where objects smaller than 0.2 µm can hardly be represented. Visualizing microbial cells at magnifications beyond light microscopy, however, can provide information on the composition and potential complexity of microbial habitats - the actual sites of nutrient cycling in soil and sediments. We present a recently developed technique that combines (1) the phylogenetic identification and detection of individual microorganisms by epifluorescence microscopy, with (2) the in situ localization of gold-labelled target cells on an ultrastructural level by SEM. Based on 16S rRNA targeted in situ hybridization combined with catalyzed reporter deposition, a streptavidin conjugate labeled with a fluorescent dye and nanogold particles is introduced into whole microbial cells. A two-step visualization process including an autometallographic enhancement of nanogold particles then allows for either fluorescence or electron microscopy, or a correlative application thereof. We will present applications of the Gold-FISH protocol to samples of marine sediments, agricultural soils, and plant roots. The detection and enumeration of bacterial cells in soil and sediment samples was comparable to CARD-FISH applications via fluorescence microscopy. Examples of microbe-surface interaction analysis will be presented on the basis of bacteria colonizing the rhizoplane of rice roots. In principle, Gold-FISH can be performed on any material to give a snapshot of microbe-surface interactions and provides a promising tool for

  15. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-02

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility.

  16. Kinetics of extracellular ATP from goldfish hepatocytes: a lesson from mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Chara, Osvaldo; Pafundo, Diego E; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J

    2009-07-01

    In goldfish hepatocytes, hypotonic exposure leads to cell swelling, followed by a compensatory shrinkage termed RVD. It has been previously shown that ATP is accumulated in the extracellular medium of swollen cells in a non-linear fashion, and that extracellular ATP (ATPe) is an essential intermediate to trigger RVD. Thus, to understand how RVD proceeds in goldfish hepatocytes, we developed two mathematical models accounting for the experimental ATPe kinetics reported recently by Pafundo et al. in Am. J. Physiol. 294, R220-R233, 2008. Four different equations for ATPe fluxes were built to account for the release of ATP by lytic (J(L)) and nonlytic mechanisms (J(NL)), ATPe diffusion (J(D)), and ATPe consumption by ectonucleotidases (J(V)). Particular focus was given to J(NL), defined as the product of a time function (J(R)) and a positive feedback mechanism whereby ATPe amplifies J(NL). Several J (R) functions (Constant, Step, Impulse, Gaussian, and Lognormal) were studied. Models were tested without (model 1) or with (model 2) diffusion of ATPe. Mathematical analysis allowed us to get a general expression for each of the models. Subsequently, by using model dependent fit (simulations) as well as model analysis at infinite time, we observed that: - use of J(D) does not lead to improvements of the models. - Constant and Step time functions are only applicable when J(R)=0 (and thus, J(NL)=0), so that the only source of ATPe would be J(L), a result incompatible with experimental data. - use of impulse, Gaussian, and lognormal J(R)s in the models led to reasonable good fits to experimental data, with the lognormal function in model 1 providing the best option. Finally, the predictive nature of model 1 loaded with a lognormal J(R) was tested by simulating different putative in vivo scenarios where J(V) and J(NL) were varied over ample ranges.

  17. Negative feedback of extracellular ADP on ATP release in goldfish hepatocytes: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Chara, Osvaldo; Pafundo, Diego E; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J

    2010-06-21

    A mathematical model was built to account for the kinetic of extracellular ATP (ATPe) and extracellular ADP (ADPe) concentrations from goldfish hepatocytes exposed to hypotonicity. The model was based on previous experimental results on the time course of ATPe accumulation, ectoATPase activity, and cell viability [Pafundo et al., 2008]. The kinetic of ATPe is controlled by a lytic ATP flux, a non-lytic ATP flux, and ecto-ATPase activity, whereas ADPe kinetic is governed by a lytic ADP flux and both ecto-ATPase and ecto-ADPase activities. Non-lytic ATPe efflux was included as a diffusion equation modulated by ATPe activation (positive feedback) and ADPe inhibition (negative feedback). The model yielded physically meaningful and stable steady-state solutions, was able to fit the experimental time evolution of ATPe and simulated the concomitant kinetic of ADPe. According to the model during the first minute of hypotonicity the concentration of ATPe is mainly governed by both lytic and non-lytic ATP efflux, with almost no contribution from ecto-ATPase activity. Later on, ecto-ATPase activity becomes important in defining the time dependent decay of ATPe levels. ADPe inhibition of the non-lytic ATP efflux was strong, whereas ATPe activation was minimal. Finally, the model was able to predict the consequences of partial inhibition of ecto-ATPase activity on the ATPe kinetic, thus emulating the exposure of goldfish cells to hypotonic medium in the presence of the ATP analog AMP-PCP. The model predicts this analog to both inhibit ectoATPase activity and increase non-lytic ATP release.

  18. [Correlation between the sizes of the individual parts of goldfish Mauthner neuron and its integral function after eye enucleation].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, E E; Shtanchaev, R Sh; Mikhaĭlova, G Z; Tiras, N R; Moshkov, D A

    2010-01-01

    Using the method of 3D reconstruction, the structural correlates of significantly increased functional activity of denervated Mauthner neuron (MN) were studied after the unilateral eye enucleation, that resulted in the irreversible shift of the goldfish motor asymmetry to a "blind" side. It was established that in some cases the functional dominance of MN was significantly correlated with the reduction of the volume of its ventral dendrite, while in the other cases it was correlated with the increase in sizes of its soma and the lateral dendrite. Both structural features, probably, were caused by local redistribution of the neurotransmitters due to the stress of sensory inputs that remained undamaged. Thus, it was demonstrated that the prolonged adaptive changes in goldfish behavior could be regulated by means of specific morphological reorganizations of MN at the level of their individual dendrites by the principle of feedback or feedforward mechanisms.

  19. Influence of temperature acclimatization on the temperature-dependence and ouabain-sensitivity of goldfish intestinal adenosine triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. Homogenates of goldfish intestinal mucosa were separated into various fractions by differential centrifugation. Both adenosine-triphosphatase and β-glycerophosphatase activities were found to be concentrated mainly in a membrane fraction which sedimented after 1200000g-min. 2. This membrane adenosine-triphosphatase system was activated by Na++K+ and inhibited by ouabain. 3. The ouabain-sensitive adenosine-triphosphatase activity was high and the ouabain-insensitive activity low in membrane fractions prepared from fish acclimatized previously to 8°. The opposite was true for fish acclimatized to 30°. 4. The Arrhenius plots of ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive adenosine-triphosphatase activities, measured from 5° to 30°, showed discontinuities at incubation temperatures that varied with the previous acclimatization temperature of the fish. 5. It is considered that modification of the membrane adenosine-triphosphatase system in goldfish intestinal mucosa may serve to regulate Na+ transport at different environmental temperatures. PMID:4293960

  20. PSA-NCAM is up-regulated during optic nerve regeneration in lizard but not in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Harman, A M; Rodger, J; Ahmat, A; Thomas, C; Bartlett, C; Chen, P; Dunlop, S A; Beazley, L D

    2003-07-01

    The addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) facilitates axon growth. Here we use Western blots and immunohistochemistry to examine expression of PSA-NCAM during optic nerve regeneration. In lizard, retinal ganglion cell axons become transiently PSA-NCAM positive. By contrast, goldfish RGC axons are PSA-NCAM negative both in normal animals and throughout regeneration with the exception of a PSA-NCAM-positive fascicle arising from newly generated RGCs. Transient sialylation of NCAM in lizard may assist regeneration in the nonpermissive reptilian visual pathway and facilitate the reestablishment of a crude topographic map; down-regulation in the long term may contribute to the breakdown in topography. The lack of sialylation in goldfish presumably reflects the permissive nature of the substrate allowing axon regeneration and the successful reestablishment of a topographic map.

  1. General principles in motion vision: color blindness of object motion depends on pattern velocity in honeybee and goldfish.

    PubMed

    Stojcev, Maja; Radtke, Nils; D'Amaro, Daniele; Dyer, Adrian G; Neumeyer, Christa

    2011-07-01

    Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very "conservative." This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the optomotor response is color blind and mediated by one photoreceptor type only. Here, we ask whether this is also the case if the moving stimulus is restricted to a small part of the visual field, and test what influence velocity may have on chromatic motion perception. Honeybees were trained to discriminate between clockwise- and counterclockwise-rotating sector disks. Six types of disk stimuli differing in green receptor contrast were tested using three different rotational velocities. When green receptor contrast was at a minimum, bees were able to discriminate rotation directions with all colored disks at slow velocities of 6 and 12 Hz contrast frequency but not with a relatively high velocity of 24 Hz. In the goldfish experiment, the animals were trained to detect a moving red or blue disk presented in a green surround. Discrimination ability between this stimulus and a homogenous green background was poor when the M-cone type was not or only slightly modulated considering high stimulus velocity (7 cm/s). However, discrimination was improved with slower stimulus velocities (4 and 2 cm/s). These behavioral results indicate that there is potentially an object motion system in both honeybee and goldfish, which is able to incorporate color information at relatively low velocities but is color blind with higher speed. We thus propose that both honeybees and goldfish have multiple subsystems of object motion, which include achromatic as well as chromatic processing.

  2. Relationship between nitric oxide- and calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in growth hormone release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Davis, Philip J; Pemberton, Joshua G; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) are two of the many intracellular signal transduction pathways mediating the control of growth hormone (GH) secretion from somatotropes by neuroendocrine factors. We have previously shown that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) elicits Ca(2+) signals in identified goldfish somatotropes. In this study, we examined the relationships between NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction mechanisms in GH secretion from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. Morphologically identified goldfish somatotropes stained positively for an NO-sensitive dye indicating they may be a source of NO production. In 2h static incubation experiments, GH release responses to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) were attenuated by CoCl2, nifedipine, verapamil, TMB-8, BHQ, and KN62. In column perifusion experiments, the ability of SNP to induce GH release was impaired in the presence of TMB-8, BHQ, caffeine, and thapsigargin, but not ryanodine. Caffeine-elicited GH secretion was not affected by the NO scavenger PTIO. These results suggest that NO-stimulated GH release is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) availability and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) that possess BHQ- and/or thapsigargin-inhibited sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, as well as TMB-8- and/or caffeine-sensitive, but not ryanodine-sensitive, Ca(2+)-release channels. Calmodulin kinase-II also likely participates in NO-elicited GH secretion but caffeine-induced GH release is not upstream of NO production. These findings provide insights into how NO actions many integrate with Ca(2+)-dependent signalling mechanisms in goldfish somatotropes and how such interactions may participate in the GH-releasing actions of regulators that utilize both NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new goldfish model to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of drugs used for motion sickness in different gravity loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathers, Claire M.; Mukai, Chiaki; Smith, Cedric M.; Schraeder, Paul L.

    2001-08-01

    This paper proposes a new goldfish model to predict pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic effects of drugs used to treat motion sickness administered in differing gravity loads. The assumption of these experiments is that the vestibular system is dominant in producing motion sickness and that the visual system is secondary or of small import in the production of motion sickness. Studies will evaluate the parameter of gravity and the contribution of vision to the role of the neurovestibular system in the initiation of motion sickness with and without pharmacologic agents. Promethazine will be studied first. A comparison of data obtained in different groups of goldfish will be done (normal vs. acutely and chronically bilaterally blinded vs. sham operated). Some fish will be bilaterally blinded 10 months prior to initiation of the experiment (designated the chronically bilaterally blinded group of goldfish) to evaluate the neuroplasticity of the nervous system and the associated return of neurovestibular function. Data will be obtained under differing gravity loads with and without a pharmacological agent for motion sickness. Experiments will differentiate pharmacological effects on vision vs. neurovestibular input to motion sickness. Comparison of data obtained in the normal fish and in acutely and chronically bilaterally blinded fish with those obtained in fish with intact and denervated otoliths will differentiate if the visual or neurovestibular system is dominant in response to altered gravity and/or drugs. Experiments will contribute to validation of the goldfish as a model for humans since plasticity of the central nervous system allows astronauts to adapt to the altered visual stimulus conditions of 0-g. Space motion sickness may occur until such an adaptation is achieved.

  4. GHRP-6 mimics ghrelin-induced stimulation of food intake and suppression of locomotor activity in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Yahashi, Satowa; Kang, Ki Sung; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2012-04-01

    Ghrelin was first identified and characterized from rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin also acts as an orexigenic factor and regulates energy balance in rodents. In goldfish, native ghrelin consists of 11 molecular variants, the major form being a 17-residue peptide with n-octanoic acid modification (n-octanoyl ghrelin17), and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 induces central actions such as stimulation of food intake and suppression of locomotor activity through capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Four types of GHS-Rs (1a-1, 1a-2, 2a-1 and 2a-2) have been identified in goldfish, and one GHS, GHRP-6, can activate only GHS-R2a-1 in vitro. However, there is no information about the effect of GHRP-6 on food intake and locomotor activity in goldfish in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether IP-administered GHRP-6 would mimic the orexigenic action of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 and its suppression of locomotor activity. IP administration of GHRP-6 at 1pmol/g body weight (BW) stimulated food intake, and was equipotent to the orexigenic action of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 at 10 pmol/g BW. IP-injected GHRP-6 at 1 pmol/g BW also induced a significant decrease of locomotor activity, as was the case for IP-injected n-octanoyl ghrelin17 at 10 pmol/g BW. The action of GHRP-6 was blocked by IP-preinjected capsaicin at 160 nmol/g BW. These results suggest that the central action of GHRP-6 might be mediated via the GHS-R2a-1-signaling pathway, and subsequently through capsaicin-sensitive afferents in goldfish.

  5. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  6. Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.

    PubMed

    Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2012-12-21

    Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ghrelin stimulation of gonadotropin (LH) release from goldfish pituitary cells: presence of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) and involvement of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Grey, Caleb L; Grayfer, Leon; Belosevic, Miodrag; Chang, John P

    2010-04-12

    Ghrelin (GRLN) stimulates maturational gonadotropin (LH) secretion in goldfish. This study identified GRLN receptors (GHS-Rs) in goldfish tissues and examined the involvement of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (VSCCs) in ghrelin action. A partial goldfish GHS-R1a sequence was obtained and expression observed in brain, pituitary, spleen, kidney, heart, gill, ovary, testis, and intestine. Synthetic goldfish GRLN (gGRLN(19)) stimulated LH secretion from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells in column perifusion and increased intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in identified goldfish gonadotropes. gGRLN(19) did not stimulate LH secretion either in the presence of Ca(2+)-free media, or the L-type VSCC inhibitors nifedipine and verapamil. Similarly, gGRLN(19)-elicited increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were attenuated by Ca(2+)-free media and nifedipine. Furthermore, when LH release and [Ca(2+)](i) were elevated by Bay K8644, gGRLN(19) had no further effect. These results indicate that GHS-R1a is present in goldfish pituitary and Ca(2+) entry through VSCC mediates direct gGRLN(19) action on LH release in goldfish pituitary cells.

  8. Cardiac autonomic innervation of the western pygmy possum (Cercatetus concinnus) and golden bandicoot (Isoodon auratus).

    PubMed

    Zosky, Graeme R; O'Shea, James E

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the mammalian heart between and within taxa remains controversial. We have previously proposed that the presence of a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle was indicative of heterothermy, and is essential for maintaining ventricular stability at low body temperature. However, it is possible that the presence of such an innervation is also representative of the primitive mammalian state. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle, that is capable of actively reducing the force of contraction, is present across metatherian mammals. Using in vitro isolated cardiac preparations, we examined evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle in two species of metatherian mammal, one heterotherm (Western pygmy possum; Cercatetus concinnus) and one homeotherm (Golden bandicoot; Isoodon auratus), from different families to complement existing data from a heterothermic dasyurid. Both C. concinnus and I. auratus had a potent biphasic response to transmural electrical stimulation in both atrial and ventricular preparations. Both the decrease and increase in the force of contraction in response to stimulation were almost entirely blocked by the cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists, atropine and propranolol, respectively. These observations provide clear evidence for a parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle that is capable of directly influencing the force of contraction across metatherian mammals with different thermoregulatory strategies. While this innervation may facilitate heterothermy, this suggests that the presence of such an innervation pattern is indicative of the primitive mammalian state.

  9. Germ cells are not the primary factor for sexual fate determination in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Takeda, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Takagi, Misae; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuto

    2012-10-01

    The presence of germ cells in the early gonad is important for sexual fate determination and gonadal development in vertebrates. Recent studies in zebrafish and medaka have shown that a lack of germ cells in the early gonad induces sex reversal in favor of a male phenotype. However, it is uncertain whether the gonadal somatic cells or the germ cells are predominant in determining gonadal fate in other vertebrate. Here, we investigated the role of germ cells in gonadal differentiation in goldfish, a gonochoristic species that possesses an XX-XY genetic sex determination system. The primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the fish were eliminated during embryogenesis by injection of a morpholino oligonucleotide against the dead end gene. Fish without germ cells showed two types of gonadal morphology: one with an ovarian cavity; the other with seminiferous tubules. Next, we tested whether function could be restored to these empty gonads by transplantation of a single PGC into each embryo, and also determined the gonadal sex of the resulting germline chimeras. Transplantation of a single GFP-labeled PGC successfully produced a germline chimera in 42.7% of the embryos. Some of the adult germline chimeras had a developed gonad on one side that contained donor derived germ cells, while the contralateral gonad lacked any early germ cell stages. Female germline chimeras possessed a normal ovary and a germ-cell free ovary-like structure on the contralateral side; this structure was similar to those seen in female morphants. Male germline chimeras possessed a testis and a contralateral empty testis that contained some sperm in the tubular lumens. Analysis of aromatase, foxl2 and amh expression in gonads of morphants and germline chimeras suggested that somatic transdifferentiation did not occur. The offspring of fertile germline chimeras all had the donor-derived phenotype, indicating that germline replacement had occurred and that the transplanted PGC had rescued both female and

  10. PCB-153 and temperature cause restructuring of goldfish membranes: homeoviscous response to a chemical fluidiser.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alexander; Odjélé, André; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-15

    Ortho-substituted PCBs intercalate between membrane phospholipids similarly to cholesterol and increase fluidity. Ectothermic animals have a well-developed homeoviscous response to counter the fluidising effect of temperature and avoid the disruption of membrane proteins. However, it remains unknown whether chemical fluidisation can also activate a homeoviscous response or interfere with normal acclimation to temperature. The fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of membranes from gill, white muscle, liver, and brain was measured in goldfish exposed to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design (acclimated to 5 or 20°C, and exposed or not to PCB-153). The expression of Δ6 and Δ9 desaturases was also measured in gill and liver because these enzymes modulate changes in membrane unsaturation. We hypothesised that thermal and chemical stress would cause similar adjustments in phospholipid unsaturation, membrane cholesterol, and desaturase expression. Results show that PCB-153 triggers a homeoviscous response by changing cholesterol content in liver (+51%) and brain (+216%), as well as the double bond index in gills (-17%). In response to higher temperature, the membranes of gill, muscle, and brain substitute polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonate [20:4] and eicosadienoate [20:2] with saturated fatty acids such as palmitate [16:0] and stearate [18:0]. Each tissue has a distinct pattern of changes, suggesting that different local factors contribute to the stress response. It is also possible that the thermal tolerance of individual species influences the homeoviscous response because the changes observed in goldfish liver are not consistent with what has been reported for trout liver. No evidence supporting the activation of desaturase expression could be found. Overall, and contrary to expectation, modulating membrane cholesterol is the main mechanism used to cope with PCB-153, whereas changes in unsaturation dominate temperature acclimation. If

  11. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Validating bioindicators of PAH effects in fish: Evaluating responsiveness to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Gensemer, R.W.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Day, K.E.; Servos, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    While studies involving controlled exposures to PAHs have typically studied the effects of exposure to individual compounds, PAHs are usually present in the environment in complex mixtures. Some of these (eg. creosote) have been widely used and present potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of the current research is to evaluate whether population effects visible in fish at high creosote concentrations would be reflected in biomarker responses at lower concentrations. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to five levels of creosote contamination in microcosms containing a simple community structure (including macroinvertebrates and macrophytes). Preliminary results have shown that changes in P450 induction, bile fluorescence, and levels of reproductive hormones are visible at lower concentrations than population effects such as increased mortality, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and reduced fecundity.

  13. Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Gustav; Prestegaard, Tore; Dannewitz, Johan; Olsén, K Håkan

    2013-06-01

    Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. Ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. It is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. In this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout (Salmo trutta) males exposed to a mix of female urine and ovarian fluids, and control males exposed only to 0.9 % sodium chloride. We also investigate priming effects on milt yield and sperm motility. Fertilization tests with sperm from single males, as well as sperm from two males (i.e., sperm competition), were performed. Primed males generated more larvae in both the single male and competition fertilization tests. No differences between treatments in milt yield and sperm motility could be established.

  14. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in "Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  15. Melatonin attenuates the acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated intestine of a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Elena; Alonso-Gómez, Angel Luis; Azpeleta, Clara; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the possible direct actions of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) on intestinal motility in goldfish (Carassius auratus) using an in vitro system of isolated intestine in an organ bath engaged to an isometric transducer. The longitudinal strips from goldfish intestine in the organ bath showed a resting spontaneous myogenic rhythmic activity which is not altered by melatonin. The addition of acetylcholine (1 nmol l(-1)-10 mmol l(-1)) to the organ bath induces a significant contraction of the intestinal strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of melatonin and its agonist, 2-iodomelatonin, induced a concentration-dependent attenuation of acetylcholine-induced contractile response. The specificity of this effect is tested by the preincubation of the intestine strips in the presence of two melatoninergic antagonists, luzindole (a non-selective MT(1)/MT(2) melatonin receptor antagonist) and 4-P-PDOT (preferred antagonist of MT2 receptor subtype), which counteracted the melatonin-induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, present results demonstrate that this melatoninergic effect on intestinal strips is a process highly dependent on extracellular calcium. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating the role of melatonin in the control of gut motility in a non-mammalian vertebrate. The melatonin effects on isolated intestine from goldfish are mediated by melatoninergic membrane receptors, and could suggest a delay in food transit time, supporting its anorectic effect reported on in vivo studies.

  16. An in vivo assay performed using multiple biomarkers related to testosterone synthesis and conversion for assessing the androgenic potency of refuse leachate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yufeng; Tian, Hua; Dong, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-01-01

    Refuse leachate is likely an important source of androgens. However, common in vitro bioassays underestimate the potential androgenic activity of leachate, owing to non-receptor-mediated mechanisms that modify the balance of sex hormones and promote the accumulation of endogenous androgens. This study aimed to develop an in vivo assay by using multiple biomarkers related to testosterone synthesis and conversion for assessing the potential androgenic activity of refuse leachate sampled from a municipal solid waste treatment plant in Qingdao, China. The results indicated that exposure to leachate increased the levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone, but decreased those of 17β-estradiol in both male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus), suggesting a potential androgenic activity. Further, Leydig cell hyperplasia and decreased gonadal P450 aromatase mRNA levels were observed; these alterations might promote the biosynthesis of testosterone and hinder the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol, which in turn enhance testosterone accumulation. Exposure to leachate also resulted in reproductive impairments, including decreased gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin levels of female goldfish, as well as decreased testicular enzyme activities in male goldfish. The integrated use of biochemical, molecular, and histological markers not only improved our understanding of the androgenic effects of leachate but also verified the reliability and validity of the results. Therefore, the in vivo bioassay described in this study might allow the investigation of the androgenic effects of other complex contaminant mixtures in the future.

  17. Effects of cadmium-enriched sediment on fish and amphibian embryo-larval stages

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, P.C.; Birge, W.J.; Black, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of cadmium-enriched sediment on embryo-larval stages of the goldfish (Carassius auratus), leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Natural stream sediment was collected and enriched with cadmium to nominal concentrations of 1.0, 10.0, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. Enriched sediments were placed in Pyrex dishes and covered with 350 ml of reconstituted water. Fertilized eggs were placed in the dishes and maintained through 4 days posthatching, giving a total exposure time of 6 to 7 days. For all tests the cadmium concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 76.5 micrograms/liter in water above sediments containing 1 to 1000 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Although low frequencies of mortality were observed in all tests, goldfish, leopard frog, and bass exposed to sediments enriched to 1000 mg Cd/kg accumulated 4.61, 12.55, and 60.0 micrograms Cd/g, respectively. No significant correlations were found between mortality of the goldfish and leopard frog and the cadmium concentrations in either water or sediment. However, all three species showed strong correlations between cadmium concentrations in water and tissue, sediment and tissue, and water and sediment. Tissue cadmium concentrations were related to the length of time test organisms were in direct contact with cadmium-enriched sediment.

  18. Eye movements of goldfish evoked by body tilting and linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Takabayashi, A.; Mori, S.

    An otolith organ on ground behave as a detector of both gravity and linear acceleration, and play an important role in controlling posture and eye movement for tilt of the head or translational motion. On the other hand, a gravitational acceleration ingredient to an otolith organ disappears in microgravity environment. However, linear acceleration can be received by otolith organ and produce a sensation that is different from that on Earth. In this study, we examined function of otolith organ in goldfish revealed from analysis of eye movement induced by linear acceleration and/or the tilt of body. We analyzed both torsional and vertical eye movements from video images frame by frame. For tilting stimulation, torsional eye movements induced by head down was larger than that induced by head up. For acceleration stimulation, torsional eye movements induced during head down was larger than that induced during head up. These results suggest that otolith organ system has directional dependence and that body tilt and linear acceleration may not be with equivalent stimulation to cause eye movement on Earth.

  19. Encoding of Eye Position in the Goldfish Horizontal Oculomotor Neural Integrator

    PubMed Central

    Debowy, Owen

    2011-01-01

    Monocular organization of the goldfish horizontal neural integrator was studied during spontaneous scanning saccadic and fixation behaviors. Analysis of neuronal firing rates revealed a population of ipsilateral (37%), conjugate (59%), and contralateral (4%) eye position neurons. When monocular optokinetic stimuli were employed to maximize disjunctive horizontal eye movements, the sampled population changed to 57, 39, and 4%. Monocular eye tracking could be elicited at different gain and phase with the integrator time constant independently modified for each eye by either centripetal (leak) or centrifugal (instability) drifting visual stimuli. Acute midline separation between the hindbrain oculomotor integrators did not affect either monocularity or time constant tuning, corroborating that left and right eye positions are independently encoded within each integrator. Together these findings suggest that the “ipsilateral” and “conjugate/contralateral” integrator neurons primarily target abducens motoneurons and internuclear neurons, respectively. The commissural pathway is proposed to select the conjugate/contralateral eye position neurons and act as a feedfoward inhibition affecting null eye position, oculomotor range, and saccade pattern. PMID:21160010

  20. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1–100 µM). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution with taurine (0.001–1 mM) and 50 nM [3H]taurine. Results Zinc reduced the capacity of taurine transport without changes in affinity, and caused a noncompetitive inhibition of high affinity taurine transport, with an EC50= 0.072 µM. The mechanism by which zinc affects taurine transport is unknown at the present. Conclusions There may be a binding site of zinc in the transporter that affects union or translocation of taurine, or possibly the formation of taurine-zinc complexes, rather than free zinc, could affect the operation of the transporter. PMID:20804587

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of Santalum album (Santalaceae) against monogenean infections in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiao; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue

    2013-08-01

    Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. are helminth ectoparasites that are a significant threat to the aquaculture industry. Existing treatments could cause the threats of anthelmintic resistance, risk of residues, environmental contamination, and toxicity to fish. Importantly, there is no report on a treatment against these two parasites. This study explored the possibility of using the extracts of Santalum album to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections in goldfish. Results showed that among the four extracts (chloroform, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) of S. album, the chloroform extract is the most effective and 40 mg/L is a safe and the lowest effective dosage. In addition, we found that Gyrodactylus elegans is more sensitive than Dactylogyrus intermedius when exposed to the extract of the medicinal plant. Finally, it is substantiated that bath treatment with long duration and multiple administrations could eliminate a greater proportion of monogenean infections. These findings show the potential for the development of effective and safe therapy to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections of fishes.

  2. Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R

    2009-11-01

    The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30-45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30-45 min and even 10-25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T's behavioral effect, indicating that T's rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits.

  3. Adaptive response of antioxidant enzymes to catalase inhibition by aminotriazole in goldfish liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Bagnyukova, Tetyana V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2005-11-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the physiological role of catalase in the maintenance of pro/antioxidant balance in goldfish tissues by inhibiting the enzyme in vivo with 3-amino 1,2,4-triazole. Intraperitoneal injection of aminotriazole (0.5 mg/g wet mass) caused a decrease in liver catalase activity by 83% after 24 h that was sustained after 168 h post-injection. In kidney catalase activity was reduced by approximately 50% and 70% at the two time points, respectively. Levels of protein carbonyls were unchanged in liver but rose by 2-fold in kidney after 168 h. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were elevated in both tissues after 24 h but were reversed by 168 h. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities increased in kidney after aminotriazole treatment whereas activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver decreased after 24 h but rebounded by 168 h. Liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was reduced at both time points. Activities of these three enzymes in liver correlated inversely with the levels of lipid damage products (R2=0.65-0.81) suggesting that they may have been oxidatively inactivated. Glutathione-S-transferase activity also correlated inversely with catalase (R2=0.86). Hence, the response to catalase depletion involves compensatory changes in the activities of enzymes of glutathione metabolism.

  4. Inhibitory long-term potentiation underlies auditory conditioning of goldfish escape behaviour.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Kawasaki, K; Morita, M; Korn, H; Matsui, H

    1998-07-09

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), the increase in synaptic strength evoked by high-frequency stimulation, is often considered to be a cellular model for learning and memory. The validity of this model depends on the assumptions that physiological stimuli can induce LTP in vivo and that the resulting synaptic modifications correlate with behavioural changes. However, modifiable synapses are generally embedded deep in complex circuits. In contrast, the goldfish Mauthner (M)-cell and its afferent synapses are easily accessible for electrophysiological studies, and firing of this neuron is sufficient to trigger fast escape behaviour in response to sudden stimuli. We have previously shown that tetanic stimulation can induce LTP of the feedforward inhibitory synapses that control the excitability of the M-cell. Here we report that natural sensory stimulation can induce potentiation of this inhibitory connection that resembles the LTP induced by afferent tetanization. Furthermore, comparable acoustic stimulation produced a parallel decrease in the probability of the sound-evoked escape reflex. Thus we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, a behavioural role for the long-term synaptic strengthening of inhibitory synapses.

  5. Decussion geometrics in the goldfish nervous system: correlation with probability of survival.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, R L

    1979-01-01

    In the goldfish, the optic nerve decussation occurs without intermingling of fibers from the two eyes. In two-thirds of juvenile and adult specimens, the left optic nerve is dorsal at the midline. In about 60% of the specimens, the decussation of Mauthner's neuron also has a left-dorsal-to-right (L/R) configuration. Concordance for decussation geometry is greater than 80%, with smaller specimens accounting for a disproportionate number of discordant cases. In embryos and very young larvae, the L/R configuration occurs in slightly less than 50% of optic chiasmata and in slightly more than 50% of Mauthner's cell chiasmata, and there is no significant tendency toward concordance. However, larval specimens that survive 1 month after hatching are markedly skewed toward adult decussation patterns and somewhat skewed toward concordance. These observations, together with results of cannibalization and predation experiments, suggest that the adult population pattern can be achieved through selection pressures against discordant individuals and, perhaps separately, against individuals with right-dorsal-to-left (R/L) chiasmatic configurations. Decussation patterns correlate with embryonic postures, larval orientation preferences, and growth rates after hatching, which may themselves serve as a basis for selection. PMID:291070

  6. Lateral-Line Detection of Underwater Objects: From Goldfish to Submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2010-03-01

    Fish and some aquatic amphibians use their mechanosensory lateral-line system to navigate by means of hydrodynamic cues. How a fish determines an object's position and shape only through the lateral-line system and the ensuing neuronal processing is still a challenging problem. Our studies have shown that both stimulus position and stimulus form can be determined within the range of about one fish length and are encoded through the response of the afferent nerves originating from the detectors. A minimal detection model of a vibrating sphere (a dipole) has now been extended to other stimuli such as translating spheres, ellipsoids, or even wakes (vortex rings). The theoretical model is fully verified by experimental data. We have also constructed an underwater robot with an artificial lateral-line system designed to detect e.g. the presence of walls by measuring the change of water flow around the body. We will show how a simple model fits experimental results obtained from trout and goldfish and how a submarine may well be able to detect underwater objects by using an artificial lateral-line system.

  7. Taurine blocks spontaneous cone contraction but not horizontal cell dark suppression in isolated goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, W H; McLure, P; Pow, D V

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on cone retinomotor movements and the responses of cone-driven horizontal cells in dark-adapted teleost retina. In isolated goldfish retina preparations maintained in the dark, cones spontaneously contracted, and the responses of horizontal cells were suppressed. Addition of 5 mM taurine to the physiological solution blocked the spontaneous contraction of cones in the dark but did not block the dark-suppression of horizontal cell responses. These results indicate that the mechanism that leads to horizontal cell dark suppression is not sensitive to taurine. Although both cone retinomotor position and horizontal cell responsiveness are known to be modulated by dopamine, the present results do not support the hypothesis that taurine inhibits dopamine release in the dark because only spontaneous cone contraction was affected by taurine. These results also indicate that spontaneous cone contraction in the dark is not the cause of horizontal cell dark suppression because, in the presence of taurine, cones were elongated yet horizontal cell responses were still suppressed. Consequently, these results make it clear that horizontal cell dark suppression is not an artifact produced by incubating isolated teleost retina preparations in taurine-free physiological solution.

  8. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MAUTHNER CELL SYNAPSES AND NODES IN GOLDFISH BRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. David; Bodenheimer, Thomas S.; Stage, David E.

    1963-01-01

    An electron microscope study of goldfish Mauthner cells is reported.1 The cell is covered by a synaptic bed ∼ 5 µ thick containing unusual amounts of extracellular matrix material in which synapses and clear glia processes are implanted. The preterminal synaptic neurites are closely invested by an interwoven layer of filament-containing satellite cell processes. The axoplasm of the club endings contains oriented mitochondria, neurofilaments, neurotubules, and relatively few synaptic vesicles. That of the boutons terminaux contains many unoriented mitochondria and is packed with synaptic vesicles and some glycogen but no neurofilaments or neurotubules. The bare axons of club endings are surrounded by a moderately abundant layer of matrix material. The synaptic membrane complex (SMC) in cross-section shows segments of closure of the synaptic cleft ∼ 0.2 to 0.5 µ long. These alternate with desmosome-like regions of about the same length in which the gap widens to ∼ 150 A and contains a condensed central stratum of dense material. Here, there are also accumulations of dense material in pre- and postsynaptic neuroplasm. The boutons show no such differentiation and the extracellular matrix is largely excluded around them. The axon cap is a dense neuropil of interwoven neural and glial elements free of myelin. It is covered by a closely packed layer of glia cells. The findings are interpreted as suggestive of electrical transmission in the club endings. PMID:14069792

  9. Gill remodeling in three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Matey, Victoria; Giblen, Terri; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether gill macro- and microstructure show compensatory responses in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (HEA). The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were used as test species and were exposed for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 24h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h to 1mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9). In cyprinids, dramatic alterations were initiated quickly evident by thickening of filaments and lamellae, retraction of lamellae, enlargement of interlamellar cell mass (ILCM), and increase in the water-blood diffusion distance; while in trout, these modifications were absent or developed very slowly. These reorganizations may attempt to reduce the surface area presumably protecting against the water borne ammonia; and were more pronounced in goldfish marked by momentous enlargement of ILCM volume and the presence of rudimental and almost fused lamellae. Extensive mucus production in the gills of goldfish and carp and to a limited extent in trout may have been part of general stress response and/or may have played a protective role. While goldfish and carp showed shrinkage of apical crypts of mitochondrion rich cells (MRCs), probably aiding to regulate ion status, trout showed enlarged apical crypts of MRCs. All species displayed changes in the pattern of the microridges on the surface of pavement cells (PVCs). Overall, the present results connote that the goldfish with its minimal respiratory surface area and a large population of the MRCs with small apical crypts located on the edge of ILCM is better prepared for survival in ammonia polluted water compared to carp which maintain larger lamellae and especially the trout that did not show gill remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Axon cap morphology of the sea robin (Prionotus carolinus): Mauthner cell is correlated with the presence of "signature" field potentials and a C-type startle response.

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Wong, Tina W; Agostini, Mark A; Meyers, Jason R

    2011-07-01

    Studies on the Mauthner cell (M-cell) of goldfish, Carassius auratus, have facilitated our understanding of how sensory information is integrated in the hindbrain to initiate C-type fast startle responses (C-starts). The goldfish M-cell initial segment/axon hillock is surrounded by a composite axon cap consisting of a central core and a peripheral zone covered by a glial cell layer. The high resistivity of the axon cap results in "signature" field potentials recorded on activation of the M-cell, allowing unequivocal physiological identification of the M-cell and of its feedback and reciprocal inhibitory networks that are crucial in ensuring that only one M-cell is active and that it fires only once. Phylogenetic mapping of axon cap morphology to muscle activity patterns and behavior predicts that teleost fishes that have a composite axon cap, like that of the goldfish, will perform C-start behavior with primarily unilateral muscle activity. We have chosen to study these predictions in the northern sea robin, Prionotus carolinus, a percomorph fish. Although sea robins have a very different phylogenetic position, body form, and habitat compared with the goldfish, they display the correlation of axon cap morphology to physiology and C-start behavior. Differences in response parameters suggest some evolutionary trade-offs in sea robin C-start behavior compared with that of the goldfish, but the correlations in morphology, physiology, and behavior are common features of both otophysan and nonotophysan teleosts. The M-cell will continue to provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the evolution of a neural circuit in the context of behavior. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Diversity in noise-induced temporary hearing loss in otophysine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoser, Sonja; Ladich, Friedrich

    2003-04-01

    The effects of intense white noise (158 dB re 1 μPa for 12 and 24 h) on the hearing abilities of two otophysine fish species-the nonvocal goldfish Carassius auratus and the vocalizing catfish Pimelodus pictus-were investigated in relation to noise exposure duration. Hearing sensitivity was determined utilizing the auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording technique. Measurements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 4.0 kHz were conducted prior and directly after noise exposure as well as after 3, 7, and 14 days of recovery. Both species showed a significant loss of sensitivity (up to 26 dB in C. auratus and 32 dB in P. pictus) immediately after noise exposure, with the greatest hearing loss in the range of their most sensitive frequencies. Hearing loss differed between both species, and was more pronounced in the catfish. Exposure duration had no influence on hearing loss. Hearing thresholds of C. auratus recovered within three days, whereas those of P. pictus only returned to their initial values within 14 days after exposure in all but one frequency. The results indicate that hearing specialists are affected differently by noise exposure and that acoustic communication might be restricted in noisy habitats.

  12. Neurites outgrowth and amino acids levels in goldfish retina under hypo-osmotic or hyper-osmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cubillán, Lisbeth; Obregón, Francisco; Lima, Lucimey

    2012-02-01

    Amino acids are known to play relevant roles as osmolytes in various tissues, including the retina. Taurine is one of these active molecules. In addition, taurine stimulates outgrowth from the goldfish retina by mechanisms that include extracellular matrix, calcium fluxes and protein phosphorylation. The present report aims to explore the effect of medium osmolarity on goldfish retinal outgrowth and the possible modifications produced by changing eye osmolarity on amino acid levels in the retina. Goldfish retinal explants were obtained 10 days after crush of the optic nerve and cultured under iso-, hypo- or hyper-osmotic conditions. Hypo-osmotic medium was prepared by diluting the solutions 10% twice, preserving fetal calf serum concentration. Hyper-osmotic medium was done by adding 50 or 100 mM urea or mannitol. Evaluation of length and density of neurites was performed 5 days after plating. Outgrowth was reduced in hypo- and in hyper-osmotic conditions. Taurine, 4 mM, increased length and density of neurites in iso-osmotic, and produced stimulatory effects under both hyper-osmotic conditions. The in vivo modification of osmolarity by intraocular injection of water or 100 mM urea modified levels of free amino acids in the retina. Taurine and aspartate retinal levels increased in a time-dependent manner after hypo- and hyper-osmotic solution injections. Serine, threonine, arginine, γ-aminobutyric acid, alanine and tyrosine were elevated in hyper-osmotic conditions. Outgrowth in vitro, after in vivo osmolarity changes, was higher in the absence of taurine, but did not increase in the presence of the amino acid. The fact that certain outgrowth took place in these conditions support that the impairment was not due to tissue damage. Rather, the effects might be related to the cascade of kinase events described during osmolarity variations. The time course under these conditions produced adjustments in ganglion cells probably related to taurine transporter, and

  13. Calorespirometry reveals that goldfish prioritize aerobic metabolism over metabolic rate depression in all but near-anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Regan, Matthew D; Gill, Ivan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-15

    Metabolic rate depression (MRD) has long been proposed as the key metabolic strategy of hypoxic survival, but surprisingly, the effects of changes in hypoxic O2 tensions (PwO2 ) on MRD are largely unexplored. We simultaneously measured the O2 consumption rate (ṀO2 ) and metabolic heat of goldfish using calorespirometry to test the hypothesis that MRD is employed at hypoxic PwO2  values and initiated just below Pcrit, the PwO2 below which ṀO2  is forced to progressively decline as the fish oxyconforms to decreasing PwO2 Specifically, we used closed-chamber and flow-through calorespirometry together with terminal sampling experiments to examine the effects of PwO2  and time on ṀO2 , metabolic heat and anaerobic metabolism (lactate and ethanol production). The closed-chamber and flow-through experiments yielded slightly different results. Under closed-chamber conditions with a continually decreasing PwO2 , goldfish showed a Pcrit of 3.0±0.3 kPa and metabolic heat production was only depressed at PwO2  between 0 and 0.67 kPa. Under flow-through conditions with PwO2  held at a variety of oxygen tensions for 1 and 4 h, goldfish also initiated MRD between 0 and 0.67 kPa but maintained ṀO2  to 0.67 kPa, indicating that Pcrit is at or below this PwO2 Anaerobic metabolism was strongly activated at PwO2 ≤1.3 kPa, but only used within the first hour at 1.3 and 0.67 kPa, as anaerobic end-products did not accumulate between 1 and 4 h exposure. Taken together, it appears that goldfish reserve MRD for near-anoxia, supporting routine metabolic rate at sub-PcritPwO2  values with the help of anaerobic glycolysis in the closed-chamber experiments, and aerobically after an initial (<1 h) activation of anaerobic metabolism in the flow-through experiments, even at 0.67 kPa PwO2.

  14. Humoral and cellular response to infection with Echinostoma revolutum in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Mabus, J; Huffman, J E; Fried, B

    1988-06-01

    Laboratory hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Echinostoma revolutum (Trematoda). Immunoelectrophoretic studies of hamster serum showed no demonstrable antibody response to E. revolutum. Histopathologic examination of intestinal tissue of infected hamsters showed erosion of intestinal villi and lymphocytic infiltration as the primary host response. Spleens from infected hamsters were hyperplastic during the first 3 weeks of infection and atrophic from 4 to 8 weeks postinfection. Hamsters were unable to acquire a resistance to E. revolutum infection. Lack of resistance was demonstrated in hamsters where the parasite infection was no longer detected based on the absence of eggs in the faeces; these hamsters were then reinfected. Hamsters treated with the anthelmintic oxyclozanide were also reinfected with E. revolutum.

  15. Sequencing, Annotation and Analysis of the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. Results A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. Conclusions This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional

  16. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    PubMed

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  17. Angling-Induced Barotrauma in Snapper Chrysophrys auratus: Are There Consequences for Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Peregrin, Laura S.; Butcher, Paul A.; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Millar, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting-28%, developing-8%, developed-7%, ripe or spawning-23% and spent-34%) were angled from 8–70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%);with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs—especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort. PMID:25781929

  18. cDNA cloning of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and expression of the active region as myofibril-bound serine proteinase inhibitor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Cao, Min-Jie; Shi, Chao-lan; Wei, Xiao-Nan; Li, Huan; Du, Cui-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) (EC 5.3.1.9) can act as a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) inhibitor (MBSPI) in fish. In order to better understand the biological information of the GPI and its functional domain for inhibiting MBSP, the cDNA of GPI was cloned from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) with RT-PCR, nested-PCR and 3'-RACE. The result of sequencing showed that the GPI cDNA had an open reading frame of 1662bp encoding 553 amino acid residues. After constructing and comparing the three-dimensional structures of GPI and MBSP, the middle fragment of crucian carp GPI (GPI-M) was predicted as a functional domain for inhibiting MBSP. Then the crucian carp GPI-M gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the recombinant GPI-M (rGPI-M) with molecular mass of approximately 21kDa in the form of inclusion bodies. The rGPI-M was obtained at an electrophoresis level purity of approximately 95% after denaturation and dialysis renaturation.

  19. Proteomic profiling reveals dopaminergic regulation of progenitor cell functions of goldfish radial glial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lei; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Esau, Crystal; Da Fonte, Dillon F; Trudeau, Vance L

    2016-07-20

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) are stem-like cells found in the developing and adult central nervous system. They function as both a scaffold to guide neuron migration and as progenitor cells that support neurogenesis. Our previous study revealed a close anatomical relationship between dopamine neurons and RGCs in the telencephalon of female goldfish. In this study, label-free proteomics was used to identify the proteins in a primary RGC culture and to determine the proteome response to the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 (10μM), in order to better understand dopaminergic regulation of RGCs. A total of 689 unique proteins were identified in the RGCs and these were classified into biological and pathological pathways. Proteins such as nucleolin (6.9-fold) and ependymin related protein 1 (4.9-fold) were increased in abundance while proteins triosephosphate isomerase (10-fold) and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (5-fold) were decreased in abundance. Pathway analysis revealed that proteins that consistently changed in abundance across biological replicates were related to small molecules such as ATP, lipids and steroids, hormones, glucose, cyclic AMP and Ca(2+). Sub-network enrichment analysis suggested that estrogen receptor signaling, among other transcription factors, is regulated by D1 receptor activation. This suggests that these signaling pathways are correlated to dopaminergic regulation of radial glial cell functions. Most proteins down-regulated by SKF 38393 were involved in cell cycle/proliferation, growth, death, and survival, which suggests that dopamine inhibits the progenitor-related processes of radial glial cells. Examples of differently expressed proteins including triosephosphate isomerase, nucleolin, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line beta were validated by qPCR and western blot, which were consistent with MS/MS data in the direction of change. This is the first study to characterize the RGC

  20. Color- and motion-specific units in the tectum opticum of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Morna; Behrend, Konstantin; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-01-05

    Extracellular recordings were performed from 69 units at different depths between 50 and [Formula: see text]m below the surface of tectum opticum in goldfish. Using large field stimuli (86[Formula: see text] visual angle) of 21 colored HKS-papers we were able to record from 54 color-sensitive units. The colored papers were presented for 5[Formula: see text]s each. They were arranged in the sequence of the color circle in humans separated by gray of medium brightness. We found 22 units with best responses between orange, red and pink. About 12 of these red-sensitive units were of the opponent "red-ON/blue-green-OFF" type as found in retinal bipolar- and ganglion cells as well. Most of them were also activated or inhibited by black and/or white. Some units responded specifically to red either with activation or inhibition. 18 units were sensitive to blue and/or green, 10 of them to both colors and most of them to black as well. They were inhibited by red, and belonged to the opponent "blue-green-ON/red-OFF" type. Other units responded more selectively either to blue, to green or to purple. Two units were selectively sensitive to yellow. A total of 15 units were sensitive to motion, stimulated by an excentrically rotating black and white random dot pattern. Activity of these units was also large when a red-green random dot pattern of high L-cone contrast was used. Activity dropped to zero when the red-green pattern did not modulate the L-cones. Neither of these motion selective units responded to any color. The results directly show color-blindness of motion vision, and confirm the hypothesis of separate and parallel processing of "color" and "motion".

  1. Interaction between rod and cone inputs in mixed-input bipolar cells in goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Joselevitch, Christina; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-05-15

    One class of goldfish bipolar cells, the mixed-input bipolar cell, contacts both rods and cones. Although the morphology of the different mixed-input bipolar cell subtypes has been described, insight into the interaction between rods and cones at the bipolar cell level is scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize this interaction in the different physiological types of mixed-input bipolar cells. We found mixed-input bipolar cells that depolarized, hyperpolarized, or showed a combination of the two types of response after center stimulation. The relative contributions of rod and cone inputs varied strongly in these cell populations. Depolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells are rod-dominated, having the highest sensitivity and the smallest dynamic range. Hyperpolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells, on the other hand, have a more balanced rod-cone input ratio. This extends their dynamic range and decreases their sensitivity. Finally, opponent mixed-input bipolar cells seem to be mostly cone-dominated, although some rod input is present. The antagonistic photoreceptor inputs form a push-pull system that makes these mixed-input bipolar cells very sensitive to changes in light intensity. Our finding that spectral tuning changes with light intensity conflicts with the idea that the separate non-opponent and opponent channels are related to coding of brightness and color, respectively. The organization of mixed-input bipolar cells into various classes with different dynamic ranges and absolute sensitivities might be a strategy to transmit information about all visual aspects most efficiently, given the sustained nature of bipolar cell responses and their limited voltage range.

  2. Sex- and tissue-specific effects of waterborne estrogen on estrogen receptor subtypes and E2-mediated gene expression in the reproductive axis of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Lakoff, Josh; Crump, Kate; Martyniuk, Chris J; Watt, Jennifer; Jewell, Linda; Atkinson, Susanna; Blais, Jules M; Sherry, Jim; Moon, Thomas W; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-05-01

    This research examined the gene expression profile of three goldfish estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in multiple tissues in relation to mRNA levels of aromatase B and vitellogenin (VTG) following waterborne estrogen exposures. The protocol consisted of: i) adult male goldfish in late gonadal recrudescence exposed to 1 nM 17beta-estradiol (E2); ii) adult male and female goldfish in early sexual regression exposed to 1 nM E2 for 3, 6, 12 and 24h; and, iii) sexually mature, adult male goldfish exposed to 0.3 nM 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) for 24h. Liver produced the most consistent response with up-regulation of ERalpha in sexually regressed, mature and recrudescing males and in sexually regressed females. The dose and length of exposure, reproductive state and sex affected the auto-regulation of ERbeta1 by E2. ERbeta2 was not affected in any experiments suggesting it may not be auto-regulated by E2. Aromatase B and VTG gene expression were affected by E2, but also by other experimental conditions. EE2 induced liver ERalpha and VTG mRNA levels indicating that high environmental EE2 levels induce E2-mediated gene expression in a model teleost. These studies reveal a more complicated action of estrogenic compounds that has important implications on estrogenic endocrine disruptors in teleosts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The reaction time of organ-forming substance in goldfish EGG and its relationship with mesodermal formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shicui; Wu, Shangqin

    1988-12-01

    Fertilized goldfish eggs were dechorionated with a pair of forceps and were cut off along or a little above the equator into animal and vegetative parts at desired stages with a glass needle or ligated into two connected fragments before cleavage with baby hair loop. Some of the ligated eggs were detached by further fastening soon after ligation, and some released later at different stages (2-cell, 16-cell, 128-cell, 512-cell, mid-blastula) to let the organ-forming substance (OFS) enter the blastoderm. The cholinesterase (ChE) in the resulting embryos was assayed. The results are as follows. 1. All the 142 embryos developed from the animal hemispheres cut off or ligated off before cleavage gave rise to hyperblastula in which no ChE activity was observed. 2. All 50 embryos obtained from animal halves isolated at the 8-cell stage produced ChE. 3. Embryos developed from the eggs released before the 512-cell stage formed ChE, but the later the releasing of the hair knots, the smaller the number of ChE-producing embryos. 4. After the 512-cell stage (excluding this stage), neither ChE nor tissue differentiation occurred in the embryos developed from the unfastened eggs though their OFS flow was set free. Since ChE is thought to be a muscle-specific enzyme in the early developmental stage, it is concluded that the OFS in goldfish egg appears to be indispensable for the establishment of the mesoderm.

  4. The effect of aminosulfonate buffers on the light responses and intracellular pH of goldfish retinal horizontal cells.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Stuart; Baldridge, William H

    2010-10-01

    Retinal horizontal cell feedback acts as a gain control at the first synapse in the visual system and generates center-surround receptive fields in the outer retina. One model of feedback proposes that elevation of protons in the photoreceptor synaptic cleft produces feedback. Most evidence supporting the proton model has depended on the effect of proton buffers, in particular aminosulfonates, but these agents could potentially have effects other than external pH regulation. We therefore determined if the effects of aminosulfonates on horizontal cell rollback, an indicator of feedback, were consistent with external proton buffering. Intracellular recording from horizontal cells in isolated goldfish retina revealed that rollback was blocked only by aminosulfonates with an acid dissociation constant suited for buffering at the pH (7.5) of the Ringer's solution. In isolated goldfish horizontal cells, aminosulfonates, even those that did not block rollback, altered intracellular pH. This suggests that the effect of aminosulfonates on rollback is not because of changing intracellular pH. Measures of both intracellular and extracellular pH revealed that treatment with either glutamate or kainate resulted in acidification. As glutamate produced both internal and external acidification, intracellular and extracellular horizontal cell pH would be expected to increase in response to light, a change consistent with the proton model of feedback. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. A molecule in teleost fish, related with human MHC-encoded G6F, has a cytoplasmic tail with ITAM and marks the surface of thrombocytes and in some fishes also of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ken; Takizawa, Fumio; Tokumaru, Norihiro; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Toda, Hideaki; Fischer, Uwe; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus

    2010-08-01

    In teleost fish, a novel gene G6F-like was identified, encoding a type I transmembrane molecule with four extracellular Ig-like domains and a cytoplasmic tail with putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs including YxN and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). G6F-like maps to a teleost genomic region where stretches corresponding to human chromosomes 6p (with the MHC), 12p (with CD4 and LAG-3), and 19q are tightly linked. This genomic organization resembles the ancestral "Ur-MHC" proposed for the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The deduced G6F-like molecule shows sequence similarity with members of the CD4/LAG-3 family and with the human major histocompatibility complex-encoded thrombocyte marker G6F. Despite some differences in molecular organization, teleost G6F-like and tetrapod G6F seem orthologous as they map to similar genomic location, share typical motifs in transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions, and are both expressed by thrombocytes/platelets. In the crucian carps goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii), G6F-like was found expressed not only by thrombocytes but also by erythrocytes, supporting that erythroid and thromboid cells in teleost fish form a hematopoietic lineage like they do in mammals. The ITAM-bearing of G6F-like suggests that the molecule plays an important role in cell activation, and G6F-like expression by erythrocytes suggests that these cells have functional overlap potential with thrombocytes.

  6. Testosterone enhances GABA and taurine but not N-methyl-D,L-aspartate stimulation of gonadotropin secretion in the goldfish: possible sex steroid feedback mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, V L; Sloley, B D; Peter, R E

    1993-04-01

    The effects of gonadal steroids on GABA-, taurine (TAU)- and N-methyl-D,L-aspartate (NMA)-induced gonadotropin-II (GTH-II) release were investigated in male and female goldfish in vivo. In sexually regressed goldfish (both sexes mixed), intraperitoneal implantation for 5 to 10 days with solid Silastic pellets containing testosterone (100 micrograms/g), oestradiol (100 micrograms/g) or progesterone (100 micrograms/g) was previously shown to elevate serum sex steroid levels to values comparable to those in sexually mature animals, and to potentiate gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated GTH-II release. In the present study, testosterone but not oestradiol or progesterone enhanced the stimulatory effects of exogenous GABA (100 micrograms/g) on GTH-II release in vivo. TAU (1 mg/g) stimulated GTH-II release in sexually regressed mixed sex and sexually recrudescent male goldfish, and both testosterone and oestradiol implantation enhanced GTH-II release induced by TAU. The glutamate agonist NMA (25 to 50 micrograms/g) was also found to stimulate GTH-II release; however it was relatively less effective in elevating serum GTH-II levels than GABA and TAU, and its effects were not modulated by sex steroid treatments. Pretreatment of goldfish with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine to deplete brain and pituitary catecholamines did not affect NMA action on GTH-II release. Our results indicate that GABA, TAU and NMA are involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of GTH-II release in goldfish, and support the idea that testosterone participates in the positive feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropin release in a non-mammalian vertebrate by enhancing GABA- and TAU-stimulated GTH release in vivo.

  7. Live recombinant Lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing immobilization antigen (i-Ag) for protection against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Yun; Yuan, Xue-Mei; Xu, Yang; Yin, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ling-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shen, Jin-Yu

    2016-11-01

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. Lactobacillus strains have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for the presentation to the mucosa of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. Here, the present study was conducted to evaluate a live recombinant Lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing immobilization antigen (IAG-52X) in protection against I. multifiliis. A 1266 bp gene fragment containing a potential antigenic epitope of the 48 kDa immobilization antigen of I. multifiliis was assembled from six synthetic ohgonucleotides and cloned into pSIP409 and electrotransformed into Lactobacillus plantarum NC8. The recombinant vaccine candidate was then orally fed into goldfish. The expression of immune-related genes: complement component 3 (C3), MHC I, IgM gene in blood from goldfish at different time points after immunization were evaluated. Immunized fish were than challenged with a lethal dose of infectious I. multifiliis. The cumulative mortality and relative percentage survival (RPS) were also determined. Our results showed that the antibody level in the blood and skin of the immunized fish was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in relation to the control groups. Goldfish orally immunized with NC8-pSIP409- IAG-52X had high serum antibody titers that ranged from 32 to 256 after 28d post immunization, while fish fed with NC8-pSIP409 or PBS had no detectable immobilizing antibody response. Expression of IgM, C3, MHC I genes in the group immunized with IAG-52X were significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated as compared with control group, indicating that different immune cells were actively involved in cellular immune response. The results showed that the average survival rate of fish orally immunized with 10(8) and 10(6)NC8-pSIP409-IAG-52X was 60% and 50

  8. CORRELATION OF THE AQUARIUM GOLDFISH TOXICITIES OF SOME PHENOLS, QUINONES, AND OTHER BENZENE DERIVATIVES WITH THEIR INHIBITION OF AUTOOXIDATIVE REACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sollmann, Torald

    1949-01-01

    Hydroquinone when added to the aquarium water was found to be about a hundred times more toxic than phenol, to goldfish (and to Daphnia magna), but is only about twice as toxic when injected into fish or mammals. Tertiarybutyl catechol shows a similar high toxicity in the aquarium, while the toxicity of catechol, resorcinol, and pyrogallol approaches more closely that of phenol. As the substances of high aquarium toxicity are known to inhibit many oxidative and polymerizing autocatalytic "chain reactions," rank correlations were tabulated between the recorded inhibitory potency of various substances in these processes, and their aquarium toxicity for goldfish. The correlation between aquarium fish toxicity and electric oxidation potential (P 0.09) is more than suggestive, and becomes still more so if explainable discrepancies are excluded. Antioxidant fat stabilizers show suggestive correlation with fish toxicity (0.20), and better with electric oxidation potential (0.10). The photographic reduction potential gives suggestive correlation with fish toxicity (0.20) and somewhat better with the oxidation potential (0.15). The gasoline induction period correlation is more than suggestive with the oxidation potential (0.099), but rather poor for fish toxicity (0.265). The rubber anti-aging potency gives only poor correlation (0.39) with fish toxicity. The reasons for these divergencies are not clear; they may perhaps be connected with the solvent properties of the substrate. As an example, Lea (p. 175) cites that 0.01 per cent of maleic acid prevents rancidity of fats, but is rendered ineffective by the presence of water. Taken by themselves, no one of the P values is entirely convincing of the relationships stressed in this paper. However, the consistent finding of relatively small values of P lends considerable weight to the hypothesis that these chemicals act in a related manner; and that the chemical activity of a substance may furnish useful suggestions of its

  9. Seasonal effect of gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-induced gonadotroph functions in the goldfish pituitary.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, M; Wlasichuk, M; Chang, J P; Habibi, H R

    2013-05-01

    We have shown that native goldfish gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (gGnIH) differentially regulates luteinsing hormone (LH)-β and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-β expression. To further understand the functions of gGnIH, we examined its interactions with two native goldfish gonadotrophin-releasing hormones, salmon gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and chicken (c)GnRH-II in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injections of gGnIH alone reduced serum LH levels in fish in early and mid gonadal recrudescence; this inhibition was also seen in fish co-injected with either sGnRH or cGnRH-II during early recrudescence. Injection of gGnIH alone elevated pituitary LH-β and FSH-β mRNA levels at early and mid recrudescence, and FSH-β mRNA at late recrudescence. Co-injection of gGnIH attenuated the stimulatory influences of sGnRH on LH-β in early recrudescence, and LH-β and FSH-β mRNA levels in mid and late recrudescence, as well as the cGnRH-II-elicited increase in LH-β, but not FSH-β, mRNA expression at mid and late recrudescence. sGnRH and cGnRH-II injection increased pituitary gGnIH-R mRNA expression in mid and late recrudescence but gGnIH reduced gGnIH-R mRNA levels in late recrudescence. gGnIH did not affect basal LH release from perifused pituitary cells and continual exposure to gGnIH did not alter the LH responses to acute applications of GnRH. However, a short 5-min GnIH treatment in the middle of a 60-min GnRH perifusion selectively reduced the cGnRH-II-induced release of LH. These novel results indicate that, in goldfish, gGnIH and GnRH modulate pituitary GnIH-R expression and gGnIH differentially affects sGnRH and cGnRH-II regulation of LH secretion and gonadotrophin subunit mRNA levels. Furthermore, these actions are manifested in a reproductive stage-dependent manner.

  10. Expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and chicken GnRH-II precursor messenger ribonucleic acids in the brain and ovary of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lin, X W; Peter, R E

    1996-03-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7Leu8]gonadotropin-releasing hormone (salmon GnRH; sGnRH) precursor and the [His5Trp7Tyr8]GnRH (chicken GnRH-II; cGnRH-II) precursor of the goldfish brain were isolated and sequenced using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH precursor cDNA consists of 540 bp, including an open reading frame of 282 bp, and the cGnRH-II precursor cDNA consists of 682 bp, including an open reading frame of 258 bp. The 94 amino acid-long goldfish sGnRH precursor and 86 amino acid-long goldfish cGnRH-II precursor have the same molecular architecture as GnRH precursors identified to date in other vertebrate species. Using two sets of primers designed to be sense and antisense to the goldfish brain sGnRH precursor cDNA sequence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of total RNA from brain and ovary at gonadal recrudescent, mature ( = prespawning), and postovulatory stages resulted in two predicted sizes of PCR products. The intensities of staining signals of ethidium bromide were similar between brain and ovary samples. The same RT-PCRs were carried out with two sets of primers for cGnRH-II precursor cDNA, resulting in two PCR products of predicted size; however, the ethidium bromide staining signals are much weaker for products amplified from ovarian cDNA than that from brain cDNA. Restriction enzyme analysis verified the expected RT-PCR products. Sequence analysis of ovarian sGnRH precursor cDNA generated by RACE of total RNA from recrudescent ovarian tissue revealed the identical sequence to that of the brain sGnRH cDNA. Northern blot analysis detected a single mRNA transcript of approximately 650 bases for the sGnRH precursor in both the brain and ovary, and 750 bases for the cGnRH-II precursor in the brain. These results demonstrate that two forms of GnRH precursor (sGnRH and cGnRH-II) mRNA are expressed in goldfish brain tissue and that the sGnRH transcript and a

  11. Ranking of length-class, seasonal and regional effects on dietary compositions of the co-occurring Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) and Pseudocaranx georgianus (Carangidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Ben; Platell, Margaret E.; Clarke, K. Robert; Potter, Ian C.

    2012-12-01

    Using an effective combination of multivariate testing and ordination analyses, this study compares the extents to which the diets of two co-occurring fish species (Pagrus auratus and Pseudocaranx georgianus) are related to body size (length class), season and region and the rank order importance of those effects. Thus, volumetric dietary compositions were determined for these species on the lower west coast of Australia, where both are abundant, and for P. auratus from the mid west coast and P. georgianus from the south coast. The diet of P. auratus on the lower west coast was strongly related to body size and slightly less to season. With increasing body size, its diet shifted from predominantly ophiuroids to larger prey, such as brachyuran crabs, teleosts, echinoids and ultimately asteroids, probably reflecting a shift from foraging over soft sediments to areas over and around reefs. Seasonal changes on the lower west coast were restricted mainly to small P. auratus, while larger fish underwent seasonal changes further north. Analyses using a common size range of medium to larger P. auratus demonstrated that dietary composition differed more between regions than seasons. The relationships between diet and length class of P. georgianus on both the lower west and south coasts were less pronounced than for P. auratus and seasonal changes were restricted to the south coast, where amphipod consumption increased markedly in summer. The diet of P. georgianus was related far more to region than length class and season, with more small teleosts, small crabs, carideans and littorinids and less amphipods, isopods and small bivalves being ingested on the lower west than south coasts. Although crabs and teleosts were important typifying prey of P. auratus and P. georgianus, when co-occurring, the former predator tended to ingest greater volumes of larger and often less mobile prey. This reflects differences in dentition, jaw morphology and feeding behaviour and reduces the

  12. Ectopic origin of coronary arteries from the aorta in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; López-García, A; Arqué, J M; Sans-Coma, V

    2012-01-01

    An ectopic origin of the coronary artery from the aorta beyond the sinotubular junction, a condition commonly referred to as 'coronary artery high take-off', has been described in man and C57BL/6 mice. The present paper reports this congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Hearts from 14 individuals, aged 53-350 days, were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique, scanning electron microscopy or histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In 11 hamsters, the right coronary artery was the ectopic vessel. In the other three animals there was a solitary coronary ostium in the aorta. In all cases, the ectopic coronary artery originated at an acute angle and a valve-like ridge was in front of the coronary artery ostium. The ectopic arteries examined microscopically showed an intramural trajectory within the aortic wall. In the hearts with a solitary ostium in the aorta, the left main coronary artery coursed between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. In man, all of these anomalous conditions place the individual at risk of myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. However, none of the affected hamsters had clinical signs of disease. Intimal thickenings of increasing size with age were present in the intramural coronary artery segment of eight hamsters aged 106 days or older, examined histologically. The present findings fit with the notion that coronary arteries with acute angle take-off and an intramural course are subjected to unusual wear and tear, leading to tissue changes in the vessel wall.

  13. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  14. Puumala virus infection in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) resembling hantavirus infection in natural rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nagata, Noriyo; Tanikawa, Yoichi; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2011-09-01

    The mechanism of hantavirus persistent infection in natural hosts is poorly understood due to a lack of laboratory animal models. Herein, we report that Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Puumala virus (PUUV) at 4 weeks old show persistent infection without clinical symptoms for more than 2 months. IgG and IgM antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein and neutralizing antibody were first detectable at 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and maintained through 70 dpi. Viral RNA was first detected from 3 dpi in lungs and blood clots, and was detected in all tissues tested at 7 dpi. The viral RNA persisted for at least 70 days in the lungs, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain. The highest level of RNA copies was observed at 14 dpi in the lungs. Slight inflammatory reactions were observed in the lungs, adrenal glands, and brain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PUUV antigen persisted until 56 dpi in the kidneys and adrenal glands. Infected hamsters showed no body weight loss or clinical signs. These results indicate that PUUV infection in hamsters is quite similar to the hantavirus infection of natural host rodents.

  15. Isolation of Sparus auratus prolactin gene and activity of the cis-acting regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Astola, Antonio; Ortiz, Manuela; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Valdivia, Manuel M

    2003-10-15

    A sea bream prolactin (sbPRL) gene was isolated using a prolactin cDNA fragment, generated by PCR as a probe. The gene analyzed comprises 3.5 kb of DNA containing five exons as described previously for other fish PRL genes. Analysis of 1.0 kb of the proximal promoter sequence reveals a consensus TATAA box, up to seven (A/T)3NCAT consensus motifs for binding of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1 and putative CREB and GATA binding sites. CHO culture cells co-transfected with a sbPRL promoter sequence and a sea bream Pit-1 cDNA expression plasmid showed expression of a linked luciferase reporter gene. Transient expression experiments with 5'-delection mutants reveals at least three regulatory regions on the sbPRL gene, two with a stimulatory effect on transcription and one with apparent inhibitory effect. From a comparative point of view, this study of PRL gene in Sparus auratus, correlates well with those previously published on tilapia and rainbow trout. The molecular data reported will be useful for comparative analysis of gene regulation in the GH/PRL gene family in teleosts.

  16. Food deprivation alters osmoregulatory and metabolic responses to salinity acclimation in gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Arjona, Francisco J; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Martín del Río, María P; Mancera, Juan M; Soengas, José L

    2006-06-01

    The influence of acclimation to different environmental salinities (low salinity water, LSW; seawater, SW; and hyper saline water, HSW) and feeding conditions (fed and food deprived) for 14 days was assessed on osmoregulation and energy metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: fed fish in LSW, SW, and HSW, and food-deprived fish in LSW, SW, and HSW. After 14 days, plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain were taken for the assessment of plasma osmolality, plasma cortisol, metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Food deprivation abolished or attenuated the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in LSW- and HSW-acclimated fish, respectively. In addition, a linear relationship between renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity and environmental salinity was observed after food deprivation, but values decreased with respect to fed fish. Food-deprived fish acclimated to extreme salinities increased production of glucose through hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the glucose produced was apparently exported to other tissues and served to sustain plasma glucose levels. Salinity acclimation to extreme salinities enhanced activity of osmoregulatory organs, which is probably sustained by higher glucose use in fed fish but by increased use of other fuels, such as lactate and amino acids in food-deprived fish.

  17. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  18. Results of phenol red thread test in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Sadjadi, Reza; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghaffari, M Selk

    2013-11-01

    To determine the normal reference range for phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Sixteen healthy adult Syrian hamsters (eight males and eight females) were used in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. PRTT values were evaluated in both eyes of all Syrian hamsters using a commercial PRTT strip of a single lot number. No statistically significant differences between right and left eyes were found for any of the results. The mean ± SD PRTT values for the study population were 6.8 ± 2.5 mm/15 s with a range from 3 to 11.5 mm/15 s. Mean PRTTs in male animals were 5.1 ± 1.2 mm/15 s, whereas mean PRTTs in female hamsters were 8.5 ± 2.3 mm/15 s. Comparison between mean PRTT values in males and females showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Mean weights for males and females were 80.9 ± 4.8 and 90.6 ± 8.5 g, respectively. No linear relationship between mean PRTT and body weight was found in female (P = 0.46) and male (P = 0.92) hamsters. This study provides novel data for normal reference ranges of PRTT values in healthy Syrian hamsters. Results of this study may assist veterinarians in the diagnosis of ocular surface disease and syndromes affecting the tear film in these species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Immunomodulatory treatment with thalidomide in experimental leptospirosis in Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Soares, Luciane Marieta; Macedo, Julio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Everton Cruz; Santos, Cleiton Silva; Sampaio, Marina de Queiroz; dos Santos, Andréia Carvalho; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Athanazio, Daniel Abensur

    2014-02-01

    The benefit of antibiotics in leptospirosis is limited when treatment is started four days after symptoms appear, and new adjuvant therapeutic options are urgently needed. Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected by Leptospira interrogans strain L1-130, and groups were assigned based on no treatment (NONE), thalidomide only (TAL), ampicillin only (AMP) or both (AMP-TAL). Treatment was started two days after the onset of symptoms (experiment 1) and immediately after detection of the first death (experiment 2). Experiment 1: all hamsters from the groups AMP and AMP-TAL survived (n=8), while all hamsters from groups NONE (n=6) and TAL (n=8) died. The AMP and the AMP-TAL groups showed no renal or liver pathology and absent or very low leptospiral burden in target organs. Experiment 2: lethal outcome was observed in 6/6 hamsters in the NONE group, 8/8 in the TAL group, and 6/8 in both the AMP and AMP-TAL groups. Thalidomide showed no survival benefit when compared to hamsters treated with ampicillin alone. The TAL, AMP and AMP-TAL groups had very low tissue leptospiral counts. Thalidomide had minimal impact on survival in the late treatment of leptospirosis hamster model.

  20. Morphological and histochemical changes in the epididymis of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod

    PubMed Central

    CALVO, ALFONSO; BUSTOS-OBREGÓN, EDUARDO; PASTOR, LUIS M.

    1997-01-01

    The morphological involution and histochemical changes of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) epididymis induced by a short light period were investigated. Under short-day conditions, the epididymis showed marked morphological changes including a decrease in luminal diameter, disappearance of spermatozoa, increase of interductal tissue, increase of intraepithelial lipofuscin deposits, the presence of phagolysosomes in the principal cells and macrophage-like cells, and a considerable modification of most clear cells. With lectin histochemistry changes were found in the glycoconjugates of principal cells of the regressed epididymis, either a decrease (PNA, WGA, HPA and DBA) or an increase (MAA) in the affinity of lectins to the Golgi area, or a decrease (HPA) or an increase (PNA) in lectin binding to stereocilia. Both morphological and histochemical results showed that, under this light condition, the cauda epididymidis presented the most prominent alterations, and that the epididymis showed increased absorptive activity and a decreased synthesis of glycoproteins. All these changes are probably due to the decrease in testosterone levels. PMID:9279661

  1. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  2. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio.

    PubMed

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Histopathological changes caused by the metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) in the gut of the gibel carp, Carassius gibelio.

    PubMed

    Molnár, K

    2005-01-01

    Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.

  4. Sensitivity of the Goldfish Motion Detection System Revealed by Incoherent Random Dot Stimuli: Comparison of Behavioural and Neuronal Data

    PubMed Central

    Masseck, Olivia Andrea; Förster, Sascha; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Global motion detection is one of the most important abilities in the animal kingdom to navigate through a 3-dimensional environment. In the visual system of teleost fish direction-selective neurons in the pretectal area (APT) are most important for global motion detection. As in all other vertebrates these neurons are involved in the control of slow phase eye movements during gaze stabilization. In contrast to mammals cortical pathways that might influence motion detection abilities of the optokinetic system are missing in teleost fish. Results To test global motion detection in goldfish we first measured the coherence threshold of random dot patterns to elicit horizontal slow phase eye movements. In addition, the coherence threshold of the optomotor response was determined by the same random dot patterns. In a second approach the coherence threshold to elicit a direction selective response in neurons of the APT was assessed from a neurometric function. Behavioural thresholds and neuronal thresholds to elicit slow phase eye movements were very similar, and ranged between 10% and 20% coherence. In contrast to these low thresholds for the optokinetic reaction and APT neurons the optomotor response could only be elicited by random dot patterns with coherences above 40%. Conclusion Our findings suggest a high sensitivity for global motion in the goldfish optokinetic system. Comparison of neuronal and behavioural thresholds implies a nearly one-to-one transformation of visual neuron performance to the visuo-motor output. In addition, we assume that the optomotor response is not mediated by the optokinetic system, but instead by other motion detection systems with higher coherence thresholds. PMID:20209165

  5. The arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) acetylates dopamine in the digestive tract of goldfish: a role in intestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Tinoco, A B; Moure, A L; Alonso Gómez, A L; Delgado, M J; Valenciano, A I

    2013-05-01

    Melatonin has been found in the digestive tract of many vertebrates. However, the enzymatic activity of the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and the hydroxindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the last two enzymes of melatonin biosynthesis, have been only measured in rat liver. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to investigate the functionality of these enzymes in the liver and gut of goldfish, analyzing its possible daily changes and comparing its catalytic properties with those from the retina isoforms. The daily rhythms with nocturnal acrophases in retinal AANAT and HIOMT activities support their role in melatonin biosynthesis. In foregut AANAT activity also show a daily rhythm while in liver and hindgut significant but not rhythmic levels of AANAT activity are found. HIOMT activity is not detected in any of these peripheral tissues suggesting an alternative role for AANAT besides melatonin synthesis. The failure to detect functional HIOMT activity in both, liver and gut, led us to investigate other physiological substrates for the AANAT, as dopamine, searching alternative roles for this enzyme in the goldfish gut. Dopamine competes with tryptamine and inhibits retinal, intestinal and hepatic N-acetyltryptamine production, suggesting that the active isoform in gut is AANAT1. Besides, gut and liver produces N-acetyldopamine in presence of acetyl coenzyme-A and dopamine. This production is not abolished by the presence of folic acid (arylamine N-acetyltransferase inhibitor) in any studied tissue, but a total inhibition occurs in the presence of CoA-S-N-acetyltryptamine (AANAT inhibitor) in liver. Therefore, AANAT1 seems to be an important enzyme in the regulation of dopamine and N-acetyldopamine content in liver. Finally, for the first time in fish we found that dopamine, but not N-acetyldopamine, regulates the gut motility, underlying the broad physiological role of AANAT in the gut. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolutionary history of c-myc in teleosts and characterization of the duplicated c-myca genes in goldfish embryos.

    PubMed

    Marandel, Lucie; Labbe, Catherine; Bobe, Julien; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves

    2012-02-01

    c-Myc plays an important role during embryogenesis in mammals, but little is known about its function during embryonic development in teleosts. In addition, the evolutionary history of c-myc gene in teleosts remains unclear, and depending on the species, a variable number of gene duplicates exist in teleosts. To gain new insight into c-myc genes in teleosts, the present study was designed to clarify the evolutionary history of c-myc gene(s) in teleosts and to subsequently characterize DNA methylation and early embryonic expression patterns in a cyprinid fish. Our results show that a duplication of c-myc gene occurred before or around the teleost radiation, as a result of the teleost-specific whole genome duplication giving rise to c-myca and c-mycb in teleosts and was followed by a loss of the c-mycb gene in the Gasterosteiforms and Tetraodontiforms. Our data also demonstrate that both c-myc genes previously identified in carp and goldfish are co-orthologs of the zebrafish c-myca. These results indicate the presence of additional c-myca duplication in Cyprininae. We were able to identify differences between the expression patterns of the two goldfish c-myca genes in oocytes and early embryos. These differences suggest a partial sub-functionalization of c-myca genes after duplication. Despite differences in transcription patterns, both of the c-myca genes displayed similar DNA methylation patterns during early development and in gametes. Together, our results clarify the evolutionary history of the c-myc gene in teleosts and provide new insight into the involvement of c-myc in early embryonic development in cyprinids. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Regulation of amino acid metabolism as a defensive strategy in the brain of three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia exposure.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Giblen, Terri; AbdElgawad, Hamada; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-04-15

    Many teleosts have evolved mechanisms to cope with ammonia toxicity in the brain when confronted with high environmental ammonia (HEA). In the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to glutamine and other free amino acids in the brain of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia was investigated. The detoxification mode of ammonia in brain is suggested to be through amination of glutamate to glutamine by the coupled activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), transaminase (aspartate aminotransaminase 'AST' and alanine aminotransaminase 'ALT') and glutamine synthetase (GSase). We investigated the metabolic response of amino acids in the brain of highly sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) when exposed to 1mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the brain of all the three species from 12h onwards. Unlike in trout, ammonia accumulation in carp and goldfish was restored to control levels (48-84h); which was accompanied with a significant increase in glutamine content as well as GSase activity. In trout, glutamine levels also increased (84-180 h) but GSase was not activated. The elevated glutamine level in trout was accompanied by a significant depletion of the glutamate pool in contrast to the stable glutamate levels seen in carp and goldfish. This suggests a simultaneous increase in the rate of glutamate formation to match with the demand of glutam