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Sample records for gonads

  1. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  2. [Female gonadal venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Samos, R; Zorita, A; Ortega, J M; Morán, C; Morán, O; Vázquez, J; Vaquero, F

    1993-01-01

    The varicocele is a disease recognized and studied in the man. Dilatation of the ovarian veins and the pelvic varicosities secondaries to a varicocele in the woman is a rarely described disease but, if it were researched, it could be more frequent. Diverse syndromes of chronic abdominal pain in the woman with unrecognized etiology and associated with urologic and/or gynecologic symptomatology could be caused by this pathology, but the absence of a clinical description difficult the diagnosis of the most part of cases. The practice of gonadal selective venographies shows a high percentage of dilatation of the gonadal veins associated to a dilatation of the pelvic veins and of the lower limbs veins. The study of the anatomy of the gonadal veins shows diverse anomalies respect to the classical descriptions. Furthermore, the varicocele could be the cause of a high part of the "essential" varicosities presents during the pregnancy. We present a case that instead of being treated by Services of Urology or Gynecology, it was treated by the Vascular Surgery Service. So, the literature about the respect was reviewed. We think that, some entities, like the feminine varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, pelvic congestion syndrome chronic pelvic pain, pelvic varicosities, vulvar varicosities and some "essential" pregnant varicosities at the lower limbs could be enclosed into the same clinical entity (with a common etiology, physiopathology, clinical presentation and treatment). It should be intending to unify criteria (etiologic, diagnostic and therapeutics criteria) by the different Specialized Unities in such type of pathology.

  3. Relationship of gonadal activity and chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Crawford, J.D.

    1988-04-08

    The authors tested the hypothesis that chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage is proportional to the degree of gonadal activity during treatment. Thirty studies that evaluated gonadal function after cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease or combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease or acute lymphocytic leukemia provided data for analysis. Data were stratified according to sex, illness, chemotherapeutic regimen and dose, and pubertal stage at the time of treatment. Chemotherapy-induced damage was more likely to occur in patients who were treated when sexually mature compared with those who were treated when prepubertal. Males were significantly more frequently affected than females when treated for renal disease of Hodgkin's disease. Chemotherapy-induced damage was also more likely to occur when patients were treated with large doses of alkylating agents. These data suggest that chemotherapy-induced damage is proportional to gonadal activity. Further efforts are needed to test whether induced gonadal quiescence during chemotherapy will reduce the strikingly high incidence of gonadal failure following chemotherapy.

  4. Gonadal dysfunction in systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Asterios; Harsoulis, Faidon

    2005-04-01

    Gonadal function is significantly affected in many acute and chronic systemic diseases. As the function of the testes and the ovaries is determined by the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, it is obvious that a systemic disease may affect one or more levels of the axis in such a manner that the gonadal dysfunction may have various clinical and laboratory manifestations. In this brief review, the most common disturbances seen in the main systemic diseases will be discussed.

  5. Gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  6. [Gonadal dysgenesis in Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tsutomu

    2004-02-01

    This review article summarizes the current knowledge on the development of gonadal dysgenesis in Turner syndrome. The degree of gonadal dysfunction is well correlated with the size of unpaired region of the sex chromosomes and is independent of the dosage of gene(s) on the sex chromosomes. Thus, it is deduced that sex chromosome aberrations result in meiotic pairing failure of homologous chromosomes, leading to accelerated oocyte loss and resultant gonadal dysgenesis. Although the underlying factor responsible for the oocyte loss remains to be determined, it is likely that activation of apoptotic mechanism to prevent the generation of abnormal gametes plays an essential role in the rapid oocyte degeneration.

  7. Studies of gonadal sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Makiyan, Zograb

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gonadal differentiation has a determinative influence on sex development in human embryos. Disorders of sexual development (DSD) have been associated with persistent embryonal differentiation stages. Between 1998 and 2015, 139 female patients with various (DSD) underwent operations at the Scientific Center of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perynatology in Moscow, Russia. Clinical investigations included karyotyping, ultrasound imaging, hormonal measurement and investigations of gonadal morphology. The male characteristics in the embryo are imposed by testicular hormones. When these are absent or inactive, the fetus may be arrested at between developmental stages, or stay on indifferent stage and become phenotypically female. A systematic analysis of gonadal morphology in DSD patients and a literature review revealed some controversies and led us to formulate a new hypothesis about sex differentiation. Proliferation of the mesonephric system (tubules and corpuscles) in the gonads stimulates the masculinization of gonads to testis. Sustentacular Sertoli cells of the testes are derived from mesonephric excretory tubules, while interstitial Leydig cells are derived from the original mesenchyme of the mesonephros. According of the new hypothesis, the original mesonephric cells (tubules and corpuscles) potentially persist in the ovarian parenchyma. In female gonads, some mesonephric excretory tubules regress and lose the tubular structure, but form ovarian theca interna and externa, becoming analogous to the sustentacular Sertoli cells in the testis. The ovarian interstitial Leydig cells are derived from intertubal mesenchyme of the mesonephros, similar to what occurs in male gonads (testis). Surprisingly, the leading determinative factor in sexual differentiation of the gonads is the mesonephros, represented by the embryonic urinary system. PMID:26950283

  8. Stem Cells in Mammalian Gonads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Ding, Xinbao; Wang, Jian

    Stem cells have great value in clinical application because of their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Mammalian gonads, including testes for males and ovaries for females, are composed of germline and somatic cells. In male mammals, spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis which occurs continuously in adult testis. Likewise, a growing body of evidence demonstrated that female germline stem cells could be found in mammalian ovaries. Meanwhile, prior studies have shown that somatic stem cells exist in both testes and ovaries. In this chapter, we focus on mammalian gonad stem cells and discuss their characteristics as well as differentiation potentials.

  9. Steroidogenesis in fetal bovine gonads.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, M M; Liptrap, R M; Basrur, P K

    1988-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis in bovine fetuses of 40 to 125 days gestation was examined using histochemical procedures and radioimmunoassay on gonadal cultures to determine the physiological correlates of gonadal morphogenesis in cattle. Gonadal morphology and the in vitro secretion patterns were distinct between the sexes by 45 days when testes secreted significantly higher levels of testosterone and androstenedione and lower levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol that the ovaries (p less than 0.0001). It would appear that the main steroid route in the ovaries of 45 to 70 day old fetuses is the androstenedione to estrone to 17 beta-estradiol pathway. The high estrone secretion and the decreasing levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in the ovaries of 70 to 125 day fetuses suggest an inhibition of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. It is postulated that this shift in steroid biosynthetic pathways may be related to the change in cellular events from mitosis to meiosis in fetal ovaries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:3196968

  10. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  11. [Gonadal function in Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Alves, Márcia; Bastos, Margarida; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome is characterized by the absence, total or partial, of one X chromosome in females, being one of the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities. Diagnosis is made by karyotype. Turner syndrome manifestations include primary hypogonadism, before or after puberty (gonadal dysgenesis). The degree and extent of gonadal disfunction are variable. We intended to assess clinical, karyotype, gonadal function and pelvic ultrasound characteristics in women with Turner syndrome. Retrospective study of patients with Turner syndrome followed in Endocrinology and Human Reproduction Departments of Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra - Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, E.P.E. We evaluated the entire sample and considered group 1 (with spontaneous puberty and menarche) and group 2 (without spontaneous puberty). Parameters assessed: age at initial study, puberty (Tanner stages), karyotype, FSH, pelvic ultrasound (initial and after puberty), diagnostic laparoscopy and pubertal induction. Statistical Program: SPSS (20.0). Global sample: 79 patients, 14.7 ± 6.6 years. No pubertal signs in 57.1%; 67.1% with primary amenorrhea and 6.6% with secondary amenorrhea. Karyotype: X monosomy-37.2%, mosaicism-37.2%, X structural changes-25.6%. Median FSH of 59.5 mIU/ mL. Initial ultrasound: normal uterus 34.2%, atrophic uterus 65.8%; normal ovaries 21.6%, atrophic ovaries 78.4%, ovarian follicles in 5.1%. Post-puberty ultrasound: normal uterus 67.9%, atrophic uterus 32.1%; normal ovaries 36.4%, atrophic ovaries 63.6%. Laparoscopy was performed in 16 (20.3%) patients, confirming the sonographic findings. Only two women with induced puberty became pregnant: one spontaneously, interrupted; another by donated oocytes, normal outcome. Group 1 (with spontaneous puberty and menarche): 20 (25.3%) patients, 16.1 ± 8.9 years. Tanner at baseline: M1-22.2%, M2-33.3%, M3-16.7%, M4-16.7%, M5-11.1%. Karyotype: mosaicism-65%, X structural changes-20%, X monosomy-15%. Median FSH of 7 m

  12. Mutation of Gonadal soma-derived factor induces medaka XY gonads to undergo ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takuto; Saino, Kentaro; Matsuda, Masaru

    2015-11-06

    Gonochoristic species have a bipotential gonad that develops into a testis or an ovary. In species whose sex is determined by a genetic factor, the expression of a sex-determining gene is the first cue that directs the development of a bipotential gonad. Subsequent expression of downstream genes induces the gonad to develop into a testis or an ovary. The TGF-ß family member Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf) is thought to be an important gene for gonadal development in teleost fish, and it is expressed at higher levels in the testis than in the ovary from early to mature stages. However, there is little functional information about the gene. In this study, we targeted the Gsdf coding region in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and studied the phenotypes of the Gsdf mutant medaka. Although normal and heterozygous XY gonads developed into a testis, all XY gonads with a homozygous mutation in Gsdf developed into an ovary at early developmental stages. However, two-thirds of Gsdf mutant XY gonads developed into testes in the adult stages. These results demonstrate that although a gonad can develop into a complete testis in the absence of Gsdf, Gsdf function is critical for directing the bipotential gonad at early developmental stages. Therefore, Gsdf is an endogenous inducer of testicular development similar to a master sex-determining gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in a 45,X neonate with chromosome Y material in the dysgenetic gonad.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Ageliki; Chrysis, Dionisios; Stefanou, Eunice-Georgia; Mantagos, Stefanos; Salakos, Christos

    2009-11-01

    We report on a neonate with a disorder of sex development, Prader 3-4 external genitalia and a palpable structure in the right inguinal canal suggestive of gonadal tissue. Chromosome studies on blood lymphocytes showed monosomy of chromosome X. Laparoscopy identified a streak-like gonad on the left side, unicorn uterus and a dysgenetic testis on the right, attached to a Fallopian tube. Because of the unilateral palpable gonad and the presence of ambiguous genitalia we investigated further for the presence of Y material. Quantitative fluorescent PCR analysis of material from the dysgenetic gonad and skin fibroblasts revealed the presence of chromosome Y-derived sequences, suggesting sex chromosome mosaicism. In 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, chromosome studies carried out on peripheral lymphocytes do not always reflect the proportion of cell lines in the gonads. The detection of Y chromosome material in a dysgenetic gonad is extremely significant, due to the high risk of malignant transformation.

  14. Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T.

    1994-09-01

    Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

  15. Methods for the Study of Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafal P

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge on gonadal development and sex determination is the product of many decades of research involving a variety of scientific methods from different biological disciplines such as histology, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The earliest embryological investigations, followed by the invention of microscopy and staining methods, were based on histological examinations. The most robust development of histological staining techniques occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and resulted in structural descriptions of gonadogenesis. These first studies on gonadal development were conducted on domesticated animals; however, currently the mouse is the most extensively studied species. The next key point in the study of gonadogenesis was the advancement of methods allowing for the in vitro culture of fetal gonads. For instance, this led to the description of the origin of cell lines forming the gonads. Protein detection using antibodies and immunolabeling methods and the use of reporter genes were also invaluable for developmental studies, enabling the visualization of the formation of gonadal structure. Recently, genetic and molecular biology techniques, especially gene expression analysis, have revolutionized studies on gonadogenesis and have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern this process. The successive invention of new methods is reflected in the progress of research on gonadal development.

  16. Gonadal ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropoda: occurrence and regulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark R; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Rees, Huw H

    2009-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are demonstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the tissue source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.

  17. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature.

  18. Stem cell potential of the mammalian gonad

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Feng; Barsoum, Ivraym; Gupta, Rupesh; Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential for therapeutic application because of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into different cell types. Gonads, which consist of somatic cells and germ cells, are the only organs capable of transmitting genetic materials to the offspring. Germ-line stem cells and somatic stem cells have been found in the testis; however, the presence of stem cells in the ovary remains controversial. In this review, we discuss studies focusing on whether stem cell properties are present in the different cell types of male and female gonads and their implications on stem cell research. PMID:19482665

  19. [XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis and XYY syndrome].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis is a disease related to Turner's syndrome. Patients of this disease are characterized by normal female external genitalia, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Recently, it has been reported that point mutations of the FSH receptor gene may be one of cause of this disease. The relationship between criminal behavior and XYY syndrome is still controversial. Increased incidence of disomic sperm in 47,XYY males has been reported by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Genetic counseling should be done when they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  20. Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads and brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Eriksson, Hanna; Söderqvist, Anneli; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2009-01-31

    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal wastewater treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stages 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE(2). Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazole-exposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41 and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE(2)-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE(2) on brain aromatase

  1. REDUCING GONAD IRRADIATION IN PEDIATRIC DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Harry A.; Webber, Milo; O'Loughlin, Bernard J.

    1959-01-01

    The greatest danger of carcinogenesis and of genetic damage through diagnostic radiologic procedures is in children, whose smaller bodies are more vulnerable and who have a longer life span in which this damage can be realized. Film badges placed on the gonad area during radiologic studies indicated widely varying degrees of gonad irradiation from similar procedures. These results emphasize the importance of technique in protecting children from unnecessary exposure. Such exposure can be reduced by greater beam filtration, use of higher tube potentials, careful beam collimation and centering, closer coning and shielding of the gonads. A new film tested reduced exposure time by 50 per cent. Further reduction was obtained by high-speed screens. A most important measure is avoidance of unnecessary, repetitious and undiagnostic studies. Fluoroscopy should be avoided if possible. If not, the operator must dark-adapt his eyes, use the smallest possible current, the narrowest beam, and the shortest exposure time. Image intensification promotes these aims. Modern equipment, properly shielded, assures against unsuspected exposure. PMID:13618739

  2. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Sloane, Emily S; Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Arched gonadal arteries in the South African negro.

    PubMed Central

    Grine, F E; Kramer, B

    1981-01-01

    The frequency with which the gonadal arteries follow a recurrent course, upwards and arching over the renal veins before descending to the gonads, is recorded for the South African Negro. The gonadal arteries follow such a course on the left side in 17, 2% and on the right side in 22% of cases. This incidence for arched left sided arteries is comparable to that recorded in other studies, but the frequency for arched right sided arteries in the South African Negro appears to be higher. Recognition of arching gonadal arteries is of importance to the vascular surgeon and urologist. PMID:7298490

  4. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  5. The occurrence of gonadal dysgenesis in association with monozygotic twinning.

    PubMed Central

    Karp, L; Bryant, J I; Tagatz, G; Giblett, E; Fialkow, P J

    1975-01-01

    A case is presented of a monozygotic twin pair, discordant for phenotypic sex, in which the female member showed gonadal dysgenesis and chromosomal mosaicism. Review of the pertinent literature reveals that in monozygotic twin pairs, phenotypic and karyotypic concordance is the usual occurrence for Down's and Klinefelter's syndromes, whereas discordance often accompanies gonadal dysgenesis. Mosaicism is a frequent concomitant of gonadal dysgenesis in monozygotic twins. Our case strengthens the probability of a real association between mosaicism and monozygotic twinning in gonadal dysgenesis. Images PMID:1121022

  6. Expression of miRNAs in ovine fetal gonads: potential role in gonadal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gonadal differentiation in the mammalian fetus involves a complex dose-dependent genetic network. Initiation and progression of fetal ovarian and testicular pathways are accompanied by dynamic expression patterns of thousands of genes. We postulate these expression patterns are regulated by small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to identify the expression of miRNAs in mammalian fetal gonads using sheep as a model. Methods We determined the expression of 128 miRNAs by real time PCR in early-gestational (gestational day (GD) 42) and mid-gestational (GD75) sheep ovaries and testes. Expression data were further examined and validated by bioinformatic analysis. Results Expression analysis revealed significant differences between ovaries and testes among 24 miRNAs at GD42, and 43 miRNAs at GD75. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a number of differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to target genes known to be important in mammalian gonadal development, including ESR1, CYP19A1, and SOX9. In situ hybridization revealed miR-22 localization within fetal testicular cords. As estrogen signaling is important in human and sheep ovarian development, these data indicate that miR-22 is involved in repressing estrogen signaling within fetal testes. Conclusions Based on our results we postulate that gene expression networks underlying fetal gonadal development are regulated by miRNAs. PMID:21223560

  7. Gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors. Disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis can be detected prior to the need for dialysis but continue to worsen once dialytic therapy is initiated. Impaired gonadal function is prominent in uremic men while the disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are more subtle. By contrast, central disturbances are more prominent in uremic women. Therapy is initially directed towards optimizing the delivery of dialysis, correcting anemia with recombinant erythropoietin, and controlling the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D. For many practicing nephrologists sildenafil has become the first line therapy in the treatment of impotence. In the hypogonadal man whose only complaint is decreased libido, testosterone may be of benefit. Regular gynecologic follow up is required in uremic women to guard against potential complications of unopposed estrogen effect. Uremic women should be advised against pregnancy while on dialysis. Successful transplantation is the most effective means of restoring normal sexual function in both men and women with chronic kidney failure.

  8. Dissecting the Role of Hedgehog Pathway in Murine Gonadal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsoum, Ivraym Boshra

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the universal pathways involved in animal development. This dissertation focuses on Hh role in the mammalian gonad development, which is a central part of mammalian sexual development and identity. The central dogma of mammalian sex development is that genetic sex determines the gonadal sex, which in turn…

  9. Dissecting the Role of Hedgehog Pathway in Murine Gonadal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsoum, Ivraym Boshra

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the universal pathways involved in animal development. This dissertation focuses on Hh role in the mammalian gonad development, which is a central part of mammalian sexual development and identity. The central dogma of mammalian sex development is that genetic sex determines the gonadal sex, which in turn…

  10. Characterization of early gonadal development in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and effects of ethinyl estradiol on gonadal differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Teleosts vary widely in patterns of gonadal sex differentiation, which might lead to differences in how gonadal development is affected by the presence of estrogenic compounds. This makes it difficult to apply our knowledge of model species such as medaka and fathead minnow to o...

  11. Characterization of early gonadal development in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and effects of ethinyl estradiol on gonadal differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Teleosts vary widely in patterns of gonadal sex differentiation, which might lead to differences in how gonadal development is affected by the presence of estrogenic compounds. This makes it difficult to apply our knowledge of model species such as medaka and fathead minnow to o...

  12. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  13. The end of gonad-centric sex determination in mammals.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Arthur P

    2012-02-01

    The 20th-century theory of mammalian sex determination states that the embryo is sexually indifferent until the differentiation of gonads, after which sex differences in phenotype are caused by the differential effects of gonadal hormones. However, this theory is inadequate because some sex differences precede differentiation of the gonads and/or are determined by non-gonadal effects of the sexual inequality in the number and type of sex chromosomes. In this article, I propose a general theory of sex determination, which recognizes multiple parallel primary sex-determining pathways initiated by genes or factors encoded by the sex chromosomes. The separate sex-specific pathways interact to synergize with or antagonize each other, enhancing or reducing sex differences in phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Participation of gonads in pulmonary silicosis].

    PubMed

    Ruse, M; Dascălu, R; Suciu, I; Zergreanu, O

    1976-05-01

    A survey is given on the participation of endocrine glands in the pulmonary silicosis. At the same time a new clinical and experimental contribution to the question of the appearance of a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is given. The frequency of this hypogonadism increases with the severity of the pulmonary silicosis. The immunological opinions as well as the neuroergonal ones concerning the pathogenesis of pulmonary silicosis gave the possibility of a better explanation of the mechanisms, by means of which also other organs may be attacked in pulmonary silicosis. The neuroendocrine system gives a defensive answer to the aggressive silicotic pulmonary process, which in general slowly progresses, but which may also be certain hormones from the group of the glucocorticosteroids in the adrenal cortex. The intervention into the axis hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal cortex has been provided in all defence processes of the organism against every aggression. By the functional or organic damage of the neuroendocrine system, by the immediate toxic effect of silicium dioxide or the monosilicium acid as well as by the effect of the secondary hypoxia in pulmonary silicosis an insufficiency in the stimulation and excretion of certain hormones develops. The origin of this insufficiency is found in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal centres, and the effects extend to all endocrine glands which depend on the system hypothalamus-hypophysis. This mechanism is made responsible for the appearance of a hypogonadotropic insufficiency of gonads in the course of a pulmonary silicosis and is proved clinically and experimentally in the cases investigated by the authors

  15. The genetics of XX gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aittomaeki, K. )

    1994-05-01

    In a nationwide population-based study of women born between 1950 and 1976, 75 patients with XX gonadal dysgenesis (XXGD) were identified in Finland. Patients were ascertained through hospital records and the registers of chromosome laboratories. In one family 4 daughters were affected; in six families 2 daughters were affected; and 57 cases were isolated. In one additional family the two affected females were in successive generations. Population records were utilized to trace ancestors of patients back to the beginning of the 19th century, in most cases. Consanguinity was detected in 8 (12%) of 66 families. When females only are considered, the segregation analyses yield a proportion of .23 affected. The relatively large number of affected individuals identified (incidence 1 in 8,300 live-born girls) implies a high gene frequency in the Finnish population. The geographic distribution was highly uneven, with most families originating in the sparsely populated north-central part of Finland. These findings support the existence of an autosomal recessive (XXGD) gene (locus designation [open quotes]ODG1[close quotes]) that is highly enriched in Finland. The multiplex families already identified will make it possible to map the ODG1 gene by a random search for linkage by using polymorphic markers. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis in the sporadic patients will then be used to test for genetic homogeneity versus heterogeneity. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Pathogenetics of 45,X/46,XY gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K S; Sulcova, V

    1998-01-01

    Five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism ranging from 8% to 66% of 46, XY lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were studied. Their age when chromosome studies were performed ranged from a few days to 37 yr. The phenotypic presentations were two females with gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome features (cases 1 and 2), two males with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (cases 3 and 4), and an infertile male with an atrophic testis (case 5). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual-color X and Y probes on paraffin-embedded sections of the gonads was performed to assess mosaicism. A mosaic cell line with a Y chromosome was present in the streak ovary, dysgenetic gonad, and testis. In the mixed gonadal dysgenesis cases (cases 3 and 4), the testis had a higher percentage (greater than two fold) of XY cells than the ovary had. However, the highest ratio of cells with a Y chromosome was in the atrophic testis of the infertile male (case 5). The distribution of mosaic clones in the different gonadal cell types was examined. Both females (cases 1 and 2) with dysgenetic gonads had scant ovarian stroma and nests of Leydig or hilus cells. In FISH studies, the coelomic epithelial cells were predominantly 46,XY; in comparison, the Leydig and hilus cells had a lower percentage and the ovarian stroma the least number of cells with a Y signal. A mixed gonadal dysgenesis case (case 3) possessed a right testis with an XY complement in approximately 21% of Sertoli cells and approximately 14% of Leydig cells. The infertile male had an atrophic testis with interstitial hyperplasia (case 5). His testis contained Sertoli cells but no evidence of spermatogenesis. FISH detected a Y signal in about 50-60% of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.

  17. [Asymmetrical gonadal dysgenesis. Report of a case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chapoy, P; Mattei, J F; Exbrayat, C; Louchet, E

    1979-01-01

    The authors report a case of asymmetrical gonadal dysgenesis related to 45XO-46XY mosaicism in a 16 year old girl. Delayed growth and puberty, Turner's dysmorphism without sexual ambiguity and skeletal abnormalities are the main clinical features suggesting the diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy reveals infantil uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and streak gonads. A right dysgenetic testis is identified on electron microscopic examination. Theories on pathogenesis of this unusual genetic defect are discussed.

  18. Laparoscopic Removal of Streak Gonads in Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mandelberger, Adrienne; Mathews, Shyama; Andikyan, Vaagn; Chuang, Linus

    To demonstrate the skills necessary for complete resection of bilateral streak gonads in Turner syndrome. Video case presentation with narration highlighting the key techniques used. The video was deemed exempt from formal review by our institutional review board. Turner syndrome is a form of gonadal dysgenesis that affects 1 in 2500 live births. Patients often have streak gonads and may present with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Patients with a mosaic karyotype that includes a Y chromosome are at increased risk for gonadoblastoma and subsequent transformation into malignancy. Gonadectomy is recommended for these patients, typically at adolescence. Streak gonads can be difficult to identify, and tissue margins are often in close proximity to critical retroperitoneal structures. Resection can be technically challenging and requires a thorough understanding of retroperitoneal anatomy and precise dissection techniques to ensure complete removal. Laparoscopic approach to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of streak gonads. Retroperitoneal dissection and ureterolysis are performed, with the aid of the Ethicon Harmonic Ace, to ensure complete gonadectomy. Careful and complete resection of gonadal tissue in the hands of a skilled laparoscopic surgeon is key for effective cancer risk reduction surgery in Turner syndrome mosaics. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  20. [SF-1, a key player in adrenal and gonadal differentiation: implications in gonadal dysgenesis and primary ovarian insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinerie, L; Bouvattier, C; Lombes, M

    2009-09-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene, identified by Keith Parker in 1992, encodes for an orphan nuclear receptor, NR5A1, whose expression is detected during fetal life in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenic tissues, but also in the developing hypothalamus and in pituitary gonadotropic cells. SF-1 knock-out mouse models exhibit complete adrenal and gonadal agenesis. Human mutations of this transcription factor, were initially associated with primary adrenal failure and male gonadal dysgenesis with various degrees of under androgenization. More recently, identification of novel SF-1 mutations responsible for isolated 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis or 46, XX primary ovarian insufficiency, underscores its central role in the control and maintenance of adrenal and reproductive functions. A better understanding in the regulatory mechanisms of SF-1 signaling pathway, will open new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic managements of sex differentiation disorders and infertilities.

  1. Cell-Specific mRNA Profiling of the Caenorhabditis elegans Somatic Gonadal Precursor Cells Identifies Suites of Sex-Biased and Gonad-Enriched Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Mary B; Zarkower, David

    2015-10-23

    The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad differs greatly between the two sexes in its pattern of cell divisions, migration, and differentiation. Despite decades of study, the genetic pathways directing early gonadal development and establishing sexual dimorphism in the gonad remain largely unknown. To help define the genetic networks that regulate gonadal development, we employed cell-specific RNA-seq. We identified transcripts present in the somatic gonadal precursor cells and their daughter cells of each sex at the onset of sexual differentiation. We identified several hundred gonad-enriched transcripts, including the majority of known regulators of early gonadal development, and transgenic reporter analysis confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. Before the division of the somatic gonad precursors, few sex-biased gonadal transcripts were detectable; less than 6 hr later, after their division, we identified more than 250 sex-biased transcripts, of which about a third were enriched in the somatic gonad compared to the whole animal. This indicates that a robust sex-biased developmental program, some of it gonad-specific, initiates in the somatic gonadal precursor cells around the time of their first division. About 10% of male-biased transcripts had orthologs with male-biased expression in the early mouse gonad, suggesting possible conservation of gonad sex differentiation. Cell-specific analysis also identified approximately 70 previously unannotated mRNA isoforms that are enriched in the somatic gonad. Our data illustrate the power of cell-specific transcriptome analysis and suggest that early sex differentiation in the gonad is controlled by a relatively small suite of differentially expressed genes, even after dimorphism has become apparent.

  2. Identification of X Monosomy Cells From a Gonad of Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis With a 46,XY Karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY. PMID:25860218

  3. Identification of X monosomy cells from a gonad of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XY karyotype: case report.

    PubMed

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY.

  4. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age <2 years, hormonal contraceptive or metformin use, Tanner stage <4, and incomplete data on PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2006-07-29

    Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under the control of cyclic changes in estradiol secretion. Women also appear to eat more sweets during the luteal phase of the cycle than other phases, possibly due to simultaneous increases in estradiol and progesterone. In rats and mice, gonadectomy reveals further sex differences: orchiectomy decreases food intake by decreasing meal frequency and ovariectomy increases food intake by increasing meal size. These changes are reversed by testosterone and estradiol treatment, respectively. A variety of peripheral feedback controls of eating, including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon, hepatic fatty acid oxidation, insulin and leptin, has been shown to be estradiol-sensitive under at least some conditions and may mediate the estrogenic inhibition of eating. Of these, most progress has been made in the case of CCK. Neurons expressing estrogen receptor-alpha in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem appear to increase their sensitivity to CCK-induced vagal afferent input so as to lead to an increase in the satiating potency of CCK, and consequently decreased food intake, during the peri-ovulatory period in rats. Central serotonergic mechanisms also appear to be part of the effect of estradiol on eating. The physiological roles of other peripheral feedback controls of eating and their central mediators remain to be established.

  6. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496] PMID:27530684

  7. Migratory ability of gonadal germ cells (GGCs) isolated from Ciconia boyciana and Geronticus eremita embryos into the gonad of developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Yuki; FUKUDA, Haruka; ONUMA, Manabu; MURATA, Koichi; UEDA, Miya; SUNAGA, Emi; SHIRAISHI, Toshirou; TAJIMA, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted experiments to evaluate the ability of gonadal germ cells (GGCs), isolated from the embryonic gonads of Ciconia boyciana or Geronticus eremita, to migrate into the gonads of developing chicken embryos. Fluorescently labeled GGCs, isolated by the PBS (−) method, were transferred into the dorsal aorta of 2-day-old chicken embryos. Five days after transfer, fluorescent GGCs were detected in the gonads of recipient embryos. Our results indicate that GGCs from Ciconia boyciana and Geronticus eremita are capable of migrating into the gonads of developing chicken embryos. PMID:26922915

  8. Testing the gonadal regression-cytoprotection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, B A; Spaliviero, J A; Simpson, J M; Handelsman, D J

    1998-11-15

    Germinal damage is an almost universal accompaniment of cancer treatment as the result of bystander damage to the testis from cytotoxic drugs and/or irradiation. Cancer treatment for the most common cancers of the reproductive age group in men has improved such that most are now treated with curative intent, and many others are treated with likelihood of prolonged survival, so that the preservation of fertility is an important component of posttreatment quality of life. This has led to the consideration of developing adjuvant treatments that may reduce the gonadal toxicity of cancer therapy. One dominant hypothesis has been based on the supposition that the immature testis was resistant to cytotoxin damage. Hence, if hormonal treatment were able to cause spermatogenic regression to an immature state via an effective withdrawal of gonadotrophin secretion, the testis might be maintained temporarily in a protected state during cytotoxin exposure. However, clinical studies have been disappointing but have also been unable to test the hypothesis definitively thus far, due to the inability to completely suppress gonadotrophin secretion. Similarly, experimental models have also given conflicting results and, at best, a modest cytoprotection. To definitively test this hypothesis experimentally, we used the fact that the functionally hpg mouse has complete gonadotrophin deficiency but can undergo the induction of full spermatogenesis by testosterone. Thus, if complete gonadotrophin deficiency were an advantage during cytotoxin exposure, then the hpg mouse should exhibit some degree of germinal protection against cytotoxin-induced damage. We therefore administered three different cytotoxins (200 mg/kg procarbazine, 9 mg/kg doxorubicin, 8 Gy of X irradiation) to produce a range of severity in testicular damage and mechanism of action to either phenotypically normal or hpg mice. Testis weight and homogenization-resistant spermatid numbers were measured to evaluate the

  9. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Manish; Ramachandran, Raja

    2012-03-01

    Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  10. Sources and function of neuronal signalling molecules in the gonads.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, A; Frungieri, M B; Bulling, A; Fritz, S

    1999-01-01

    While the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is crucial for the function of the gonads, non-endocrine regulatory influences are exerted by other factors within the gonads. Among these factors are neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines. Several types of receptors for catecholamines exist in the gonads on vascular or endocrine cells. Their activation can alter blood flow, steroidogenesis and gene expression, depending on the target cells. Recently a neuronal-like cell type expressing catecholamine-biosynthetic enzymes and neuronal proteins was identified in testis and ovary of human and non-human primates. Together with the well-known sympathetic innervation, this gonadal nervous system may serve as a source of catecholamines. Dopamine is present in the follicular fluid. Oocytes, while not able to perform de novo synthesis of catecholamines, were shown to utilize dopamine to produce norepinephrine. This catecholamine then acts on beta-adrenoreceptors of follicular cells to increase cAMP. Oocytes may thus indirectly via dopamine and cAMP be able to control their own meiotic arrest. In addition, neurotransmitters may also be synthesized in other, non-neuronal ovarian cells. Thus, cultured human granulosa-luteal cells possess the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme and the acetylcholine-specific vesicular transporter protein. These cells also express muscarinic-receptors (M1), which are linked to the mobilization of intracellular calcium and cell proliferation. This suggests involvement of the acetylcholine system in follicular growth and in the periovulatory events. In neurons, neurotransmitters alter the properties of the neuronal cell membrane. If this is the case in endocrine cells of the gonads is not yet clear, but the recent identification of voltage-activated potassium and sodium channels in human luteinized granulosa-luteal cells raises this question and opens a door to a new area of investigation.

  11. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

  12. Social regulation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, R C; Soma, K; Fernald, R D

    1993-01-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via neural and hormonal feedback. This axis is also subject to exogenous influences, particularly social signals. In the African cichlid fish Haplochromis burtoni, gonadal development in males is socially regulated. A small fraction of the males, which are brightly colored, maintain territories and aggressively dominate inconspicuously colored nonterritorial males. Here we show through manipulation of the social and endocrine environment that changes in social status and gonadal state are accompanied by soma size changes in a population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the ventral forebrain. In territorial males, these cells are significantly larger than in nonterritorial males. When an animal switches from being territorial to nonterritorial through a change in social situation, these cells shrink; in animals that change from nonterritorial to territorial status, the cells enlarge. These gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing cells project to the pituitary and are ultimately responsible for regulating gonadal growth. This mechanism of socially induced cell size change provides the potential for relatively quick adaptive changes in the neuron-endocrine system without nerve cell addition or death. Since the structure of this regulatory axis is conserved among all vertebrates, other species with socially modulated reproductive physiology may exhibit a similar form of physiological regulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8356086

  13. Gonadal dysfunction and infertility in kidney transplant patients receiving sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Boobes, Yousef; Bernieh, Bassam; Saadi, Hussein; Raafat Al Hakim, M; Abouchacra, Samra

    2010-06-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were receiving sirolimus. Follow-up data for two male patients were not available. The one unmarried female patient developed amenorrhea post-transplantation and had resumption of her menstrual cycles after discontinuation of sirolimus. The remaining six married patients (four males and two females), who all had fathered or conceived children in the pre-transplantation period, developed gonadal dysfunction and infertility on average 5-12 months after transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in all four male patients with full recovery of the oligo/azospermia and restoration of fertility. Both married female patients developed amenorrhea post-transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in one female patient with resumption of her menstrual cycles. In this small population of patients treated with sirolimus, the prevalence rate of reversible gonadal dysfunction and infertility was significant in both males and females. Infertility secondary to sirolimus is under-diagnosed and should be studied further.

  14. Characterization of vasa in the gonads of different ploidy fish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fan; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shaojun; Zhang, Zhuohui; Zhou, Yi; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-15

    Vasa is an essential gene for germ cell development belonging to the DEAD-box family. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the expression characteristics of vasa in diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. The sequences showed high similarity among these fish and other vertebrates, with characteristic domains. Tissue expression analysis revealed that vasa was expressed exclusively in the gonad of different ploidy fishes. During embryogenesis, vasa expression was lower in diploid than in triploid and tetraploid fish, caused by doubling of the genome of tetraploids and abnormal gonads in the triploid fish. In adults, vasa mRNA levels were significantly lower in the testes of sterile triploid fish compared with fertile diploids and tetraploids. In the ovaries, triploid fish showed consistently high expression from the non-breeding season to the breeding season. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting results also supported the abnormal expression of vasa in triploid gonads. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that fish of different ploidy exhibit different expression patterns of vasa that contribute to the differentiation of gonadal development.

  15. [The mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Diagnostic criteria and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Blanco, J A; Martínez-Mora, J; Granada, M; Toran, N; Isnard, R M; Castellví, A; Casasa, J M

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis represents the 7.6% of all our patients with intersexual states. We report 14 patients who present Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis. We have studied: diagnosis age; external genitalia description; sex assigned in birth and if has changed; the karyotype; sex chromatine; hormonal study; genitography; internal genitalia and internal Mullerians ducts structures; gonadal histologycal study; surgical treatment and hormonal treatment. The results show that 50% of the cases presents a 46XY karyotype and the other 50% mosaicisme 45XO/46XY. The histological study is very distinctive. A vulvovagynoplasty and clitoroplasty was made in all the cases. Four patients must follow an hormonal treatment after reaching puberal age. Summing up, with patients having ambiguous genitalia we can suspect it consists of a Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis. The diagnosis must be precocious. And this diagnosis will be based in an ambiguous genitalia, with a karyotype 46XY or 45XO/46XY, the persistence of the internal Müllerian duct structures, and the histological study with a dysgenetic testis. These patients should be raised as females because they can obtain a good morphological and functional development like a normal female.

  16. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E

    2015-09-01

    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-level expression of divergent endodermal lineage markers in gonadal and extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Hadi; Hong, Hong; Redline, Raymond W

    2016-10-01

    Yolk sac tumors occur at both gonadal and extra-gonadal sites. A recent case of ovarian endometrioid-pattern yolk sac tumor with strong diffuse expression of TTF-1 illustrated the potential for misdiagnosis due to divergent expression of endodermal lineage markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of four divergent endodermal lineage markers, TTF-1, CDX2, Hep Par 1, and Napsin A, in gonadal and extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors of differing age, sex, and location (excluding foci of overt hepatoid differentiation). We identified 26 cases (5 ovarian, 15 testicular, and 6 extra-gonadal) containing yolk sac tumor as identified by typical histology and confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining for alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Mixed or ambiguous foci were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (SALL4 positive and Oct-4 negative). The relative proportion of three histologic patterns: reticular/cystic, solid/myxoid, and glandular was estimated. Percent positivity for the four divergent endodermal lineage markers was compared within yolk sac tumor areas according to site, age group, and histologic pattern. High-level (>25%) staining for one or more divergent endodermal lineage markers was seen in eleven cases: Hep Par 1 in seven cases, all post-pubertal, TTF-1 in four cases, two ovarian and two extra-gonadal, and CDX2 in three cases, with no age or site predilection. No case highly expressed all three divergent endodermal lineage markers, but four co-expressed high levels of two markers: two ovarian yolk sac tumors with TTF-1 and Hep Par 1, one testicular yolk sac tumor with CDX2 and Hep Par 1, and one extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors with TTF-1 and CDX2. While no absolute correlation of high-level divergent endodermal lineage marker expression with histologic subtype was observed, TTF-1 and CDX2 expression was predominantly seen in reticular/cystic and glandular areas while Hep Par 1 was most frequent in myxoid/solid and glandular areas.

  18. Differential effects of busulfan on gonadal development in five divergent anuran species.

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafał P; Pecio, Anna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of germ cell depletion on the sexual differentiation of gonads in five anuran species. We used busulfan to eliminate the germ cells. Our results indicate that germ cells are not required for gonadal ridge formation or the development of the undifferentiated gonads. We observed a gradual degeneration of gonads in studied species and the transdifferentiation of the whole gonads into large fat bodies in Xenopus laevis. In the latter the sexual differentiation of gonads or seminiferous tubules were not impaired in the absence of germ cells. Thus, the X. laevis may serve as a model to study the human Del Castillo syndrome. Our study shows that in anuran amphibians the germ cells are not necessary for the formation of the testis, but they are crucial for development of the ovaries and are required for the maintenance of the gonadal structure.

  19. Hermaphroditism: cytogenetics, gonadal pathology and gender assignment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Duncan, N D; Gabay, L; Williams, E; Dundas, S E; Plummer, N; Leake, P A

    2006-12-01

    True hermaphroditism is a rare intersex disorder in which individuals possess both testicular and ovarian gonadal tissue. A case of true unilateral hermaphroditism presenting with ambiguous external genitalia, right scrotal testis and left pelvic ovotestis is herein outlined Phallic, gonadal and genetic factors were considered before male gender was assigned. Gender assignment procedures have been questioned by intersex activists opposed to early genital surgery. Western societies have a binary perspective on gender and this leads to a stigma being placed on intersex cases. A multidisciplinary approach to this problem involving paediatric specialists in the field, of endocrinology, surgery and psychiatry is necessary, along with educational programmes that promote tolerance in society to variations in gender.

  20. X/XYq - mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, E; Silva, R; Ramirez, E; Nossa, M A

    1977-01-01

    A non-fluorescent Y chromosome was observed in a phenotypic male with 45,X/46,XYq-mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Q-banding of the father's chromosomes showed a normally fluorescent Y. Measurements of the Y chromosomes in the father and the patient showed a significant difference in length. Evidence for translocation of the Y fluorescent segment to another chromosome was lacking in the present case. Images PMID:926138

  1. Kallmann syndrome 1 gene is expressed in the marsupial gonad.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongshi; Shaw, Geoff; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2011-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome is characterized by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and anosmia. The syndrome can be caused by mutations in several genes, but the X-linked form is caused by mutation in the Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL1). KAL1 plays a critical role in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal migration that is essential for the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Interestingly, KAL1 appears to be missing from the rodent X, and no orthologue has been detected as yet. We investigated KAL1 during development and in adults of an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Marsupial KAL1 maps to an autosome within a group of genes that was added as a block to the X chromosome in eutherian evolution. KAL1 expression was widespread in embryonic and adult tissues. In the adult testis, tammar KAL1 mRNA and protein were detected in the germ cells at specific stages of differentiation. In the adult testis, the protein encoded by KAL1, anosmin-1, was restricted to the round spermatids and elongated spermatids. In the adult ovary, anosmin-1 was not only detected in the oocytes but was also localized in the granulosa cells throughout folliculogenesis. This is the first examination of KAL1 mRNA and protein localization in adult mammalian gonads. The protein localization suggests that KAL1 participates in gametogenesis not only through the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by activation of GnRH neuronal migration, but also directly within the gonads themselves. Because KAL1 is autosomal in marsupials but is X-linked in eutherians, its conserved involvement in gametogenesis supports the hypothesis that reproduction-related genes were actively recruited to the eutherian X chromosome.

  2. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids.

    PubMed

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C

    2012-10-07

    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  3. Effects of endocrine disrupters on sexual, gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Scholz, S; Klüver, N

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones play an important role in the sexual differentiation of fish. Thus, it is not surprising that chemical contaminants with steroid-like activities were considered as responsible for the unusual occurrence of gonadal intersex conditions and other gonadal aberrations in feral fish. In this review, we give an overview about field data and summarise and categorise experimental evidence that links disruption of gonadal development in gonochoristic fish to contaminations by endocrine disrupting chemicals. A comprehensive overview on laboratory studies using water-borne exposures and histopathological analysis is given. Parameters ranging from simple quantitative characteristics such as sex ratio, number of sex reversed fish, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) to detailed morphometric analyses have been considered. Categorisation of the data indicates 2 major groups of chemicals with apparently conserved effects across species, i.e. estrogenic/anti-androgenic or androgenic/anti-estrogenic compounds. Since gross morphological parameters and histological analysis are often the first parameters measured in field campaigns for sampling of feral fish, the review supports the critical evaluation of present and future field studies and the confirmation or rejection of causative links to exposure with endocrine disrupting chemicals. Furthermore, in combination with the analysis of molecular endpoints the processed data will be useful to deduce mechanistic information on potential endocrine disrupting compounds.

  4. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir; Jamal, Ayana; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development.

  5. Gonadal soma controls ovarian follicle proliferation through Gsdf in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Lin; Desvignes, Thomas; Bremiller, Ruth; Wilson, Catherine; Dillon, Danielle; High, Samantha; Draper, Bruce; Buck, Charles Loren; Postlethwait, John

    2017-08-30

    Aberrant signaling between germ cells and somatic cells can lead to reproductive disease and depends on diffusible signals, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) -family proteins. The TGFB-family protein Gsdf (gonadal soma derived factor) controls sex determination in some fish and is a candidate for mediating germ cell/soma signaling. Zebrafish expressed gsdf in somatic cells of bipotential gonads and expression continued in ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. Homozygous gsdf knockout mutants delayed leaving the bipotential gonad state, but then became a male or a female. Mutant females ovulated a few oocytes, then became sterile, accumulating immature follicles. Female mutants stored excess lipid and down-regulated aromatase, gata4, insulin receptor, estrogen receptor, and genes for lipid metabolism, vitellogenin, and steroid biosynthesis. Mutant females contained less estrogen and more androgen than wild-types. Mutant males were fertile. Genomic analysis suggests that Gsdf, Bmp15, and Gdf9, originated as paralogs in vertebrate genome duplication events. In zebrafish, gsdf regulates ovarian follicle maturation and expression of genes for steroid biosynthesis, obesity, diabetes, and female fertility, leading to ovarian and extra-ovarian phenotypes that mimic human polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), suggesting a role for a related TGFB signaling molecule in the etiology of PCOS. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex differences in psychopathology: of gonads, adrenals and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2009-05-25

    Stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression are disproportionately prevalent in women. Women are more likely to experience depression and anxiety disorders during periods of marked hormonal fluctuations, suggesting that gonadal hormones are involved in stress pathology. Depression and anxiety are both associated with aberrant secretion of glucocorticoids, which also show marked fluctuations across the reproductive cycle and in response to gonadal steroids. Thus, interactions between gonadal and stress hormones may play a major role in predisposing females to stress-related disease. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight preclinical data regarding the role of estrogens in depression and anxiety-like behaviors. While it is evident the exogenous estrogens modulate affective behavior in rodents, there is some disagreement in the literature, perhaps related to experimental designs that vary with respect to administration parameters and stress. Beneficial effects of estrogens on mood are most likely due to estrogen receptor (ER)beta signaling. The antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of ERbeta are consistent with its role in attenuating glucocorticoid responses to stress, suggesting that estrogens, acting at ERbeta, may improve mood by suppressing glucocorticoid hyperactivity. However, additional studies demonstrate that ERbeta signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to induce antidepressant and anxiolytic behaviors. Thus, ERbeta may improve mood via primary actions on hypothalamic (i.e., paraventricular nucleus) and/or extra-hypothalamic sites. Overall, the preclinical research suggests that selective ER modulators targeting ERbeta may be an attractive alternative or adjunct treatment to currently prescribed antidepressants or anxiolytics.

  7. Black carp vasa identifies embryonic and gonadal germ cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Miao; Pan, Qihua; Wang, Yizhou; Fang, Jian; Li, Lingyu; Deng, Yu; Chen, Kai; Wang, Qian; Chen, Tiansheng

    2017-07-01

    Identification of molecular markers is an essential step in the study of germ cells. Vasa is an RNA helicase and a well-known germ cell marker that plays a crucial role in germ cell development. Here, we identified the Vasa homolog termed Mpvasa as the first germ cell marker in black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). First, a 2819-bp full-length Mpvasa complementary DNA (cDNA) was cloned by PCR using degenerated primers of conserved sequences and gene-specific primers. The Mpvasa cDNA sequence encodes a 637-amino acid protein that contains eight conserved characteristic motifs of the DEAD box protein family, and shares high identity to grass carp (81%) and zebrafish (74%) vasa homologs. Second, Mpvasa expression was restricted to the gonad in adulthood by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The dynamic patterns of temporal-spatial expression of Mpvasa during gametogenesis were examined by in situ hybridization, and Mpvasa transcripts were strictly detected in gonadal germ cells throughout oogenesis, predominantly in immature oocytes (stage I, II, and III oocytes). Third, Mpvasa transcripts were highly detected in unfertilized eggs and early embryos, and the signal indicated a dynamic migration of the primordial germ cells during embryogenesis, suggesting that Mpvasa transcripts were maternally inherited and specifically distributed in germ cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Mpvasa is an applicable molecular marker for identification of gonadal and embryonic germ cells, which facilitates the isolation and utilization of germ cells in black carp.

  8. Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.; Campbell, R.H.; Deakin, D.P.

    1983-10-01

    Gonadal function was studied in two groups of children previously treated for medulloblastoma with surgery followed by postoperative craniospinal irradiation. In group 1 but not in group 2, the children also received adjuvant chemotherapy for one to two years. All children in group 1 received a nitrosourea (BCNU or CCNU), plus vincristine in four and procarbazine in three patients. The nine children in group 1 showed clinical and biochemical evidence of gonadal damage with elevated serum FSH concentrations and, in the boys, small testes for their stage of pubertal development. In group 2 (n . 8), each child had completed pubertal development normally, the boys had adult sized testes and the girls regular menses. Gonadotropin values were normal in all eight children. We conclude that nitrosoureas were responsible for the gonadal damage in the children in group 1, with procarbazine also contributing to the damage in the three children who received this drug. In view of the limited proved value of adjuvant chemotherapy with nitrosoureas in the treatment of medulloblastoma, recognition of this serious complication of cytotoxic drug therapy may necessitate reassessing in which subgroups of children with medulloblastoma the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy outweigh the complications.

  9. SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage: impact of gonadal function status

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, T.; Matsuo, N.; Nishimura, G.

    2001-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1997, knowledge about the SHOX gene has rapidly increased. In this review, we summarise clinical features and diagnostic and therapeutic implications in SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage. SHOX haploinsufficiency usually results in mesomelic short stature and Turner skeletal features, including Madelung deformity with puberty, in subjects with normal gonadal function. Thus, identification of early or mild signs of Madelung deformity is pivotal for the diagnosis, and gonadal suppression therapy may serve to mitigate the clinical features. By contrast, SHOX overdosage usually leads to long limbs and tall stature resulting from continued growth into the late teens in subjects with gonadal dysgenesis. Thus, the combination of tall stature and poor pubertal development is the key to diagnosis, and oestrogen therapy can help the prevention of unfavourably tall stature as well as the induction of sexual development. These findings, in conjunction with skeletal assessment in Turner syndrome and expression analysis during human embryogenesis, imply that SHOX functions as a repressor for growth plate fusion and skeletal maturation in the distal limbs and, thus, counteracts the skeletal maturing effects of oestrogens.


Keywords: SHOX; oestrogens; clinical features; practical implications PMID:11134233

  10. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Amir; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development. PMID:27163480

  11. Novel genes and hormonal regulation for gonadal development during embryogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lim, Whasun; Song, Gwonhwa

    2015-01-15

    Asymmetrical gonadal morphogenesis is well known in female chickens in contrast to males where both gonads develop symmetrically. However, only a few genes have been reported to determine differential morphology between female and male gonads in chicken and their mechanisms of action are unclear. Therefore, we focused on three genes (TOM1L1, TTR, and ZEB1) that are related to cellular proliferation and embryonic development based on previous study indicating up- or down-regulated transcripts in the asymmetric female gonads between embryonic day 6 (E6) and E9 by microarray analyses. To define the validity of the gene expression pattern discovered, q-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses were performed. In the left female gonad between E6 and E9 the expression of TOM1L1, TTR and ZEB1 increased at E9. On the other hand, TOM1L1 and TTR increased significantly in both male gonads between E6 and E9. In addition, recombinant FSH and LH stimulated proliferation of gonadal cells and influenced expression of selected genes in chickens. This suggests that hormonal regulation is involved in growth and development in the embryonic gonad of chickens. Collectively, the results show differential gene expression between the left and right gonads in chicken embryos and that of is regulated by gonadotropin. These results provide novel insights into candidate genes regulating gonad development and differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water temperature influences growth and gonad differentiation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758).

    PubMed

    Arfuso, F; Guerrera, M C; Fortino, G; Fazio, F; Santulli, A; Piccione, G

    2017-01-15

    The effect of rearing temperature on gonad differentiation and growth was evaluated in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). One control group (CG, n = 60) and two experimental groups (EG1, n = 30; EG2, n = 30) were selected. CG was reared at 15.0 °C during 10 days post-hatch (dph) and at 19.0 °C throughout the remaining larval and post-larval development. EG1 was exposed to 14.5 °C from 1 to 50 dph, followed by an increase to 20 °C until sampling (176 dph). EG2 was exposed to 14.5 °C from 1 to 37 dph, followed by an increase to 20 °C until sampling (226 dph); 30 fish from CG were randomly sampled at 176 dph (CG1, control for EG1) and 30 fish were sampled at 226 dph (CG2, control for EG2). Weight, total and fork length measurement, and gonad collection were performed. All biometric indices were higher in EG1 and EG2 than in CG1 and CG2, respectively. Histologic analysis reported 100% of undifferentiated gonads in CG1 and; EG1 reported 80% of undifferentiated gonads and 20% of gonads at early differentiation toward the male line. CG2 reported 34% of undifferentiated gonads, 10% of gonads at early differentiation toward the female line, 23% of gonads at early differentiation toward the male line, and 33% of gonads with intratesticular oocytes. EG2 reported 47% of gonads differentiated in testis, 33% gonads differentiated in ovary, and 20% of gonads with intratesticular oocytes. These results suggest that water temperature plays an important role in the process of gonad differentiation and growth of sea bass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads.

    PubMed

    Garama, Daniel; Bremer, Phil; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Sea urchin gonad (roe) is a highly valued food in Japan and North America. Gonad price is strongly influenced by quality, with appearance, especially colour being a major determinant. Previous attempts to extract a carotenoid profile from the New Zealand sea urchin species Evechinus chloroticus have been challenging due to the large amount of lipid present in the gonad. A carotenoid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method was developed to reduce lipid contamination by incorporating a saponification and lipid cold precipitation in the extraction procedure. This method enabled greater carotenoid purity and enhanced analysis by HPLC. Echinenone was found to be the main carotenoid present in all E. chloroticus gonads. Dark coloured gonads contained higher levels of fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol, β-carotene and xanthophylls such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. This information on the modification and deposition of carotenoids will help in the development of diets to enhance gonad colour.

  14. [New aspects of diagnosing and treating pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XY and 46XX].

    PubMed

    Baron, J; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Miedzianowski, J; Baron, J J

    1993-01-01

    Among 67 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis, karyotype 46XY was found in 46 and karyotype 46XX in 21 (26.3% of all intersexual subjects). Karyotype 46XY was either of pure type or mosaicism 45,X/46,XY (10.9%). Primary amenorrhea, underdevelopment of mammary glands and lack or poor development of pubic hair were the main complaints of the patients. In gonadal dysgenesis 46XY mammary glands were developed in 21.8% and pubic hair in 26% suggesting the presence within the gonads of the hormonally active tumor or the state after hormonal treatment. The patients with gonadal dysgenesis 46XX had lowered levels of estrogens and elevated levels of FSH and LH. Karyotype 46XY was not associated with evident changes in hormonal levels. Estrogens were both low and normal, and FSH was elevated (21.5 + 16.6 ug/ml) or normal (3.2-5.0 ng/ml). Total testosterone values were normal or slightly elevated. Such situation can be explained by the presence in some patients of tumors secreting either estrogens or androgens. Taeniform character of gonads was observed by ultrasonography whenever the presence of gonadal tumor was excluded. Histology of specimens taken from gonads or tumors demonstrated the presence of dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma type of malignancy in 53.1%, foci or proliferation of the Leydig cells in 31.3% and typical morphology of residual gonads without germinal cells only in 12.5%. The differentiation between pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX and primary ovarian insufficiency is required whenever no characteristic pattern emerges from clinical, hormonal, cytogenetic or ultrasonographic examination. Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX can be finally confirmed by the absence of gonocytes in the residual gonad. Besides of removal of gonads or tumors by surgery, the treatment of patients with 46XY karyotype consists in cyclic administration of estrogens and progestagens restoring menstruation and bringing development of secondary sex attributes.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  16. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull.

    PubMed

    Wood, A K; Blockey, B; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1979-10-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness.

  17. Dynamics of miRNA transcriptome during gonadal development of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Presslauer, Christopher; Tilahun Bizuayehu, Teshome; Kopp, Martina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Babiak, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Studies in non-teleost vertebrates have found microRNAs (miRNAs) to be essential for proper gonadal development. However, comparatively little is known about their role during gonadal development in teleost fishes. So far in zebrafish, a model teleost, transcript profiling throughout gonadal development has not been established because of a tiny size of an organ in juvenile stages and its poor distinguishability from surrounding tissues. We performed small RNA sequencing on isolated gonads of See-Thru-Gonad line, from the undifferentiated state at 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf) to fully mature adults at 24 wpf. We identified 520 gonadal mature miRNAs; 111 of them had significant changes in abundance over time, while 50 miRNAs were either testis- or ovary-enriched significantly in at least one developmental stage. We characterized patterns of miRNA abundance over time including isomiR variants. We identified putative germline versus gonadal somatic miRNAs through differential small RNA sequencing of isolated gametes versus the whole gonads. This report is the most comprehensive analysis of the miRNA repertoire in zebrafish gonads during the sexual development to date and provides an important database from which functional studies can be performed. PMID:28262836

  18. State of the art review in gonadal dysgenesis: challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis, a condition in which gonadal development is interrupted leading to gonadal dysfunction, is a unique subset of disorders of sexual development (DSD) that encompasses a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from normally virilized males to slightly undervirilized males, ambiguous phenotype, and normal phenotypic females. It presents specific challenges in diagnostic work-up and management. In XY gonadal dysgenesis, the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-chromosome material renders the patient at increased risk for developing gonadal malignancy. No universally accepted guidelines exist for identifying the risk of developing a malignancy or for determining either the timing or necessity of performing a gonadectomy in patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis. Our goal was to evaluate the literature and develop evidence-based medicine guidelines with respect to the diagnostic work-up and management of patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis. We reviewed the published literature and used the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system when appropriate to grade the evidence and to provide recommendations for the diagnostic work-up, malignancy risk stratification, timing or necessity of gonadectomy, role of gonadal biopsy, and ethical considerations for performing a gonadectomy. Individualized health care is needed for patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis, and the decisions regarding gonadectomy should be tailored to each patient based on the underlying diagnosis and risk of malignancy. Our recommendations, based on the evidence available, add an important component to the diagnostic and management armament of physicians who treat patients with these conditions. PMID:24731683

  19. Limitations of G-banding Karyotype Analysis with Peripheral Lymphocytes in Diagnosing Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ikuko; Miyamoto, Junko; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is an abnormal sexual differentiation syndrome usually presenting with ambiguous genitalia. Karyotype analysis is one of the essential components in the diagnosis of MGD and is conventionally done with peripheral lymphocytes by the G-banding technique. It is speculated that this conventional karyotype analysis has limitations since there are often difference in gonadal tissue analysis. Here we present four cases of MGD, in which karyotype analysis were performed by peripheral lymphocytes fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), gonad fibroblasts FISH and gonad fibroblasts G-banding technique, in addition to the conventional peripheral lymphocytes G-banding technique. In Case 1, the percentage of the 45,X cell line in lymphocytes decreased after birth and detection of mosaicism could only be done by karyotype of gonads at 7 mo of age. In Case 2, FISH analysis with peripheral lymphocytes was more useful for detecting low frequency mosaicism. In all cases, phenotype of gonads and external genitalia were more consistent with karyotype of gonads than that of the peripheral lymphocytes G-banding technique. In conclusion, conventional G-banding karyotype analysis with peripheral lymphocytes has limitations in the diagnosis and evaluation of MGD. Karyotype analysis by FISH or by using gonads is useful for diagnosing MGD and understanding of the phenotype of gonadal tissue. PMID:24790330

  20. State of the art review in gonadal dysgenesis: challenges in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    McCann-Crosby, Bonnie; Mansouri, Roshanak; Dietrich, Jennifer E; McCullough, Laurence B; Sutton, V Reid; Austin, Elise G; Schlomer, Bruce; Roth, David R; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Gunn, Sheila; Hicks, M John; Macias, Charles G

    2014-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis, a condition in which gonadal development is interrupted leading to gonadal dysfunction, is a unique subset of disorders of sexual development (DSD) that encompasses a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from normally virilized males to slightly undervirilized males, ambiguous phenotype, and normal phenotypic females. It presents specific challenges in diagnostic work-up and management. In XY gonadal dysgenesis, the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-chromosome material renders the patient at increased risk for developing gonadal malignancy. No universally accepted guidelines exist for identifying the risk of developing a malignancy or for determining either the timing or necessity of performing a gonadectomy in patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis. Our goal was to evaluate the literature and develop evidence-based medicine guidelines with respect to the diagnostic work-up and management of patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis. We reviewed the published literature and used the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system when appropriate to grade the evidence and to provide recommendations for the diagnostic work-up, malignancy risk stratification, timing or necessity of gonadectomy, role of gonadal biopsy, and ethical considerations for performing a gonadectomy. Individualized health care is needed for patients with XY gonadal dysgenesis, and the decisions regarding gonadectomy should be tailored to each patient based on the underlying diagnosis and risk of malignancy. Our recommendations, based on the evidence available, add an important component to the diagnostic and management armament of physicians who treat patients with these conditions.

  1. Intersex gonad differentiation in cultured Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Rzepkowska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Gibala, Monika; Roszko, Marek Lukasz

    2014-02-01

    Among sturgeons, the occurrence of individuals with gonads containing both testis and ovary components is considered pathological, and such fish are described as intersex individuals or intersexes. Intersexes are observed in both wild and cultured populations of sturgeon, usually at low frequencies. In the present study, intersex Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons constituted 30% of the studied populations. Macroscopically, intersex gonads were recognizable from 500 days posthatching (dph). Initially, gonads with predominantly male characteristics (testis-ova) were observed, but in older fish gonads with predominantly female traits (ova-testis) were more frequent. Using microscopic analysis, intersex gonads were discernible by 130-200 dph. Observations of intersex germinal epithelium development and analysis of sex distribution in the study populations indicated that feminization was occurring. Histological analysis revealed that differentiation of the germinal epithelium in such gonads was accompanied by various morphological alterations (transformations) that were described using quantitative and localization criteria. The most common type of transformations, massive subepithelial transformations, was manifested by the presence of abundant female germinal tissue located under the gonad surface epithelium in the developing testis. These transformations were identified in the early development stage (100-200 dph). In this type of transformation, differentiation of female germinal tissue at the gonad surface and male tissue at the mesorchium/mesovarium resulted in complete formation of both male and female germinal epithelia within the same gonad.

  2. Gonad morphogenesis and distal tip cell migration in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Ching; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration and morphogenesis are key events in tissue development and organogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the migratory path of the distal tip cells determines the morphology of the hermaphroditic gonad. The distal tip cells undergo a series of migratory phases interspersed with turns to form the gonad. A wide variety of genes have been identified as crucial to this process, from genes that encode components and modifiers of the extracellular matrix to signaling proteins and transcriptional regulators. The connections between extracellular and transmembrane protein functions and intracellular pathways are essential for distal tip cell migration, and the integration of this information governs gonad morphogenesis and determines gonad size and shape. PMID:23559979

  3. Evo-devo of the germline and somatic gonad in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pires-daSilva, A; Parihar, M

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent progress in the development of genetic tools, nematodes have become excellent models to address the mechanistic basis of evolution of development. The gonad is one of the most variable structures in nematodes, reflecting the diverse modes of reproduction and lifestyle in this phylum. During larval development, the gonad primordium has a key role in organizing the neighboring tissues. Therefore, changes in the development of the gonad do not only influence the evolution of its morphology but also the overall body plan of the nematode. Here, we review recent progress on the evolution of development of the germline and somatic gonad in nematodes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Brar, Karninder S.; Pandit, Aditi; Srivastava, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism. PMID:25593833

  5. Impact of uteroplacental insufficiency on postnatal rat male gonad

    PubMed Central

    Germani, Daniela; Puglianiello, Antonella; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Reda, Ahmed; Savchuk, Iuliia; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Cianfarani, Stefano; Söder, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction can affect gonadal development of the offspring and have an impact on reproductive health. To investigate the effects of intrauterine growth restriction induced by uterine artery ligation on the postnatal rat testis. Pregnant rats underwent uterine artery ligation at day 19 of gestation. Offspring were killed at 5, 20 and 40 days post-partum (dpp). At killing, one gonad was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and processed for RNA and steroid extraction. The other gonad was formalin-fixed for histology. Gene expression was analyzed by TaqMan Low-Density Array. Intratesticular testosterone, estradiol and serum gonadotrophins were measured. Thirty genes were dysregulated in intrauterine growth-restricted rats compared to controls, among which markers of Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function, cell metabolism and growth factors. Testis weights were significantly reduced at 5 and 20 dpp in intrauterine growth-restricted rats and caught-up by 40 dpp. Accordingly, Sertoli cell number was significantly lower in 5 dpp intrauterine growth-restricted rats. At 20 dpp, intratesticular testosterone was significantly increased in intrauterine growth-restricted rats, whereas serum gonadotrophins were unchanged. IUGR altered the gene expression in the rat testes up to peripubertal age and reduced testis size and Sertoli cell number in neonatal age. Multiple mechanisms encompassing genetic changes and steroid production by the testis may be involved in the catch-up growth phase that restored testis size by 40 dpp. Permanent consequences on organ function and gamete integrity cannot be excluded and deserve further investigations. PMID:27885054

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-12-30

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  7. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  8. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates. PMID:24416029

  9. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rakesh; Datta, Saumik; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner's stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml) or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml). Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH) was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251). Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation) revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD). The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient's caregivers. PMID:24251183

  10. A Boolean network model of human gonadal sex determination.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Osiris; Frias, Sara; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Kofman, Susana; Merchant, Horacio; Torres, Leda; Mendoza, Luis

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal sex determination (GSD) in humans is a complex biological process that takes place in early stages of embryonic development when the bipotential gonadal primordium (BGP) differentiates towards testes or ovaries. This decision is directed by one of two distinct pathways embedded in a GSD network activated in a population of coelomic epithelial cells, the Sertoli progenitor cells (SPC) and the granulosa progenitor cells (GPC). In males, the pathway is activated when the Sex-Determining Region Y (SRY) gene starts to be expressed, whereas in females the WNT4/ β-catenin pathway promotes the differentiation of the GPCs towards ovaries. The interactions and dynamics of the elements that constitute the GSD network are poorly understood, thus our group is interested in inferring the general architecture of this network as well as modeling the dynamic behavior of a set of genes associated to this process under wild-type and mutant conditions. We reconstructed the regulatory network of GSD with a set of genes directly associated with the process of differentiation from SPC and GPC towards Sertoli and granulosa cells, respectively. These genes are experimentally well-characterized and the effects of their deficiency have been clinically reported. We modeled this GSD network as a synchronous Boolean network model (BNM) and characterized its attractors under wild-type and mutant conditions. Three attractors with a clear biological meaning were found; one of them corresponding to the currently known gene expression pattern of Sertoli cells, the second correlating to the granulosa cells and, the third resembling a disgenetic gonad. The BNM of GSD that we present summarizes the experimental data on the pathways for Sertoli and granulosa establishment and sheds light on the overall behavior of a population of cells that differentiate within the developing gonad. With this model we propose a set of regulatory interactions needed to activate either the SRY or the WNT4/

  11. A novel morphological approach to gonads in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Lepais, Laureline; Morel, Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre; Gorduza, Daniela; Plotton, Ingrid; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Dijoud, Frédérique

    2016-11-01

    Disorders of sex development are defined as congenital conditions with discordance between the phenotype, the genotype, the karyotype, and the hormonal profile. The disorders of sex development consensus classification established in 2005 are mainly based on chromosomal and biological data. However, histological anomalies are not considered. The aims of this study were to define the specific pathological features of gonads in various groups of disorders of sex development in order to clarify the nosology of histological findings and to evaluate the tumor risk in case of a conservative approach. One hundred and seventy-five samples from 86 patients with disorders of sex development were analyzed following a strict histological reading protocol. The term 'gonadal dysgenesis' for the histological analysis was found confusing and therefore excluded. The concept of 'dysplasia' was subsequently introduced in order to describe the architectural disorganization of the gonad (various degrees of irregular seminiferous tubules, thin albuginea, fibrous interstitium). Five histological types were identified: normal gonad, hypoplastic testis, dysplastic testis, streak gonad, and ovotestis. The analysis showed an association between undifferentiated gonadal tissue, a potential precursor of gonadoblastoma, and dysplasia. Dysplasia and undifferentiated gonadal tissue were only encountered in cases of genetic or chromosomal abnormality ('dysgenesis' groups in the disorders of sex development consensus classification). 'Dysgenetic testes', related to an embryonic malformation of the gonad, have variable histological presentations, from normal to streak. Conversely, gonads associated with hormonal deficiencies always display a normal architecture. A loss of expression of AMH and α-inhibin was identified in dysplastic areas. Foci of abnormal expression of the CD117 and OCT4 immature germ cells markers in dysplasia and undifferentiated gonadal tissue were associated with an increased

  12. Gonadal differentiation in reptiles exhibiting environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Satomi; Parrott, Benjamin B; Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Brandon C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis

    2014-01-01

    As temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and homozygote or heterozygote genetic sex determination (GSD) exist in multiple reptilian taxa, they represent sex determination systems that have emerged de novo. Current investigations have revealed that the genetic mechanisms used by various reptilian species are similar to those used by other vertebrates. However, the recent completion or near completion of various reptilian genome projects suggests that new studies examining related species with and without TSD could begin to provide additional insight into the evolution of TSD and GSD in vertebrate ancestors. Major questions still remain concerning germ cell migration and specification, the differentiation of gonadal accessory cells, such as the Sertoli cells and granulosa cells of the developing testis and ovary, respectively, and the mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated during TSD events. Further, reptilian sentinels and their mechanisms of gonadogenesis will likely remain important indicator species for environmental health. Thus, ongoing and new investigations need to tie molecular information to gonadal morphogenesis and function in reptiles. Such data will not only provide important information for an understanding of the evolution of these phenomena in vertebrates, but could also provide an important understanding of the health of the environment around us.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 aromatase in equine gonads.

    PubMed

    Almadhidi, J; Seralini, G E; Fresnel, J; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1995-06-01

    Estrogens are the major steroids produced by equine gonads. To identify the cells responsible for estrogen synthesis, an antiserum against purified equine testicular cytochrome P450 aromatase was produced in rabbits. The reactivity and specificity of the antiserum were assessed by ELISA, immunoblot analysis, and immunoneutralization studies. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that in the male gonad, cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was localized in the interstitial tissue, whereas, under the experimental conditions used, the Sertoli and germ cells did not show any specific staining. In the ovary, the granulosa cells of small follicles exhibited faint immunofluorescent staining for P450arom and the granulosa cells of large, viable more follicles showed a high degree of immunoreactivity. In the corpus luteum, all the luteinized cells showed immunoreactivity. No immunoreactivity was detected in other cells of small and large viable follicles. Immunolocalization of P450arom in the equine testicular Leydig cells and in ovarian granulosa and luteinized cells indicates that these cells have the ability to metabolize androgens to estrogens and possibly to catechol estrogens.

  14. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells.

    PubMed

    Heeren, A Marijne; He, Nannan; de Souza, Aline F; Goercharn-Ramlal, Angelique; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Roost, Matthias S; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A J; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2016-02-01

    Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception). Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where 'adrenal' and 'ovarian' germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human 'adrenal' germ cells until W22. By contrast, 'ovarian' germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; He, Nannan; de Souza, Aline F.; Goercharn-Ramlal, Angelique; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Roost, Matthias S.; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception). Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development. PMID:26834021

  17. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot.

  18. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  19. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  20. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  1. Decision Processes During Development of Molecular Biomarkers for Gonadal Phenotypic Sex

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...

  2. Decision Processes During Development of Molecular Biomarkers for Gonadal Phenotypic Sex

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...

  3. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  4. Analysis of the p450 aromatase gene expression in the Xenopus brain and gonad.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Junshin; Wako, Syun; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Azusa; Yoshida, Yuki; Miyata, Shohei

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of 5'-RACE clones revealed two Cyp19 transcript variants (gonad p450 aroms 1 and 2) in the gonads and one Cyp transcript (brain p450 arom) in the brain that differed in their 5'-untranslated region (UTR). Since all cDNAs contained an identical open reading frame, it is considered that while Xenopus aromatase may be encoded by a single Cyp19 gene, it is transcribed by tissue-specific promoters, each of which may be regulated by a distinct set of transcriptional factors. While gonad p450 aroms 1 and 2 and brain p450 arom were expressed in the gonads, brain p450 arom was the predominantly expressed aromatase gene in the brain, with a low expression level of gonad p450 arom 1.

  5. Gonadal and adrenal androgen secretion in hirsute females.

    PubMed

    Molta, L; Schwartz, U

    1986-05-01

    The pathophysiology of glandular androgen hypersecretion must be regarded as a continuous process without sharp borderlines from normal to non-tumorous conditions, such as polycystic ovaries and hyperthecosis, to neoplastic disease. Hirsutism and related symptoms are most often caused by excess androgens of ovarian and/or adrenal origin, i.e. testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate. As demonstrated by selective catheterization of glandular effluents, combined hypersecretion occurs more frequently then either purely gonadal or adrenal overproduction. No correlation can be found between the type, frequency and extent of hormonal changes and the clinical, laparoscopic, angiographic, or histological findings. Dynamic function tests do not reliably discriminate between the various aetiological subgroups due to extremely variable and even non-specific individual responsiveness. Selective catheterization is presently the most sensitive method for the preoperative identification and localization of androgen-secreting neoplasms.

  6. Ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Bakoto, N; Corman, V; Legros, J J

    2011-02-01

    Cardiovascular and endocrine complications in male or sexually-ambiguous patients carrying a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are rarely discussed in the medical literature. However, young female patients with a diagnosis of Turner's disease usually benefit from regular cardiologic and endocrine follow-up, in accordance with current international guidelines. We report the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with an ambiguous phenotype known to harbor a mixed gonadic 45,X/46,XY type dysgenesis. The patient was admitted to the cardiology ward for investigation and management of cardiac failure secondary to both a biscupid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm. This case report, and the few others, which have been previously reported in the literature, emphasizes the importance of cardiologic and endocrine follow-up in male carriers of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.

  7. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  8. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C

    2017-04-07

    In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  9. Factors influencing reproduction and genetic toxic effects on male gonads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. P.; Dixon, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of toxicological study of a target organ, such as the testis, is to elucidate the qualitative and quantitative toxic effects of a chemical on that organ. The ultimate objective is to assess the toxic effects of a chemical in laboratory animals and extrapolate the pertinent experimental data to man. To accomplish these objectives, one must consider the main factors which may influence and modulate the toxic effects of chemicals in the organ. In the male gonads, such modifying factors are the pharmacokinetic parameters governing the absorption, distribution, activation and detoxification of indirect carcinogens, covalent bindings to macromolecules, and DNA damage as well as DNA repair of damaged germ cells. All of these factors have been presently studied in our laboratory and are discussed in this paper with the exception of covalent bindings to macromolecules. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the functional blood–testis barrier (BTB) closely resembles the blood-brain barrier in transport characteristics: the permeability of nonelectrolytes and the acidic drugs with pKa values depend upon their molecular size and their partition coefficients, respectively. Thus, the functional BTB, restricts the permeability of many foreign compounds to male germ cells. Studies of mixed function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 system in male gonads demonstrated that the presence of AHH, EH, and GSH-ST implicate activation and detoxification of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Thus, active electrophiles may exert significant toxic effects locally within both interstitial and germ cell compartments. The presence of an efficient DNA repair system in premeiotic spermatogenic cells (and not in spermiogenic cells) can further modify both toxic and mutagenic events in the subsequent differentiation of germ cells to mature spermatozoa. PMID:17539139

  10. The gon-1 gene is required for gonadal morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Blelloch, R; Anna-Arriola, S S; Gao, D; Li, Y; Hodgkin, J; Kimble, J

    1999-12-01

    In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, the gonad is a complex epithelial tube that consists of long arms composed predominantly of germline tissue as well as somatic structures specialized for particular reproductive functions. In gon-1 mutants, the adult gonad is severely disorganized with essentially no arm extension and no recognizable somatic structure. The developmental defects in gon-1 mutants are limited to the gonad; other cells, tissues, and organs appear to develop normally. Previous work defined the regulatory "leader" cells as crucial for extension of the gonadal arms (J. E. Kimble and J. G. White, 1981, Dev. Biol. 81, 208-219). In gon-1 mutants, the leader cells are specified correctly, but they fail to migrate and gonadal arms are not generated. In addition, gon-1 is required for morphogenesis of the gonadal somatic structures. This second role appears to be independent of that required for leader migration. Parallel studies have shown that gon-1 encodes a secreted metalloprotease (R. Blelloch and J. Kimble, 1999, Nature 399, 586-590). We discuss how a metalloprotease may control two aspects of gonadal morphogenesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Early Gonadal Differentiation of the Protogynous Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik; Baek, Hea Ja; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara is a popular aquaculture species in many Asian countries. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite that first differentiates into female and changes to male later. Due to this reproductive characteristic, stable supply of male and female gametes is a key to the success of seed production in this species. Thus, understanding early gonadal differentiation is required to develop effective sex control techniques. Red spotted grouper were reared in indoor tanks and sampled every 5 days from 40 days post-hatch (DPH) to 130 DPH. Changes of gonadal tissues were examined and analyzed by means of histology. A pair of gonadal primordium has already existed underneath the kidney in the posterior part of the body cavity at 38 DPH when this study began. Gonadal primordia of 38, 40 DPH consisted of germ cells surrounded by a few somatic cells. The blood vessel was observed in the gonadal primordium at 45 DPH. The number of somatic cells and size of gonadal primordium increased age-dependently up to 60 DPH. Formation of ovarian cavity was obvious by two protuberant aggregations of somatic cells at 65 DPH. Completed ovarian cavity and oogonia were first observed in the gonad of one fish sample at 105 DPH. Based on these histological observations, it can be suggested that induction of primary male differentiation could be more successfully applied at around 60 DPH in this species. PMID:26973972

  12. Regulation of Gonad Morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster by BTB Family Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diane; Olsen, Kenneth W.; Bednarz, Magdalena N.; Droste, Andrew; Jemc, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster. rib and lola are expressed in the SGPs of the developing gonad, and genetic interaction analysis suggests these proteins cooperate to regulate gonad development. Both genes encode proteins with DNA binding motifs and a conserved protein-protein interaction domain, known as the Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-à-brac (BTB) domain. Through molecular modeling and yeast-two hybrid studies, we demonstrate that Rib and Lola homo- and heterodimerize via their BTB domains. In addition, analysis of the colocalization of Rib and Lola with marks of transcriptional activation and repression on polytene chromosomes reveals that Rib and Lola colocalize with both repressive and activating marks and with each other. While previous studies have identified Rib and Lola targets in other tissues, we find that Rib and Lola are likely to function via different downstream targets in the gonad. These results suggest that Rib and Lola act as dual-function transcription factors to cooperatively regulate embryonic gonad morphogenesis. PMID:27898696

  13. DSH-2 regulates asymmetric cell division in the early C. elegans somatic gonad.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weiru; Lloyd, Christine E; Zarkower, David

    2005-06-01

    Like other organs, the C. elegans gonad develops from a simple primordium that must undergo axial patterning to generate correct adult morphology. Proximal/distal (PD) polarity in the C. elegans gonad is established early during gonadogenesis by the somatic gonad precursor cells, Z1 and Z4. Z1 and Z4 each divide asymmetrically to generate one daughter with a proximal fate and one with a distal fate. PD polarity of the Z1/Z4 lineages requires the activity of a Wnt pathway that activates the TCF/LEF homolog pop-1. How the gonadal pathway controlling pop-1 is regulated by upstream factors has been unclear, as neither Wnt nor Dishevelled (Dsh) proteins have been shown to be required. Here we show that the C. elegansdsh homolog dsh-2 controls gonadal polarity. As in pop-1 mutants, dsh-2 hermaphrodites have Z1 and Z4 lineage defects indicative of defective PD polarity and are missing gonadal arms. Males have an elongated but disorganized gonad, also with lineage defects. DSH-2 protein is expressed in the Z1/Z4 gonadal precursor cells. Asymmetric distribution of nuclear GFP::POP-1 in Z1 and Z4 daughter cells is reversed in dsh-2 mutants, with higher levels in distal than proximal daughters. dsh-2 and the frizzled receptor homolog lin-17 have a strong genetic interaction, suggesting that they act in a common pathway. We suggest that DSH-2 functions as an upstream regulator of POP-1 in the somatic gonad to control asymmetric cell division, thereby establishing proximal-distal polarity of the developing organ.

  14. Meiotic wave adds extra asymmetry to the development of female chicken gonads

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Bernardo, Ana; Heeren, A. Marijne; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Fernandes, Maria Gomes; He, Nannan; Anjie, Stafford; Noce, Toshiaki; Ramos, Ester Silveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Development of female gonads in the chicken is asymmetric. This asymmetry affects gene expression, morphology, and germ cell development; consequently only the left ovary develops into a functional organ, whereas the right ovary remains vestigial. In males, on the other hand, both gonads develop into functional testes. Here, we revisited the development of asymmetric traits in female (and male) chicken gonads between Hamburger Hamilton stage 16 (HH16) and hatching. At HH16, primordial germ cells migrated preferentially to the left gonad, accumulating in the left coelomic hinge between the gut mesentery and developing gonad in both males and females. Using the meiotic markers SYCP3 and phosphorylated H2AFX, we identified a previously undescribed, pronounced asymmetryc meiotic progression in the germ cells located in the central, lateral, and extreme cortical regions of the left female gonad from HH38 until hatching. Moreover, we observed that—in contrast to the current view—medullary germ cells are not apoptotic, but remain arrested in pre‐leptotene until hatching. In addition to the systematic analysis of the asymmetric distribution of germ cells in female chicken gonads, we propose an updated model suggesting that the localization of germ cells—in the left or right gonad; in the cortex or medulla of the left gonad; and in the central part or the extremities of the left cortex—has direct consequences for their development and participation in adult reproduction. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 774–786, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Reproduction and Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26096940

  15. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals New Potential Players of Gonad Differentiation in the Chicken Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Couty, Isabelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Govoroun, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein) and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. Conclusion/Significance This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors of chicken gonad

  16. Oestrogens and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles: all is in the gonads.

    PubMed

    Pieau, C; Dorizzi, M

    2004-06-01

    In many species of oviparous reptiles, the first steps of gonadal sex differentiation depend on the incubation temperature of the eggs. Feminization of gonads by exogenous oestrogens at a male-producing temperature and masculinization of gonads by antioestrogens and aromatase inhibitors at a female-producing temperature have irrefutably demonstrated the involvement of oestrogens in ovarian differentiation. Nevertheless, several studies performed on the entire gonad/adrenal/mesonephros complex failed to find differences between male- and female-producing temperatures in oestrogen content, aromatase activity and aromatase gene expression during the thermosensitive period for sex determination. Thus, the key role of aromatase and oestrogens in the first steps of ovarian differentiation has been questioned, and extragonadal organs or tissues, such as adrenal, mesonephros, brain or yolk, were considered as possible targets of temperature and sources of the oestrogens acting on gonadal sex differentiation. In disagreement with this view, experiments and assays carried out on the gonads alone, i.e. separated from the adrenal/mesonephros, provide evidence that the gonads themselves respond to temperature shifts by modifying their sexual differentiation and are the site of aromatase activity and oestrogen synthesis during the thermosensitive period. Oestrogens act locally on both the cortical and the medullary part of the gonad to direct ovarian differentiation. We have concluded that there is no objective reason to search for the implication of other organs in the phenomenon of temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. From the comparison with data obtained in other vertebrates, we propose two main directions for future research: to examine how transcription of the aromatase gene is regulated and to identify molecular and cellular targets of oestrogens in gonads during sex differentiation, in species with strict genotypic sex determination and species with

  17. Proteomic dataset of Paracentrotus lividus gonads of different sexes and at different maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Ghisaura, Stefania; Loi, Barbara; Biosa, Grazia; Baroli, Maura; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Roggio, Tonina; Uzzau, Sergio; Anedda, Roberto; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2016-09-01

    We report the proteomic dataset of gonads from wild Paracentrotus lividus related to the research article entitled "Proteomic changes occurring along gonad maturation in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus" [1]. Gonads of three individuals per sex in the recovery, pre-mature, mature, and spent stages were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach based on filter-aided sample preparation followed by tandem mass spectrometry, protein identification carried out using Sequest-HT as the search engine within the Proteome Discoverer informatics platform, and label-free differential analysis. The dataset has been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD004200.

  18. Imaging Findings in Dysgerminoma in a Case of 46 XY, Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay; Gujrati, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    A 46 XY pure gonadal dysgenesis also known as Swyer syndrome. These patients are phenotypic females with normal female external genitalia and absent testicular tissue. The patients with swyer syndrome have streak gonads and increased risk of dysgerminoma and gonadoblastoma. We present a case of dysgerminoma in dysgenetic gonads of swyer syndrome. A 23-year-old female had come with complaints of primary amenorrhea, pelvic mass and abdominal pain. Clinical findings, pathology investigation and imaging findings revealed swyer syndrome. On MRI it showed a large lobulated mass in the pelvis. Mass was excised and dysgerminoma was given on the histopathology. PMID:27790550

  19. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R.; Bernheim, A.

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  20. Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors). The gonadal sites (ovary and testis) account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas) constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST); dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80%) and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal malignant GCTs

  1. Presence of 11-ketotestosterone in pre-differentiated male gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Martín; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Vizziano-Cantonnet, Denise

    2013-02-01

    The involvement of androgens during sex differentiation period was investigated in the pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, by classic biochemical studies and gonadal histology. We studied in particular whether the enzyme activities involved in 11-oxygenated androgen production were active in a gonadal/peritoneum complex (GPC) of very small larvae exposed to masculinizing temperatures previous to morphological sex differentiation (5 weeks post-hatching). The GPC was incubated with 17-hydroxyprogesterone ((3)H-17P), and the presence of 11-KT as major metabolite in early gonads undergoing masculine pathway after temperature treatment exposure is reported. 11-KT was identified by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The present results show that 11-KT is produced at very early stages of testis development in pejerrey, being this androgen one of the main mediators of the masculinization induced by temperature treatment at the gonad level.

  2. Hypoxia Alters Gene Expression in the Gonads of Zebrafish, Poster Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to characterize gene expression responses to hypoxia in gonads of mature zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine how the duration of exposure affects gene expression.

  3. Analysis of Data from a System of Assessment of the Gonadal Radiation Dose During Radiographic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.; Olde, G. L.

    1965-01-01

    The radiation hazard, if any, from diagnostic x-ray examinations was assessed in a study divided into three phases: (1) the gathering of data to allow estimation of the total gonadal dose received by each patient; (2) the accumulation of the individual and accumulative gonadal-dose totals on a large group of patients; (3) the examination and follow-up of patients who had received a substantial gonadal dose to determine any relationship between small recurring doses of ionizing radiation and various indices of somatic and genetic damage. The mean gonadal dose received by females was much higher than that received by males—1012 mr. as compared to 310 mr. Of 7021 individuals in this study, only 428 (6.1%) received 2 r. or more during the three-year test period. No definite conclusions as to radiation hazard could be made. A system, however, has been developed which, if continued, could eventually produce this basic information. PMID:14281086

  4. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  5. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  6. Luteinizing hormone promotes gonadal tumorigenesis in inhibin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Agno, Julio E.; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The inhibins are secreted α:β heterodimers of the TGF-β superfamily that are mainly synthesized in Sertoli cells and granulosa cells, and are critical regulators of testicular and ovarian development and function. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the inhibin α subunit gene (Inha-/-) develop sex cord-stromal tumors in a gonadotropin-dependent manner. Here, we determine the contribution of LH to gonadal tumorigenesis by generating mice deficient in both inhibins and LH. Inha-/-Lhb-/- mice have increased survival and delayed tumor progression, and these observations correlate with lower serum FSH and estradiol levels compared to Inha-/- controls. Double mutant testicular tumors demonstrate decreased expression of cyclin D2, while double mutant ovarian tumors have elevated expression of p15INK4b and trend toward higher levels of p27Kip1. We conclude that LH is not required for tumor formation in the absence of inhibins but promotes tumor progression, likely through alterations in serum hormone levels and cell cycle regulators. PMID:18657590

  7. Ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at early gonadal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Makabe, S; Naguro, T; Heyn, R; Motta, P M

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at different stages of the testicular prenatal development is described by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation (w.g.) the interstitial tissue of the gonad is filled with small undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, migrating primordial germ cells and blood vessels. When the embryo is 7 to 8 weeks-old Leydig cells (LC) appear in basically two morphological patterns, light and dark cells. Their most significative feature is the development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) as a dense tubulo-vesicular network and the presence of numerous pleomorphic mitochondria with mainly lamellar cristae. At 14 and 16 w.g. the testicular interstitium reaches the maximum development; the cytoplasm of the LC shows a widespread network of anastomosing tubules of the SER and mitochondria with tubular cristae. Fetal LC show a partial cell coat, lack the crystals of Reinke, have few lipid droplets and show no signs of massive cell degeneration, at least until 16 w.g. These ultrastructural modifications in fetal LC are in accordance with the changes in both steroidogenic activity and hCG levels reported by the literature to occur at this stage of development. Junctional complexes were often observed among LC from 7 to 8 w.g. onwards.

  8. Gonadal steroid action and brain sex differentiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Y

    2009-03-01

    Gonadal steroids that establish sexually dimorphic characteristics of brain morphology and physiology act at a particular stage of ontogeny. Testosterone secreted by the testes during late gestational and neonatal periods causes significant brain sexual dimorphism in the rat. This results in both sex-specific behaviour and endocrinology in adults. Sexual differentiation may be due to neurogenesis, migration or survival. Each mechanism appears to be uniquely regulated in a site-specific manner. Thus, the volume of an aggregate of neurones in the rat medial preoptic area (POA), termed the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the POA (SDN-POA), is larger in males than in females. The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is packed with neurones containing oestrogen receptor (ER)beta in female rats but, in males, ERbeta-positive neurones scatter into the more lateral portion of the POA. POA neurones are born up to embryonic days 16-17 and not after parturition. Therefore, neurogenesis is unlikely to contribute to the larger SDN-POA in males. DNA microarray analysis for oestrogen-responsive genes and western blotting demonstrated site-specific regulation of apoptosis- and migration-related genes in the SDN-POA and AVPV.

  9. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2005-02-01

    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  10. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  11. Molecular regulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis in males.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Min; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2014-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) plays vital roles in reproduction and steroid hormone production in both sexes. The focus of this review is upon gene structures, receptor structures and the signaling pathways of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The hormones' functions in reproduction as well as consequences resulting from mutations are also summarized. Specific characteristics of hormones such as the pulsatile secretions of GnRH are also covered. The different regulators of the HPG axis are introduced including kisspeptin, activin, inhibin, follistatin, androgens and estrogen. This review includes not only their basic information, but also their unique function in the HPG axis. Here we view the HPG axis as a whole, so relations between ligands and receptors are well described crossing different levels of the HPG axis. Hormone interactions and transformations are also considered. The major information of this article is depicted in three figures summarizing the current discoveries on the HPG axis. This article systematically introduces the basic knowledge of the HPG axis and provides information of the current advances relating to reproductive hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Male gonadal environment paradoxically promotes dacryoadenitis in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, R E; Carnaud, C; Vogt, I; Mueller, C

    1998-01-01

    Similar to pancreatic islets, submandibular glands are more rapidly infiltrated in female NOD mice than in males. The present comparative analysis of cellular infiltrations in lacrimal glands, however, revealed the opposite finding. At 12 wk of age, approximately 25% of male lacrimal tissue area is infiltrated, whereas age-matched female NOD mice still lack major signs of inflammation. T cells predominate in early stages of invasion, but B cells accumulate promptly in more advanced stages, and ultimately dominate over T cells. Dacryoadenitis is promoted by sex hormones, as suggested by the reduced infiltrations seen in orchidectomized NOD males (P < 0.01). It is also controlled by the local environment provided by the lacrimal tissue. Splenocytes from 4- and 20-wk-old female NOD mice cause massive lesions upon adoptive transfer into NOD male recipients while, conversely, female recipients develop barely any histological sign of infiltration, even after transfer of splenocytes from 20-wk-old donor males. These observations provide strong evidence for a dacryoadenitis-promoting role of male gonadal hormones in NOD mice, a finding that contrasts the known androgen-mediated protective effects on insulitis and submandibulitis in the same strain and on dacryoadenitis in other animal models of Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:9502771

  13. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis homeostasis predicts longevity.

    PubMed

    Yonker, James A; Chang, Vicky; Roetker, Nicholas S; Hauser, Taissa S; Hauser, Robert M; Atwood, Craig S

    2013-02-01

    The reproductive-cell cycle theory of aging posits that reproductive hormone changes associated with menopause and andropause drive senescence via altered cell cycle signaling. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 5,034), we analyzed the relationship between longevity and menopause, including other factors that impact "ovarian lifespan" such as births, oophorectomy, and hormone replacement therapy. We found that later onset of menopause was associated with lower mortality, with and without adjusting for additional factors (years of education, smoking status, body mass index, and marital status). Each year of delayed menopause resulted in a 2.9% reduction in mortality; after including a number of additional controls, the effect was attenuated modestly but remained statistically significant (2.6% reduction in mortality). We also found that no other reproductive parameters assessed added to the prediction of longevity, suggesting that reproductive factors shown to affect longevity elsewhere may be mediated by age of menopause. Thus, surgical and natural menopause at age 40, for example, resulted in identical survival probabilities. These results support the maintenance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in homeostasis in prolonging human longevity, which provides a coherent framework for understanding the relationship between reproduction and longevity.

  15. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-03-16

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that in females it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 13 is May 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. Are sex steroids essential for gonadal differentiation of the ornate frog, Microhyla ornata?

    PubMed

    Mali, P V; Gramapurohit, N P

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about sensitivities and responses of amphibian larvae to sex steroids and the chemicals alike is the first step towards understanding and assessing the effect of diverse chemicals that interfere with gonadal development and other endocrine functions. Herein, we used Microhyla ornata to determine the role of sex steroids on its gonad differentiation and sex ratio. Our results show that the exposure to increasing concentrations of estradiol-17β throughout larval development did not affect gonad differentiation resulting in 1:1 sex ratio at metamorphosis. But, females emerging from estradiol-17β treatment had larger ovaries with larger sized follicles. Further, testes of some males contained lumens, the number of which was dose dependent. Similarly, exposure to testosterone propionate had negligible effects on gonad differentiation. However, the mean diameter of the largest follicles was smaller in treated ovaries. Treatment of tadpoles with tamoxifen had no effect on gonad differentiation and ovary development while testicular development was accelerated at the highest concentration. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with cyproterone acetate had little effect on gonad differentiation as well as development, hence the sex ratios at the end of metamorphosis. Further, in tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of formestane, gonad differentiation was normal resulting in 1:1 sex ratio. Thus, in M. ornata, both estradiol and testosterone are essential for the development of ovaries and testes respectively but, they are not critical to gonadal differentiation. Hence, the effects of sex steroids and other endocrine disrupting chemicals could be species-specific; different species may have differential sensitivities to such chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. P450 aromatase expression in the temperature-sensitive sexual differentiation of salamander (Hynobius retardatus) gonads.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Natsuko; Tamori, Yoichiro; Wakahara, Masami

    2005-01-01

    Sex differentiation of gonads in amphibians is believed to be controlled genetically, but altered epigenetically or environmentally. When larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus were reared at defined temperatures from hatching to metamorphic stages, a high temperature (28 degrees C) induced exclusively female gonads (ovaries), whereas intermediate (20 and 23 degrees C) or lower (16 degrees C) temperatures produced a 1:1 sex ratio of the morphological gonads. The thermosensitive period was determined to be restricted from 15 to 30 days after hatching, just before or when sexual differentiation occurred. Hynobius P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNA was isolated from adult gonads and the partial nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences were determined, showing a high level of identity with various vertebrate species. The P450arom gene was expressed predominantly in the adult ovary and brain, weakly in testis, but not in other somatic organs. A typical sexual dimorphism in P450arom expression was detected in normally developing larvae by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR; strong expression in the female gonads but very weak in male gonads. The dimorphism was detected much earlier than the morphological sexual differentiation of the gonads. When larvae were reared at the female-producing temperature (28 degrees C), strong expression was detected in all the temperature-treated larvae, suggesting that P450arom was up-regulated, even in genetic males. Our results confirm the importance of the P450arom regulation in the sexual differentiation of gonads and demonstrate that an up-regulation of P450arom is involved in the process of temperature-sensitive sex reversal in this species.

  18. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproduction Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function DAMD17-98-1-8180 and Reproductive Health 6. AUTHOR(S) Patricia A. Ganz, M.D. 7. PERFORMING...Input-JB 2 GANZ ET AL describe the effects of breast cancer treatments on gonadal function in Reproductive history and menopausal status were assessed...before diagnosis review board approval for this research at both hospitals, we obtained listings to a different category after breast cancer treatments . Gynecologic

  19. Gonadal and extra-gonadal sperm reserves and sperm production of pubertal rabbits fed dietary fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, E O; Egbunike, G N

    2010-06-01

    The influence of fumonisin B(1) (a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides) on sperm reserves and production of crossbred pubertal rabbits was studied using an experimental model that lasted 28 weeks. Forty-eight male rabbits, 7 weeks old and with average weight of 757.50+/-0.50 g, were allotted to four dietary fumonisin B(1) concentrations of 0.13, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg kg(-1) constituting diets 1 (control), 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The paired testes weight of rabbits fed diet 3 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed diet 2 and the control. However, the epididymal weight was significantly (P<0.05) lower in rabbits fed the control diet as compared to others on test diets. The gonadal sperm reserves of the animals were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by the toxin with increased concentrations of the toxin in the diets. The sperm reserves per testis and per gram testis were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the control rabbits than those fed diets 3 and 4. The sperm reserves in caput, corpus and caudal epididymis declined significantly with each increase in the fumonisin concentration in the diets. The number of spermatozoa in total caput, corpus and cauda was significantly (P<0.05) higher in rabbits fed the control diet and the least in rabbits fed diet 4 containing 10.0mg fumonisin B(1)/kg. Extra-gonadal sperm reserves significantly decreased (P<0.05) in rabbits fed diets 3 and 4 compared to the control. The daily sperm production of the animals fed diets 2, 3 and 4 declined significantly to 67, 59 and 36% relative to those animals fed the control diet. This study suggests that exposure of breeding male rabbits to diets contaminated with fumonisin B(1) up to 7.5 mg fumonisin B(1)/kg will depress testicular and epididymal sperm reserves and sperm production and potentially impair reproduction in the animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chub mackerel gonads support colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Higuchi, Kentaro; Yatabe, Takashi; Kabeya, Naoki; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2010-05-01

    The production of xenogenic gametes from large-bodied, commercially important marine fish species in closely related smaller host fish species with short generation times may enable rapid and simple seed production of the target species. As a first step toward this goal, we assessed the suitability of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, as a small-bodied recipient species for xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation. Histological observation of the early gonadal development of chub mackerel larvae and transplantation of fluorescent-labeled spermatogonia from Nibe croaker, Nibea mitsukurii, revealed that 5.3-mm chub mackerel larvae were suitable recipients for successful transplantation. Intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic spermatogonia efficiently colonized the gonads of these recipient larvae, and donor-derived Nibe croaker germ cells proliferated rapidly soon after colonization. Moreover, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf) mRNA, a gonadal somatic cell marker, was expressed in recipient-derived cells surrounding the incorporated donor-derived germ cells, suggesting that donor-derived germ cells had settled at an appropriate location in the recipient gonad. Our data show that xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation was successful in chub mackerel and that the somatic microenvironment of the chub mackerel gonad can support the colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells derived from a donor species of a different taxonomic family.

  1. The Impact of Gonadal Hormones on Cannabinoid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marusich, Julie A.; Craft, Rebecca M.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the U.S. Women report greater positive subjective effects of cannabis, and greater cannabis withdrawal compared to men. Female rodents are more sensitive than males to some acute effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and females also develop greater tolerance to THC in some assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gonadal hormones modulate THC dependence in rats. Adult rats were gonadectomized (GDX) or sham-GDX, and hormone was replaced in half of the GDX rats of each sex (testosterone in males; estradiol and/or progesterone in females). THC (30 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered twice daily for 6.5 days, followed on the seventh day by vehicle or rimonabant challenge and assessment for withdrawal-related behaviors. Sham-GDX females developed greater tolerance than males to THC-induced hypothermia, and GDX females given progesterone showed greater tolerance to THC-induced locomotor suppression. Rimonabant precipitated withdrawal, as evidenced by increased somatic signs (forepaw tremors, licking), and increased startle amplitude. Testosterone in GDX males decreased withdrawal-induced licking. Estradiol and progesterone in GDX females increased withdrawal-induced chewing, and progesterone increased withdrawal-induced sniffing. These results suggest that estradiol and progesterone may promote the development of dependence, whereas testosterone may protect against dependence. While the present study indicates that testosterone and estradiol produce opposite effects on THC-induced behavior, estradiol appears to play a broader role than testosterone in modulating THC’s behavioral effects. PMID:26237318

  2. A case of 46, XY DSD presenting as a crossed ectopic gonad with a contralateral sliding inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshino, Kaoru

    2012-12-01

    A three-month-old boy was referred to our facility for the treatment of a right impalpable testis, left inguinal hernia, and penoscrotal hypospadias with asymmetric external genitalia. The left gonad was palpated in the left scrotum. The chromosomal study revealed a normal male 46, XY karyotype. Operative findings showed that the right streak gonad, uterus, and fallopian tubes were in the wall of the left hernia sac, forming a sliding hernia. Laparoscopy confirmed that the right gonadal vessels had crossed to the left internal inguinal ring. Herniorrhaphy was done and the right streak gonad, uterus, and fallopian tubes were excised. An exploration of the left gonad revealed an ovotestis. The ovary was removed, and a left testicular biopsy was simultaneously performed. A one-stage hypospadias repair using Koyanagi procedure was also performed. The pathological findings showed an ovarian stroma in the right gonad and left ovary. Only Sertoli cells were detected in the biopsied specimen from the left testis.

  3. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis: a syndrome of broad clinical, cytogenetic and histopathologic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nava, F; Gonzalez, S; Soto, S; Pineda, L; Morales-Machin, A

    1999-01-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is an abnormality of sexual differentiation (ASD), which encompasses an heterogeneous group of different gonadal and phenotypic abnormalities. This study describes the main clinical features found in 16 patients with MGD, relating the clinical presentation with cytogenetic evaluation and histopathological findings. For purpose of this study, MGD was considered in those patients who fulfilled the following diagnostic criteria: 1) müllerian and/or wolfflan derivatives; 2) any of the following gonadal characteristics: a) bilateral intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue; b) intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue with contralateral streak gonad. Patients were selected from an ASD study which was carried out in Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia (UGM-LUZ), Maracaibo, Venezuela, from 1980 to 1997. The following information was extracted from the medical history at UGM-LUZ: age, gender which patient was reared, clinical presentation, cytogenetic evaluation, laparoscopic findings and gonadal biopsy. Sixteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria and ranged in age from 1.2 to 39.4 years with an average of 12.65 years. Only 5 patients were reared as males. Twelve patients consulted for genital ambiguity. Chromosomal evaluation was as following: 8 patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: 5 had a 46,XY normal male karyotype and the remaining patients: 46,XX; 46,XX/46,XY and 45,X/46,Xi(Xq) karyotypes, respectively. All patients showed müllerian derivatives and occasionally wolffian derivatives. Gonadal tumors were present in 2 patients. Molecular studies of genes that govern gonadal development are necessary for a better understanding of the wide heterogeneity present in MGD.

  4. Embryonic testicular regression sequence: A part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcantonio, S.M.; Fechner, P.Y.; Migeon, C.J.; Perlman, E.J.; Berkovitz, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a group of 9 subjects who had a 46,XY karyotype, ambiguous genitalia, abnormalities of sexual duct formation, and lack of gonadal tissue on one or both sides. This is sometimes referred to as {open_quotes}embryonic testicular regression.{close_quotes} Previous investigators have suggested that this condition results from loss of testes at a critical stage in development. The authors examined the possibility that embryonic testicular regression is part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Four subjects totally lacked gonadal tissue, three of them having ambiguous genitalia, and one a micropenis. The development of incongruous sexual ducts (presence of Muellerian ducts in the subject with micropenis, and absence of Muellerian and Wolffian ducts in two subjects with ambiguous genitalia) suggests that the embryonic gonads were intrinsically functionally abnormal before their disappearance. Five subjects had unilateral gonadal tissue, ambiguous genitalia, and a mix of Wolffian and Muellerian structures. The development of incongruous sexual ducts in 3 of them, the presence of ambiguous external genitalia in 5, and the presence of abnormal gonadal histology in 2 patients all indicate an underlying abnormality of gonadal differentiation in these subjects. The occurrence of testicular regression in several subjects in the family of one patient suggests a genetic basis for the condition. The presence of multiple congenital anomalies in other subjects in the study suggests either a mutation in a single gene that functions in several developmental pathways, or a defect of multiple genes that might be the result of a chromosome deletion. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was sequenced in five subjects and was normal in all of them, suggesting that the underlying genetic abnormality in these subjects is located in one of several genes that function subsequent to SRY in the early stages of testis differentiation. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.-C.; DiNapoli, Leo; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Summary The developmental fate of primordial germ cells in the mammalian gonad depends on their environment. In the XY gonad, Sry induces a cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to the organization of testis cords. Germ cells are sequestered inside testis cords by 12.5 dpc where they arrest in mitosis. If the testis pathway is not initiated, germ cells spontaneously enter meiosis by 13.5 dpc, and the gonad follows the ovarian fate. We have previously shown that some testis-specific events, such as mesonephric cell migration, can be experimentally induced into XX gonads prior to 12.5 dpc. However, after that time, XX gonads are resistant to the induction of cell migration. In current experiments, we provide evidence that this effect is dependent on XX germ cells rather than on XX somatic cells. We show that, although mesonephric cell migration cannot be induced into normal XX gonads at 14.5 dpc, it can be induced into XX gonads depleted of germ cells. We also show that when 14.5 dpc XX somatic cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, testis cord structures form normally; however, when XX germ cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, cord structures are disrupted. Sandwich culture experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect of XX germ cells is mediated through short-range interactions rather than through a long-range diffusible factor. The developmental stage at which XX germ cells show a disruptive effect on the male pathway is the stage at which meiosis is normally initiated, based on the immunodetection of meiotic markers. We suggest that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway. PMID:14561636

  6. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Gonadoblastoma and selected other aspects of gonadal pathology in young patients with disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Some patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs), previously known as intersex disorders, have abnormal gonadal development and an increased risk of germ cell tumors. Because of their relative rarity, however, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the morphological findings in the gonads of DSD patients and their clinical significance. This review concentrates on some of the most common DSDs where gonadal specimens may come to the attention of pathologists. It highlights the findings in gonadal dysgenesis, a DSD with a spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features but with the shared attributes of having both Y chromosomal material (even if in very limited amounts) in the gonad and also having mutations or deletions in genes necessary for normal gonadal development, mostly in those upstream of the SOX9 gene. This situation results in testicular tissue lacking normal Sertoli cells, which are now considered an essential element for the normal maturation of the primordial germ cells that migrate to the gonad from the embryonic yolk sac. Germ cells with delayed maturation mimic neoplastic germ cells, but there are both morphological and immunohistochemical differences. If the gonad having germ cells with delayed maturation also harbors the TSPY gene on the GBY locus of the Y chromosome, the cells may undergo neoplastic transformation and result in the distinctive gonadoblastoma, whose pathologic features are explored at length herein, including its potential for variant morphologies, such as a "dissecting" pattern. Another important DSD, the androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), is discussed at length, including the varied appearances of the testis and its distinctive lesions-hamartomas and Sertoli cell adenomas. The potential for germ cell neoplasia in the partial AIS is also discussed and contrasted with that of the complete AIS. A third major topic is ovotesticular DSD (true hermaphroditism). The clinical features and morphology of this condition

  8. Studies on the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Tohei, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    In order to clarify the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of thiuoracil in adult male and female rats, and the effects of hypothyroidism on the adrenal and the gonadal axes were investigated in the present study. 1. The functional relationship between thyroid and adrenal hormones: Adrenal weights and corticosterone were lowered, whereas the secretion of ACTH, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) increased in hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of CRH and AVP from the hypothalamus. 2. The functional relationship between thyroid and gonadal hormones: The pituitary response to LHRH was lowered, whereas the testicular response to hCG was not changed in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism suppressed copulatory behavior in male rats. These results suggest that hypothyroidism probably causes dysfunction in gonadal axis at the hypothalamic-pituitary level in male rats. In adult female rats, hypothyroidism inhibited the follicular development accompanied estradiol secretion, whereas plasma concentrations of progesterone and prolactin (PRL) increased in hypothyroid female rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased the pituitary content of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) though it did not affect dopamine synthesis. These results suggest that hypothyroidism increases pituitary content of VIP and this increased level of VIP likely affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner. In female rats, inhibition of gonadal function in hypothyroid rats mediated by hyperprolactinemia in addition to hypersecretion of endogenous CRH.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of red swamp crawfish Procambarus clarkii reveals genes involved in gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, 'molecular function', 'cellular component', and 'biological processes'. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture.

  10. Run-on of germline apoptosis promotes gonad senescence in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    de la Guardia, Yila; Gilliat, Ann F.; Hellberg, Josephine; Rennert, Peter; Cabreiro, Filipe; Gems, David

    2016-01-01

    Aging (senescence) includes causal mechanisms (etiologies) of late-life disease, which remain poorly understood. According to the recently proposed hyperfunction theory, based on the older theory of antagonistic pleiotropy, senescent pathologies can arise from futile, post-reproductive run-on of processes that in early life promote fitness. Here we apply this idea to investigate the etiology of senescent pathologies in the reproductive system of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites, particularly distal gonad degeneration and disintegration. Hermaphrodite germ cells frequently undergo “physiological” (non-damage-induced) apoptosis (PA) to provision growing oocytes. Run-on of such PA is a potential cause of age-related gonad degeneration. We document the continuation of germline apoptosis in later life, and report that genetically blocking or increasing PA retards or accelerates degeneration, respectively. In wild-type males, which lack germ line apoptosis, gonad disintegration does not occur. However, mutational induction of PA in males does not lead to gonad disintegration. These results suggest that as germ-cell proliferation rate declines markedly in aging hermaphrodites (but not males), run-on of PA becomes a pathogenic mechanism that promotes gonad degeneration. This illustrates how hyperfunction, or non-adaptive run-on in later life of a process that promotes fitness in early life, can promote atrophic senescent pathology in C. elegans. PMID:27256978

  11. Effect of sex steroids on gonadal differentiation and sex reversal in the frog, Rana curtipes.

    PubMed

    Saidapur, S K; Gramapurohit, N P; Shanbhag, B A

    2001-10-01

    The bicolored frog, Rana curtipes, is endemic to Western Ghats of Southern India, having a prolonged larval life. In this species, gonadal differentiation is of the semidifferentiated type. The gonads initially differentiate into ovaries in all the individuals at Gosner stage 25. Later, in genetic males, the oocytes degenerate and testicular differentiation occurs at stages 30-31. Exposure of R. curtipes tadpoles to 50 microg/L of testosterone (T) or estradiol-17beta (E(2)) during stages 24-26 or 29-32 did not affect gonadal sex differentiation and proportion of males and females at metamorphosis. In all the groups, the sex ratio was almost 1:1 as in the controls. Likewise, exposure of tadpoles to low concentration of steroids (12.5 microg/L T or E(2)) throughout larval development was ineffective in altering the sex ratio or the gonadal sex differentiation. On the other hand, exposure to higher concentrations of steroids (25 and 50 microg/L) throughout the larval development (stages 25-45) significantly skewed the sex ratio toward the male or female direction, depending upon the sex steroid used. Thus, exposure to T or E(2) throughout the larval period could produce 93% males or 79% females, respectively, indicating the ability of these steroids to cause sex reversal. This study shows a possible absence of a "critical stage" that is sensitive to sex steroids for gonadal sex reversal in this frog. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Population density does not influence male gonadal investment in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Matthew; Apodaca, Joseph J; Macrae, Pamela S D; Travis, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies documenting a relationship between male gonadal investment and the degree of sperm competition (SC) have usually considered the association between these traits to be driven by qualitative differences in the mating system, such as whether spawning occurs in pairs or groups. However, ecological and demographic differences between conspecific populations may also generate variation in the importance of SC that can drive the evolution of male gonadal investment. In this study, we examined whether variation in population density, which is predicted to influence the level of SC in many animals, is correlated with male gonadal investment among populations of the least killifish, Heterandria formosa, a species with internal fertilization in which multiple mating is common. We complemented this field study by testing whether males respond plastically to experimentally increased levels of SC by increasing investment in testis. This experiment involved two treatments. In the first, we eliminated the potential for sperm competition (NSC) by housing a single male with a single female. In the second, we created a high risk of SC by housing five males with two females. In the field survey, we found significant differences among populations in density and relative testis mass. However, there was no evidence for a correlation between population density and relative testis mass. In our lab experiment, males did not adjust their gonadal investment in response to experiencing different levels of SC for 4 weeks. Our combined results indicate that gonadal investment in male H. formosa is not related to variation in population density. PMID:23301162

  13. Graded expression of ceh-14 reporters in the hypodermis is induced by a gonadal signal.

    PubMed

    Kagoshima, H; Sommer, R; Reinhart, B J; Cassata, G; Ruvkun, G; Bürglin, T R

    2000-11-01

    ceh-14, a LIM class homeobox gene from Caenorhabditis elegans, is the orthologue of the vertebrate Lhx3/Lhx4 genes. ceh-14 reporter constructs are expressed in several different cell types: head and tail neurons, spermatheca and hypodermis. An intriguing aspect of the hypodermal expression pattern is that it takes the form of a gradient which is strongest in the central body region in L4 to young adult hermaphrodites. Promoter deletion analyses revealed that important regulatory elements for hypodermal expression are located within the transcribed region of ceh-14. Since a large part of the hypodermis is a syncytium, we hypothesized that this expression is triggered in a non-cell-autonomous fashion, a possible source being the underlying gonad. In males, which have a different gonadal organisation, the ceh-14 reporter constructs are expressed in a gradient that is strongest in the tail. By laser ablation of the gonadal precursor cells we found that ceh-14 reporter construct expression is eliminated in the hermaphrodite hypodermis, suggesting that the gonad plays a role in the generation of the gradient. Several signaling pathways are known in the gonad and the vulva, thus we crossed the mutations lin-3, egl-17 and lin-12 with the ceh-14 reporter lines. However, the expression of the reporter constructs is not affected in these mutant backgrounds. This suggests that another, presently unknown, signal triggers the graded hypodermal expression.

  14. The Wilms’ Tumor Suppressor Gene (wt1) Product Regulates Dax-1 Gene Expression during Gonadal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungho; Prawitt, Dirk; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Torban, Elena; Vicaner, Caroline; Goodyer, Paul; Zabel, Bernard; Pelletier, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal differentiation is dependent upon a molecular cascade responsible for ovarian or testicular development from the bipotential gonadal ridge. Genetic analysis has implicated a number of gene products essential for this process, which include Sry, WT1, SF-1, and DAX-1. We have sought to better define the role of WT1 in this process by identifying downstream targets of WT1 during normal gonadal development. We have noticed that in the developing murine gonadal ridge, wt1 expression precedes expression of Dax-1, a nuclear receptor gene. We document here that the spatial distribution profiles of both proteins in the developing gonad overlap. We also demonstrate that WT1 can activate the Dax-1 promoter. Footprinting analysis, transient transfections, promoter mutagenesis, and mobility shift assays suggest that WT1 regulates Dax-1 via GC-rich binding sites found upstream of the Dax-1 TATA box. We show that two WT1-interacting proteins, the product of a Denys-Drash syndrome allele of wt1 and prostate apoptosis response-4 protein, inhibit WT1-mediated transactivation of Dax-1. In addition, we demonstrate that WT1 can activate the endogenous Dax-1 promoter. Our results indicate that the WT1–DAX-1 pathway is an early event in the process of mammalian sex determination. PMID:10022915

  15. [Changes of Serum Gonadal Hormones Levels During Musk-secreting Period and Estrus of Moschus berezovskii].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-ming; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wen-long; Wang, Zhan-yin; Ye, Song-hua; Fu, Chun-mei

    2015-02-01

    To detect concentrations of serum gonadal hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone) in musk-secreting period and estrus of Moschus berezovskii, and to study the association of serum gonadal hormones concentrations and musk-secreting. The concentrations of serum gonadal hormones were detected with magnetic particle separation ELISA. During musk-secreting period, concentration changes of three serum gonadal hormones showed clear regularity, three crests occurred synchronously. Before musk-secreting period, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone concentrations were at its lower level, in prime musk-secreting period, they increased rapidly to respective highest peak; at later musk-secreting period, they quickly dropped to close to its previous levels before musk-secreting period. During estrus, serum testosterone concentration increased to lower peaks than that at later musk-secreting period. Estradiol remained at a low level and progesterone level was closed to zero. Serum testosterone concentrations in prime musk-secreting period were 114.4 ~ 190.5 times of estrus. During musk-secreting period, there were significant positive correlation among three serum gonadal hormone levels, a positive correlation between musk yield and serum testosterone levels, and negative correlation of musk yield with serum estradiol and progesterone levels as well as musk deer ages. Serum testosterone concentrations in prime musk-secreting period increase to the highest levels,which can provide reference in musk secretion induced by artificial means.

  16. Novel Heterozygous Genetic Variants in Patients with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Jain, Vandana; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD) constitutes a rare group of disorders characterized by the presence of dysfunctional testes in genotypic males. The molecular etiology is not known in about 2 thirds of instances. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause in patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Based on clinical, cytogenetic, and biochemical screening, 10 patients with 46,XY GD were recruited. Direct sequencing of SRY, NR5A1, SOX9, DAX1, DHH, DMRT1 genes was carried out for molecular analysis. Among 10 patients, 5 were diagnosed with complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD), 3 with partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD), and 3 with testicular agenesis. Molecular analysis revealed 12 heterozygous genetic changes, 4 of which were novel. One (c.416T>A) was observed in evolutionary conserved region of DMRT1 gene in a patient with CGD and was found to be probably damaging on in silico analysis. Other 3 were identified in NR5A1 gene (c.990+22 C>A, c.1387+1403T>A and p.131P), but their association with gonadal dysgenesis is not evident from our study. These genetic changes were absent in parents and 50 healthy control samples, which were also studied. With targeted sequencing approach, a molecular diagnosis was made in only one patient with 46,XY GD. The application of new genomic technologies is required for the precise evaluation of these rare genetic defects.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  18. Run-on of germline apoptosis promotes gonad senescence in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    de la Guardia, Yila; Gilliat, Ann F; Hellberg, Josephine; Rennert, Peter; Cabreiro, Filipe; Gems, David

    2016-06-28

    Aging (senescence) includes causal mechanisms (etiologies) of late-life disease, which remain poorly understood. According to the recently proposed hyperfunction theory, based on the older theory of antagonistic pleiotropy, senescent pathologies can arise from futile, post-reproductive run-on of processes that in early life promote fitness. Here we apply this idea to investigate the etiology of senescent pathologies in the reproductive system of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites, particularly distal gonad degeneration and disintegration. Hermaphrodite germ cells frequently undergo "physiological" (non-damage-induced) apoptosis (PA) to provision growing oocytes. Run-on of such PA is a potential cause of age-related gonad degeneration. We document the continuation of germline apoptosis in later life, and report that genetically blocking or increasing PA retards or accelerates degeneration, respectively. In wild-type males, which lack germ line apoptosis, gonad disintegration does not occur. However, mutational induction of PA in males does not lead to gonad disintegration. These results suggest that as germ-cell proliferation rate declines markedly in aging hermaphrodites (but not males), run-on of PA becomes a pathogenic mechanism that promotes gonad degeneration. This illustrates how hyperfunction, or non-adaptive run-on in later life of a process that promotes fitness in early life, can promote atrophic senescent pathology in C. elegans.

  19. Radiation dose reduction to the male gonads during MDCT: the effectiveness of a lead shield.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Christian; Mahnken, Andreas H; Klotz, Ernst; Das, Marco; Stargardt, Achim; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Schmidt, Thorsten; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2005-01-01

    Our study was designed to quantify the effect of a standard gonad shield on the testicular radiation exposure due to scatter during routine abdominopelvic MDCT. Routine abdominopelvic MDCT was performed in 34 patients with gonadal lead shielding and 32 patients without this shielding; the testes were not exposed to the direct beam during the examination. We estimated the testicular dose administered with thermoluminescent dosimetry, taking into account each patient's body weight and body mass index (BMI). With a 1-mm lead shield, the mean testicular dose was reduced from 2.40 to 0.32 mSv, a reduction of 87%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.0001). No correlation between testicular dose and body weight or BMI was found. Shielding the male gonads reduces the testicular radiation dose during abdominopelvic MDCT significantly and can be recommended for routine use.

  20. Expression and imaging of fluorescent proteins in the C. elegans gonad and early embryo.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca A; Audhya, Anjon; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Dammermann, Alexander; Pemble, Hayley; Monen, Joost; Portier, Nathan; Hyman, Anthony; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gonad and early embryo have recently emerged as an attractive metazoan model system for studying cell and developmental biology. The success of this system is attributable to the stereotypical architecture and reproducible cell divisions of the gonad/early embryo, coupled with penetrant RNAi-mediated protein depletion. These features have facilitated the development of visual assays with high spatiotemporal resolution to monitor specific subcellular processes. Assay development has relied heavily on the emergence of methods to circumvent germline silencing to allow the expression of transgenes encoding fluorescent fusion proteins. In this chapter, we discuss methods for the expression and imaging of fluorescent proteins in the C. elegans germline, including the design of transgenes for optimal expression, the generation of transgenic worm lines by ballistic bombardment, the construction of multimarker lines by mating, and methods for live imaging of the gonad and early embryo.

  1. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal. PMID:26817010

  2. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok; Yi, Kyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal.

  3. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility.

  4. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  5. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  6. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  7. Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Talboom, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to “optimize their aging” and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues. PMID:20877209

  8. Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zorlu, Faruk; Dugel, Gozde; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Hurmuz, Pervin; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Ferah; Akyol, Fadil; Gurkaynak, Murat

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations. Methods: The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Results: The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035-2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066-3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03-0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015-0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056-1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065-2.25 Gy). Conclusions: Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.

  9. Copy Number Variation in Patients with Disorders of Sex Development Due to 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    White, Stefan; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Notini, Amanda; Roeszler, Kelly; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Daggag, Hinda; Smith, Craig; Turbitt, Erin; Gustin, Sonja; van den Bergen, Jocelyn; Miles, Denise; Western, Patrick; Arboleda, Valerie; Schumacher, Valerie; Gordon, Lavinia; Bell, Katrina; Bengtsson, Henrik; Speed, Terry; Hutson, John; Warne, Garry; Harley, Vincent; Koopman, Peter; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD), ranging in severity from mild genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, represent a major concern for patients and their families. DSD are often due to disruption of the genetic programs that regulate gonad development. Although some genes have been identified in these developmental pathways, the causative mutations have not been identified in more than 50% 46,XY DSD cases. We used the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 to analyse copy number variation in 23 individuals with unexplained 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Here we describe three discrete changes in copy number that are the likely cause of the GD. Firstly, we identified a large duplication on the X chromosome that included DAX1 (NR0B1). Secondly, we identified a rearrangement that appears to affect a novel gonad-specific regulatory region in a known testis gene, SOX9. Surprisingly this patient lacked any signs of campomelic dysplasia, suggesting that the deletion affected expression of SOX9 only in the gonad. Functional analysis of potential SRY binding sites within this deleted region identified five putative enhancers, suggesting that sequences additional to the known SRY-binding TES enhancer influence human testis-specific SOX9 expression. Thirdly, we identified a small deletion immediately downstream of GATA4, supporting a role for GATA4 in gonad development in humans. These CNV analyses give new insights into the pathways involved in human gonad development and dysfunction, and suggest that rearrangements of non-coding sequences disturbing gene regulation may account for significant proportion of DSD cases. PMID:21408189

  10. Copy number variation in patients with disorders of sex development due to 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Notini, Amanda; Roeszler, Kelly; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Daggag, Hinda; Smith, Craig; Turbitt, Erin; Gustin, Sonja; van den Bergen, Jocelyn; Miles, Denise; Western, Patrick; Arboleda, Valerie; Schumacher, Valerie; Gordon, Lavinia; Bell, Katrina; Bengtsson, Henrik; Speed, Terry; Hutson, John; Warne, Garry; Harley, Vincent; Koopman, Peter; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew

    2011-03-07

    Disorders of sex development (DSD), ranging in severity from mild genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, represent a major concern for patients and their families. DSD are often due to disruption of the genetic programs that regulate gonad development. Although some genes have been identified in these developmental pathways, the causative mutations have not been identified in more than 50% 46,XY DSD cases. We used the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 to analyse copy number variation in 23 individuals with unexplained 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Here we describe three discrete changes in copy number that are the likely cause of the GD. Firstly, we identified a large duplication on the X chromosome that included DAX1 (NR0B1). Secondly, we identified a rearrangement that appears to affect a novel gonad-specific regulatory region in a known testis gene, SOX9. Surprisingly this patient lacked any signs of campomelic dysplasia, suggesting that the deletion affected expression of SOX9 only in the gonad. Functional analysis of potential SRY binding sites within this deleted region identified five putative enhancers, suggesting that sequences additional to the known SRY-binding TES enhancer influence human testis-specific SOX9 expression. Thirdly, we identified a small deletion immediately downstream of GATA4, supporting a role for GATA4 in gonad development in humans. These CNV analyses give new insights into the pathways involved in human gonad development and dysfunction, and suggest that rearrangements of non-coding sequences disturbing gene regulation may account for significant proportion of DSD cases.

  11. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  12. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    PubMed

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  13. Sexually dimorphic expression in developing and adult gonads shows an important role of gonadal soma-derived factor during sex differentiation in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuezhong; Zhang, Wei; Du, Xinxin; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-08-01

    Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that gsdf expressed before sex gonadal differentiation, and the expression level increased rapidly after initiation of sex differentiation in males. In adult individuals, the expression of gsdf was higher in testis than that in ovary (P<0.01). In situ hybridization (ISH) indicated that gsdf mRNA was detected in the somatic cells of both males and females, and also in the cytoplasm of oocytes. These results suggested that gsdf might play an important role as initial switches to promote testis differentiation and participate in early germ cell development, such as proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonia and oogonia in P. olivaceus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

  15. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  16. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  17. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  18. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  19. Karyological and gonadal sex of eels (Anguilla anguilla) from the German Bight and the lower River Elbe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passakas, T.; Tesch, F.-W.

    1980-06-01

    Yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) taken during summer from random commercial trapnet samples in the littoral area of Helgoland (n=116) and from a freshwater area of the River Elbe near Hamburg (n=109) were examined with regard to their karyological (i.e. existence of female sex chromosomes) and gonadal sex. In 47 % and 21 % of the two samples, respectively, chromosomes were unidentifiable because of insufficient numbers of mitotic plates. All eels from Helgoland, except one phenotypically undetermined fish, exhibited female gonads: 48 had female sex chromosomes and 13 were karyologically males. As found previously in the River Elbe, eels with male gonads predominated (n=55); 25 were undifferentiated. Of the gonadal males 26 were karyological males and 16 karyological females; the rest could not be identified by chromosome patterns. In contrast, all but one of the Elbe eels with female gonads (n=28) had female sex chromosomes. Some aspects of the sex reversal documented in the eel are considered.

  20. Differential expression of foxl2 and cyp19a1a mRNA during gonad developmental stages in great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, M; Pourkazemi, M; Kazemi, R

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the sex specificity and expression pattern of foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes in great sturgeon Huso huso gonads during gonadal sex differentiation and development. The results revealed that foxl2 and cyp19a1a mainly expressed in female gonads and during gonad development the foxl2 and cyp19a1a mRNA expression is required for ovarian development. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Sleep, rhythms, and the endocrine brain: influence of sex and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Mong, Jessica A; Baker, Fiona C; Mahoney, Megan M; Paul, Ketema N; Schwartz, Michael D; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-11-09

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master "circadian clock" within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, modulate photic effects on activity in males point to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase-deficient mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a Mini-Symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.

  2. Longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in free-living male and female meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Moss, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Monfort, S L

    2001-05-01

    Slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are small, diurnal, cooperatively breeding mongooses of the family Herpestidae. A prerequisite to fully understanding the mating system of meerkats is the development of a normative reproductive-endocrine database. This study examined longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in all adult and juvenile individuals of both sexes within a social group of free-living meerkats sampled across an entire breeding season. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) validate noninvasive (fecal and urinary) gonadal steroid hormone monitoring techniques in male (testosterone) and female (estrogens, progestagens) meerkats; (2) test the feasibility of using these noninvasive methods under field conditions; (3) characterize the endocrine correlates associated with the female reproductive cycle, including estrus, gestation, and postpartum estrus; (4) examine longitudinal androgen excretion in males; and (5) determine whether social status (i.e., dominant versus subordinate) affected gonadal steroid excretion. In females, the results demonstrated the physiological validity of noninvasive monitoring in meerkats by corresponding excretory hormone concentrations to major reproductive events (i.e., estrous, pregnancy, parturition). Hormone excretory patterns during estrous intervals suggested possible mechanisms whereby reproductive suppression may operate in female meerkats. In males, androgen excretion did not correspond to changes in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, suggesting that dominance, and hence breeding access to females, was not regulated strictly by gonadal steroid production. The consistency in androgen excretion among male meerkats indicated that reproductive suppression may be mediated by behavioral (i.e., intermale aggression) rather than physiological (i.e., depressed spermatogenesis) mechanisms.

  3. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in a fetus with asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirkilionis, A J; Rodney, P; Sergovich, F R; Armstrong, R

    1987-09-01

    An 18 week abortus had been prenatally diagnosed as a 45,X/46,XY mosaic. The fetus was a phenotypic male with glandular hypospadias, a horseshoe kidney and asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis. This case represents a rare instance of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with an abnormal phenotype.

  5. No alterations of serum levels of adrenal and gonadal hormones in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Straub, R H; Struhárová, S; Schölmerich, J; Härle, P

    2002-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a marked preponderance of affected males compared to females of approximately 6 to 1. During the last two decades, this circumstance stimulated several research groups to investigate serum levels of gonadal and adrenal sex hormones. From available results of cross-sectional studies, there seems to be no particular defect in secretion or production of adrenal, gonadal, and pituitary hormones. This is in striking contrast to diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. In the latter diseases, low serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulphate (DHEAS), and testosterone have been described in an advanced chronic disease stage, whereas estrogen serum levels remain normal. Although AS is an inflammatory disease with signs of systemic inflammation such as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or increased circulating proinflammatory cytokines, serum levels of adrenal and gonadal androgens are normal. It is unclear whether this can be considered as unexpected. It may be that inflammation does not reach the pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal glands or does not alter the aromatase complex in peripheral tissue. Furthermore, the inflammation-induced changes may be subtle so that only specific endocrine examination of these axes may reveal signs of alterations. In conclusion, current data on sex steroid hormones provide no straightforward explanation for the male predominance in AS. At the moment, there is no rationale to treat AS patients with sex steroid hormones.

  6. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  7. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master “circadian clock” within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), modulate photic effects on activity in males points to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase deficient (ArKO) mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a mini-symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. PMID:22072663

  8. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course ...

  9. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  10. The role of Amh signaling in teleost fish--Multiple functions not restricted to the gonads.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Frank; Standke, Andrea; Gutzeit, Herwig O

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the important role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) during gonad development in fishes. This Tgfβ-domain bearing hormone was named after one of its known functions, the induction of the regression of Müllerian ducts in male mammalian embryos. Later in development it is involved in male and female gonad differentiation and extragonadal expression has been reported in mammals as well. Teleosts lack Müllerian ducts, but they have amh orthologous genes. amh expression is reported from 21 fish species and possible regulatory interactions with further factors like sex steroids and gonadotropic hormones are discussed. The gonadotropin Fsh inhibits amh expression in all fish species studied. Sex steroids show no consistent influence on amh expression. Amh is produced in male Sertoli cells and female granulosa cells and inhibits germ cell proliferation and differentiation as well as steroidogenesis in both sexes. Therefore, Amh might be a central player in gonad development and a target of gonadotropic Fsh. Furthermore, there is evidence that an Amh-type II receptor is involved in germ cell regulation. Amh and its corresponding type II receptor are also present in brain and pituitary, at least in some teleosts, indicating additional roles of Amh effects in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis. Unraveling Amh signaling is important in stem cell research and for reproduction as well as for aquaculture and in environmental science.

  11. Tradeoffs between somatic and gonadal investments during development in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    McCoy, Krista A; McCoy, Michael W; Amick, Alison; Guillette, Louis J; St Mary, Colette M

    2007-11-01

    Tradeoffs between time to and size at metamorphosis occur in many organisms with complex life histories. The ability to accelerate metamorphosis can increase survival to the next life stage, but the resulting smaller size at metamorphosis is often associated with lower post-metamorphic survival or reduced fecundity of adults. Reduced fecundity is thought to be because of reduced energy reserves, longer time to maturity, or reduced capacity to carry eggs or compete for mates. This pattern could also be explained by a shift in allocation to somatic growth that further retards the growth or development of reproductive tissues. The main goal of this study was to determine if the relationship between growth and development of somatic and gonadal tissues depends on environmental conditions. We address this question through two experiments in which we quantify the development and growth of the body and gonads of Xenopus laevis reared in different resource environments. First, tadpoles were reared communally and development and growth were evaluated over time. Restricted food reduced somatic and gonadal growth rate, but did not affect the developmental rate of either tissue type. Second, tadpoles were reared individually and evaluated at metamorphosis. Restricted food reduced somatic development and growth, but only influenced size, and not developmental stage of testes at metamorphosis. This work demonstrates that environmental conditions influence tradeoffs between growth and development of somatic and gonadal tissues, apparently in a sex-specific manner. These tradeoffs may contribute to phenotypic correlations between small size and reduced fitness.

  12. Global DNA methylation in gonads of adult zebrafish Danio rerio under bisphenol A exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Tao, Shiyu; Guan, Yongjing; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-08-01

    Altered DNA methylation is pervasively associated with changes in gene expression and signal transduction after exposure to a wide range of endocrine disrupting chemicals. As a weak estrogenic chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) has been extensively studied for reproductive toxicity. In order to explore the effects of BPA on epigenetic modification in gonads of zebrafish Danio rerio, we measured the global DNA methylation together with the gene expression of DNA methyltransferase (dnmts), glycine N-methyltransferase (gnmt), and ten-eleven translocation (tets) in gonads of D. rerio under BPA exposure by ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR method, respectively. The global level of DNA methylation was significantly decreased in ovaries after exposed to BPA for 7 days, and testes following 35-day exposure. Moreover, the global level of DNA methylation was also significantly reduced in testes after exposed to 15μg/L BPA for 7 days. Besides the alteration of the global level of DNA methylation, varying degrees of transcriptional changes of dnmts, gnmt and tets were detected in gonads of D. rerio under BPA exposure. The present study suggested that BPA might cause the global DNA demethylation in gonads of zebrafish by regulating the transcriptional changes of the DNA methylation/demethylation-associated genes (dnmts, gnmt, and tets). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  14. Effect of alcohol on the rat juxtaprostatic pelvic ganglia and gonads.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, C; Ferreira, A L

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper, it was investigated the aspect of the intrapelvic autonomic neuronal system (juxtaprostatic ganglion) and gonads of rats submitted to a experimental alcoholism. The animals which had water substituted for 35% sugar cane spirit for 30 d, presented testicular lesions as well as numeric and degenerative alterations in the juxtaprostatic pelvic ganglia neurons.

  15. Histological Description of Gonadal Development of Females and Males of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; Ramírez-Santiago, Cecilia; Pérez, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species.

  16. Reproductive cycle and gonad development of the Northern Argentinean Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marko; Alfaya, José E. F.; Lepore, Mauro L.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Laudien, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    The reproductive cycle and gonad development of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides was studied over a period of 24 months (January 2005-December 2006) at the Argentinean sandy beach Santa Teresita. Histological examination of gonadal tissue revealed that sex ratios did not significantly deviate from the proportion of 1:1 and no case of hermaphroditism was found. The reproductive cycle of M. mactroides followed an annual cyclicality, which was significantly correlated to monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST). Oocytes showed highest abundance in winter, indicating a process of gonadal development and sexual maturation. The mean oocyte size decreased significantly during spring. Modal oocyte sizes decreased significantly during winter and late spring of each year, suggesting spawning events. The condition index was not useful in describing the annual reproductive cycle of M. mactroides. Ash-free, shell-free dry mass was chosen to detect the condition of the specimens, and this significantly correlated with monthly mean SST and the gametogenic cycle. Annual recruitment patterns during summer-autumn indicated a 3-month-long planktonic phase of M. mactroides. The reproduction cycle and gonad development of M. mactroides showed only weak differences between data from the present study and those collected 40 years ago.

  17. Characterization of the microbiota associated to Pecten maximus gonads using 454-pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Mira, Alex; Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Romalde, Jesús L

    2016-06-01

    A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was used to study the microbiota associated to Pecten maximus broodstock, applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V4 16S rRNA gene regions. We analysed the resident bacterial communities in female and male scallop gonads before and after spawning. DNA samples were amplified and quality-filtered reads were assigned to family and genus taxonomic levels using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. A total of 18,520 sequences were detected, belonging to 13 phyla, including Proteobacteria (55%), Bacteroidetes (11,7%), Firmicutes (3%), Actinobacteria (2%) and Spirochaetes (1,2%), and 110 genera. The major fraction of the sequences detected corresponded to Proteobacteria, Beta- and Gammaprotebacteria being the most abundant classes. The microbiota of P. maximus gonad harbour a wide diversity, however differences on male and female samples were observed, where female gonad samples show a larger number of genera and families. The dominant bacterial genera appeared to be Delftia, Acinetobacter, Hydrotalea, Aquabacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacterium, Sphingomonas, and Pseudomonas that were present among the four analysed samples. This next generation sequencing technique, applied for the first time in P. maximus (great scallop) gonads was useful for the study of the bacterial communities in this mollusc, unravelling the great bacterial diversity in its microbiota. [Int Microbiol 19(2): 93-99(2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  18. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Altered SRY Genomic Binding During Gonadal Sex Determination.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K; Bhandari, Ramji K; Haque, M Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric E

    2015-12-01

    A critical transcription factor required for mammalian male sex determination is SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome). The expression of SRY in precursor Sertoli cells is one of the initial events in testis development. The current study was designed to determine the impact of environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance on SRY binding during gonadal sex determination in the male. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin and vehicle control (DMSO) exposed gestating females (F0 generation) during gonadal sex determination promoted the transgenerational inheritance of differential DNA methylation in sperm of the F3 generation (great grand-offspring). The fetal gonads in F3 generation males were used to identify potential alterations in SRY binding sites in the developing Sertoli cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with an SRY antibody followed by genome-wide promoter tiling array (ChIP-Chip) was used to identify alterations in SRY binding. A total of 81 adjacent oligonucleotide sites and 173 single oligo SRY binding sites were identified to be altered transgenerationally in the Sertoli cell vinclozolin lineage F3 generation males. Observations demonstrate the majority of the previously identified normal SRY binding sites were not altered and the altered SRY binding sites were novel and new additional sites. The chromosomal locations, gene associations and potentially modified cellular pathways were investigated. In summary, environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of germline epimutations appears to alter the cellular differentiation and development of the precursor Sertoli cell SRY binding during gonadal sex determination that influence the developmental origins of adult onset testis disease.

  19. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course ...

  20. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  1. The Recreational Drug Ecstasy Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Reproductive Axis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Walker, Deena M.; Reveron, Maria E.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug ±-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA or saline either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic), and were euthanized 7 days following last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and serum testosterone levels, as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the HPG axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage. PMID:18309234

  2. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion.

  3. Correlation among thermosensitive period, estradiol response, and gonad differentiation in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    PubMed

    Merchant-Larios, H; Ruiz-Ramirez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Marmolejo-Valencia, A

    1997-09-01

    Reptile embryos with temperature sex determination have a thermosensitive period (TSP). The finding that exogenous estradiol (E2) overcomes the effect of male-promoting temperature led to the idea that temperature may regulate estrogen concentration in the gonad during TSP. Since interspecific variations in TSP and in the effect of exogenous E2 exist, we undertook a study in the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea. Four parameters were correlated: the TSP (time dimension), the thermosensitive stages (rate of development), gonad development (histological aspect), and the estradiol response. Two kinds of experiments were performed: (1) Eggs were shifted once, at different stages of development, from a male-promoting temperature to a female-temperature (or vice versa) for the remainder of development. (2) Eggs at male-promoting temperature were treated once with 6 or 12 microg of estradiol (E2) at various times of incubation. Sex ratio was established around hatching in each experimental series. We found that the temporal dimension of the TSP was around 7 days (Days 20-27 of incubation) at a male-promoting or a female-promoting temperature. The rate of development of the whole embryo and gonadal growth was faster at female-promoting temperature than at male-promoting temperature. Formation of the genital ridge began at stage 21-22 and histological differentiation of the gonads occurred around stage 26-27. Although these stages coincided with the TSP, at male-promoting temperature the thermosensitive stages occurred earlier (from stages 20-21 to stages 23-24) than at female-promoting temperature (from stages 23-24 to stages 26-27). Thus, at male promoting-temperature, sex was determined in embryos with incipient or undifferentiated gonads. In contrast, E2 treatment continued to feminize the gonads of embryos at a male-promoting temperature beyond the TSP up to stage 25-26, but the E2-induced ovaries were significantly smaller than temperature-induced ovaries. It is

  4. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honghao; Zeng, Cong; Yi, Shaokui; Wan, Shiming; Chen, Boxiang; Gao, Zexia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR), and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1) were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis tissues (p < 0.05). The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species. PMID:26593912

  5. TRA-1/GLI controls development of somatic gonadal precursors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Schvarzstein, Mara; Morphy, Kristin M; Blelloch, Robert; Spence, Andrew M; Kimble, Judith

    2004-09-01

    TRA-1/GLI is best known as a master regulator of sex determination in the nematode C. elegans, but its fly and vertebrate homologs (e.g. Ci, GLI) regulate embryonic patterning and cell proliferation. In this paper, we show that TRA-1/GLI controls development of the two somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) in both XX and XO animals, in addition to its role in sex determination. Normally, SGPs reside at the poles of the gonadal primordium and divide according to intrinsic gonadal axes. In tra-1-null mutants, however, SGPs assume non-polar positions and the polarity of one SGP is reversed. Consistent with its SGP function, TRA-1 protein is present in SGPs during embryogenesis and early larval development. Previous studies have shown that the ehn-3 gene also affects SGP positions, and we report here that tra-1 and ehn-3 interact genetically. Whereas SGPs in tra-1 and ehn-3 single mutants are largely normal and generate many descendants, those in tra-1; ehn-3 double mutants do not mature or divide. Furthermore, tra-1 is a dominant enhancer of the ehn-3 gonadal defect, which includes the enhancement of a weak sexual transformation in the gonad. We cloned ehn-3, and found that it encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein. A rescuing EHN-3::GFP reporter is predominantly nuclear and expressed specifically in SGPs. The EHN-3 protein is therefore likely to regulate gene expression. We propose that TRA-1/GLI and EHN-3 have overlapping roles in regulation of multiple steps of SGP development. We speculate that regulation of SGP development may be an evolutionarily ancient role of TRA-1/GLI in nematode development.

  6. Effects of gestational diethylstilbestrol treatment on male and female gonads during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yayoi; Tanaka, Hideo; Esaki, Michiyo

    2008-08-01

    To study the effects of gestational exposure to estrogen on early gonadal differentiation, pregnant mice were treated by sc injection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) or vehicle from embryonic day (E) 8.5 to E14.5, and gonads at E11.5, E12.5, and E14.5 were examined. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a key regulator of gonadal differentiation, and several male gonad-specific genes, including Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450, and Cerebellin 1 precursor protein, were significantly decreased in the DES-treated testis, compared with the control testis at E12.5 and/or E14.5. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the staining intensities for SF-1 and MIS in Sertoli cells were apparently reduced in the DES-treated testis, compared with those of the controls, at E12.5 and E14.5. Because MIS, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450, and Cerebellin 1 precursor protein are activated under the regulation of SF-1, the down-regulation of these factors may be due to reduced SF-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry for laminin-1 demonstrated that ovigerous cords in the DES-treated ovary were smaller than those in controls at E14.5. Moreover, the number of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate-labeled cells in the DES-treated testis was significantly reduced at E12.5 and E14.5, compared with controls, and that in the DES-treated ovary remained higher than that in the control ovary at E14.5. The results suggest that exogenous estrogens can alter sex-specific genetic pathways governing early differentiation and cell proliferation of both male and female gonads.

  7. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  8. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  9. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. VSELs may obviate cryobanking of gonadal tissue in cancer patients for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Anand, Sandhya; Parte, Seema

    2015-11-17

    Infertility is an undesirable side effect and gonadal tissue banking is advocated in young cancer patients who are unable to preserve embryos or gametes prior to oncotherapy to achieve biological parenthood later on. Banking gonadal tissue is challenging and protocols to mature gametes in vitro are not yet clinically established. Transplanting ovarian cortical tissue at hetero-or orthotopic sites in women and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in both men and women has resulted in spontaneous recovery of fertility, pregnancy and live births. Various studies in humans and mice suggest that genetic origin of offspring after BMT is similar to transplanted patient and not the donor. Thus the source of oocytes/sperm which result in spontaneous pregnancies still remains contentious. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in adult human testis and ovary, in azoospermic testicular biopsies from survivors of childhood cancer and also in women with premature ovarian failure and menopause. VSELs survive chemotherapy because of their quiescent nature and can be detected in chemoablated mice gonads at protein and mRNA level and also by flow cytometry. Surviving VSELs spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures and sperm when inhibitory factors are overcome in vitro. Transplantation of mesenchymal cells (isolated from different sources) has led to regeneration of chemoablated mouse gonads and also live births. Spermatogenesis is also restored from endogenous stem cells on inter-tubular transplantation of Sertoli cells in chemoablated mouse testis. Endogenous VSELs (which survive oncotherapy) can possibly regenerate non-functional gonads in cancer survivors when exposed to a healthy niche in vitro or in vivo (by way of transplanting mesenchymal cells which secrete trophic factors required for endogenous VSELs to differentiate into gametes). Presence of VSELs can also explain spontaneous pregnancies after BMT and cortical tissue transplantation

  12. Gonadal development and growth of chickens and turkeys hatched from eggs injected with an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Burke, W H; Henry, M H

    1999-07-01

    It was the purpose of these experiments to describe gonadal development and posthatching growth of genetic female chickens and turkeys following in ovo injection of the aromatase inhibitor Fadrazole (CGS 16949A) prior to incubation. In ovo injection of Fadrazole (CGS 16949A) resulted in the development of testes-like gonads in the majority of day-old genetic female chickens and turkey poults. Ninety-eight to 99% of these birds have masculine-type male genitalia at 1 d of age. Microscopic examination of the gonads of day-old genetic female chicks hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs showed the presence of atypical seminiferous tubules in 3 of 18 individuals and the presence of ovarian follicles in 3 of 18 individuals. No germinal elements were seen in 12 individuals. The gonads in the majority (8/11) of day-old female poults from treated eggs showed the presence of atypical seminiferous tubules. Three of 11 individuals had structures characterized as disorganized or degenerate follicles. Between the day of hatch and 6 wk, gonads in an increasing proportion of female chickens from Fadrazole-treated eggs had normal appearing ovarian follicles. A similar trend was seen in the female turkeys between hatch and 12 wk of age. There were no differences in BW of female chickens hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs and those from control eggs between the day of hatch and 6 wk of age. The pectoral muscle mass and fat pad weights of these birds did not differ. In one experiment, the BW of female turkeys hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs was significantly greater than that of controls and equal to that of males at 3 and 6 wk of age. Thereafter, both types of females were of equal weight and significantly lighter than males. Fadrazole treatment did not affect pectoral muscle mass of either sex of turkeys.

  13. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs.

    PubMed

    Shirane, T

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  14. SRY upregulation of SOX9 is inefficient and delayed, allowing ovarian differentiation, in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephanie; Zeidan, Krista; Shin, Jonghyun S; Taketo, Teruko

    2011-07-01

    SRY on the Y-chromosome acts as a transcription factor to initiate testicular differentiation in mammals. Sox9 is a SRY target gene, upregulated immediately after Sry expression, and plays a key role in testicular differentiation. In the present study, we examined the expression of SRY and SOX9 proteins in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad, which undergoes partial or complete sex reversal. The results show that the ontogeny of SRY expression in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad was comparable with that in the B6.XY gonad. On the other hand, while SOX9 expression immediately followed SRY expression in the B6.XY gonad, it was considerably delayed compared to SRY expression in the B6.Y(TIR) gonad or SOX9 expression in the B6.XY gonad. Although SOX9 expression reached the entire gonad at a time point, it was downregulated and became restricted to the central area in which testis cords were organized. MIS, a marker of Sertoli cells, appeared only in well-organized testis cords. We speculate that the SRY protein from the Y(TIR)-chromosome is inefficient in upregulating the Sox9 gene on the B6 background, allowing the initiation of ovarian differentiation.

  15. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  16. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Casciotta, Kevin A; Erdi, Yusuf E; Rothenberg, Lawrence N

    2007-03-16

    It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0-15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA) was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  17. 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis due to a Homozygous Mutation in Desert Hedgehog (DHH) Identified by Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Hartmut; Birnbaum, Wiebke; Marshall, Louise; Schröder, Tatjana; Reiz, Benedikt; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Bäumer, Tobias; Capetian, Philipp; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) comprise a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions. Mutations in a variety of genes can affect gonadal development or androgen biosynthesis/action and thereby influence the development of the internal and external genital organs. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the genetic cause in two 46,XY sisters of a consanguineous family with DSD and gonadal tumor formation. Methods: We used a next-generation sequencing approach by exome sequencing. Electrophysiological and high-resolution ultrasound examination of peripheral nerves as well as histopathological examination of the gonads were performed. Results: We identified a novel homozygous R124Q mutation in the desert hedgehog gene (DHH), which alters a conserved residue among the three mammalian Hedgehog ligands sonic hedgehog, Indian hedgehog, and desert hedgehog. No other relevant mutations in DSD-related genes were encountered. The gonads of one patient showed partial gonadal dysgenesis with loss of Leydig cells in tubular areas with seminoma in situ and a hyperplasia of Leydig cell-like cells expressing CYP17A1 in more dysgenetic parts of the gonad. In addition, both patients suffer from a polyneuropathy. High-resolution ultrasound revealed a structural change of peripheral nerve structure that fits well to a minifascicle formation of peripheral nerves. Conclusion: Mutations in DHH play a role in 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis and are associated with seminoma formation and a neuropathy with minifascicle formation. Gonadal dysgenesis in these cases may be due to impairment of Sertoli cell-Leydig cell interaction during gonadal development. PMID:25927242

  18. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Casciotta, Kevin A; Erdi, Yusuf E; Rothenberg, Lawrence N

    2007-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. Methods The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA) was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. Results The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Conclusion Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans. PMID:17367529

  19. Molecular characterization of the gonadal kisspeptin system: Cloning, tissue distribution, gene expression analysis and localization in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Fairgrieve, Marian R; Shibata, Yasushi; Smith, Elizabeth K; Hayman, Edward S; Luckenbach, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    The kisspeptin system plays pivotal roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Classically, kisspeptin produced in the brain stimulates brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, which in turn activates the pituitary-gonad axis. Expression of the kisspeptin system has also been documented in peripheral tissues, including gonads of mammals and fishes. However, the fish gonadal kisspeptin system remained uncharacterized. Herein we report identification and characterization of four kisspeptin system mRNAs (kisspeptin 1 (kiss1), kiss2, and G protein-coupled receptor 54-1 (gpr54-1) and gpr54-2) in sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Sablefish predicted protein sequences were highly similar to those of other marine teleosts, but less so to freshwater teleosts. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that all four kisspeptin-system transcripts were expressed in both brain and gonad. However, kiss2 was the predominant transcript in the gonads and the only transcript detected in ovulated eggs. Ontogenetic analysis of kiss2 expression in juvenile sablefish gonads demonstrated that levels were low during sex differentiation but increased with fish size and gonadal development. Dramatic increases in kiss2 mRNA occurred during primary oocyte growth, while levels remained relatively low in testes. In situ hybridization revealed that kiss2 mRNA was localized to cytoplasm of perinucleolus stage oocytes, suggesting it could play a local role in oogenesis or could be synthesized and stored within oocytes as maternal mRNA. This represents the first study to focus on the gonadal kisspeptin system in fishes and provides important tools for further investigation of both the gonadal and brain kisspeptin systems in sablefish.

  20. Report of a kindred with x-linked (or autosomal dominant sex-limited) 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, P.Y.; Marcantonio, S.M.; Ogata, T.; Rosales, T.O.; Smith, K.D.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Migeon, C.J.; Berkovitz, G.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The condition termed 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is characterized by the lack of testicular determination with resulting streak gonads, normal Mullerian structures, and female external genitalia. In the partial form, there is incomplete testicular determination with a wide range in the degree of ambiguous genitalia and sexual duct development. The authors evaluated a kindred in which a partial form of 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis occurred in four subjects from two generations. Pedigree analysis indicated an X-linked or possibly an autosomal sex-limited mode of inheritance. All affected subjects were ascertained because of ambiguous genitalia with minimal virilization. At 10 days of age, the proband had a subnormal plasma level of testosterone, and at 4 months, there was no rise in plasma T after stimulation with hCG. At laparotomy, a dysgenetic gonad was found on the right side, but no gonad was found on the left side. A vas deferens was present on the right, indicating the presence of functional leydig cells early in fetal life. In the other affected subjects, gonadal tissue was also limited to one side of the abdomen and showed poorly developed seminiferous tubules. The sex-determining region Y gene, which encodes the testis-determining factor, was present and unaltered in the genomic DNA of all affected subjects. Duplication of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome has been associated with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in some patients. In the authors studies, Southern blot analysis revealed that sequences of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome were present in single copy, excluding a large duplication in this area of the X. Several kindreds with familial 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis have been reported; five of them had evidence of an X-linked mode of inheritance. The authors study of a kindred with 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis further supports the role of an X chromosome gene in testicular determination. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  2. Danazol suppression of gonadal estradiol-17 beta secretion--report of two sibling cases with a complete form of testicular feminization on gonadal ultrastructure and endocrine status.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Utsunomiya, T; Kadota, T; Yamaguchi, S

    1984-01-01

    It has been established that the pathogenesis of a complete form of testicular feminization syndrome (TFM) is due to end-organ unresponsiveness to androgens. In the present study, two sibling cases with TFM have been reported with special reference to the effect of danazol (a derivative of 17 alpha-ethynyltestosterone) on gonadal estradiol-17 beta (E2) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Both patients showed hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism with good response to LH-RH. In one case, peripheral blood E2 levels seemed to fall independently of gonadotropins during danazol administration in vivo. Administrations of danazol to the culture media also inhibited E2 secretion from the cultured monolayered cells of the testes. These results suggest a direct inhibitory effect of danazol on gonadal E2 secretion. However, the feedback mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary units to E2 were preserved in both cases. Spermatogeneses were almost undetectable as in immature embryonal testes when using either light or electron microscopies, though spermatogonia were differentiated from Sertoli cells by these techniques. Finally, plasma T and E2 levels in both patients were considerably lower after gonadectomy.

  3. Roles of GATA6 during Gonadal Development in Japanese Flounder: Gonadogenesis, Regulation of Gender-Related Genes, Estrogen Formation and Gonadal Function Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zan; Liu, Xiumei; Sun, Yan; Liu, Jinxiang; Liu, Yuezhong; Wang, Mengxun; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-01-01

    GATA-binding protein 6 (GATA6), a highly-conserved transcription factor of the GATA family plays an important role in gonadal cell proliferation, differentiation and endoderm development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of GATA6 of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder) was obtained. Phylogenetic, gene structure and synteny analyses demonstrated that GATA6 of P. olivaceus is homologous to that of teleosts and tetrapods. The P. olivaceus GATA6 transcript showed higher expression in testis than in ovary, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression. During embryonic development, the expression of P. olivaceus GATA6 increased at the blastula stage, demonstrating that GATA6 is involved in morphogenesis. Results of in situ hybridization showed that GATA6 signals were detected in Sertoli cells, oogonia and oocytes. Moreover, 17α methyl testosterone, a male hormone, could moderately upregulate P. olivaceus GATA6 and downregulate P. olivaceus aromatase CYP19A1 in testis cells. These results suggest that GATA6 may play an important role in gonadal development in P. olivaceus. This study provides valuable information on the function of P. olivaceus GATA6, laying the foundation for further development of breeding techniques in this species. PMID:28275215

  4. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; Chen, Xiao-Wu

    2016-09-18

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus.

  5. 46 XX pure gonadal dysgenesis: an infrequent cause of primary amenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Pertusa, Salvador; Palacios, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Amenorrhoea can be primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhoea is a relatively common problem among teenage girls. They usually consult their paediatrician or family doctor. This condition is present in patients with normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age, or patients who have not had menstrual flow by age 14 and are lacking normal secondary sexual characteristics. Gonadal dysgenesis is an infrequent cause for primary amenorrhoea. In this paper, the case of a 16-year-old girl whose mother consulted their family doctor because of worries about her daughter’s lack of menarche is presented. A blood test showed elevated levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) and low levels of oestradiol. An abdominal ultrasound was abnormal. A diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsy of both gonads was performed. Replacement hormonal therapy was applied resulting in normal menstruations after few months. An early diagnosis is extremely important. PMID:21686785

  6. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  7. Contiguous allografts of male and female gonadal primordia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Mangoushi, M A

    1977-01-01

    Male and femal gonadal primordia from fetal rats were grafted in contiguity under the kidney capsule of normal, castrated and spayed adult host rats. Irrespective of the gonadal status of the host, growth and differentiation of primary overian follicles were suppressed when a fetal testis was grafted close to a fetal ovary. Instead, cystic or tubular structures developed, some of them containing atretic ova in their lumina. The testis grafts, on the other hand, always differentiated extremely well. This is supportive evidence for the concept that the early fetal testis elaborates a substance or substances which are capable or preventing proper development of follicles in ovarian primordia trasplanted next to them. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:858695

  8. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bousfiha, N.; Errarhay, S.; Saadi, H.; Ouldim, K.; Bouchikhi, C.; Banani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound and pelvic MRI. Laparoscopy was undertaken and revealed concomitant ovarian dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. There were no other morphological malformations. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of the association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome is still mysterious. The treatment is based essentially on hormone substitution therapy. The fertility prognosis is unfortunately compromised. PMID:21253547

  9. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manne, Sriharibabu; Veeraabhinav, C H; Jetti, Mounica; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Donthu, Kiranmai; Badireddy, Mutyalarayudu

    2016-01-01

    46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  10. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sriharibabu; Veeraabhinav, C. H.; Jetti, Mounica; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Donthu, Kiranmai; Badireddy, Mutyalarayudu

    2016-01-01

    46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases. PMID:28216916

  11. A rare cause of primary amenorrhoea, the XY female with gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannaerts, Dominique; Muys, Joke; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Jacquemyn, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development are conditions where sexual phenotype and genotype are discordant. Genetic sex is determined at conception as the ovum is fertilised by a spermatozoon that contains either an X or Y chromosome. A complex pathway determined by genes and hormones leads to gonadal differentiation into testis or ovary and promotes the development of internal and external genitalia. We present a case of an 18-year-old woman who presented with primary amenorrhoea. She was a virgin, and apart from hirsutism and overweight, had no complaints. Her family history was insignificant. The patient was tall and had underdeveloped breasts. Her blood results showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. A 46, XY genotype was detected with karyotype analysis. Ultrasound and MRI demonstrated the presence of a uterus, but no overt gonads. Laparoscopy was performed, with bilateral removal of streak ovaries. PMID:25666240

  12. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  13. A rare cause of primary amenorrhoea, the XY female with gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, Dominique; Muys, Joke; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Jacquemyn, Yves

    2015-02-09

    Disorders of sexual development are conditions where sexual phenotype and genotype are discordant. Genetic sex is determined at conception as the ovum is fertilised by a spermatozoon that contains either an X or Y chromosome. A complex pathway determined by genes and hormones leads to gonadal differentiation into testis or ovary and promotes the development of internal and external genitalia. We present a case of an 18-year-old woman who presented with primary amenorrhoea. She was a virgin, and apart from hirsutism and overweight, had no complaints. Her family history was insignificant. The patient was tall and had underdeveloped breasts. Her blood results showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. A 46, XY genotype was detected with karyotype analysis. Ultrasound and MRI demonstrated the presence of a uterus, but no overt gonads. Laparoscopy was performed, with bilateral removal of streak ovaries.

  14. Pdgfr-α mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jennifer; Tilmann, Christopher; Capel, Blanche

    2003-01-01

    During testis development, the rapid morphological changes initiated by Sry require the coordinate integration of many signaling pathways. Based on the established role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in various organ systems, we have investigated the role of PDGF in testis organogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-α−/− embryos identified PDGFR-α as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development. Pdgfr-α−/− XY gonads displayed disruptions in the organization of the vasculature and in the partitioning of interstitial and testis cord compartments. Closer examination revealed severe reductions in characteristic XY proliferation, mesonephric cell migration, and fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This work identifies PDGF signaling through the α receptor as an important event downstream of Sry in testis organogenesis and Leydig cell differentiation. PMID:12651897

  15. From Incidentaloma to Suspicion of Malignancy: The Diverse Clinical Presentation of Gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Laiana do Carmo; de Oliveira, Marbele Guimarães; Castro Pereira, Fábio Meira; de Bessa Júnior, José

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread parasitic disease in the world, second only to malaria. The usual places the Schistosoma mansoni can be found in are the rectal and sigmoidal venules, as well as other segments of the large intestine of men. It may also be present in other ectopic topographies. Gonadal schistosomiasis is an unusual presentation of Schistosomiasis mansoni and its different clinical signs and symptoms disrupt correct diagnosis and culminate in surgical treatment that is, in most cases, unnecessary. In this study, we report four cases of gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni, two in the ovary and two in the testicles. These cases were clinically investigated as a bacterial infection, a benign neoplasm, and a suspected cancer, whilst one of them was an incidentaloma. PMID:24392230

  16. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  17. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder)

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Chun-Lei; WANG, Zhi-Peng; WANG, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; CHEN, Xiao-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus. PMID:27686790

  18. Radiation Dose to the Skin and to the Gonads from Diagnostic X-Ray Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.; Olde, G. L.

    1963-01-01

    The design of a study to assess the hazard to patients from radiation received during diagnostic radiological procedures is described. The long-term accumulation of data relating to the skin and gonadal doses received by patients in a large x-ray department has been initiated. This will serve as a model for any situation involving small recurrent radiation doses to a significant proportion of the population. A description is given of the basic dose measurements made and the method used in calculating and recording the skin and gonadal doses for each patient. Although no definite conclusions concerning the presence or absence of a radiation hazard have yet been made, the proposed future course of this study is discussed. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14079142

  19. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhaofei; You, Feng; Wang, Lijuan; Weng, Shenda; Wu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinwei; Zou, Yuxia; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination. PMID:25121093

  20. [Role of GAGA Factor in Drosophila Primordial Germ Cell Migration and Gonad Development].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, N V; Khrushcheva, A S; Fedorova, E V; Ogienko, A A; Baricheva, E M

    2016-01-01

    The GAGA protein of drosophila is a factor involved in epigenetic transcription regulation of a large gene group controlling developmental processes. In this paper, the role of GAGA factor in germ cell migration is demonstrated as well as its effect on the gonad development in drosophila embryogenesis. Mutations in the Trl gene, encoding GAGA factor, prematurely induces the active migration program and relocation of the primordial cells inward the embryo before the beginning of gastrulation. The germ cells that prematurely separated from the main group migrate ectopically, lose orientation, and stay out of gonad development. Expression pattern of the Trl gene suggests its activity in epithelial cells of the embryonic blastoderm, part of which contact primordial cells. Thus, GAGA factor influences migration of these cells in an indirect manner via their somatic environment.

  1. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  2. Vascularization of male gonads in Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Lametschwandtner, A; Patzner, R A; Adam, H

    1988-12-01

    The vascular architecture of male gonads of Blennius pavo is studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. Arterial supply to the gonads is by a branch of the first ventral segmental artery of the tail. From the surface of the gonads, this vessel gives rise to branches which supply testes, spermatic ducts, testicular glands, blind pouches, urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla. The testis has a rope-ladder-like capillary network around the seminiferous tubules, while in the testicular gland the capillary network is irregular in form. The spermatic ducts are found to have an exterior capillary network located in the compact connective tissue layer and an interior one, lying subepithelially. Urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla show a multilayered capillary network. Angioarchitecture in mature and immature gonads does not differ.

  3. EFFECTS OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND ESTROGEN EXPOSURE ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN AND GONADS OF EMBRYONIC ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiatio...

  4. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  5. EFFECTS OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND ESTROGEN EXPOSURE ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN AND GONADS OF EMBRYONIC ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiatio...

  6. [Biosynthesis of testosterone in the gonads in silver fox embryos after long-term selection for domesticated behavior].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1998-07-01

    Fetal gonad weight and testosterone content in serum and gonads were analyzed in silver fox every five days from the 35th day of pregnancy until delivery. Fetal testicles were also tested for testosterone production induced by chorionic gonadotropin (CG) in vitro. Pregnant females were sampled from an experimental population subjected to selection for domesticated behavior and a commercial population (control). Fetal gonad weight was significantly lower in domesticated animals than in controls. No differences were revealed in the testosterone contents in their serum and gonads and in the basal production of testosterone in fetal testicles. CG-induced production of testosterone was detectable from the 40th day of fetal development in domesticated animals and from the 50th day in controls. The results obtained suggest that domestication results in the hetero-chronic fetal development of the hypophysial-testicular complex in silver fox.

  7. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within or... the size of the patient and the examination techniques and equipment employed. Some examples of...

  8. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks.

  9. Obesity independently influences gonadal function in very long-term adult male survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Blijdorp, Karin; van Dorp, Wendy; Laven, Joop S E; Pieters, Rob; de Jong, Frank H; Pluijm, Saskia M F; van der Lely, Aart Jan; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2014-08-01

    Although obesity is associated with gonadal dysfunction in the general population, gonadotoxic treatment might diminish the impact of obesity in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The aim was to evaluate whether altered body composition is associated with gonadal dysfunction in male CCS, independent of gonadotoxic cancer treatment. Three hundred fifty-one male CCS were included. Median age at diagnosis was 5.9 years (0-17.8) and median age at follow-up 25.6 years (18.0-45.8). Total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied. Potential determinants were BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and body composition measures (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Non-SHBG-bound testosterone was significantly decreased in survivors with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (adjusted mean 9.1 nmol/L vs. 10.2 nmol/L, P = 0.015), high fat percentage (10.0 vs. 11.2, P = 0.004), and high waist circumference (>102 cm) (9.0 vs. 11.0, P = 0.020). Survivors with high fat percentage (≥25%) had significantly lower inhibin B/FSH ratios (inhibin B/FSH ratio: β -34%, P = 0.041). Obesity is associated with gonadal dysfunction in male CCS, independent of the irreversible effect of previous cancer treatment. Randomized controlled trials are required to evaluate whether weight normalization could improve gonadal function, especially in obese survivors with potential other mechanisms than lifestyle causing their obesity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    PubMed

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  11. The molecular and cellular basis of gonadal sex reversal in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Nick; Greenfield, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gonad is adapted for the production of germ cells and is an endocrine gland that controls sexual maturation and fertility. Gonadal sex reversal, namely, the development of ovaries in an XY individual or testes in an XX, has fascinated biologists for decades. The phenomenon suggests the existence of genetic suppressors of the male and female developmental pathways and molecular genetic studies, particularly in the mouse, have revealed controlled antagonism at the core of mammalian sex determination. Both testis and ovary determination represent design solutions to a number of problems: how to generate cells with the right properties to populate the organ primordium; how to produce distinct organs from an initially bipotential primordium; how to pattern an organ when the expression of key cell fate determinants is initiated only in a discrete region of the primordium and extends to other regions asynchronously; how to coordinate the interaction between distinct cell types in time and space and stabilize the resulting morphology; and how to maintain the differentiated state of the organ throughout the adult period. Some of these, and related problems, are common to organogenesis in general; some are distinctive to gonad development. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the molecular and cellular events underlying testis and ovary development, with an emphasis on the phenomenon of gonadal sex reversal and its causes in mice and humans. Finally, we discuss sex-determining loci and disorders of sex development in humans and the future of research in this important area. WIREs Dev Biol 2012, 1:559–577. doi: 10.1002/wdev.42 PMID:23801533

  12. Unexpected finding of an intact distal vagina in an infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Alvarez, Rudy; Kaefer, Martin N.; Eugster, Erica A.; Nebesio, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a form of sex chromosome disorder of sex development with large phenotypic variability. Patients with MGD typically have asymmetric and ambiguous genitalia with a combination of Müllerian and Wolffian duct derivatives. Prenatal androgen exposure results in variable degrees of phallic enlargement and a urogenital sinus. Here, we report an infant with ambiguous genitalia due to MGD. Despite marked evidence of prenatal androgen exposure, there was a completely intact distal vagina. PMID:22145487

  13. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Xue; Wang, Yi-Ya; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hui; Li, Ning; Ji, Xiang Shan

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species.

  14. Adrenal axis activation by chronic social stress fails to inhibit gonadal function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, V; Taylor, G T; Mormède, P

    1997-11-01

    Stress in males via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may set into motion varied physiological alterations, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, the influence of the HPA on the HPG axis may not always be inhibitory. Presence or absence of stimuli of sexual significance that typically activates the HPG axis may alter the influence of the adrenal axis on gonadal axes. In this project, we used male rats and chronic social stimulation that included brief or extended periods with female rats to examine HPA-HPG axes interactions. In experiment 1, we used intact males and a 'chronic social stress' paradigm developed in our previous research that induces social instability by daily changing the membership of group-housed males with females. Thymus weight was reduced and corticosterone levels were marginally increased by chronic social stress, indicating a HPA axis hyperactivity. The HPG axis was also activated as shown by the increased weight of the androgen-sensitive sex structures. These results indicate that when these two axes are stimulated together, neither interferes with nor suppresses activities of the other. Implants of corticosterone pellets to adrenalectomized animals that maintained constant, high corticosterone levels failed to reverse the gonadal hyperactivity induced by sexual stimulation. In a second experiment, we studied the influence of different intensity of sexual stimulations on HPA-HPG axes interactions. Increased corticosterone levels and adrenal weight, indicating a HPA hyperactivity, failed to inhibit HPG hyperactivity as measured by the increased sexual organs weight, whatever the sexual intensity of the stimulation. This work demonstrates that the gonadal axis is freed from suppression when sexual stimulation occurs together with stress. The general conclusion is that the nature of complex social settings is important in determining interactions between the two neuroendocrine axes.

  15. Autoimmune diseases of the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, gonads, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    PubMed

    Muir, A; Maclaren, N K

    1991-09-01

    Autoimmunity directed against the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, gonads, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis can arise in isolation or as part of a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. Affected patients can be asymptomatic, but they may also suffer significant morbidity or even mortality. Currently, treatment is restricted largely to hormone replacement when end-organ destruction is almost complete. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrinopathies improves, it is probable that early patient detection will become practical and trials of protective immunotherapies entertained.

  16. Intersex gonads in frogs: understanding the time course of natural development and role of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Storrs-Méndez, Sara I; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2010-01-15

    The paucity of data on sexual development of anuran amphibians has played an important role in the recent controversy over atrazine exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated the presence of abnormal gonads in control treatments, others have not, leading to varying interpretations of the effects of atrazine exposure on sexual development. However, the timing of development varies among anuran amphibians such that, at any snapshot in time, different species may exhibit different stages of sexual differentiation. We examined three species representing each of the differentiation rates (Bufo americanus=retarded rate; Hyla versicolor=basic rate; Rana sphenocephala=accelerated rate), to examine the natural time course of sexual development along with the influence of atrazine exposure. For each species, exposure to atrazine (1, 3, 10, 30 parts per billion), 17-beta-estradiol or control water occurred throughout larval life. Gonad histology was performed at 3-week intervals during the larval period or at a juvenile stage to examine the proportion of males, females, underdeveloped testes, testicular oocytes (TO; testes with 0-30% oocytes), and ovotestes (OVTs; testes with>30% oocytes). Our results illustrate that a phase of intersex gonads (TO or OVT) is normal during R. sphenocephala sexual development, a species representing the accelerated differentiation rate. Further, intersex gonads were found in juvenile stages of B. americanus and H. versicolor, representing retarded and basic rates, respectively, suggesting that a phase of intersex may be common regardless of differentiation rate. Moreover, these data highlight the importance of longitudinal studies rather than snapshots in time. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Gonadal and adrenal androgens are potent regulators of human bone cell metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kasperk, C H; Wakley, G K; Hierl, T; Ziegler, R

    1997-03-01

    Androgens stimulate bone formation and play an important role in the maintenance of bone mass. Clinical observations suggest that both gonadal and adrenal androgens contribute to the positive impact of androgenic steroids on bone metabolism. We investigated the mechanism of action of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated compound dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on human osteoblastic cells (HOCs) in vitro. The DHEA- and DHEAS-induced effects were analyzed in parallel with the actions elicited by the gonadal androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). There was no qualitative difference between the effects of gonadal and adrenal androgens on HOC metabolism in vitro. Both were stimulatory as regards cell proliferation and differentiated functions, but the gonadal androgen DHT was significantly more potent than DHEA. The actions of DHT and DHEA on HOC proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production could be prevented by the androgen receptor antagonist hydroxyflutamide and inhibitory transforming growth factor beta antibodies (TGF-beta ab), respectively, but were not affected by the presence of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) and 5-alpha-reductase (5-AR) inhibitor 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl- 4aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one (4-MA). This indicates that DHT and DHEA (1) exert their mitogenic effects by androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms, (2) stimulate ALP production by increased TGF-beta expression, (3) that the action of DHT is not affected by the presence of 4-MA, and that (4) DHEA does not need to be metabolized by 3 beta HSD or 5-AR first to exert its effects on HOCs in vitro.

  18. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal.

  19. Activation of brain steroidogenesis and neurogenesis during the gonadal differentiation in protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Ju; Fan-Chiang, Yi-Chun; Dufour, Sylvie; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-02-01

    The early brain development, at the time of gonadal differentiation was investigated using a protandrous teleost, black porgy. This natural model of monosex juvenile fish avoids the potential complexity of sexual dimorphism. Brain neurogenesis was evaluated by histological analyses of the diencephalon, at the time of testicular differentiation (in fish between 90 and 150 days after hatching). Increases in the number of both Nissl-stained total brain cells, and Pcna-immunostained proliferative brain cells were observed in specific area of the diencephalon, such as ventromedialis thalami and posterior preoptic area, revealing brain cell proliferation. qPCR analyses showed significantly higher expression of the radial glial cell marker blbp and neuron marker bdnf. Strong immunohistochemical staining of Blbp and extended cellular projections were observed. A peak expression of aromatase (cyp19a1b), as well as an increase in estradiol (E2 ) content were also detected in the early brain. These data demonstrate that during gonadal differentiation, the early brain exhibits increased E2 synthesis, cell proliferation, and neurogenesis. To investigate the role of E2 in early brain, undifferentiated fish were treated with E2 or aromatase inhibitor (AI). E2 treatment upregulated brain cyp19a1b and blbp expression, and enhanced brain cell proliferation. Conversely, AI reduced brain cell proliferation. Castration experiment did not influence the brain gene expression patterns and the brain cell number. Our data clearly support E2 biosynthesis in the early brain, and that brain E2 induces neurogenesis. These peak activity patterns in the early brain occur at the time of gonad differentiation but are independent of the gonads.

  20. Gonadal sex differentiation and effects of dietary methyltestosterone treatment in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Fairgrieve, William T

    2016-02-01

    Methods for sex control are needed to establish monosex aquaculture of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Here we conducted the first characterization of sex differentiation by histology and hormonal sex reversal experiment in sablefish. Ovarian differentiation was first discernible at ~80 mm fork length (FL) and characterized by development of lamellar structures and onset of meiosis. Testes exhibited a dual-lobe appearance over much of their length and remained non-meiotic until males were ≥520 mm FL (2 years post-fertilization). Juveniles with undifferentiated gonads were provided diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 50 mg 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)/kg for 2 months. Following treatment, controls possessed either ovaries or non-meiotic testes, whereas MT-treated fish exhibited meiotic testes (60% of the fish), intersex gonads (~30%), or gonads that appeared sterile (~10%). A genetic sex marker revealed that all intersex fish were genetic females, although other females appeared to be completely sex reversed (i.e., neomales). One year after treatment, MT-treated fish possessed non-meiotic testes similar to control males or intersex gonads with reduced ovarian features, presumably due to atresia following MT withdrawal. Milt collected from neomales and genetic males 3 years post-treatment permitted sperm motility analyses; however, neomale sperm were virtually immotile. These results demonstrated that sablefish are differentiated gonochorists and that MT treatment from 76 to 196 mm FL induced permanent masculinization of a portion of the genetic females, but acquisition of sperm motility was impaired. Earlier administration of MT may be necessary to sex reverse a higher proportion of genetic females and reduce negative effects on fertility.

  1. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproductive Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    cardiovascular disease , as well as premature osteoporosis. Further, numerous epidemiological studies support the benefits of supplemental estrogen therapy in the postmenopause as an effective means of reducing mortality from both cardiovascular disease and osteoporotic fractures. There is uncertainty about how all of these factors play out in breast cancer survivors who have experienced premenopausal disease. Therefore, the primary focus of this cross-sectional study is to examine gonadal function and reproductive health comprehensively in long-term

  2. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    PubMed Central

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates. PMID:25527645

  3. [Effects of cadmium on metamorphism and gonad differentiation in Rana chensinensis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Yi; Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Hui

    2010-06-01

    200 tadpoles of Rana chensinensis at stage 26 - 27 were exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L Cd2+ in tap water respectively until they're fully metamorphic after which the heteromorphic young frogs in different treatments were anatomized, females and males were identified through gonad observation, and the female ratio was calculated. Localization of estrogen receptors (ER) in liver cells was investigated in different treatments using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that Cd2+ might induce limb abnormality, however, there was little correlation between abnormality rate and cadmium concentration in lower Cd2+ levels except for a higher limb abnormality ratio in the 0.4 mg/L group. On the other hand, Cd2+ could affect gonad differentiation. Compared to the control group, the proportion of female population increased in the 0.05 mg/L group and decreased in the 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L ones. The sex rate in the 0.2 mg/L group is significantly different from that in the control group. Hermaphrodite gonads appeared in the two treatments with 0.2 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L of Cd2+. Additionally, ER expression was positive in both cytoplasm and nucleolus of liver cells in Cd2+ treated groups. But, there was no linear relationship between ER expressions levels and the concentration of Cd2+. These results suggested that cadmium can influence tadpole metamorphosis and gonad development by affecting the secretion of sex hormone.

  4. [Gonadal endocrine function in female silver foxes selected for domesticated behavior].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Trut, L N

    1989-01-01

    Selection for domesticated behavior in female silver fox is accompanied by a number of changes in endocrine function of ovaries. Significant changes in peripheral blood estradiol and progesterone levels and their production by gonads during anestrous may be an endocrine basis for out-of-season activation of reproductive system and earlier beginning of seasonal reproduction in domesticated females. The increase in the hormone level during preimplantation period of pregnancy and before parturition in tame foxes may influence their productivity.

  5. A Novel Mouse Fgfr2 Mutant, Hobbyhorse (hob), Exhibits Complete XY Gonadal Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Siggers, Pam; Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Bogani, Debora; Warr, Nick; Wells, Sara; Hilton, Helen; Esapa, Chris; Hajihosseini, Mohammad K.; Greenfield, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The secreted molecule fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) plays a critical role in testis determination in the mouse. In embryonic gonadal somatic cells it is required for maintenance of SOX9 expression, a key determinant of Sertoli cell fate. Conditional gene targeting studies have identified FGFR2 as the main gonadal receptor for FGF9 during sex determination. However, such studies can be complicated by inefficient and variable deletion of floxed alleles, depending on the choice of Cre deleter strain. Here, we report a novel, constitutive allele of Fgfr2, hobbyhorse (hob), which was identified in an ENU-based forward genetic screen for novel testis-determining loci. Fgr2hob is caused by a C to T mutation in the invariant exon 7, resulting in a polypeptide with a mis-sense mutation at position 263 (Pro263Ser) in the third extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain of FGFR2. Mutant homozygous embryos show severe limb and lung defects and, when on the sensitised C57BL/6J (B6) genetic background, undergo complete XY gonadal sex reversal associated with failure to maintain expression of Sox9. Genetic crosses employing a null mutant of Fgfr2 suggest that Fgr2hob is a hypomorphic allele, affecting both the FGFR2b and FGFR2c splice isoforms of the receptor. We exploited the consistent phenotype of this constitutive mutant by analysing MAPK signalling at the sex-determining stage of gonad development, but no significant abnormalities in mutant embryos were detected. PMID:24956260

  6. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  7. The ecological and physiological bases of variation in the phenology of gonad growth in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Lane, Samuel; Meddle, Simone L; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Birds often adjust to urban areas by advancing the timing (phenology) of vernal gonad growth. However, the ecological and physiological bases of this adjustment are unclear. We tested whether the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology of male Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, is due to greater food availability in urban areas of Phoenix, Arizona USA or, alternatively, a habitat-related difference in the phenology of key food types. To better understand the physiological mechanism underlying variation in gonad growth phenology, we compared the activity of the reproductive system at all levels of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We found no habitat-associated difference in food availability (ground arthropod biomass), but, in contrast to the seasonal growth of leaves on desert trees, the leaf foliage of urban trees was already developed at the beginning of our study. Multiple estimates of energetic status did not significantly differ between the non-urban and urban towhees during three years that differed in the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth and winter precipitation levels. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that greater food abundance in urban areas of Phoenix drives the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology in Abert's towhees. By contrast, they suggest that differences in the predictability and magnitude of change in food availability between urban and desert areas of Phoenix contribute to the observed habitat-related disparity in gonad growth. Endocrine responsiveness of the gonads may contribute to this phenomenon as desert - but not urban - towhees had a marked plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge.

  8. Gonadal dysfunction in patients treated for metastatic germ-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Leitner, S P; Bosl, G J; Bajorunas, D

    1986-10-01

    The effects of chemotherapy on endocrine function were assessed in 22 previously treated patients with germ-cell tumors and compared with the endocrine function of six previously untreated patients. Baseline and stimulated serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, and thyroxine (T4) were obtained. Baseline LH levels were elevated in both groups of patients, whereas basal FSH levels were significantly elevated only in treated patients (P less than .001). Following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), levels of LH (P = .051) and FSH (P = .003) were greater in treated patients than in untreated control patients. No abnormalities of thyroid function or prolactin responsiveness were observed. Patients younger than 25 years of age at the time of treatment had lower serum levels of LH and FSH following chemotherapy than patients older than 25. Evidence for partial recovery of gonadal function was present with patients treated more than 18 months before study having lower levels of LH and FSH than those patients studied less than 18 months after treatment. These data demonstrate that frequent gonadal dysfunction exists in untreated patients with germ-cell tumors and that chemotherapy induces additional injury to both Leydig cells and the germinal epithelium. Further studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to define the pattern of gonadal recovery and to assess the potential sequelae of endogenous gonadotropin hypersecretion.

  9. The effect of latitude on photoperiodic control of gonadal maturation, regression and molt in birds.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alistair

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiod is the major cue used by birds to time breeding seasons and molt. However, the annual cycle in photoperiod changes with latitude. Within species, for temperate and high latitude species, gonadal maturation and breeding start earlier at lower latitudes but regression and molt both occur at similar times at different latitudes. Earlier gonadal maturation can be explained simply by the fact that considerable maturation occurs before the equinox when photoperiod is longer at lower latitudes - genetic differences between populations are not necessary to explain earlier breeding at lower latitudes. Gonadal regression is caused either by absolute photorefractoriness or, in some species with long breeding seasons, relative photorefractoriness. In either case, the timing of regression and molt cannot be explained by absolute prevailing photoperiod or rate of change in photoperiod - birds appear to be using more subtle cues from the pattern of change in photoperiod. However, there may be no difference between absolute and relative photorefractory species in how they utilise the annual cycle in photoperiod to time regression.

  10. Puberty and gonadal hormones: role in adolescent-typical behavioral alterations.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Vetter-O'Hagen, Courtney S; Spear, Linda P

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Adolescence is characterized by a variety of behavioral alterations, including elevations in novelty-seeking and experimentation with alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Some adolescent-typical neurobehavioral alterations may depend upon pubertal rises in gonadal hormones, whereas others may be unrelated to puberty. Using a variety of approaches, studies in laboratory animals have not revealed clear relationships between pubertal-related changes and adolescent- or adult-typical behaviors that are not strongly sexually dimorphic. Data reviewed suggest surprisingly modest influences of gonadal hormones on alcohol intake, alcohol preference and novelty-directed behaviors. Gonadectomy in males (but not females) increased ethanol intake in adulthood following surgery either pre-pubertally or in adulthood, with these increases in intake largely reversed by testosterone replacement in adulthood, supporting an activational role of androgens in moderating ethanol intake in males. In contrast, neither pre-pubertal nor adult gonadectomy influenced sensitivity to the social inhibitory or aversive effects of ethanol when indexed via conditioned taste aversions, although gonadectomy at either age altered the microstructure of social behavior of both males and females. Unexpectedly, the pre-pubertal surgical manipulation process itself was found to increase later ethanol intake, decrease sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects, attenuate novelty-directed behavior and lower social motivation, with gonadal hormones being necessary for these long-lasting effects of early surgical perturbations.

  11. Thyroid hormone and reproduction: regulation of estrogen receptors in goldfish gonads.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik R; Allan, Euan R O; Pang, Flora Y; Habibi, Hamid R

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates. However, little information is available on the mechanisms by which this happens. As a first step in determining these mechanisms, we test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor subtypes (ERalpha, ERbeta-1, and ERbeta-2) are regulated by the thyroid hormone, (T(3)), in the gonads of goldfish. All three subtypes were down-regulated by T(3) in the testis or ovary. We also found evidence that T(3) decreased pituitary gonadotropin expression and decreased transcript for gonadal aromatase. Collectively, it appears that T(3) acts to diminish estrogen signaling by (1) decreasing pituitary LH expression and thus steroidogenesis, (2) down-regulating gonadal aromatase expression and thus decreasing estrogen synthesis from androgens, and (3) decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the ER subtypes. Goldfish are seasonal breeders, spawning once a year, and thus have two distinct periods of growth: somatic and reproductive. Circulating thyroid hormone levels have been found to increase just after spawning. Therefore, we propose that this may be an endocrine mechanism that goldfish use to switch their energy expenditure from reproductive to growth efforts in the goldfish. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, Anutosh; Goswami, Usha

    2006-05-01

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts of non-smoked cigar tobacco. The level of DNA damage and the number of deformed nuclei reach a maximum at day 12 of exposure to both extracts but decrease thereafter. This phenomenon is attributed to the organism's capacity to maintain the integrity of its genetic material upon exposure to potential genotoxicants present in the tobacco extracts. A dose response in DNA damage and deformed nuclei was also detected in isolated gonad cells upon in vitro exposure to hydrogen peroxide a known DNA strand breaking agent. The results of this study indicate that the DNA in male gonad cells of the marine mussel is damaged upon exposure to genotoxicants, and suggests the suitability of the organism for future investigations into the effect of such agents on its reproductive capacities.

  13. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  14. The effects of gonadal irradiation in clinical radiation therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lushbaugh, C C; Casarett, G W

    1976-02-01

    Recent improvements in radiation therapy of some malignancies in lower abdominal sites are leading to a prolongation of life in persons of child-bearing age. These successes require an evaluation of the possible undersirable consequences of the unavoidable gonadal irradiation that occurs in these cases. A review of radiobiological data from experimental animal studies and retrospective clinical studies suggests that in most instances human gonadal exposures in both sexes are insufficient to cause permanent sterility, because the exposures are fractionated and the total gonadal dose is much less than 600 rads. As a consequence, return of fertility must be anticipated, and the worrison questions of radiation-induced genetic damage in subsequent pregnancies must be addressed. This review did not substantiate this fear, because no case reports could be found of malformed infants among the progeny of previously irradiated parents. Some experimental studies suggest that radiation-damaged spermatogonia are self-destructive, but any evidence for this phenomenon in the ovary is nonexistent. We suggest that the difference between fact and theory here may be the mathematical result of the interplay of low probability for occurrences and the few patients who until now have survived long enough for study.

  15. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2015-06-15

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epigenetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epi-genetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. PMID:25498963

  17. An Unusual Presentation of 46,XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis: Spontaneous Breast Development and Menstruation.

    PubMed

    Çatlı, Gönül; Alparslan, Caner; Can, P Şule; Akbay, Sinem; Kelekçi, Sefa; Atik, Tahir; Özyılmaz, Berk; Dündar, Bumin N

    2015-06-01

    46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor.

  18. Gonadotrophic cells and gonadal sex differentiation in medaka: Characterization of several northern and southern strains.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Gonadotropins play an important role in gametogenesis and reproduction in vertebrates. Their localization in the pituitary during gonadal sex differentiation has been studied mainly in southern (Oryzias latipes) strains of medaka fish, with that in northern medaka (O. sakaizumii) remaining poorly understood. Hence, in this study, we characterized gonadal differentiation and gonadotrophic cells during sex differentiation in two northern strains (HNI and Kaga) and two southern strains (Hd-rR and d-rR/Tokyo). All strains exhibited similar sex differentiation at hatching, such as (1) sex difference in germ cell number (XX > XY), and (2) the transition of XX germ cells into meiosis, and (3) presence of glycoprotein-α (Gpa)-positive cells. However, follicle-stimulating hormone-β (Fshb)-positive cells were first detected in the pituitary 1 day post-hatching in HNI. Exposure to high-temperature conditions and to cortisol in a dose dependent manner resulted in the localization of Fshb cells in the pituitary at hatching. This study demonstrates differences in gonadotropin subunit expression between northern and southern strains of medaka, and suggests that Fsh is not involved in early gonadal sex differentiation, such as the sex difference in germ cell number, and that high-temperature induce Fshb expression via cortisol production in medaka.

  19. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design.

  20. Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores (‘capital’ spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an ‘income’-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely ‘skipped’ spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.

  1. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  2. Effect of 4-octylphenol on germ cell number in cultured human fetal gonads.

    PubMed

    Bendsen, E; Laursen, S; Olesen, C; Westergaard, L; Andersen, C; Byskov, A

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluates whether a hormone disruptor found in environment, 4-octylphenol, affects the rate of proliferation of germ cells from human fetal gonads during a 3 week culture period. Five testis and five ovaries were obtained from fetuses of women undergoing legal abortions between the 6th and 9th week of fetal life, representing the period where early gonadal differentiation takes place. Each gonad was divided into equal sized test and control tissue. The test tissue was exposed to a continued presence of 10 micromol/l 4-octylphenol in the culture medium. The cultures were terminated by fixation of the tissues, which where then processed for histology and serially sectioned. The mitotic index of the germ cells (i.e. number of mitosis per 100 germ cells) and the number of germ cells per area was determined. Each of the five testes cultured in 4-octylphenol exhibited a significantly reduced mitotic index and number of pre-spermatogonia compared to the control, whereas none of the five ovaries exposed to 4-octylphenol revealed any difference compared to the control. It is concluded that 4-octylphenol exerts a sex-specific effect on male germ cells.

  3. The rhox homeobox gene family shows sexually dimorphic and dynamic expression during mouse embryonic gonad development.

    PubMed

    Daggag, Hinda; Svingen, Terje; Western, Patrick S; van den Bergen, Jocelyn A; McClive, Peter J; Harley, Vincent R; Koopman, Peter; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2008-09-01

    Reproductive capacity is fundamental to the survival of all species. Consequently, much research has been undertaken to better understand gametogenesis and the interplay between germ cells and the somatic cell lineages of the gonads. In this study, we have analyzed the embryonic expression pattern of the X-linked gene family Reproductive homeobox genes on the X chromosome (Rhox) in mice. Our data show that eight members of the Rhox gene family are developmentally regulated in sexually dimorphic and temporally dynamic patterns in the developing germ cells during early gonadogenesis. These changes coincide with critical stages of differentiation where the germ cells enter either mitotic arrest in the testis or meiotic arrest in the ovary. Finally, we show that Rhox8 (Tox) is the only member of the Rhox gene family that is expressed in the somatic compartment of the embryonic gonads. Our results indicate that the regulation of Rhox gene expression and its potential function during embryogenesis are quite distinct from those previously reported for Rhox gene regulation in postnatal gonads.

  4. Carotenoid extraction from the gonad of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Suhnel, S; Lagreze, F; Ferreira, J F; Campestrini, L H; Maraschin, M

    2009-02-01

    In marine bivalve mollusks, unsaturated molecules called carotenoids are present in the natural diet and play an important role in different biological process, especially in reproduction. In order to gain more insights into these compounds in Nodipecten nodosus it was necessary to develop a suitable protocol for extraction of carotenoids from the gonads. Female gonads of cultured scallops (75 mm length) were lyophilized and macerated in liquid N2. To verify the effect of composition in organosolvents on the extracting solutions, two organic solvents were tested: acetone and hexane (Ac = O:Hex) at four ratios, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 2:3, in four static extraction times: 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin contents were determined in the crude extracts by UV-visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Triplicate aliquots of 50 mg were used for each treatment. The results indicated that the best single extraction (0.312 +/- 0.016 microg carotenoids/mg) was attained with Ac = O: Hex 1:3, for 15 minutes. Through exhaustive extraction methodology (10x), a superior yield (0.41 +/- 0.001 microg carotenoids/mg) was obtained from a gonad sample in comparison to the highest value found for a single extraction. Astaxanthin content was reduced by 8.6% in carotenoid extract preservation assay, i.e., -18 degrees C, 26 days incubation, under N2 atmosphere.

  5. Germ Cells Are Not Required to Establish the Female Pathway in Mouse Fetal Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Hinson, Ashley; Kobayashi, Akio; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. PMID:23091613

  6. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  7. cep-1/p53-dependent dysplastic pathology of the aging C. elegans gonad.

    PubMed

    McGee, Mathew D; Day, Nicholas; Graham, Jill; Melov, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The C. elegans germline and somatic gonad are actively developing until the animal reaches adulthood, and then continue to undergo striking changes as the animal ages. Reported changes include a depletion of available sperm, a decrease in oocyte quality up till mid-life, a reduction in germline nuclei, a decrease in fertility, and an accumulation of DNA in the midbody of aging C. elegans. Here, we have focused on the aging gonad in old animals, and show in detail that the aging gonad undergoes a massive uterine growth composed of endoreduplicating oocytes, yolk, and expanses of chromatin. We use a novel series of imaging techniques in combination with histological methodology for reconstructing aged worms in 3-dimensions, and show in old animals growing masses swelling inside the uterus to occupy most of the diameter of the worm. We link this accelerated growth to the cep-1/p53 tumor suppressor. Because cep-1 is required for DNA damage induced apoptosis, and daf-2 limits longevity, these results suggest a role for age-related DNA damage in dysplastic uterine growths, which in some respects resemble premalignant changes that can occur in aging mammals.

  8. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  9. Progestin, estrogen and androgen G-protein coupled receptors in fish gonads.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Dressing, Gwen; Pang, Yefei; Berg, Hakan; Tubbs, Christopher; Benninghoff, Abby; Doughty, Kelly

    2006-04-01

    The identities of the membrane receptors mediating the majority of rapid, cell surface-initiated, nongenomic (i.e. nonclassical) steroid actions described to date are unclear. Two novel 7-transmembrane spanning proteins, representing two distinct classes of steroid membrane receptors, membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRalpha) and a membrane estrogen receptor (mER), GPR30, have recently been identified in several vertebrate species. Evidence that both receptors activate G-proteins and function as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is briefly reviewed. New data on progestin actions on fish gametes suggest a widespread involvement of mPRalpha in oocyte maturation and sperm hyperactivity in this vertebrate group. Information on the second messenger pathways activated upon estrogen binding to a membrane estrogen receptor in croaker gonads and preliminary evidence for the presence of a GPR30-like protein in fish gonads are discussed. Finally, initial characterization of the ligand binding, G-protein activation and molecular size of a membrane androgen receptor (mAR) in croaker ovaries suggests the presence of a third unique steroid receptor in fish gonads that also may function as a GPCR.

  10. Mercury concentrations in gonad, liver, and muscle of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Webb, M A H; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B; Plumlee, M; Wong, C; Gundersen, D T

    2006-04-01

    This study determined the partitioning of total mercury in liver, gonad, and cheek muscle of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmonatus) in the lower Columbia River. The relationship between tissue mercury concentrations and various physiologic parameters was assessed. White sturgeon were captured in commercial fisheries in the estuary and Bonneville, The Dalles, and John Day Reservoirs. Condition factor (CF), relative weight (Wr), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were determined for each fish (n = 57). Gonadal tissue was examined histologically to determine sex and stage of maturity. Liver (n = 49), gonad (n = 49), and cheek muscle (n = 57) were analyzed for total mercury using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tissue protein concentrations were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma was analyzed for testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and 17ss-estradiol (E2) using radioimmunoassay. Mean tissue mercury concentrations were higher in muscle compared with liver and gonad at all sampling locations, except Bonneville Reservoir where mean liver mercury content was the highest tissue concentration observed in the study. Significant negative correlations between plasma androgens (T and KT) and muscle mercury content and plasma E2 and liver mercury content were found. A significant positive linear relationship between white sturgeon age and liver mercury concentrations was evident. Significant negative correlations between CF and relative weight and gonad and liver mercury content were found. In addition, immature male sturgeon with increased gonad mercury content had decreased GSIs. These results suggest that mercury, in the form of methylmercury, may have an effect on the reproductive potential of white sturgeon.

  11. Fatty acid profiles during gametogenesis in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus): effects of dietary inputs on gonad, egg and embryo profiles.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Stefano; Hughes, Adam D; Atack, Tim; Tocher, Douglas R; Migaud, Herve

    2013-02-01

    The effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition of Paracentrotus lividus gonads were investigated to determine whether dietary inputs affect their relative abundance during gametogenesis. Egg and embryo FA compositions were compared with that of mature gonads to understand how maternal FA is transferred to the offspring. Urchins were fed an experimental Pellet diet in comparison to brown Kelp (Laminaria digitata). FA profiles of diets, gonads, eggs and embryos revealed the presence in gonads of FA that was absent in the diets and/or higher in contents of some long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA). Moreover, some unusual FA, such as non-methylene interrupted (NMI), was found in gonads, eggs and embryos, but not in the diets, suggesting that P. lividus may be capable of synthesizing this FA and accumulating them in the eggs. A description of gonad FA profiles during gametogenesis is reported for the first time and data suggest that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are accumulated during gametogenesis, while arachidonic acid is highly regulated and is the only LC-PUFA clearly accumulated into the eggs along with NMI. Further studies are required to determine if maternal provisioning of FA has the potential to influence sea urchin production outputs and to increase hatchery profitability.

  12. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  13. Role of Vasa, Piwi, and Myc-expressing coelomic cells in gonad regeneration of the colonial tunicate, Botryllus primigenus.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kaz; Sunanaga, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In the colonial tunicate, Botryllus primigenus Oka, gonads consist of indifferent germline precursor cells, the primordial testis and ovary, and mature gonads, of which the immature gonad components can be reconstructed de novo in vascular buds that arise from the common vascular system, although the mechanism is uncertain. In this study, we investigated how and what kinds of cells regenerated the gonad components. We found that few Vasa-positive cells in the hemocoel entered the growing vascular bud, where their number increased, and finally developed exclusively into female germ cells. Simultaneously, small cell aggregates consisting of Vasa(-) and Vasa(±) cells appeared de novo in the lateral body cavity of developing vascular buds. Double fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that these cell aggregates were both Piwi- and Myc-positive. They could form germline precursor cells and a primordial testis and ovary that strongly expressed Vasa. Myc knockdown by RNA interference conspicuously lowered Piwi expression and resulted in the loss of germline precursor cells without affecting Vasa(+) oocyte formation. Myc may contribute to gonad tissue formation via Piwi maintenance. When human recombinant BMP 4 was injected in the test vessel, coelomic Piwi(+) cells were induced to express Vasa in the blood. We conclude, therefore, that in vascular buds of B. primigenus, female germ cells can develop from homing Vasa(+) cells in the blood, and that other gonad components can arise from coelomic Vasa(-)/Piwi(+)/Myc(+) cells.

  14. Microcystin-LR retards gonadal maturation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Guo, Honghui; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Gu, Zemao; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have documented that microcystins (MCs) have potential toxic effects on growth and reproduction in fish. However, no systematic data exist on whether MCs cause gonadal development retardation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors (GH/IGFs) system. To this end, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30µg/L microcystin-LR (MC-LR) for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Life-cycle exposure to MC-LR caused delayed ovarian maturation and sperm development along with ultrapathological lesions in the brain and liver. Moreover, the retarded gonadal development was accompanied by an inhibition of the GH/IGFs system, which was characterized by significant decreases in the transcriptional levels of brain gh (males only), hepatic igf2a and igf2b as well as gonadal igf1 (males only), igf3 and igf2r. These findings for the first time point to the influence of MC-LR on fish gonadal development via the GH/IGFs system. Also, sex-differential impairments suggested that gonadal development of males is more vulnerable than that of female to MC-LR. Our results provide evidence that MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations is able to induce impairments on fish gonadal development.

  15. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  16. Comparative transcriptome sequencing of germline and somatic tissues of the Ascaris suum gonad

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ascaris suum (large roundworm of pigs) is a parasitic nematode that causes substantial losses to the meat industry. This nematode is suitable for biochemical studies because, unlike C. elegans, homogeneous tissue samples can be obtained by dissection. It has large sperm, produced in great numbers that permit biochemical studies of sperm motility. Widespread study of A. suum would be facilitated by more comprehensive genome resources and, to this end, we have produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. Results Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated 572,982 and 588,651 reads for germline (TES) and somatic (VAS) tissues of the A. suum gonad, respectively. 86% of the high-quality (HQ) reads were assembled into 9,955 contigs and 69,791 HQ reads remained as singletons. 2.4 million bp of unique sequences were obtained with a coverage that reached 16.1-fold. 4,877 contigs and 14,339 singletons were annotated according to the C. elegans protein and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein databases. Comparison of TES and VAS transcriptomes demonstrated that genes participating in DNA replication, RNA transcription and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways are expressed at significantly higher levels in TES tissues than in VAS tissues. Comparison of the A. suum TES transcriptome with the C. elegans microarray dataset identified 165 A. suum germline-enriched genes (83% are spermatogenesis-enriched). Many of these genes encode serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases (KPs) as well as tyrosine KPs. Immunoblot analysis further suggested a critical role of phosphorylation in both testis development and spermatogenesis. A total of 2,681 A. suum genes were identified to have associated RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority of which display embryonic lethality, slow growth, larval arrest or sterility. Conclusions Using deep sequencing technology, this study has produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. By comparison with C. elegans datasets, we identified

  17. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: factors influencing gonadal histology including germ cell pathology.

    PubMed

    Kaprova-Pleskacova, Jana; Stoop, Hans; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Cools, Martine; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Drop, Stenvert L S; Snajderova, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-05-01

    Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are at an increased risk for the development of gonadal germ cell cancer. Residual androgen receptor (AR) activity and abnormal gonadal location may influence the survival of atypical germ cells and the development of other histopathological features. To assess this, we evaluated 37 gonads from 19 patients with complete androgen insensitivity (ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years). Histological abnormalities were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and sections stained for POU5F1 and KITLG, markers of early changes in germ cells at risk for malignant transformation. Hamartomatous nodules (HNs), Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH), decreased germ cells, tubular atrophy and stromal fibrosis were more pronounced as age increased (P<0.001). Expected residual AR activity acted as a positive predictor only for non-malignant germ cell survival in (post)pubertal patients (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical studies indicated that delayed maturation of germ cells was present in three patients, whereas intermediate changes that occurred between delayed maturation and intratubular germ cell neoplasia, designated pre-intratubular germ cell neoplasia, were identified in four cases. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia was observed in one patient. Neither POU5F1 nor KITLG expression was dependent on expected residual AR activity. An independent effect of inguinal versus abdominal position of the gonads was difficult to assess because inguinal gonads were present primarily in the youngest individuals. In conclusion, many histological changes occur increasingly with age. Expected residual AR activity contributes to better survival of the general germ cell population in (post)pubertal age; however, it did not seem to have an important role in the survival of the germ cells at risk for malignant transformation (defined by POU5F1 positivity and KITLG overexpression) in complete androgen insensitivity. Comparison of the high

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profile of kisspeptin1 and kisspeptin1 receptor at brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton, 1822) during gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Neetu; Singh, Atul Kumar; Sahoo, Monalisa; Mallik, Sumanta Kumar; Thakuria, Dimpal

    2017-03-01

    Complete cDNA sequences of kiss1 (gmkiss1) and its receptor kiss1r (gmkiss1r) were cloned and characterized from brain tissue of adult golden mahseer (Tor putitora). Thereafter, quantification of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of male and female golden mahseer was carried out using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assay during an annual reproductive cycle, at different gonadal development stages. The gmkiss1 cDNA was 508bp, with 330bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a precursor protein of 109 amino acids, whereas gmkiss1r cDNA was 1383bp with an ORF of 1004bp, which encodes a 334 amino acid protein residue. The qRT-PCR study shows that gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r are expressed in brain, pituitary and gonads of both the sexes of golden mahseer. An apparent sexual dimorphism in transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r in brain and gonads was evident during the reproductive cycle. Overall, in brain, testis and ovary, the gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression level was comparatively higher during the initial stages of gonadal development, than that of spermiation or ovulation stage. In pituitary of both the sexes, throughout the gonadal development, consistently low transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r was observed. The gmkiss1 mRNA expression level in brain and ovary of female golden mahseer was several folds higher than the brain and testis of male fish. In conclusion, we confirm the presence of kiss1 and its receptor in golden mahseer, and results of our study strongly suggested the involvement of kisspeptin1 system in gonadal development and annual reproductive cycle of this species.

  19. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Gonadal Hormone-Dependent Hyperinsulinemia and Gonadal Hormone-Independent Glucose Intolerance in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Hankins, Gary D; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2016-01-01

    Elevated testosterone levels during prenatal life lead to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in adult females. This study evaluated whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to the development of insulin resistance in adult male rats in order to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on glucose homeostasis in these animals. Male offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (control) were examined. A subset of male offspring was orchiectomized at 7 wk of age and reared to adulthood. At 24 wk of age, fat weights, plasma testosterone, glucose homeostasis, pancreas morphology, and gastrocnemius insulin receptor (IR) beta levels were examined. The pups born to testosterone-treated mothers were smaller at birth and remained smaller through adult life, with levels of fat deposition relatively similar to those in controls. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life induced hyperinsulinemia paralleled by an increased HOMA-IR index in a fasting state and glucose intolerance and exaggerated insulin responses following a glucose tolerance test. Prenatal androgen-exposed males had more circulating testosterone during adult life. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism, reversed hyperinsulinemia, and attenuated glucose-induced insulin responses but did not alter glucose intolerance in these rats. Prenatal androgen-exposed males had decreased pancreatic islet numbers, size, and beta-cell area along with decreased expression of IR in gastrocnemius muscles. Gonadectomy restored pancreatic islet numbers, size, and beta-cell area but did not normalize IRbeta expression. This study shows that prenatal testosterone exposure leads to a defective pancreas and skeletal muscle function in male offspring. Hyperinsulinemia during adult life is gonad-dependent, but glucose intolerance appears to be independent of postnatal testosterone levels. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-08-31

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  2. Agonistic behavior in males and females: effects of an estrogen receptor beta agonist in gonadectomized and gonadally intact mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Amy E. Clipperton; Cragg, Cheryl L.; Wood, Alexis J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Summary Affiliative and agonistic social interactions are mediated by gonadal hormones. Research with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or beta (ERβ) knockout (KO) mice show that long-term inactivation of ERα decreases, while inactivation of ERβ increases, male aggression. Opposite effects were found in female αERKO and βERKO mice. The role of acute activation of ERα or ERβ in the agonistic responses of adult non-KO mice is unknown. We report here the effects of the ERβ selective agonist WAY-200070 on agonistic and social behavior in gonadally intact and gonadectomized (gonadex) male and female CD-1 mice towards a gonadex, same-sex intruder. All 15 min resident-intruder tests were videotaped for comprehensive behavioral analysis. Separate analyses assessed: 1) effects of WAY-200070 on each sex and gonadal condition; 2) differences between sexes, and between gonadally intact and gonadex mice, in untreated animals. Results show that in gonadally intact male and female mice WAY-200070 increased agonistic behaviors such as pushing down and aggressive grooming, while leaving attacks unaffected. In untreated mice, males attacked more than females, and gonadex animals showed less agonistic behavior than same-sex, gonadally intact mice. Overall, our detailed behavioral analysis suggested that in gonadally intact male and female mice, ERβ mediates patterns of agonistic behavior that are not directly involved in attacks. This suggests that specific aspects of aggressive behavior are acutely mediated by ERβ in adult mice. Our results also showed that, in resident-intruder tests, female mice spend as much time in intrasexual agonistic interactions as males, but use agonistic behaviors that involve extremely low levels of direct attacks. This non-attack aggression in females is increased by acute activation of ERβ. Thus, acute activation of ERβ similarly mediates agonistic behavior in adult male and female CD-1 mice. PMID:20129736

  3. Effects of incubation temperature and estrogen exposure on aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of embryonic alligators.

    PubMed Central

    Milnes, Matthew R; Roberts, Robert N; Guillette, Louis J

    2002-01-01

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiation of species that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During the temperature-sensitive period (TSP) of sex determination, we compared aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of putative male and female alligator embryos to determine if aromatase activity in the embryonic brain could provide the hormonal environment necessary for ovarian development in a TSD species. In addition, we assessed the pattern of aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of embryos treated with estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and incubated at male-producing temperatures to compare enzyme activity in E(2) sex-reversed females to control males and females. This has particular significance regarding wildlife species living in areas contaminated with suspected environmental estrogens. Gonadal aromatase activity remained low during the early stages of the TSP in both sexes and increased late in the TSP only in females. Aromatase activity in the brain increased prior to gonadal differentiation in both sexes. These results suggest that aromatase activity in the brain is not directly responsible for mediating differentiation of the gonad. E(2) exposure at male-producing temperatures resulted in sex-reversed females that had intermediate gonad function and masculinized brain activity. This study indicates the need to examine multiple end points and to determine the persistence of developmental alterations in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations. PMID:12060834

  4. Expression of a natural antisense transcript of Cg-Foxl2 during the gonadic differentiation of the oyster Crassostrea gigas: first demonstration in the gonads of a lophotrochozoa species.

    PubMed

    Santerre, C; Sourdaine, P; Martinez, A-S

    2012-01-01

    In the oyster Crassostrea gigas, a successive hermaphrodite, Cg-Foxl2, an ortholog of Foxl2, is suspected to be involved in vitellogenesis or female sex determination. The existence of a natural antisense transcript (NAT) of this factor has been suspected in gonads but needs to be confirmed to better understand the early events of the gonadic differentiation. The occurrence of this NAT was studied by orientation-specific RT-PCR. The NAT and its mRNA expressions were investigated during the development and in adults by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. The presence of stable in vivo RNA-RNA duplexes was also explored by RNase protection-based approach. This work is the first evidence of characterization of a NAT in the gonads of mollusks and Lophotrochozoa. This NAT named Cg-Foxl2os is supposed to be polyadenylated and forms RNA-RNA duplexes with its mRNA. Cg-Foxl2os is significantly more expressed than Cg-Foxl2 in 2-month-old spats and in mature males. It is co-localized with the mRNA in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The results of this study demonstrate the existence of a NAT of Cg-Foxl2 in the gonads of C. gigas. It may regulate its mRNA expression through formation of cytoplasmic RNA-RNA duplexes during the oyster gonadic differentiation.

  5. Endocrine sex reversal of gonads by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (CGS 20267) in Emys orbicularis, a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Richard-Mercier, N; Dorizzi, M; Desvages, G; Girondot, M; Pieau, C

    1995-12-01

    In embryos of Emys orbicularis, the sexual differentiation of gonads is influenced by the incubation temperature of eggs. Estrogens administered during the thermosensitive period result in the feminization of gonads at 25 degrees (male-producing temperature), whereas an antiestrogen or aromatase inhibitors masculinize the gonads at 30 degrees (female-producing temperature). The nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor Letrozole induces gonads with different degrees of masculinization, from ovary-like to testis-like. The present study examines the endocrine function of such masculinized gonads, at the end of embryonic life. Aromatase activity (which is involved in estrogen synthesis in ovary) and the status of Müllerian ducts (the regression of which reflects the secretion of a putative anti-Müllerian hormone by the Sertoli cells) were examined. One month after treatment with Letrozole, the gonads of embryos presented various levels of aromatase activity. There was a strong correlation among aromatase activity, gonadal structure, and Müllerian duct status; high levels of aromatase (similar or close to those in control females) were found in ovary-like gonads; intermediate levels were found in gonads (masculinized ovaries or ovotestes?) exhibiting a cortex and a composite medulla containing a mixture of ovarian lacunae and testicular cord-like structures; low levels (similar or close to those in control males) were found in strongly masculinized gonads (testis-like or ovotestes). Müllerian ducts were regressing in the majority of embryos with gonads containing low levels of aromatase activity. In these individuals, gonads functioned as embryonic testes. These results confirm the implication of estrogens in gonadal differentiation. The origin of these hormones is controversial, so that the aromatase activity was compared in gonads, in the undissociated adrenal-mesonephric complex (AM), and in different parts of this complex during the thermosensitive period. At the female

  6. Functional cross-talk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes.

    PubMed

    Viau, V

    2002-06-01

    Under normal conditions, the adrenal glucocorticoids, the endproduct of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, provide a frontline of defence against threats to homeostasis (i.e. stress). On the other hand, chronic HPA drive and glucocorticoid hypersecretion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of systemic, neurodegenerative and affective disorders. The HPA axis is subject to gonadal influence, indicated by sex differences in basal and stress HPA function and neuropathologies associated with HPA dysfunction. Functional cross-talk between the gonadal and adrenal axes is due in large part to the interactive effects of sex steroids and glucocorticoids, explaining perhaps why several disease states linked to stress are sex-dependent. Realizing the interactive nature by which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and HPA systems operate, however, has made it difficult to model how these hormones act in the brain. Manipulation of one endocrine system is not without effects on the other. Simultaneous manipulation and assessment of both endocrine systems can overcome this problem. This dual approach in the male rat reveals that testosterone can act and interact on different aspects of basal and stress HPA function. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release is regulated by testosterone-dependent effects on arginine vasopressin synthesis, and corticosterone-dependent effects on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) synthesis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In contrast, testosterone and corticosterone interact on stress-induced ACTH release and drive to the PVN motor neurones. Candidate structures mediating this interaction include several testosterone-sensitive afferents to the HPA axis, including the medial preoptic area, central and medial amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis. All of these relay homeostatic information and integrate reproductive and social behaviour. Because these modalities are affected

  7. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  8. Global gene expression during early differentiation of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis gonad tissues.

    PubMed

    Haselman, Jonathan T; Olmstead, Allen W; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2015-04-01

    African clawed frog Xenopus sp. is used extensively for developmental biology and toxicology research. Amid concerns of environmental pollutants disrupting endocrine systems and causing altered reproductive development in wildlife, eco-toxicology research has led to a focus on linking molecular initiating events to population-level effects. As such, efforts to better understand reproductive development at the molecular level in these model species are warranted. To that end, transcriptomes were characterized in differentiating Xenopus tropicalis gonad tissues at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 58 (pro-metamorphosis), NF66 (completion of metamorphosis), 1week post-metamorphosis (1WPM), and 2weeks post-metamorphosis (2WPM). Differential expression analysis between tissue types at each developmental stage revealed a substantial divergence of ovary and testis transcriptomes starting between NF58 and NF66; transcriptomes continued to diverge through 2WPM. Generally, testis-enriched transcripts were expressed at relatively constant levels, while ovary-enriched transcripts were up-regulated within this developmental period. Functional analyses of differentially expressed transcripts allowed linkages to be made between their putative human orthologues and specific cellular processes associated with differentiating gonad tissues. In ovary tissue, genetic programs direct germ cells through meiosis to the diplotene stage when maternal mRNAs are transcribed and trafficked to oocytes for translation following fertilization. In the testis, gene expression is consistent with connective tissue development, tubule formation, and germ cell support (Leydig and Sertoli cells). This dataset exhibited remarkable consistency with transcript profiles previously described in gonad tissues across species, and emphasizes the universal importance of certain transcripts for germ cell development and preparation of these tissues for reproduction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing and chromatin structure in Drosophila gonads revealed by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Qiang; Chepelev, Iouri; Wei, Gang; Tarayrah, Lama; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji; Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Both transcription and post-transcriptional processes, such as alternative splicing, play crucial roles in controlling developmental programs in metazoans. Recently emerged RNA-seq method has brought our understandings of eukaryotic transcriptomes to a new level, because it can resolve both gene expression level and alternative splicing events simultaneously. To gain a better understanding of cellular differentiation in gonads, we analyzed mRNA profiles from Drosophila testes and ovaries using RNA-seq. We identified a set of genes that have sex-specific isoforms in wild-type (wt) gonads, including several transcription factors. We found that differentiation of sperms from undifferentiated germ cells induced a dramatic down-regulation of RNA splicing factors. Our data confirmed that RNA splicing events are significantly more frequent in the undifferentiated-cell enriched bag of marbles (bam) mutant testis, but down-regulated upon differentiation in wt testis. Consistent with this, we showed that genes required for meiosis and terminal differentiation in wt testis were mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, but not by alternative splicing. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in expression of all families of chromatin remodeling factors and histone modifying enzymes in the undifferentiated cell-enriched bam testis. More interestingly, chromatin regulators and histone modifying enzymes with opposite enzymatic activities are co-enriched in undifferentiated cells in testis, suggesting these cells may possess dynamic chromatin architecture. Finally, our data revealed many new features of the Drosophila gonadal transcriptomes, and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how differential gene expression and splicing regulate gametogenesis in Drosophila. Our data provided a foundation for the systematic study of gene expression and alternative splicing in many interesting areas of germ cell biology in Drosophila, such as the molecular basis for sexual

  10. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-03

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  11. Expression of connexin 43 in the porcine foetal gonads during development.

    PubMed

    Knapczyk-Stwora, K; Durlej-Grzesiak, M; Duda, M; Slomczynska, M

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to reveal connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA and protein expression in porcine foetal gonads using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expression of Cx43 was investigated in porcine foetal ovaries and testes on days 50, 70 and 90 post coitum (p.c.). RT-PCR results indicated that Cx43 mRNA was expressed in both foetal ovaries and testes at all gestational ages examined. Cx43 protein was found in the foetal ovary but its distribution varied across ovarian compartments and changed during development. In foetal ovaries, Cx43 was localized between the interstitial cells surrounding egg nests on all investigated days of prenatal period. Moreover, Cx43 expression was observed between germ cells on day 50 p.c. as well as between pre-granulosa and granulosa cells of primordial and primary follicles on days 70 and 90 p.c. In the foetal testes, Cx43 protein was detected between neighbouring Leydig cells on all examined days of prenatal period and between adjacent Sertoli cells exclusively on day 90 p.c. The presence of Cx43 protein in all investigated foetal gonads was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Cx43 protein detection between pre-granulosa cells of primordial follicles suggests its role in regulation of the initial stages of follicle development. The Cx43 immunoexpression between neighbouring Leydig and between Sertoli cells indicates its involvement in controlling their functions. We propose that Cx43-mediated gap junctional communication is involved in the regulation of porcine foetal gonadal development.

  12. Extra-gonadal steroids modulate non-breeding territorial aggression in weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Jalabert, Cecilia; Quintana, Laura; Pessina, Paula; Silva, Ana

    2015-06-01

    The neuroendocrine control of intraspecific aggression is a matter of current debate. Although aggression in a reproductive context has been associated with high levels of circulating androgens in a broad range of species, it has also been shown to occur during the non-breeding season when gonads are regressed and plasma steroid hormone levels are low. In mammals and birds the aromatization of androgens into estrogens plays a key role in the regulation of aggression in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons. This is the first study in a teleost fish to explore the role of steroids in the modulation of non-breeding aggression. Gymnotus omarorum is a highly aggressive teleost fish that exhibits aggression all year-round. We analyzed male-male non-breeding agonistic behavior, compared circulating 11-Ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels between dominants and isolated males, assessed the regulatory role of aromatization of androgens into estrogens, and evaluated the gonads as a source of these sex steroids. We found that high levels of aggression occurred in the non-breeding season despite low plasma 11-KT levels, and that there was no difference in 11-KT levels between dominant and isolated males. We demonstrated that acute aromatase inhibition decreased aggression, distorted contest dynamics, and affected expected outcome. We also found that castrated individuals displayed aggressive behavior indistinguishable from non-castrated males. Our results show, for the first time in teleost fish, that territorial aggression of G. omarorum during the non-breeding season depends on a non-gonadal estrogenic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

  14. Ontogenic and morphological study of gonadal formation in genetically-modified sex reversal XYPOS mice

    PubMed Central

    UMEMURA, Yuria; MIYAMOTO, Ryosuke; HASHIMOTO, Rie; KINOSHITA, Kyoko; OMOTEHARA, Takuya; NAGAHARA, Daichi; HIRANO, Tetsushi; KUBOTA, Naoto; MINAMI, Kiichi; YANAI, Shogo; MASUDA, Natsumi; YUASA, Hideto; MANTANI, Youhei; MATSUO, Eiko; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the “bipotential” gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XYPOS) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XYPOS mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XYPOS on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XYPOS mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XYPOS gonads occurred 2–3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XYB6 gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XYPOS, respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XYPOS. Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XYPOS testes and a male-related gene in the XYPOS ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development. PMID:26194606

  15. Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Su, Yi-Ning; Chern, Schu-Rern; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-03-01

    To present the prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism. A 37-year-old woman was referred for genetic counseling at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age and a family history of OI. The woman had a daughter who was affected with OI type III and carried an insertion frameshift mutation of c.4308_4309insA in exon 52 of the COL1A1 gene. The woman and her husband were non-consanguineous and healthy. Amniocentesis was performed at 18 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Molecular analysis of the amniocytes revealed a recurrent mutation of c.4308_4309insA in exon 52 of the COL1A1 gene. Mutational analysis of the family revealed no mutation of the COL1A1 gene in the parental bloods. However, mosaicism for the COL1A1 mutation was found in the paternal sperms. Level II ultrasound examination showed a curved right tibia, a narrow chest with irregular ribs and mild frontal bossing in the fetus. The parents decided to terminate the pregnancy, and a female fetus was delivered at 23 weeks of gestation with curved long bones. Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Isodicentric Y (p11.32) chromosome in an infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Dilek; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; Gonc, Nazli; Senocak, Mehmet E; Tuncbilek, Ergul

    2006-01-01

    Among the structural abnormalities affecting the human Y chromosome, dicentric chromosomes are the most common. A wide spectrum of phenotypes of patients with a dicentric Y chromosome exists, ranging from almost males through mixed gonadal dysgenesis to females with Turner syndrome. Here, we describe an infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and mosaic karyotype 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(qter-->p11.32:p11.32-->qter)/47,X,+2idic(Y) (qter-->p11.32:p11.32-->qter)/47,XYY. This was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with whole Y chromosome painting (WCP-Y) probe. Molecular studies were performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. To examine the sex determined region (SRY), azoospermia factor (AZF) region and deletion in azoospermia gene (DAZ), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were done with sequence-tagged site (STS) primers of 20 loci along the Y chromosome (SRY, DYS271, DYS148, DYS273, KALY, DYS212, SMCY, DYS215, DYS218, DYS219, DYS221, DYS223, DYS224, DYF51S1, DYS236, DAZ, DYS240), and all tested loci were found positive. Because of the possibility of a mutation in the SRY gene, we analyzed the PCR fragment by DNA sequencing and did not observe any mutation or nucleotide alteration. We present detailed molecular-cytogenetic characterization of a patient with idic(Y)(p11.32), and results are discussed with the previously described patients. As far as we know, this is the fifth report of a 46,X, idic(Y)(p11.32) karyotype and the first presentation with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and isodicentric Y. Since the correlation between phenotype and karyotype is not yet well defined, the clinical reports will be helpful in defining the phenotypic range of this chromosomal abnormality.

  18. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    PubMed Central

    Van Vugt, Harmke H.; Van de Heijning, Bert J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular nucleus (PeVN) of ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and compared these data with data from intact male rats. Adult female rats were treated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P), 3 months (long-term) or 2 weeks (short-term) after ovariectomy (OVX). Perfusion-fixed brains were sliced and stained, and the number of SOM-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and total SOM-ir area (in μm2) were determined using computer assisted analysis. SOM-ir cells in the PeVN showed a very characteristic rostro-caudal distribution and localization in relation to the third ventricle. Both the number of SOM-ir cells and total SOM-ir area in the PeVN were higher in male compared to OVX female rats. Neither the number of SOM-ir cells, nor the total SOM-ir area in the PeVN was affected by E2 or P treatment alone. Treatment with both gonadal steroids, however, did increase total SOM-immunoreactivity. This study is the first to describe SOM cell distribution within the rat PeVN in great detail. A clear sex difference exists in SOM peptide content in the rat PeVN. In addition, E2 and P may act synergistically to affect SOM cells in the female PeVN, suggesting that both gonadal steroids may be involved in the generation of the typical feminine SOM release pattern. PMID:18421448

  19. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring indicates seasonal variations in gonadal hormone metabolites in dholes (Cuon alpinus)

    PubMed Central

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Sumretprasong, Jureerat; Aunsusin, Anurut; Chaisongkram, Chawin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To date, there is no information on reproductive endocrinology of dholes (Cuon alpinus). The objectives of the present study were as follows: (i) to characterize longitudinal profiles of gonadal steroids; and (ii) to examine the relationship between gonadal hormones and sexual behaviours in dholes. Three breeding pairs and two bachelor males were included in the study. Among these, four animals (2 males and 2 females; 4 years old) were imported from The Netherlands to Thailand 3 months before the study onset; the remaining individuals (3 males and 1 female; 5–7 years old) were native born. Faecal samples were collected 3–7 days/week for 12 months, extracted and assessed for gonadal hormone metabolites using a validated enzyme immunoassay. Observations of behaviour were conducted in 30 min sessions, 3–5 days/week. For the three breeding males, testosterone was elevated (P < 0.05) from October to January in the two imported males, whereas the concentration of steroid metabolites was high from April to June and from September to November in the native male. However, there was no clear seasonal pattern of reproductive hormone in the bachelor group. Oestrogen metabolite level of imported females was elevated for 9–12 days in January, followed by a rise in progestagen concentration. For native females, oestrogen metabolites were above the basal values in April and September, each of which was followed by a rise in progestagen concentration that remained elevated for 77 and 112 days, respectively. Sexual behaviours, including solicitation, mounting and copulations, were observed during the oestrogen peak in all females. Our findings indicate that reproductive seasonality of dholes may depend on the animals’ origin and social group. PMID:28852505

  20. Analysis of protein expression in zebrafish during gonad differentiation by targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Eggen, Rik I L; Segner, Helmut; Suter, Marc J-F

    2013-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing sex determination and differentiation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not fully understood. To gain more insights into the function of specific genes in these complex processes, the expression of multiple candidates needs to be assessed, preferably on the protein level. Here, we developed a targeted proteomics method based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to study the candidate sex-related proteins in zebrafish which were selected based on a global proteomics analysis of adult gonads and representational difference analysis of male and female DNA, as well as on published information on zebrafish and other vertebrates. We employed the developed SRM protocols to acquire time-resolved protein expression profiles during the gonad differentiation period in vas::EGFP transgenic zebrafish. Evidence on protein expression was obtained for the first time for several candidate genes previously studied only on the mRNA level or suggested by bioinformatic predictions. Tuba1b (tubulin alpha 1b), initially included in the study as one of the potential housekeeping proteins, was found to be preferentially expressed in the adult testis with nearly absent expression in the ovary. The revealed changes in protein expression patterns associated with gonad differentiation suggest that several of the examined proteins, especially Ilf2 and Ilf3 (interleukin enhancer-binding factors 2 and 3), Raldh3 (retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3), Zgc:195027 (low density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 3) and Sept5a (septin 5a), may play a specific role in the sexual differentiation in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  2. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: consistent effects across vertebrate classes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Tyrone B; Anderson, Lloyd L; Beasley, Val R; de Solla, Shane R; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S; Luque, Enrique H; McCoy, Krista A; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Trudeau, Vance L; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2011-10-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called "Hill criteria" (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause-effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis - demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals - represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the "Hill criteria".

  3. Changes in gonadal gene network by exogenous ligands in temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Yatsu, Ryohei; Taylor, Caitlin; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    We examined the expression of candidate sex-determining genes in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Aromatase and Rspo1 were used as markers of ovarian differentiation and Sox9 was used as a marker of testicular differentiation. Eggs were incubated at a male-producing temperature (26 °C or MPT) and a female-producing temperature (31 °C or FPT). First, eggs at the beginning of the TSP (stage 16) were topically treated with the steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone in combination with aromatase inhibitor (AI+T), the E2 antagonist (ICI 182 780), and the androgen antagonist (flutamide). Secondly, gonads were removed at stage 16 and treated in vitro with E2, AI+T, or hormone antagonists. At the FPT, AI+T in ovo suppressed aromatase and Rspo1, while activating Sox9. At the MPT, E2 treatment rapidly increased aromatase and Rspo1, while suppressing Sox9. Treatment with the E2 antagonist in ovo decreased aromatase at the FPT. Treatment with the androgen antagonist in ovo increased aromatase and Rspo1 at early time points at MPT and decreased Sox9 at MPT at later developmental stages. Treatment of isolated gonads cultured in vitro with AI+T at FPT decreased aromatase and Rspo1 and E2 increased the expression of these genes at MPT. In vitro treatment with E2 antagonist suppressed aromatase and Rspo1 expression at FPT. Overall, our results suggest that exogenous ligands dictate gonadal development by redirecting the expression of candidate sex-determining genes within the genetic cascades induced by temperature.

  4. Possible interaction of the adrenal-gonadal systems on brain catecholamines of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Leret, M L; Tranque, P; González, I; Calvo, J C

    1987-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory showed that gonadectomy (GDX) alters biogenic amines concentrations in diencephalon during the first 40 days. While the GDX females maintain the differences at day 60, the differences are eliminated in males at that time. In the present work, we have studied in three cerebral regions the adrenal involvement in the mechanism responsible for this normalization of catecholamine concentration in long-term castrated adult male rats. A hypersecretion of adrenal steroids seems to compensate for the lack of gonadal effect when the orchidectomized rats reach adulthood only for diencephalic dopamine.

  5. Penoscrotal hypospadias and coarctation of the aorta with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Konrad, D; Sossai, R; Winklehner, H L; Binkert, F; Artan, S; Schärli, A F

    2000-01-01

    A 45,X/46,Xidic(Y)(q11.2) mosaicism was found in a 4-year-old boy. The clinical appearance was characterized by bilateral cryptorchidism, penoscrotal hypospadias, short penis, and coarctation of the aorta. The latter is the only abnormality also seen in Turner syndrome. A biopsy of the gonads revealed normal prepubertal testicular tissue. A chromosome analysis in all boys with penoscrotal, scrotal, or perineal hypospadias and a thorough examination of the heart in children with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are recommended.

  6. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  7. Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Yin; Lee, Li-Wei; Hong, Wei-Ning; Lo, Szecheng J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms. The brood size, egg-laying rate, and gonad development of transgenic worms were analyzed using microscopy. Levels of mRNA related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, enpl-1, hsp-4, pdi-3 and xbp-1, were determined using reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCRs) in three lines of transgenic worms and dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated wild-type worms. RESULTS Severe defects in egg-laying, decreases in brood size, and gonad retardation were observed in transgenic worms expressing SHBsAg whereas moderate defects were observed in transgenic worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg. RT-PCR analysis revealed that enpl-1, hsp-4 and pdi-3 transcripts were significantly elevated in worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg and in wild-type worms pretreated with DTT. By contrast, only pdi-3 was increased in worms expressing SHBsAg. To further determine which tissue expressing SHBsAg could induce gonad retardation, we substituted the fib-1 promoter with three tissue-specific promoters (myo-2 for the pharynx, est-1 for the intestines and mec-7 for the neurons) and generated corresponding transgenic animals. Moderate defective phenotypes were observed in worms expressing SHBsAg in the pharynx and intestines but not in worms expressing SHBsAg in the neurons, suggesting that the secreted SHBsAg may trigger a cross-talk signal between the digestive track and the gonad resulting in defective phenotypes. CONCLUSION Ectopic expression of three forms of HBsAg that causes recognizable phenotypes in

  8. GONADAL HORMONE INDEPENDENT SEX DIFFERENCES IN STEROIDOGENIC FACTOR 1 KNOCKOUT MICE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Büdefeld, Tomaž; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdič, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sex differences in brain morphology have been described in a number of species including humans. Gonadal hormones were shown to provide a major influence on brain sexual differentiation more than 50 years ago. A growing number of studies is providing evidence for roles of genetic factors, in particular sex chromosome complement, on brain sexual differentiation in mammals. In this review, hormone-independent brain sexual differentiation, with the emphasis on mice with a disruption of the SF-1 gene (SF-1 knockout, SF-1 KO) are discussed. PMID:21887123

  9. Histologic effect of a postnatal slow-release GnRH agonist on feline gonads.

    PubMed

    Carranza, A; Faya, M; Fernandez, P; Barbeito, C; Gobello, C

    2015-05-01

    In postnatal domestic cats, GnRH agonists suppressed fecal concentrations of sexual steroids and delayed puberty. The aim of this study was to describe the gross and microscopic morphometric effects of a single administration of the GnRH agonist, deslorelin acetate, on the gonads of postnatally treated cats. Twenty-seven postnatal male (n = 14) and female (n = 13) kittens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups within the first 24 hours of birth: deslorelin acetate (1.6 mg, subcutaneous; DA, n = 16) or control that remained untreated (CO, n = 11) and spayed or castrated immediately after the onset of puberty. After surgical removal, the gonads were gross and histologically assessed. Sertoli cells also were examined immunohistochemically. Comparisons between the treatments were carried out by the Student t test. Gross gonadal wet weight and volume as well as gonadosomatic index were significantly lower in the DA than those in the CO males; these same parameters were not different in females. Primordial (461.4 + 3.0 vs. 1074.3 + 117.5; P < 0.01), primary (59.1 + 13.5 vs. 165.4 + 24.6; P < 0.01), and secondary (17.5 + 2.6 vs. 31.17 + 8.1; P < 0.05) follicles per mm(2) were decreased in DA than in CO gonads. Epididymal sperm motility and morphology were normal in all but two DA cats that had too few sperm to be evaluated. Germinal epithelial height (μm; 39.68 + 0.92 vs. 72.7 + 1.2; P < 0.01) and most of their cellular components as well as the Sertoli (cm(3); 0.1 + 0.02 vs. 0.24 + 0.05; P < 0.01) cells were diminished in the DA cats. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist endocrine disruption during the neonatal critical reproductive time window may have a potential as a contraceptive agent in domestic felids.

  10. An Unusual Content in a Congenital Hernia - Complete Spleno -gonadal Fusion Band.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, V N; Barathi, S Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Six years old boy underwent elective inguinal exploration for left congenital hernia. Per- operatively, an elongated, purplish-red, fleshy band of tissue was found inside the sac, adherent to the upper pole of testis. Biopsy was taken and the wound closed. An MRI done after 4 weeks proved the origin of the band from spleen. Laparotomy and excision of the band was done. The histo-pathology of the specimen was reported as normal splenic tissue. The above features are consistent with a diagnosis of spleno - gonadal fusion (SGF).

  11. Testicular fibroma of gonadal stromal origin with minor sex cord elements, presenting with hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Datta, Saikat; Dey, Soumit; Mukherjee, Sumana; Chandra Paul, Prabir; Bhattacharyya, Aparna; Biswas, Sukdeb; Tudu, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Testicular fibroma of gonadal stromal origin is a rare benign tumor of testis which usually presents as a slow growing testicular mass. Only 25 cases of testicular fibroma have been reported in the literature. Presence of minor sex cord elements in this tumor is even rarer. We report a case of testicular fibroma with minor sex cord elements that involved almost the entire testis and tunica vaginalis. The patient presented with hydrocele, a rare presentation for this entity. The rarity of the diagnosis and the clinical presentation prompted this case report.

  12. Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Coady, Katherine K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jones, Paul D; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gross, Timothy; Du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the

  13. Regulation of rat luteinizing hormone subunit messenger ribonucleic acids by gonadal steroid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, S D; Bowers, S M; Need, L R; Chin, W W

    1986-01-01

    Little is known about the hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) biosynthesis. We have studied the regulation of LH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by gonadal-steroid hormones in the rat. In one set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically gonadectomized (GDX) and killed 1, 3, 7, 14, 22, and 31 d postoperatively. In another set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically GDX and were injected subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (500 micrograms/100 g body wt per d) or 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate (10 micrograms/100 g body wt per d), respectively, beginning 3 wk postoperatively. Levels of serum LH were determined by radioimmunoassay and levels of LH subunit mRNAs in single pituitary glands were determined by blot hybridization analysis using labeled synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes that correspond to portions of the coding regions of the rat alpha- and LH beta-subunit mRNAs. 4 wk after gonadectomy, serum LH levels rose nine- and 20-fold, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels rose six- and 10-fold, and LH beta-subunit levels rose seven- and 14-fold, compared with controls in males and females, respectively. In gonadal-steroid hormone-treated male and female GDX rats, serum LH levels fell to 8 and 36% of control values, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels declined to 22 and 19%, and LH beta-subunit mRNA levels declined to 6 and 10% of control values, 48 h after injections were initiated, in males and females, respectively. We conclude that gonadal-steroid hormones negatively regulate the levels of both subunit mRNAs in GDX rats in a pattern that parallels the changes in serum LH values. These data suggest that gonadal-steroid hormone regulation of LH biosynthesis occurs, at least in part, at the level of LH subunit mRNAs due to effects at the transcriptional and/or RNA stability levels. Images PMID:2418065

  14. Gonadal function after 12-Gy testicular irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L.A.; Craft, A.W.; Kernahan, J.; Evans, R.G.; Aynsley-Green, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Gonadal function was assessed in 15 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had received testicular irradiation. The dose to the testes was 12 Gy in 12, 15 Gy in 1, and 24 Gy in 2 cases. All of those who had received 12 or 15 Gy had normal Leydig cell function, although high levels of gonadotropins suggest subclinical Leydig cell damage. The 2 who had 24 Gy had Leydig cell failure. All who were old enough to produce a semen specimen were azoospermic.

  15. Preservation of gonadal function in women undergoing chemotherapy: a review of the potential role for gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Lisa C; Valentine, Lindsey N; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    A cancer diagnosis in women of reproductive age has unique medical and psychosocial ramifications, especially with treatments that are known to cause gonadal toxicity. For patients who undergo chemotherapy, a multidisciplinary team approach is essential to ensure that the patients' reproductive wishes are addressed. Currently, embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard of care for those who wish to preserve their fertility. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists has been a source of debate with numerous studies that have investigated the efficacy on both fertility and ovarian function preservation. This review evaluates the current literature on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for preservation of gonadal function. Assisted reproductive technology is excellent for preservation of fertility but will not protect gonadal function. Protection of gonadal function is critical for the broader issues of health and quality of life as a result of a hypogonadal state. At this moment, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are the only drug class available to protect gonadal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Gonadic cycle of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica (Lamellibranchia: Ostreidae) in Mecoacán, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    George-Zamora, Arturo; Sevilla-Hernández, Ma Luisa; Aldana-Aranda, Dalila

    2003-06-01

    The American oyster Crassostrea virginica is exploited along Gulf of Mexico. This resource represents a job source and incomes for fishermen. In Mexico the production is supported by Tabasco state, the first producer. However, the mexican landings of this bivalve had been dropped about 40% last ten years. By 1999, Tabasco presents a unique ban season fishery of oysters. This season was based in evaluation of gonadal development by visual observations of color and texture, larvae and seeds abundance. In 2000, the government set up two ban seasons in terms of evaluation of populations every year, without gonadal analysis. In general, exists different spawning seasons for American oyster, in accordance with the environmental conditions. It is necessary to establish a ban season according to reproductive cycle. This study presents the gonadic cycle for an oyster population of Mecoacin lagoon along a year. It was defined five phases of the gonad development: resting, gametogenesis, mature or ripe, spawn and post spawn. Gametogenesis is present all the year, except December. The spawning activity was detected all year, except July and August. The ripe phase presented maximum values in August and December. It was proposed a modification of the ban seasons from April 15 - May 30, and September 15 - October 30 to March 15 - May 15 and September 1 - October 30, respectively, according to gonadic cycle obtained in this work. This modification would to avoid capture mature organisms (ready to spawn).

  17. [MYP gene expressions at transcription level in different stages of gonad of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and hybrids].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zun-Chun; Bao, Zhen-Min; Dong, Ying; Wang, Li-Mei; He, Chong-Bo; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2008-11-01

    MYP (Major yolk protein) gene expression at transcription level in different stages of gonad of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and hybrids (S. intermediusfemale symbolxS. nudusmale symbol) was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Based on normalization with 18S rRNA levels, the comparative quantities of MYP expression were determined. The expression of MYP gene in gonad showed little difference between female and male. MYP gene expression was decreased rapidly in the gonad of S. intermedius at different stages, and slowly in hybrids. The comparative quantities of MYP expression in the gonads of S. intermedius were decreased from 44.55% to 9.59% in female and from 41.17% to 1.83% in male at different stages. The comparative quantities of MYP expression in the gonads of the hybrids were decreased from 37.66% to 19.22% in female and from 36.66% to 12.55% in male at different stages. The results indicated that the difference of MYP expression was correlated with the variation caused by hybridization.

  18. Schistosome sex matters: a deep view into gonad-specific and pairing-dependent transcriptomes reveals a complex gender interplay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhigang; Sessler, Florian; Holroyd, Nancy; Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Berriman, Matthew; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2016-01-01

    As a key event for maintaining life cycles, reproduction is a central part of platyhelminth biology. In case of parasitic platyhelminths, reproductive processes can also contribute to pathology. One representative example is the trematode Schistosoma, which causes schistosomiasis, an infectious disease, whose pathology is associated with egg production. Among the outstanding features of schistosomes is their dioecious lifestyle and the pairing-dependent differentiation of the female gonads which finally leads to egg synthesis. To analyze the reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni in-depth we isolated complete ovaries and testes from paired and unpaired schistosomes for comparative RNA-seq analyses. Of >7,000 transcripts found in the gonads, 243 (testes) and 3,600 (ovaries) occurred pairing-dependently. Besides the detection of genes transcribed preferentially or specifically in the gonads of both genders, we uncovered pairing-induced processes within the gonads including stem cell-associated and neural functions. Comparisons to work on neuropeptidergic signaling in planarian showed interesting parallels but also remarkable differences and highlights the importance of the nervous system for flatworm gonad differentiation. Finally, we postulated first functional hints for 235 hypothetical genes. Together, these results elucidate key aspects of flatworm reproductive biology and will be relevant for basic as well as applied, exploitable research aspects. PMID:27499125

  19. On the role of germ cells in mammalian gonad development: quiet passengers or back-seat drivers?

    PubMed

    Rios-Rojas, Clarissa; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In addition to their role as endocrine organs, the gonads nurture and protect germ cells, and regulate the formation of gametes competent to convey the genome to the following generation. After sex determination, gonadal somatic cells use several known signalling pathways to direct germ cell development. However, the extent to which germ cells communicate back to the soma, the molecular signals they use to do so and the significance of any such signalling remain as open questions. Herein, we review findings arising from the study of gonadal development and function in the absence of germ cells in a range of organisms. Most published studies support the view that germ cells are unimportant for foetal gonadal development in mammals, but later become critical for stabilisation of gonadal function and somatic cell phenotype. However, the lack of consistency in the data, and clear differences between mammals and other vertebrates and invertebrates, suggests that the story may not be so simple and would benefit from more careful analysis using contemporary molecular, cell biology and imaging tools. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Vreteno, a gonad-specific protein, is essential for germline development and primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zamparini, Andrea L.; Davis, Marie Y.; Malone, Colin D.; Vieira, Eric; Zavadil, Jiri; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila, Piwi proteins associate with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and protect the germline genome by silencing mobile genetic elements. This defense system acts in germline and gonadal somatic tissue to preserve germline development. Genetic control for these silencing pathways varies greatly between tissues of the gonad. Here, we identified Vreteno (Vret), a novel gonad-specific protein essential for germline development. Vret is required for piRNA-based transposon regulation in both germline and somatic gonadal tissues. We show that Vret, which contains Tudor domains, associates physically with Piwi and Aubergine (Aub), stabilizing these proteins via a gonad-specific mechanism that is absent in other fly tissues. In the absence of vret, Piwi-bound piRNAs are lost without changes in piRNA precursor transcript production, supporting a role for Vret in primary piRNA biogenesis. In the germline, piRNAs can engage in an Aub- and Argonaute 3 (AGO3)-dependent amplification in the absence of Vret, suggesting that Vret function can distinguish between primary piRNAs loaded into Piwi-Aub complexes and piRNAs engaged in the amplification cycle. We propose that Vret plays an essential role in transposon regulation at an early stage of primary piRNA processing. PMID:21831924

  1. Altered gonadal expression of TGF-β superfamily signaling factors in environmental contaminant-exposed juvenile alligators.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contaminant exposure can influence gonadal steroid signaling milieus; however, little research has investigated the vulnerability of non-steroidal signaling pathways in the gonads. Here we use American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) hatched from field-collected eggs to analyze gonadal mRNA transcript levels of the activin-inhibin-follistatin gene expression network and growth differentiation factor 9. The eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, a site with minimal anthropogenic influence, and Lake Apopka, a highly contaminated lake adjacent to a former EPA Superfund site. The hatchling alligators were raised for 13 months under controlled conditions, thus limiting differences to embryonic origins. Our data reveal sexually dimorphic mRNA expression in 13-month-old alligator gonads similar to patterns established in vertebrates with genetic sex determination. In addition, we observed a relationship between lake of origin and mRNA expression of activin/inhibin subunits α and βB, follistatin, and growth differentiation factor 9. Our study suggests that embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants can affect future non-steroidal signaling patterns in the gonads of a long-lived species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on thyroid and gonadal functions in the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Jallageas, M; Mas, N; Saboureau, M; Roussel, J P; Lacroix, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The annual profiles of plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) concentrations in control and ganglionectomized (SCGx) dormice were analyzed to determine whether the pineal gland affects thyroid-gonadal interactions in response to the seasonal influence of environmental factors. 2. Dormice ganglionectomized in September, around the time of prehibernation when hormonal activity is minimal had significantly disturbed annual cycles of plasma T4, LH and T, while the TSH cycle was unchanged. 3. SCGx performed after breeding season (June), only affected the T4 variations, while the T and LH titers were similar to those of controls. 4. We conclude that the annual cycles of T4 and testosterone are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system via the superior cervical ganglion which innervates both the pineal gland and the thyroid. 5. During the start of seasonal gonadal activity, which is strongly dependent on thyroid-gonadal interactions, the inhibitory action of the pineal gland on the neuroendocrine thyroid axis, or most probably a direct inhibition of the thyroid by the sympathetic innervation from SCG, might influence the timing of the reproduction cycle. 6. The lack of thyroid-gonadal interaction at the end of the breeding season suggests that the thyroid disturbance caused by ganglionectomy in June does not cause gonadal perturbation at this time.

  3. [Behavior of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis in a patient with asymmetric mixed gonadal dysgenesis (chromosome pattern 45,XO/46,XY) before and after gonad excision after with arginine, GRH and TRH stimulation].

    PubMed

    Rudolf, K; Kunkel, S; Büttner, H H; Pelz, L; Meissner, J

    1982-07-01

    In a 12 years old patient with asymmetric mixed gonadal dysgenesis (karyotype 45, XO/46,XY) a stimulation test with arginine, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH) and thyreotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was performed before and after exstirpation of the gonads as well as after application of sex steroids. FSH, LH, PRL, HGH, TSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results show an intact hypothalamo-pituitary axis which reacts with a normal negative feedback with respect to the secretion of gonadotropins after application of sex steroids.

  4. Activational effects of gonadal steroids on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal regulation in the rat disclosed by response to dexamethasone suppression.

    PubMed

    Almeida, O F; Canoine, V; Ali, S; Holsboer, F; Patchev, V K

    1997-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that gonadal steroids secreted during perinatal life permanently 'organize' the mechanisms governing hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, leading to sexually differentiated patterns of pituitary-adrenal activity under basal and stress conditions. In this paper, we show that gonadal steroids can also exert 'activational' effects upon the HPA system. Examination of the ability of different doses of dexamethasone to suppress the nocturnal increase in corticosterone secretion and to attenuate the gene expression of CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of intact and gonadectomized male and female rats revealed that ovarian steroids make an important contribution to the higher sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis in females to glucocorticoid suppression, whereas testicular steroids may be causal to the male's moderate responsiveness to glucocorticoid feedback. These findings may be implicated in a number of psychiatric and neurological disease states commonly associated with impaired HPA regulation, but which may be primarily rooted in altered gonadal steroid secretion.

  5. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  6. Clinical and gonadal features and early surgical management of 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY chromosomal mosaicism presenting with genital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, M.K.; Sebire, N.J.; Achermann, J.C.; Eisawi, A.; Duffy, P.G.; Mushtaq, I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY group of patients includes some of those previously diagnosed with ‘mixed gonadal dysgenesis’. Our aim was to establish the clinical and gonadal spectrum, and early surgical management, of patients with chromosomal mosaicism presenting with genital anomalies. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective review of patients with 45,X/46,XY or 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism presenting with genital ambiguity between 1988 and 2009. At least one gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available for each patient. Gonadal histology was re-evaluated by a paediatric pathologist. Results Of 31 patients with 45,X/46,XY (n = 28) or 45,X/47,XYY (n = 3) mosaicism and genital anomalies, 19 (61%) were raised male. Histology of 46 gonads was available from patients who had undergone a gonadectomy or gonadal biopsy, at a median age of 9.5 months. 18 gonads were palpable at presentation, including 5 (28%) histologically unremarkable testes, 2 streak gonads, and 1 dysgenetic gonad with distinct areas of testicular and ovarian stroma but no oocytes. All intra-abdominal gonads were found to be dysgenetic testes (of which 2 were noted to have pre-malignant changes) or streaks, apart from 1 histologically unremarkable testis. 15 (48%) patients had other anomalies, most commonly cardiac and renal; 4 (13%) had a Turner phenotype. Conclusion The anatomy and gonadal histology of 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY individuals with genital ambiguity do not conform to a set pattern, and hence management of each patient should be individualized according to detailed anatomical and histological assessment. PMID:22281282

  7. What have gonadotrophin overexpressing transgenic mice taught us about gonadal function?

    PubMed

    Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2005-09-01

    The two gonadotrophins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone, are pivotal regulators of the development and maintenance of normal fertility by maintaining testicular and ovarian endocrine function and gametogenesis. Too low gonadotrophin secretion, i.e. hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, is a common cause of infertility. But there are also physiological and pathophysiological conditions where gonadotrophin secretion and/or action are either transiently or chronically elevated, such as pregnancy, pituitary tumours, polycystic ovarian syndrome, activating gonadotrophin receptor mutations, perimenopause and menopause. These situations can be either the primary or secondary cause of infertility and gonadal pathologies in both sexes. Also the role of gonadotrophins as tumour promoters is possible. Recently, the possibility to combine information from genetically modified mice and human phenotypes in connection with mutations of gonadotrophin or gonadotrophin receptor genes has elucidated many less well known mechanisms involved in dysregulation of gonadotrophin function. Among the genetically modified mouse models, transgenic mice with gonadotrophin hypersecretion have been developed during the last few years. In this review, we describe the key findings on transgenic mouse models overexpressing gonadotrophins and present their possible implications in related human pathologies. In addition, we provide examples of genetic mouse models with secondary effects on gonadotrophin production and, consequently, on gonadal function.

  8. Influence of thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on adrenal and gonadal functions in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Imai, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-04-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on adrenals and gonads in adult female rats was investigated throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 4-Methyl-2-Thiouracil (Thiouracil) in the drinking water. The weight of ovaries and adrenals, and the plasma levels of corticosterone decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma LH on the day of diestrus and proestrus, whereas the plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone increased as compared with euthyroid rats. The weight of uteri and plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased during the day of diestrus and proestrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. To further clarify the dysfunction of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal axis in hypothyroid rats, animals were stressed by immobilization for 3 hr. In hypothyroid rats, a marked increase in plasma levels of ACTH in response to immobilization stress was observed compared to euthyroid control, whereas increases in plasma concentrations of corticosterone were much smaller in hypothyroid than euthyroid rats. These results clearly indicate that hypothyroidism causes both gonadal and adrenal disturbances in adult female rats. The increased concentrations of plasma progesterone may be due to hypersecretion of prolactin during the day of proestrus and estrus, which in turn result in disruption of the estrous cycle.

  9. Ventromedial hypothalamic mediation of photoperiodic gonadal responses in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bae, H H; Mangels, R A; Cho, B S; Dark, J; Yellon, S M; Zucker, I

    1999-10-01

    Short day lengths induce testicular regression in seasonally breeding Syrian hamsters. To test whether the ventromedial hypothalamus is necessary to maintain reproductive quiescence once testicular regression has been achieved, photoregressed male hamsters were subjected to lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHx), pinealectomy (Pinx), or sham operation (Sham). VMHx hamsters underwent accelerated gonadal recrudescence compared to Pinx and Sham hamsters. Recovery of prolactin concentrations (PRL) to values characteristic of long-day hamsters was hastened in the VMHx animals compared to Sham hamsters. Concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased prematurely in both the VMHx and Pinx animals, beginning a few weeks after surgery. By the time the gonads had undergone recrudescence and the hamsters were refractory to melatonin, PRL and FSH concentrations had returned to baseline long-day values in all groups; there was no evidence of hypersecretion of either hormone in any of the animals with lesions. Melatonin concentrations of VMHx hamsters did not differ from those of sham-operated animals, but because only a single determination was made, it remains possible that VMH damage altered the duration of nightly melatonin secretion. An intact VMH appears to be essential for the continued maintenance of reproductive suppression induced by exposure to short day lengths; these and earlier findings suggest that the VMH-dorsomedial hypothalamic complex mediates regression of the reproductive apparatus during decreasing day lengths of late summer and early autumn and also is necessary to sustain regression during the winter months.

  10. Adrenal and gonadal steroids and pituitary response to LHRH in girls. II. Precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Pintor, C; Genazzani, A R; Ibba, P; Pecciarini-Snickars, L; Corda, R

    1978-04-01

    Three baby girls between 22 and 30 months of age, presenting with isosexual idiopathic precocious puberty apparently not due to any organic cause, were studied. Basal levels of plasma steroids of adrenal and gonadal origin, circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol, and pituitary response to 25 microgram of LHRH were evaluated. All cases were characterized by high levels of plasma gonadotropins and by a marked response to exogenous LHRH. Normal cortisol circadia rhythm was found in all cases, one of which characterized by slightly raised plasma values. The other adrenal steroids were all higher than those expected for the chronological age, corresponding to those of 5-6 years old girls. On the other hand, steroids of both adrenal and ovarian (A, T) or mainly ovarian origin (E2) and DHT were all found to be higher than those normally reported in girls at stage 2 of sexual development. These data indicate a hypersecretion of gonadotropins in idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty, with a marked gonadal steroidogenetic response. The secretion of adrenal androgens does not appear to have an important role in the etiology of this condition.

  11. Sry and SoxE genes: How they participate in mammalian sex determination and gonadal development?

    PubMed

    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, sex determination defines the differentiation of the bipotential genital ridge into either testes or ovaries. Sry, the mammalian Y-chromosomal testis-determining gene, is a master regulator of male sex determination. It acts to switch the undifferentiated genital ridge towards testis development, triggering the adoption of a male fate. Sry initiates a cascade of gene networks through the direct regulation of Sox9 expression and promotes supporting cell differentiation, Leydig cell specification, vasculature formation and testis cord development. In the absence of Sry, alternative genetic cascades, including female sex-determining genes RSPO1, Wnt4/β-catenin and Foxl2, are involved in the formation of female genitalia and the maintenance of female ovarian development. The mutual antagonisms between male and female sex-determining pathways are crucial in not just the initiation but also the maintenance of the somatic sex of the gonad throughout the organism's lifetime. Any imbalances in above sex-determining genes can cause disorders of sex development in humans and mice. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the expression profiles, biochemical properties and developmental functions of Sry and SoxE genes in embryonic testis development and adult gonadal development. We also briefly summarize the dedicate balances between male and female sex-determining genes in mammalian sex development, with particular highlights on the molecular actions of Sry and Sox9 transcription factors.

  12. Foxl2 and Its Relatives Are Evolutionary Conserved Players in Gonadal Sex Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bertho, Sylvain; Pasquier, Jeremy; Pan, Qiaowei; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Bobe, Julien; Postlethwait, John H; Pailhoux, Eric; Schartl, Manfred; Herpin, Amaury; Guiguen, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Foxl2 is a member of the large family of Forkhead Box (Fox) domain transcription factors. It emerged during the last 15 years as a key player in ovarian differentiation and oogenesis in vertebrates and especially mammals. This review focuses on Foxl2 genes in light of recent findings on their evolution, expression, and implication in sex differentiation in animals in general. Homologs of Foxl2 and its paralog Foxl3 are found in all metazoans, but their gene evolution is complex, with multiple gains and losses following successive whole genome duplication events in vertebrates. This review aims to decipher the evolutionary forces that drove Foxl2/3 gene specialization through sub- and neo-functionalization during evolution. Expression data in metazoans suggests that Foxl2/3 progressively acquired a role in both somatic and germ cell gonad differentiation and that a certain degree of sub-functionalization occurred after its duplication in vertebrates. This generated a scenario where Foxl2 is predominantly expressed in ovarian somatic cells and Foxl3 in male germ cells. To support this hypothesis, we provide original results showing that in the pea aphid (insects) foxl2/3 is predominantly expressed in sexual females and showing that in bovine ovaries FOXL2 is specifically expressed in granulosa cells. Overall, current results suggest that Foxl2 and Foxl3 are evolutionarily conserved players involved in somatic and germinal differentiation of gonadal sex. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A rare case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with mosaicism 45, X/46, X, +mar

    PubMed Central

    Soheilipour, Fahimeh; Abed, Ommolbanin; Behnam, Babak; Abdolhosseini, Mohammadreza; Alibeigi, Peyman; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare patient case with mixed gonadal dysgenesis as a disorder of sex development (DSD) and a new pattern of chromosome in the karyotype, 45, X/46, X, +mar(Y). Presentation of case A ten-year-old boy, raised in a nursery center, presented with ambiguous genitalia. Two cell lines, (45, X) and [46,X, +mar(Y)] were observed utilizing cytogenetic investigation including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) which were carried out on his peripheral lymphocytes. A significantly higher percentage (75%) of Y-containing cells was observed in the blood, which could be considered the major reason why the case did not have distinct ambiguous genitalia. A further explorative laparoscopic procedure was performed, during which orchiectomy was performed, and remnants of Müllerian duct were excised. Discussion A complete and sufficiently careful medical evaluation and genetics counseling of neonates is highly recommended in order to avoid any delayed insufficient diagnostic, conservative, and therapeutic care in children living with guardians rather than their biological parents. Both molecular and cytogenetic studies are recommended in some DSDs to help early diagnosis of the disease, which is important for further essential surgical approaches. Conclusion Cytogenetic studies followed by a laparoscopic exploratory and surgical survey are helpful tools for unraveling the mosaicism involving sex chromosomes and the complicated process in mixed gonadal dysgenesis patients. PMID:25569267

  14. Gonadal hormones differently modulate cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Romana-Souza, Bruna; Assis de Brito, Thatiana L; Pereira, Gabriela R; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2014-02-01

    Gonadal hormones influence physiological responses to stress and cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gonadal hormones on cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice. Male and female mice were gonadectomized, and after 25 days, they were spun daily at 115 rpm for 15 min every hour until euthanasia. Twenty-eight days after the gonadectomy, an excisional lesion was created. The animals were killed 7 or 14 days after wounding, and the lesions were collected. Myofibroblast density, macrophage number, catecholamine level, collagen deposition, and blood vessel number were evaluated. In the intact and gonadectomized groups, stress increased the plasma catecholamine levels in both genders. In intact groups, stress impaired wound contraction and re-epithelialization and increased the macrophage number in males but not in females. In addition, stress compromised myofibroblastic differentiation and blood vessel formation and decreased collagen deposition in males but not in females. In contrast to intact mice, wound healing in ovariectomized female mice was affected by stress, while wound healing in castrated male mice was not. In conclusion, gender differences contribute to the cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice. In addition, androgens contribute to the stress-induced impairment of the healing of cutaneous wounds but estrogens inhibit it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Perna viridis to triazophos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Jia, Xiaoping; Cai, Wengui

    2017-09-19

    Triazophos, as a lipophilic organophosphate pesticide, displays higher bioaccumulation in the gonads of shellfish. To study the reproductive toxicity of triazophos, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Perna viridis exposed to triazophos. Metabolites were differently altered by triazophos in ovaries of mussel at different concentrations and time intervals, while basically similar metabolic response patterns were observed in male mussels at the two tested concentrations after exposure for 24 and 48h. The significant changes of metabolites in ovaries of mussel exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples triazophos only affected the energy metabolism. Moreover, glycine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, ethanol, aspartate, etc. exhibited consistent variation tendency in both male and female individuals. While the changes of homarine, betaine, taurine, hypotaurine, malonate, β-alanine, succinate, and choline showed obviously gender-specific responses. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses in gonad of P. viridis to triazophos exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Long-term preservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, Hisayoshi; Lee, Jung; Fujii, Tsuguru; Kajiura, Zenta; Banno, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads was investigated. First, we evaluated the freeze tolerance of ovary and testis in the eri silkworm, which showed high tolerance. Mating between frozen ovary-transplanted females and frozen testis-transplanted males produced 163.0 eggs, yielding 105.7 larvae per moth. In a second experiment, we tested the use of the eri silkworm as a host insect for gonad transplantation from ailanthus silkworm donors. A high success ratio for laid and hatched eggs was demonstrated for ovary transplantation (97.8 and 51.3 eggs per moth, respectively). For testis transplantation, however, the average number of hatched larvae was low (12.0). Mating between host eri females and males in which both frozen ovary and testis of the ailanthus silkworm had been transplanted produced 6.4 fertilized eggs per host moth. Our success in using cross subspecies cryopreservation between these wild silkworms could lead to the alternative use of hosts between species in other insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D and gonadal function in men: a potential inverse U-shaped association?

    PubMed

    Karras, S; Anagnostis, P; Kotsa, K; Goulis, D G

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D, apart from its regulatory effects on musculoskeletal health, is involved in reproductive function in both genders. The basis of the interplay between vitamin D and reproduction lays on the presence of both vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) enzyme in reproductive organs. In males, VDR are present in testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles. In Sertoli cells, whose secretory activities are ion channel-dependent, vitamin D has been shown to stimulate calcium uptake through a nuclear receptor activity. Epidemiological studies support a positive association between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and sperm motility in both fertile and infertile men In addition, large multi-center, cross-sectional studies from Europe and USA have shown positive, linear association between 25(OH)D and androgen concentrations. On the contrary, there are studies that support an inverse U-shaped association, that is, men with both low and high 25(OH)D concentrations demonstrate poorer gonadal function compared with those with intermediate concentrations. Given the rapid increase in over-the-counter use of vitamin D supplements by men that anticipate advantageous health outcomes, the aim of the present commentary is to provide an overview of the studies that present either U-shaped or linear association between 25(OH)D concentrations and male gonadal function.

  18. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  19. Morphometics and Gonadal Development of the Hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Frederic H.; Beulig, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus, like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation. PMID:24250811

  20. Morphometics and gonadal development of the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Martini, Frederic H; Beulig, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus, like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation.

  1. Seasonal concentrations of reproductive steroids in the gonads of the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickle L; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Sower, Stacia A

    2004-04-01

    Changes in gonadal morphology, gonadal estradiol, and progesterone were examined in Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa, during a period of 17 months, beginning in April, 2001. Atlantic hagfish were captured from the ocean on a monthly basis. A total of 60 hagfish were divided into three different size classes of twenty hagfish each (small 20-35 cm, medium 35-45 cm, large 45-55+cm) and transported to the University of New Hampshire for sampling. Overall, in the medium and large size hagfish, estradiol and progesterone had significantly elevated peaks in January, 2001. There were significant increases in estradiol concentrations in January, with relatively low fluctuations in levels for the rest of the sampling period. Progesterone concentrations increased significantly in January, 2002, in medium and large hagfish, and remained elevated until June and April, 2002, for the two size classes respectively. The majority of hagfish sampled were females or hermaphrodites; few true males were identified in any of the samples. The number of females with large eggs increased following the estradiol peak in January and hermaphrodites with mature sperm were identified in the July, 2002, sample. These data represent the first evidence for a seasonal reproductive cycle in M. glutinosa and only the second seasonal reproductive cycle identified in any hagfish species. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Histopathological assessment of liver and gonad pathology in continental slope fish from the northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Feist, S W; Stentiford, G D; Kent, M L; Ribeiro Santos, A; Lorance, P

    2015-05-01

    The deep-sea environment is a sink for a wide variety of contaminants including heavy metals and organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Life history traits of many deep-water fish species including longevity and high trophic position may predispose them to contaminant exposure and subsequent induction of pathological changes, including tumour formation. The lack of evidence for this hypothesis prompted this investigation in order to provide data on the presence of pathological changes in the liver and gonads of several deep-water fish species. Fish were obtained from the north east region of the Bay of Biscay (north east Atlantic Ocean) by trawling at depths between 700 and 1400 m. Liver and gonad samples were collected on board ship and fixed for histological processing and subsequent examination by light microscopy. Hepatocellular and nuclear pleomorphism and individual cases of ovotestis and foci of cellular alteration (FCA) were detected in black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo). Six cases of FCA were observed in orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) (n = 50) together with a single case of hepatocellular adenoma. A wide variety of inflammatory and degenerative lesions were found in all species examined. Deep-water fish display a range of pathologies similar to those seen in shelf-sea species used for international monitoring programmes including biological effects of contaminants. This study has confirmed the utility of health screening in deep-water fish for detecting evidence of prior exposure to contaminants and has also gained evidence of pathology potentially associated with exposure to algal toxins.

  3. Gonadal Hormones and Voluntary Exercise Interact to Improve Discrimination Ability in a Set-Shift Task

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Rifken, Katharine M.; Toufexis, Donna J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to improve multiple facets of health, including cognitive function. Rodent studies have suggested that exercise has robust effects on the hippocampus, and on tasks that require the hippocampus. However, studies of the effects of exercise in humans often focus on the benefits to cognitive processes that engage areas outside of the hippocampus, such as executive function. Additionally, when exercise’s cognitive benefits are examined, consideration of both males and females, and gonadal hormones, is rarely made. Here we looked at the interaction of gonadal hormones and exercise in terms of the ability of male and female rats to learn to discriminate rewarded from unrewarded arms in a T-maze based on either brightness (white vs. black) or texture (rough vs. smooth), and then to set-shift (a measure of executive function), where this required discrimination based on the opposite dimension. Gonadectomized or intact males and females had access to running wheels for two weeks before being tested. Intact males and females given access to unlocked running wheels performed better at the initial discrimination (Set 1) compared to intact males and females with locked running wheels, but not at the set-shift (Set 2). No advantage of exercise was observed in gonadectomized rats. PMID:23978149

  4. A Case of Swyer Syndrome Associated with Advanced Gonadal Dysgerminoma Involving Long Survival

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Rios, Salete; Monteiro, Isabella Christina Mazzaro; Braz dos Santos, Larissa Gonçalves; Caldas, Natasha Garcia; Chen, Ana Carolina Rios; Chen, Juliana Rios; Silva, Helena Spindola Camargo

    2015-01-01

    Swyer syndrome is caused by abnormal sex differentiation during the embryonic period, resulting in incomplete intrauterine masculinization and undifferentiated gonads. The current case report describes a patient with Swyer syndrome associated with stage 3 gonadal dysgerminoma who has survived for 23 years. At age 18, this patient sought assistance for primary amenorrhea from the Gynecological Services Department of the University of Brasília Hospital. A physical examination revealed that the patient was at Tanner stage 4 with respect to axillary hair, breasts, and pubic hair; she presented with a eutrophic vagina and a small cervix. She was treated with a combination of estrogens and progestogens to induce cycling. Approximately 4 years later, a complex tumor was found and resected; a histopathological analysis revealed that this tumor was a right adnexal dysgerminoma with peritoneal affection. The patient was also subjected to chemotherapy. Her follow-up has continued to the present time, with no signs of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, this report describes an extremely rare case in which Swyer syndrome was associated with ovarian dysgerminoma; relative to similar patients, the described patient has survived for an unusually prolonged time. PMID:25960730

  5. Exogenous Testosterone, Aging, and Changes in Behavioral Response of Gonadally Intact Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J.; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y.; Omololu, Tope A.; Oludimu, Adedunke T.; Segun-Busari, Toluwalase; Omoleke, Taofeeq

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that aging significantly affects the influence of exogenous testosterone on neurobehavior in gonadally intact male mice. Groups of prepubertal and aged male mice received daily vehicle or testosterone propionate (TP; 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal [i.p.]) for 21 days. Behaviors were assessed on days 1 and 21. Weight gain was significant in prepubertal mice. Locomotion and rearing increased in prepubertal mice after first dose and decreased after last dose of TP. Rearing was suppressed in aged mice throughout. Suppression of grooming occurred in both age groups at day 21. Significant increase in working memory in both age groups was seen in the radial-arm maze (at specific doses) and in prepubertal mice in the Y-maze. Elevated plus maze test showed mixed anxiolytic/anxiogenic effects. Aged mice had higher serum testosterone. In conclusion, age is an important determinant for the influence of exogenous testosterone on behavior in gonadally intact male mice. PMID:27158222

  6. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p < 0.0007). After adjustment for confounding factors, the FSH/LH ratio correlated positively with mean changes in PANSS positive scores, and there was a correlation with worsening of CGI total and cognitive scores. Testosterone was also positively associated with improvement in PANSS positive scores. However, after correction for multiple testing, the initial correlations were no longer statistically significant. In summary, while the hormone assays we did in this small sample did not prove to be significantly linked to clinical improvement in any of the schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  7. Pulmonary, gonadal, and central nervous system status after bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Walters, Mark C; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E; Margolis, David; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Patience, Melinda; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa; Roberts, Irene A G; Rogers, Zora R; Sanders, Jean E; Scott, J Paul; Sullivan, Keith M

    2010-02-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on gonadal function was studied. After BMT, patients with stroke who had stable engraftment of donor cells experienced no subsequent stroke events after BMT, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams demonstrated stable or improved appearance. However, 2 patients with graft rejection had a second stroke after BMT. After transplantation, most patients also had unchanged or improved pulmonary function. Among the 11 patients who had restrictive lung changes at baseline, 5 were improved and 6 had persistent restrictive disease after BMT. Of the 2 patients who had obstructive changes at baseline, 1 improved and 1 had worsened obstructive disease after BMT. There was, however, significant gonadal toxicity after BMT, particularly among female recipients. In summary, individuals who had stable donor engraftment did not experience sickle-related complications after BMT, and were protected from progressive CNS and pulmonary disease.

  8. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose Martin; Locatello, Lisa; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers). Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  9. A gene expression atlas of adult Schistosoma mansoni and their gonads.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhigang; Sessler, Florian; Holroyd, Nancy; Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Berriman, Matthew; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2017-08-22

    RNA-Seq has proven excellence in providing information about the regulation and transcript levels of genes. We used this method for profiling genes in the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. This parasite causes schistosomiasis, an infectious disease of global importance for human and animals. The pathology of schistosomiasis is associated with the eggs, which are synthesized as a final consequence of male and female adults pairing. The male induces processes in the female that lead to the full development of its gonads as a prerequisite for egg production. Unpaired females remain sexually immature. Based on an organ-isolation method we obtained gonad tissue for RNA extraction from paired and unpaired schistosomes, with whole adults included as controls. From a total of 23 samples, we used high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on the Illumina platform to profile gene expression between genders and tissues, with and without pairing influence. The data obtained provide a wealth of information on the reproduction biology of schistosomes and a rich resource for exploitation through basic and applied research activities.

  10. Sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system parallels genetic, not gonadal, sex.

    PubMed

    Wade, J; Swender, D A; McElhinny, T L

    1999-10-01

    Mechanisms regulating sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system present an intriguing puzzle. Masculine development of brain regions and behavior can be induced in genetic females by posthatching estradiol treatment. That result is consistent with the hypothesis that estradiol, converted within the brain from testicular androgen via the aromatase enzyme, masculinizes neural structure and function. In contrast, treatment during specific stages of development with the aromatase inhibitor Fadrozole has not prevented masculine development, and the presence of testicular tissue in genetic females did not induce masculine organization of neuroanatomy or singing behavior. Fadrozole treatments in those previous studies were limited, however, and most genetic females had both ovarian and testicular tissue. The present experiments were designed to provide increased aromatase inhibition and to reliably produce genetic females with only testicular tissue. Eggs received a single injection at a later age or with higher doses of Fadrozole than had been used previously. Some embryos were exposed to Fadrozole more frequently by either injecting eggs on 2 days of development or dipping them for 10-12 days in Fadrozole. Finally, in some individuals from Fadrozole-treated eggs, the left gonad was removed, leaving each genetic male and female with a single right testis. None of these treatments significantly affected development of the song system compared to appropriate control groups. These results suggest that sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system is not regulated by embryonic aromatase activity or by gonadal secretions and instead involves events that need not be mediated by steroid hormones.

  11. Tall stature and gonadal dysgenesis in a non-mosaic girl 45,X.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Rosa; Pasaro, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Turner's syndrome, also known as 'monosomy X', is a genetic disorder that occurs in 1/2,500 female births and is hypothesized to result from haploinsufficiency of certain genes expressed from both sex chromosomes that escape X inactivation. While the classic karyotype related to Turner's syndrome is 45,X, the majority of those affected actually have a mosaic chromosomal complement, most often with a second normal cell line (46,XX). The resulting phenotype is variable and related to the underlying chromosomal pattern, but it is characterized by three cardinal features: short stature (around 100%), ovarian failure (>90%) and congenital lymphedema (>80%). In this paper we report a molecular and cytogenetic investigation of a 26-year-old female with non-mosaic 45,X karyotype, who has a stature of 170 cm without GH treatment, and whose only apparent Turner feature is gonadal dysgenesis. The only possible explanation for the absence of Turner phenotype is the hidden mosaicism combined with an untreated gonadal dysgenesis. Our results support the theory that significant ascertainment bias exists in our understanding of Turner's syndrome.

  12. Growth hormone deficiency in the transition period: body composition and gonad function.

    PubMed

    Balercia, G; Giovannini, L; Paggi, F; Spaziani, M; Tahani, N; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Radicioni, A

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant GH therapy is normally administered to GH-deficient children in order to achieve a satisfactory height - the main target during childhood and adolescence. However, the role of GH does not end once final height has been reached, but continues during the so-called transition period. In this phase of life, the body undergoes several changes, both physical and psychological, that culminate in adulthood. During this period, GH has a part in numerous metabolic functions. These include the lipid profile, where it increases HDL and reduces LDL, with the global effect of cardiovascular protection. It also has important effects on body composition (improved muscle strength and lean body mass and reduced body fat), the achievement of proper peak bone density, and gonad maturation. Retesting during the transition period, involving measurement of IGF-I plus a provocative test (insulin tolerance test or GHRH + arginine test), is thus necessary to establish any persistent GH deficiency requiring additional replacement therapy. The close cooperation of the medical professionals involved in the patient's transition from a pediatric to an adult endocrinologist is essential. The aim of this review is to point out the main aspects of GH treatment on body composition, metabolic and gonad functions in the transition period.

  13. Gonadal steroidogenesis in vitro from juvenile alligators obtained from contaminated or control lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Gross, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1995-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of many contaminants and the nonlethal, multigenerational effects of such contaminants on reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems have led to concerns that wildlife worldwide are affected. Although the causal agents and effects are known for some species, the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with contaminant-induced reproductive modifications are still poorly understood and require extensive research. We describe a study examining the steroidogenic activity of gonads removed from juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) obtained from contaminated or control lakes in central Florida. Synthesis of estradiol-17 beta (E2) was significantly different when ovaries from the contaminated and control lakes were compared in vitro. Additionally, testes from males obtained from the contaminated lake. Lake Apopka, synthesized significantly higher concentrations of E2 when compared to testes obtained from control males. In contrast, testosterone (T) synthesis from all testes examined in this study displayed a normal pattern and produced concentrations greater than that observed from ovaries obtained from either lake. Interestingly, the pattern of gonadal steroidogenesis differs from previously reported plasma concentrations of these hormones obtained from the same individuals. We suggest that the differences between the in vivo and in vitro patterns are due to modifications in the hepatic degradation of plasma sex steroid hormones. PMID:7556021

  14. A mutation in the nucleoporin-107 gene causes XX gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg-Shukron, Ariella; Renbaum, Paul; Kalifa, Rachel; Zeligson, Sharon; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Dreifuss, Amatzia; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Maatuk, Noa; Fardian, Nilly; Rekler, Dina; Kanaan, Moien; Samson, Abraham O.; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Gerlitz, Offer; Zangen, David

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development and maintenance are poorly understood; however, diseases that affect these processes can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms. XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by underdeveloped, dysfunctional ovaries, with subsequent lack of spontaneous pubertal development, primary amenorrhea, uterine hypoplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we report an extended consanguineous family of Palestinian origin, in which 4 females exhibited XX-GD. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a recessive missense mutation in nucleoporin-107 (NUP107, c.1339G>A, p.D447N). This mutation segregated with the XX-GD phenotype and was not present in available databases or in 150 healthy ethnically matched controls. NUP107 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and the NUP107-associated protein SEH1 is required for oogenesis in Drosophila. In Drosophila, Nup107 knockdown in somatic gonadal cells resulted in female sterility, whereas males were fully fertile. Transgenic rescue of Drosophila females bearing the Nup107D364N mutation, which corresponds to the human NUP107 (p.D447N), resulted in almost complete sterility, with a marked reduction in progeny, morphologically aberrant eggshells, and disintegrating egg chambers, indicating defective oogenesis. These results indicate a pivotal role for NUP107 in ovarian development and suggest that nucleoporin defects may play a role in milder and more common conditions such as premature ovarian failure. PMID:26485283

  15. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  16. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Diets Supplemented with Different Sources of Astaxanthin on the Gonad of the Sea Urchin Anthocidaris crassispina

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value. PMID:23016124

  19. [A study on sex chromosome mosaicism--endocrinological and immunohistochemical findings with glutathion S-transferase in the gonads].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, K; Koyama, T; Toyota, K; Asano, Y; Gotoh, T; Togashi, M; Koyanagi, T; Adachi, Y; Fujieda, K

    1990-03-01

    In order to clarify the clinical aspects of sex chromosomal mosaicism, we evaluated the karyotypes, the anatomy of external genitalia and internal ductal system, the pituitary-gonadal function, and the histopathology of the gonads by immuno-staining for glutathion S-transferase (GST) in 5 patients who had been all raised as female. Three patients have the 45, X/46, XYq- karyotype in the initial lymphocyte culture or the subsequent culture of skin fibroblasts. Another two karyotypes were 45, X/46, XYq-/47, XYq-, Yq- and 45, X/46, XdicY. Thus, Y chromosome of all patients retained short arms in which the testis determining factor is encoded. Three prepubertal patients were referred to us for their ambigious external genitalia and two postpubertal patients were for the short statures. Although the vaginal orifice was separated from the urethral meatus in all of them, the phallic enlargement was noted in 4 patients and the posterior labial fusion in 2 patients. The oldest patient had a normal female appearance of external genitalia except the vaginal septum. Serum gonadotrophin (GnH) levels were basically high in the postopubertal patients and the responses of GnH to LH-RH were significantly increased in the prepubertal patients. Serum testosterone levels to hCG stimulation ranged from no response to low normal response. All patients underwent the exploratory laparotomy together with the feminizing genitoplasty. The gonads in 3 patients, diagnosed as mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD), consisted of a unilateral testis and a contralateral streak gonad. Two patients had variants, including one with bilateral dysgenetic testis and another with bilateral streak gonads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone americana) from the lower Great Lakes region.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Balch, Gordon C; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Niimi, Arthur J; Sherry, Jim; Tinson, Cheryl; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2004-01-01

    High prevalences of gonadal intersex have been observed in wild fish populations in areas affected by domestic and industrial effluents. For this study, fish were collected in 1998 from the Cootes Paradise region of Hamilton Harbour in western Lake Ontario, Canada, to determine whether gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, were present in young of the year (YOY) fish. No gonadal abnormalities were observed in goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), brown bullhead (Ictalurus ameiurus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). However, intersex gonads were observed in 8 of 16 male white perch (Morone americana) examined in this survey. Subsequently, in 1999 and 2000 white perch estimated to be YOY to approximately 2 years of age were collected from Cootes Paradise and from two other sites in the lower Great Lakes region. Gonadal intersex was observed in male white perch collected from the Bay of Quinte (22-44%) and Lake St. Clair (45%), although the prevalence and the extent of the intersex condition were lower relative to the 83% prevalence in white perch collected in Cootes Paradise. Intersex was not observed in hatchery-reared white perch or in white perch collected from an uncontaminated reference site (i.e., Deal Lake) in the United States. An analysis of plasma collected in the spring of 2002 from male adult white perch in Cootes Paradise revealed high concentrations of vitellogenin, ranging from 49 to 1,711 microg/mL. These observations indicate that male white perch are exposed to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting substances that may be responsible for the induction of gonadal intersex. PMID:15175179

  1. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  2. Gonadogenesis in Pristionchus pacificus and organ evolution: development, adult morphology and cell-cell interactions in the hermaphrodite gonad.

    PubMed

    Rudel, David; Riebesell, Metta; Sommer, Ralf J

    2005-01-01

    The nematode gonad is an exemplary system for the study of organogenesis and fundamental problems in developmental and cellular biology. Nematode gonads vary dramatically across species (Chitwood, B.G., Chitwood, M.B., 1950. Introduction to Nematology." University Park Press, Baltimore; Felix, M.A., Sternberg, P.W., 1996. Symmetry breakage in the development of one-armed gonads in nematodes. Development 122, 2129-2142). As such, comparative developmental biology of gonadogenesis offers the potential to investigate changes in developmental and cellular processes that result in novel organ morphologies and thus may give insights into how these changes can affect animal bauplane. Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode that diverged from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans around 200-300 million years ago. The morphology and development of P. pacificus is highly homologous to that of C. elegans. However, many differences in morphology and the underlying molecular signaling networks are easy to identify, making P. pacificus ideal for a comparative approach. Here, we report a detailed description of the P. pacificus hermaphrodite gonad using electron and fluorescent microscopy that will provide a basis for both phenotypic studies of genetic mutations and in vivo molecular studies of cloned genes involved in P. pacificus gonad development. We report that the morphology of the P. pacificus gonad is distinct from that of C. elegans. Among these differences are germ line patterning differences, heterochronic differences, novel gonadal arm-migrations, novel cellular composition of some somatic tissues (e.g., the number of cells that comprise the sheath and different spermathecal regions are different), the absence of a somatic tissue (e.g., the spermathecal valve cells), a novel architecture for the sheath, and changes in the cellular and sub-cellular morphology of the individual sheath cells. Additionally, we report a set of cell ablations in P. pacificus

  3. [Clinical values of triptorelin stimulating test in assessing hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis function in male patients with hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis disorders].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-yan; Nie, Min; Lu, Shuang-yu; Mao, Jiang-feng

    2011-03-15

    To investigate the clinical values of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) α (triptorelin) stimulating test in the differential diagnoses of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis (HPGA) disorders. A total of 229 male patients with various HPGA disorders were recruited for triptorelin stimulating test. And all patients were followed up for 12 - 48 months until a definite diagnosis was made. The values of triptorelin stimulating test in the differential diagnoses of HPGA disorders were assessed by examining the close relationship between LHmax and the final clinical diagnosis. (1) LH levels rose steady after an intramuscular injection of triptorelin 100 µg and the time of LHmax appeared at 45 - 60 min. (2) LHmax < 4 U/L indicated the function of HPGA was not activated. LHmax in the range of 4 - 12 U/L indicated the patients might have constitutional delayed puberty development. LHmax > 12 U/L indicated the fulfilled puberty development. Triptorelin stimulating test can precisely evaluate the functions of HPGA in various HPGA disorders and provide valuable information for the differential diagnoses in constitutional delayed puberty development, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central and peripheral precocious puberty disorders.

  4. Endogenous control of sexual size dimorphism: Gonadal androgens have neither direct nor indirect effect on male growth in a Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta).

    PubMed

    Kubička, Lukáš; Starostová, Zuzana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the effect of gonadal androgens on male growth are considered as a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates, particularly squamate reptiles. Positive effects of gonadal androgens on male growth were found in several male-larger species of lizards. Contrastingly, we document that in the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) gonadal androgens do not affect male growth under constant thermal conditions. However, the absence of a thermal gradient might prevent the potential indirect effect of gonadal androgens on growth via the influence of circulating hormones on an individual's thermoregulation and hence metabolic rate. In order to study this, we monitored the growth and body temperature of socially isolated sham-operated and castrated males of the same species in a thermal gradient. We also compared the oxygen consumption and activity between the treatment groups in the open field to test the effect of gonadal hormones on these traits potentially affecting growth. Even under a thermal gradient we found no effect of gonadal androgens on growth rate or final body dimensions. Castration also did not significantly affect oxygen consumption or activity in the open field test. Together with our previous findings, we can exclude both the direct effect of male gonadal androgens on the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism via the influence on the growth axis, and the indirect influence of gonadal androgens acting on the ontogeny of SSD through the effect on thermoregulation, metabolic rate and activity.

  5. Boss/Sev signaling from germline to soma restricts germline-stem-cell-niche formation in the anterior region of Drosophila male gonads.

    PubMed

    Kitadate, Yu; Shigenobu, Shuji; Arita, Kayo; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Drosophila germline stem cells are regulated by the somatic microenvironment, or "niche," which ensures that the stem cells can both self-renew and produce functional gametes throughout adult life. However, despite its prime importance, little is known about how niche formation is regulated during gonadal development. Here, we demonstrate that a receptor tyrosine kinase, Sevenless (Sev), is required to ensure that the niche develops in the anterior region of the male embryonic gonads. Sev is expressed in somatic cells within the posterior region of the gonads. Sev is activated by a ligand, Bride of sevenless (Boss), which is expressed by the germline, to prevent ectopic niche differentiation in the posterior gonadal somatic cells. Thus, we propose that signal transduction from germline to soma restricts expansion of the germline-stem-cell niche in the gonads.

  6. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  7. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and gonadal expression of fox genes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Tao, Wenjing; Cheng, Yunying; Huang, Baofeng; Wang, Deshou

    2014-08-01

    The fox genes play important roles in various biological processes, including sexual development. In the present study, we isolated 65 fox genes, belonging to 18 subfamilies named A-R, from Nile tilapia through genome-wide screening. Twenty-four of them have two or three (foxm1) copies. Furthermore, 16, 25, 68, and 45 fox members were isolated from nematodes, protochordates, teleosts, and tetrapods, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated fox gene family had undergone three expansions parallel to the three rounds of genome duplication during evolution. We also analyzed the clustered fox genes and found that apparent linkage duplication existed in teleosts, which further supported fish-specific genome duplication hypothesis. In addition, species- and lineage-specific duplication is another reason for fox gene family expansion. Based on the four pairs of XX and XY gonadal transcriptome data from four critical developmental stages, we analyzed the expression profile of all fox genes and identified sexually dimorphic fox genes at each stage. All fox genes were detected in gonads, with 15 of them at the background expression level (total read per kb per million reads, RPKM < 10), 29 at moderate expression level (10 < total RPKM < 100), and 21 at high expression level (total RPKM > 100). There are 27, 24, 28, and 9 sexually dimorphic fox genes at 5, 30, 90, and 180 days after hatching (dah), respectively. foxq1a, foxf1, foxr1, and foxr1 were identified as the most differentially expressed genes at each stage. foxl2 was characterized as XX-dominant gene, while foxd5, foxi3, foxn3, foxj1a, foxj3b, and foxo6b were characterized as XY-dominant genes. qPCR and in situ hybridization of foxh1 and foxj1a were performed to confirm the expression profiles and to validate the transcriptome data. Our results suggest that fox genes might play important roles in sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  8. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure: Computational Model of the Fathead Minnow Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (...

  9. Insulin and IGF1 Receptors Are Essential for XX and XY Gonadal Differentiation and Adrenal Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Yannick; Conne, Béatrice; Truong, Vy; Papaioannou, Marilena D.; Schaad, Olivier; Docquier, Mylène; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Nef, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Mouse sex determination provides an attractive model to study how regulatory genetic networks and signaling pathways control cell specification and cell fate decisions. This study characterizes in detail the essential role played by the insulin receptor (INSR) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF1R) in adrenogenital development and primary sex determination. Constitutive ablation of insulin/IGF signaling pathway led to reduced proliferation rate of somatic progenitor cells in both XX and XY gonads prior to sex determination together with the downregulation of hundreds of genes associated with the adrenal, testicular, and ovarian genetic programs. These findings indicate that prior to sex determination somatic progenitors in Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads are not lineage primed and thus incapable of upregulating/repressing the male and female genetic programs required for cell fate restriction. In consequence, embryos lacking functional insulin/IGF signaling exhibit (i) complete agenesis of the adrenal cortex, (ii) embryonic XY gonadal sex reversal, with a delay of Sry upregulation and the subsequent failure of the testicular genetic program, and (iii) a delay in ovarian differentiation so that Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads, irrespective of genetic sex, remained in an extended undifferentiated state, before the ovarian differentiation program ultimately is initiated at around E16.5. PMID:23300479

  10. Renal vein extension using gonadal vein: a useful strategy for right kidney living donor harvested using laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, P; Guzman, S; Domínguez, J; Ortiz, A M

    2009-01-01

    Vascular management of the right renal vein during laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy is still an unsolved problem. This short vessel has limited the use of right kidneys. However, the right kidney should be harvested in some instances. Based on experience in open donor nephrectomy, our unit has used the donor gonadal vein to obtain a longer renal vein in this setting. Four consecutive living related donors with the indication for laparoscopic right nephrectomy underwent this procedure. Three donors were females and the overall average age was 48.5 years. The renal vein was controlled with a 30-mm stapler and we included 5-6 cm of the ipsilateral gonadal vein during the harvest. The donor kidney was perfused and renal vessels prepared under cold conditions. The gonadal vein was opened longitudinally and sutured to the donor right renal vein as a wide tube in 3 cases and as a spiral tube in 1 case with 6-0 monofilament suture. This procedure extended the bench work between 25 to 40 minutes permitting an 2.5- to 3.5-cm extension of the donor vein. The transplantations were performed in the usual mode and the vein enlargement enormously facilitated the implantation surgery. All recipients displayed immediate graft function; no complications were observed with this strategy. Vein extension with the gonadal vein was a simple, safe method to enlarge the renal vein among right living donor kidneys procured using laparoscopy.

  11. Temporal Transcriptional Profiling of Somatic and Germ Cells Reveals Biased Lineage Priming of Sexual Fate in the Fetal Mouse Gonad

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Samantha A.; Natarajan, Anirudh; Cool, Jonah; DeFalco, Tony; Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Munger, Steven C.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The divergence of distinct cell populations from multipotent progenitors is poorly understood, particularly in vivo. The gonad is an ideal place to study this process, because it originates as a bipotential primordium where multiple distinct lineages acquire sex-specific fates as the organ differentiates as a testis or an ovary. To gain a more detailed understanding of the process of gonadal differentiation at the level of the individual cell populations, we conducted microarrays on sorted cells from XX and XY mouse gonads at three time points spanning the period when the gonadal cells transition from sexually undifferentiated progenitors to their respective sex-specific fates. We analyzed supporting cells, interstitial/stromal cells, germ cells, and endothelial cells. This work identified genes specifically depleted and enriched in each lineage as it underwent sex-specific differentiation. We determined that the sexually undifferentiated germ cell and supporting cell progenitors showed lineage priming. We found that germ cell progenitors were primed with a bias toward the male fate. In contrast, supporting cells were primed with a female bias, indicative of the robust repression program involved in the commitment to XY supporting cell fate. This study provides a molecular explanation reconciling the female default and balanced models of sex determination and represents a rich resource for the field. More importantly, it yields new insights into the mechanisms by which different cell types in a single organ adopt their respective fates. PMID:22438826

  12. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure: Computational Model of the Fathead Minnow Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (...

  13. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure:Computational Model of the Fathead MinnowsHypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course (...

  14. Inhibition of SRY-calmodulin complex formation induces ectopic expression of ovarian cell markers in developing XY gonads.

    PubMed

    Sim, Helena; Argentaro, Anthony; Czech, Daniel P; Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sinclair, Andrew H; Koopman, Peter; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Poulat, Francis; Harley, Vincent R

    2011-07-01

    The transcription factor sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) plays a key role in human sex determination, because mutations in SRY cause disorders of sex development in XY individuals. During gonadal development, Sry in pre-Sertoli cells activates Sox9 gene transcription, committing the fate of the bipotential gonad to become a testis rather than an ovary. The high-mobility group domain of human SRY contains two independent nuclear localization signals, one bound by calmodulin (CaM) and the other by importin-β. Although XY females carry SRY mutations in these nuclear localization signals that affect SRY nuclear import in transfected cells, it is not known whether these transport mechanisms are essential for gonadal development and sex determination. Here, we show that mouse Sry protein binds CaM and that a CaM antagonist reduces CaM binding, nuclear accumulation, and transcriptional activity of Sry in transfected cells. CaM antagonist treatment of cultured, sexually indifferent XY mouse fetal gonads led to reduced expression of the Sry target gene Sox9, defects in testicular cord formation, and ectopic expression of the ovarian markers Rspondin1 and forkhead box L2. These results indicate the importance of CaM for SRY nuclear import, transcriptional activity, testis differentiation, and sex determination.

  15. Unexplained gonad alterations in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland: levels of persistent organic pollutants in different morphs.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Naef, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Zennegg, Markus; Bernet, Daniel; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, a surprisingly high number of macroscopical gonad alterations has been reported in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. This unique phenomenon is still unexplained and has received much public attention. As one possible trigger for these effects, the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds acting as endocrine disruptors in the lake has been discussed. In this study, concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants were examined in two morphs of whitefish from Lake Thun and their link to the observed abnormalities was investigated. Analyzed compound classes included polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes. The target substances were identified in all samples and concentrations of the analyzed compounds were highly correlated among each other. These correlations show that the analyzed substances have the same distribution pattern throughout the lake and that uptake, accumulation and elimination processes are similar. Significant differences in contaminant levels within the samples existed between the two analyzed morphs of whitefish, most likely due to different age, food patterns and growth rate. No difference in contaminant levels was observed between fish with abnormal gonads and fish with normal gonads, suggesting no causal link between the investigated lipophilic organohalogen compounds present in fish and the observed gonad abnormalities in whitefish from Lake Thun. A comparison to existing data shows that concentrations in Lake Thun whitefish are at the lower bound of contaminant levels in whitefish from Swiss lakes or from European waters.

  16. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by retrograde transcaval coil embolization of an ileal vein-to-right gonadal vein portosystemic shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Nishie, Akihiro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Fukuya, Tatsuro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Yoshimitsu, Takahiro; Hirakata, Hideki; Okuda, Seiya; Masuda, Kouji

    1997-05-15

    A 43-year-old non-cirrhotic woman suffered from encephalopathy caused by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt between the ileal vein and inferior vena cava via the right gonadal vein. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization with stainless steel coils was performed by the retrograde systemic venous approach. Encephalopathy improved dramatically.

  17. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  18. Roles of adrenal and gonadal steroids and season in uropygial gland function in male pigeons, Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Asnani, M V; Ramachandran, A V

    1993-11-01

    To gauge the relative regulative roles of adrenal, gonadal, and thyroid hormones on uropygial gland of male adult pigeons, morphometric, histological, and histochemical observations have been made on a seasonal basis in normal as well as experimentally manipulated birds. Normal birds showed a parallel adrenal-gonadal-uropygial relationship and inverse adrenal-thyroid, thyroid-gonadal, and thyroid-uropygial relationships. Induced hypocorticalism by dexamethasone in the breeding season and hypercorticalism by ACTH or corticosterone treatment in the nonbreeding season were marked by inhibitory and stimulatory changes respectively in the uropygial gland and testis and by inverse thyroid activity. Further, cyproterone acetate treatment in the breeding season completely suppressed testicular functions and increased thyroid activity without affecting either adrenal or uropygial weight, structure, and functions. Based on the observations it is concluded that adrenal steroids are principally involved in regulating the uropygial gland while the gonadal steroids are involved in qualitative aspects of secretion during the breeding phase and thyroid hormones in maintaining the general metabolic profile.

  19. Silencing of Gonad-Inhibiting Hormone Transcripts in Litopenaeus vannamei Females by use of the RNA Interference Technology.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Rubens G; Braga, André L; Lanes, Carlos F C; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Romano, Luis A; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Nery, Luis E M; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Wasielesky, Wilson; Marins, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    The method usually employed to stimulate gonadal maturation and spawning of captive shrimp involves unilateral eyestalk ablation, which results in the removal of the endocrine complex responsible for gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) synthesis and release. In the present study, RNAi technology was used to inhibit transcripts of GIH in Litopenaeus vannamei females. The effect of gene silencing on gonad development was assessed by analyzing the expression of GIH and vitellogenin, respectively, in the eyestalk and ovaries of L. vannamei females, following ablation or injection with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D (non-related dsRNA), or saline solution. Histological analyses were performed to determine the stage of gonadal development and to assess the diameter of oocytes throughout the experimental procedure. Only oocytes at pre-vitellogenesis and primary vitellogenesis stages were identified in females injected with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D, or saline solution. Oocytes at all developmental stages were observed in eyestalk-ablated females, with predominance of later stages, such as secondary vitellogenesis and mature oocytes. Despite achieving 64, 73, and 71% knockdown of eyestalk GIH mRNA levels by 15, 30, and 37 days post-injection (dpi), respectively, in dsRNA-GIH-injected females, the expected increase in ovary vitellogenin mRNA expression was only observed on the 37th dpi. This is the first report of the use of RNAi technology to develop an alternative method to eyestalk ablation in captive L. vannamei shrimps.

  20. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730).

  1. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  2. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure:Computational Model of the Fathead MinnowsHypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course (...

  3. Gonad histology and serum 11-KT profile during the annual reproductive cycle in sterlet sturgeon adult males, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Golpour, A; Broquard, C; Milla, S; Dadras, H; Baloch, A R; Saito, T; Pšenička, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monthly testicular development in the cultured breeding stock of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, using histological and serum sex steroid changes. Testicular development in the adult male was examined monthly and showed four distinct phases including resting, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning. Also, seasonal changes of the testes were described according to its variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) during different phases of testicular development. Using histology, we identified continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous gonad development pattern in the testes of male sterlet, which shows that regulation of annual gonadal cycle is influenced by season. Results also showed variation in the GSI value and number of spermatogenic cells according to each season during annual cycle of gonad, as the highest value of GSI was recorded during spawning phase (spring; March-May). Hormonal profiles of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) showed peak, which indicated a seasonal pattern of gonadal development. The 11-KT concentration increased considerably during the spermatogenesis (pre-spawning phase) and remained quite high throughout the pre-spermiation period. In the final phase of testicular development (spawning phase), the 11-KT markedly dropped. This study undertook an examination of complete reproductive development in cultured sterlet sturgeon to provide a valuable guide for the future sterlet studies, and allows comparison of reproductive development between sturgeon species.

  4. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L.; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:24705165

  5. Mechanisms of arsenic disruption on gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems in humans: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Luo, Jun; Hong, Huachang; Lin, Hongjun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-10-01

    Due to its toxicity as a carcinogen and wide distribution in the environment, arsenic (As) exposure in humans is of public concern globally. Many studies have manifested that As exposure induces cancers besides pathological effects in humans. Animal studies showed that chronic As exposure induces serious neurological effects. Based on recent studies, researchers proposed that As, including arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), is also an endocrine disruptor. This review discusses the mechanisms of As toxicity on three endocrine systems including gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems. Arsenic methylation and oxidative stress are responsible for As-induced disorders of endocrine systems, however, strong binding of AsIII to thiols also play an important role. Some studies showed AsV toxicity on endocrine systems, but mechanistic investigation is lacking. Research is needed to look into their toxicity mechanisms to help cure the illnesses caused by As-induced endocrine system disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Social status, gonadal state, and the adrenal stress response in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N; Chen, T; Crews, D

    1984-03-01

    Adult males of the small arboreal iguanid lizard, Anolis carolinensis, form social dominance hierarchies when placed in habitats with limited resources. Skin color changes occur during hierarchy formation, most conspicuously in subordinates, who appear darker (more brown) than dominants (more green). Because skin color in this species is under the control of hormones frequently associated with physiological stress, radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of the principal reptilian adrenal steroid, corticosterone, was performed. To examine the influence of gonadal androgen, known to influence the aggression that attends hierarchy formation, lizard pairs were constituted in which one or both members were castrated. Corticosterone levels of intact subordinates were significantly elevated, whereas those of castrated subordinates or dominants showed levels comparable to those of isolates. No significant differences in spermatogenic stage could be detected between intact dominants or subordinates.

  7. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  8. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  9. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M. . E-mail: l.forrester@ed.ac.uk; Ansell, John D.

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance.

  10. Gonadal effect of radiation from 131I in male patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krassas, G E; Pontikides, N

    2005-01-01

    The role of iodine-131 therapy in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is well established. Because the spermatogonia are very sensitive to radiation, there is concern that large doses of the latter could result in azoospermia and permanent infertility. For patients treated with a single ablation dose, testicular function recovers within months and the risk of infertility is diminished. Gonadal damage may be cumulative in those requiring multiple administrations. In all young male patients, but especially in those with metastatic or pelvic disease or both, the long-term storage of semen should be addressed prior to therapy. Sperm banking should be considered in patients likely to be given cumulative doses greater than 14 GBq of 131I. However, the patient's threshold for sperm banking might be even lower than that.

  11. Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Interactions between Fear, Stress, and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  12. Effects of Microcystis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal-Liver Axis in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiazhang; Meng, Shunlong; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure. These results indicate that fish reproduction can be altered in a Microcystis bloom-contaminated aquatic environment.

  13. Influence of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Pervaiz Ahmed; Sikdar, Malabika

    2014-09-01

    The study was carried out in laboratory for one month to know the effect of bilateral eyestalk ablation on gonads of Macrobrachium dayanum. Healthy specimens of Macrobrachium dayanum in the size group of (4-6 cm in length) were taken for the experiment. The eyestalk ablation was done by cutting away the eyestalks from their bases with sterilized scissor. The results here obtained indicated positive effects of eyestalk ablation on ovary and testes of Macrobrachium dayanum. The histological details of the female prawns which were ablated showed post-vitellogenic oocytes; where as unablated females prawn never developed beyond pre-vitellogenic oocytes. Similarly in males, testes showed pronounced development of different cells as compared to unablated ones. Fully developed spermatozoa were seen in ablated ones. Gonadosomatic studies also showed that ovarian and testicular cells developed better as compared to control and these findings suggest the fact that the eyestalks of M. dayanum contain ovary and testis inhibiting factors.

  14. CGRP in the trigeminal nucleus, spinal cord and hypothalamus: effect of gonadal steroids.

    PubMed

    Moussaoul, S; Duval, P; Lenoir, V; Garret, C; Kerdelhue, B

    1996-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contents were assayed in cervical spinal cord, trigeminal nucleus and hypothalamus throughout the estrous cycle and in male and ovariectomized rats. In the trigeminal nucleus, neither testosterone nor 17 beta-estradiol seem to affect CGRP accumulation, but progesterone seems to decrease it. In the cervical spinal cord, ovarian steroids seem to decrease CGRP while testosterone does not seem to influence it. In the hypothalamus, CGRP was only detectable in the male rat suggesting a positive effect of testosterone. It had marked circadian rhythm. In conclusion, CGRP content appears to be affected by gonadal steroids in the hypothalamus, the cervical spinal cord and the trigeminal nucleus in the rat.

  15. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  16. Release of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance from starfish radial nerves by lonomycin.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    In starfish, the peptide hormone gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) secreted from nervous tissue stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) production by ovarian follicle cells. Recently, GSS was purified from radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and identified as a relaxin-like peptide. This study examines the mechanism of GSS secretion from radial nerves. When radial nerves isolated from A. pectinifera were incubated in artificial seawater containing ionomycin as a calcium ionophore, GSS release increased in a dose-dependent manner; 50% activity of GSS release was obtained with approximately 10 µM ionomycin. Another calcium ionophore, A23187, also stimulated GSS release from radial nerves. In contrast, membrane permeable cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP analogs failed to induce GSS release. These results suggest that GSS secretion is induced by intracellular Ca(2+) as a second messenger.

  17. Kisspeptins: regulators of metastasis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K G

    2005-08-01

    The kisspeptins are the peptide products of the KiSS-1 gene and the endogenous agonists for the GPR54 receptor. Although KiSS-1 was initially discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene, recent evidence suggests the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is a key regulator of the reproductive system. Disrupted GPR54 signalling causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in rodents and man. Central or peripheral administration of kisspeptin potently stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, increasing circulating gonadotrophin concentrations in a number of animal models. These effects appear likely to be mediated via the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone system, although kisspeptins may have direct effects on the anterior pituitary gland. Hypothalamic KiSS-1 expression is regulated by circulating sex steroids. The precise physiological role of the kisspeptin system in the regulation of reproductive function remains to be elucidated.

  18. Retinoic acid and meiosis induction in adult versus embryonic gonads of medaka

    PubMed Central

    Adolfi, Mateus C.; Herpin, Amaury; Regensburger, Martina; Sacquegno, Jacopo; Waxman, Joshua S.; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, one of the first recognizable sex differences in embryos is the onset of meiosis, known to be regulated by retinoic acid (RA) in mammals. We investigated in medaka a possible meiotic function of RA during the embryonic sex determination (SD) period and in mature gonads. We found RA mediated transcriptional activation in germ cells of both sexes much earlier than the SD stage, however, no such activity during the critical stages of SD. In adults, expression of the RA metabolizing enzymes indicates sexually dimorphic RA levels. In testis, RA acts directly in Sertoli, Leydig and pre-meiotic germ cells. In ovaries, RA transcriptional activity is highest in meiotic oocytes. Our results show that RA plays an important role in meiosis induction and gametogenesis in adult medaka but contrary to common expectations, not for initiating the first meiosis in female germ cells at the SD stage. PMID:27677591

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  20. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed genes associated with germ cell and gonad development in the Southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Bar, Ido; Cummins, Scott; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-03-10

    Controlling and managing the breeding of bluefin tuna (Thunnus spp.) in captivity is an imperative step towards obtaining a sustainable supply of these fish in aquaculture production systems. Germ cell transplantation (GCT) is an innovative technology for the production of inter-species surrogates, by transplanting undifferentiated germ cells derived from a donor species into larvae of a host species. The transplanted surrogates will then grow and mature to produce donor-derived seed, thus providing a simpler alternative to maintaining large-bodied broodstock such as the bluefin tuna. Implementation of GCT for new species requires the development of molecular tools to follow the fate of the transplanted germ cells. These tools are based on key reproductive and germ cell-specific genes. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides a rapid, cost-effective method for high throughput gene identification in non-model species. This study utilized RNA-Seq to identify key genes expressed in the gonads of Southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, SBT) and their specific expression patterns in male and female gonad cells. Key genes involved in the reproductive molecular pathway and specifically, germ cell development in gonads, were identified using analysis of RNA-Seq transcriptomes of male and female SBT gonad cells. Expression profiles of transcripts from ovary and testis cells were compared, as well as testis germ cell-enriched fraction prepared with Percoll gradient, as used in GCT studies. Ovary cells demonstrated over-expression of genes related to stem cell maintenance, while in testis cells, transcripts encoding for reproduction-associated receptors, sex steroids and hormone synthesis and signaling genes were over-expressed. Within the testis cells, the Percoll-enriched fraction showed over-expression of genes that are related to post-meiosis germ cell populations. Gonad development and germ cell related genes were identified from SBT gonads and their expression patterns in

  2. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  3. Triple X syndrome and puberty: focus on the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Lapi, Elisabetta; Losi, Stefania; Bencini, Erica; Masoni, Fabrizio; Dosa, Laura; Becciani, Sabrina; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. University pediatric hospital. Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9.1 y, range 6.9-11.6 years). None. We evaluated FSH, LH, and E2 levels and performed an autoimmunity screening as well as a pelvic ultrasonography and an LH-releasing hormone stimulation test. All triple X patients (with and without pubertal signs) showed a pubertal LH peak level that was significantly different from controls. Triple X patients showed increased basal and peak FSH and LH values compared with control subjects. However, the mean E2 level was significantly lower than control subjects. However, triple X patients showed reduced DHEAS levels and reduced inhibin levels compared with control subjects. Finally, triple X patients had a significantly reduced ovarian volume compared with control subjects, in both prepubertal and pubertal patients. Triple X patients showed premature activation of the GnRH pulse generator, even without puberty signs. Both basal and peak LH and FSH levels were higher than in control subjects, and E2 and inhibin levels and ovarian volume were reduced, which led to a reduced gonadal function. Other studies and a longitudinal evaluation is necessary to better understand the endocrinologic features of these subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gonadal transcriptome responses and physiological consequences of exposure to oestrogen in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduarda M; Paull, Gregory C; Van Look, Katrien J W; Workman, Victoria L; Holt, William V; van Aerle, Ronny; Kille, Peter; Tyler, Charles R

    2007-06-15

    Environmental oestrogens are widespread in the aquatic environment and cause alterations in sexual development and function in vertebrates. The molecular pathways underpinning these effects, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed at generating a mechanistic understanding of the disruptive effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE(2)) on reproduction in zebrafish, by anchoring the transcriptomic alterations induced with the physiological consequences of exposure. Breeding colonies of zebrafish were exposed for a 21-day period to three concentrations of EE(2) (0.05, 0.5 and 5 ng/L) and the gonadal transcriptomic alterations induced (determined using a 17,000 oligonucleotide microarray) were analysed together with physiological effects seen on reproductive output of both males and females. Exposure to 5 ng EE(2)/L resulted in reproductive impairment characterised by a decrease in egg production, alterations in sperm quality and reduced fertilisation success. The effects seen were associated with altered expression of 114 and 131 genes in the gonads of males and females, respectively. The biological processes most affected by the exposure were protein metabolism in males and mitochondria organisation and biogenesis in females. Genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, the ubiquitin system and glutathione peroxidase were affected by the EE(2) exposure and associated with the changes observed in gamete quality in both genders. In summary, we demonstrated that EE(2) exposure compromised the reproductive health of breeding zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations. The molecular mechanisms mediating some of these effects were identified and included those impacting processes central to gametogenesis in both males and females.

  5. Success and failure assessing gonad maturity in sequentially hermaphroditic fishes: comparisons between macroscopic and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Klibansky, N; Scharf, F S

    2015-10-01

    For two protogynous hermaphrodite fish species, the performance of visual gonad analysis techniques was evaluated to determine when the use of macroscopic methods was sufficient and when microscopic techniques were necessary. Simple macroscopic gonad analysis was found to be a powerful tool for distinguishing sex and whether or not females were spawning capable or ripe for black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 1443) and red porgy Pagrus pagrus (n = 980), often producing results that were in close agreement with more complex and expensive microscopic techniques. Estimates of key reproductive variables, such as size-dependent sex-change ogives, spawning season duration, spawning fraction and batch number, were also very similar or equal between methods. Apparent seasonal spawning activity was also predicted similarly by each method and the patterns were highly correlated with seasonal patterns in gonado-somatic indices. In contrast, distinguishing between immature females and those that were mature, but inactive, proved difficult when using macroscopic methods and, in these cases, predictions often differed from those produced microscopically. In turn, maturity ogives differed significantly between methods for C. striata (maturity ogives could not be generated for P. pagrus as nearly all fish encountered were mature). Agreement rates among male phases were also very low. Macroscopic methods were able to identify signs of sex transition in very advanced specimens, but early signs were only evident microscopically. While much more detail is visible microscopically, here several population-scale parameters important for fisheries management were estimated equally well with the unaided eye for C. striata and P. pagrus. For comprehensive, fishery-independent surveys and long-term research programmes in particular, determining when microscopic techniques are and are not necessary can greatly improve efficiency and reduce costs without compromising data quality

  6. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  7. Circulating gonadal and adrenal steroids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: possible markers of susceptibility and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo-Monachelli, G M; Sivori, M; Meyer, M; Sica, R E P; De Nicola, A F; Gonzalez-Deniselle, M C

    2014-06-01

    Although changes of circulating steroids have been reported in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a full comparison of the adrenal and gonadal steroid profile between control subjects and ALS patients is lacking. Considering that respiratory failure is the most frequent cause of death in ALS, we looked into whether a relationship emerged between circulating steroids and respiratory parameters. Serum levels of adrenal and gonadal steroids were measured in 52 age- and gender-matched subjects (28 ALS and 24 controls) using radioimmunoassay techniques. We also evaluated respiratory parameters in ALS patients, including forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). We found increased levels of testosterone in female ALS patients compared to healthy female subjects. Furthermore, control subjects showed a significant decline of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and a borderline decline of progesterone with increasing age. Instead, testosterone did not decline with increasing age in ALS patients. We also found that the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/cortisol ratio was positively associated with FVC, MIP, and MEP. Moreover, ALS patients showing higher testosterone levels and lower progesterone/free testosterone ratio presented a more rapid worsening of the monthly FVC. In conclusion, first our study revealed a differential steroid profile with age and gender in ALS patients relative to controls. Second, we demonstrated an association between some steroids and their ratios with respiratory function and disease progression. Thus, we hypothesize that the endogenous steroid profile could be a marker of susceptibility and prognosis in ALS patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)

    PubMed Central

    Pribbenow, Susanne; East, Marion L.; Ganswindt, Andre; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an “in-house” epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2) no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection and (3) significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas. PMID:26107516

  9. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  10. Combined effects of androgen anabolic steroids and physical activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Hengevoss, Jonas; Piechotta, Marion; Müller, Dennis; Hanft, Fabian; Parr, Maria Kristina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Analysing effects of pharmaceutical substances and training on feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may be helpful to quantify the benefit of strategies preventing loss of muscle mass, and in the fight against doping. In this study we analysed combined effects of anabolic steroids and training on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore intact male Wistar rats were dose-dependently treated with metandienone, estradienedione and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-1. In serum cortisol, testosterone, 17β-estradiol (E2), prolactin, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were determined. Six human volunteers were single treated with 1-androstenedione. In addition abusing and clean body builders were analysed. Serum concentrations of inhibin B, IGF-1, cortisol, prolactin, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone and LH were determined. In rats, administration of metandienone, estradienedione and S-1 resulted in an increase of muscle fiber diameter. Metandienone and estradienedione but not S-1 administration significantly decreases LH and inhibin B serum concentration. Administration of estradienedione resulted in an increase of E2 and S-1 in an increase of cortisol. Single administration of 1-androstenedione in humans decreased cortisol and inhibin B serum concentrations. LH was not affected. In abusing body builders a significantly decrease of LH, TSH and inhibin B and an increase of prolactin, IGF-1 and T4 was detected. In clean body builders only T4 and TSH were affected.

  11. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure.

    PubMed

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-07-18

    Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study among female 5-year HL survivors treated before age 41. Hormone exposure and HL treatment data were collected through medical records and questionnaires for 174 BC case patients and 466 control patients. Radiation dose to breast tumor location was estimated based on RT charts, simulation films, and mammography reports. We observed a linear radiation dose-response curve with an adjusted excess odds ratio (EOR) of 6.1%/Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%-15.4%). Women with menopause <30 years (caused by high-dose procarbazine or pelvic RT) had a lower BC risk (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51) than did women with menopause ≥50 years. BC risk increased by 6.4% per additional year of post-RT intact ovarian function (P<.001). Among women with early menopause (<45 years), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use for ≥2 years did not increase BC risk (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.32-2.32), whereas this risk was nonsignificantly increased among women without early menopause (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 0.97-14.0; P for interaction: .06). Stratification by duration of post-RT intact ovarian function or HRT use did not statistically significantly modify the radiation dose-response curve. BC risk in female HL survivors increases linearly with radiation dose. HRT does not appear to increase BC risk for HL survivors with therapy-induced early menopause. There are no indications that endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect the radiation dose-response relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neither male gonadal androgens nor female reproductive costs drive development of sexual size dimorphism in lizards.

    PubMed

    Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates.

  13. Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a high-prevalence disease, particularly in developed countries, and results in high costs both to the individual and to society through associated fragility fractures. There is an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and development of new anti-osteoporotic agents. Between 30 and 80% of osteoporotic fractures cannot be prevented despite current treatments achieving relative fracture risk reduction of up to 20%, 50%, and 70% for non-vertebral, hip and spine fractures, respectively. Traditionally, the decline in gonadal hormones has been studied as the sole hormonal determinant for the loss of bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, recent studies have identified receptors for numerous non-gonadal hormones such as PTH, angiotensin II, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the osteoblast lineage cells that directly regulate bone turnover. These hormones are also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly hypertension, type-II diabetes and obesity. By activating their respective receptors on osteoblastic lineage cells, these hormones appear to act through a common mechanism by down-regulating receptors for activation of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and up-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) with inverse responses for adiponectin. Receptors for amylin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and ghrelin and have also been identified on the osteoblast lineage cells although the roles of these receptors in bone turnover are controversial or poorly studied. Moreover, bone turnover may be independently regulated by modulation of osteoclast-osteoblast function and bone marrow adiposity. Leptin appears to be the only hormone that is a known regulator of both bone mineralisation and bone adiposity.

  14. Gonadal Mosaicism Induced by Chemical Treatment of Sperm in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Dan L.; Hardy, Robert W.; Ripoll, Pedro; Lindsley, Dart

    2016-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of forward genetic screens of chromosomes exposed in mature spermatozoa to a mutagenic chemical requires understanding—incomplete to date—of how exposed chromosomes and their replicas proceed through early development stages from the fertilized ovum to establishment of the germline of the treated male’s offspring. We describe a model for early embryonic development and establishment of the germline of Drosophila melanogaster and a model-validating experiment. Our model proposes that, barring repair, DNA strands modified by treatment with alkylating agents are stable and mutagenic. Each replication of an alkylated strand can result in misreplication and a mutant-bearing daughter nucleus. Daughter nuclei thenceforth replicate faithfully and their descendants comprise the embryonic syncytium. Of the 256 nuclei present after the eighth division, several migrate into the polar plasm at the posterior end of the embryo to found the germline. Based upon distribution of descendants of the alkylated strands, the misreplication rate, and the number of nuclei selected as germline progenitors, the frequency of gonadal mosaicism is predictable. Experimentally, we tracked chromosomes 2 and 3 from EMS-treated sperm through a number of generations, to characterize autosomal recessive lethal mutations and infer gonadal genetic content of the sons of treated males. Over 50% of 106 sons bore germlines that were singly, doubly, or triply mosaic for chromosome 2 or chromosome 3. These findings were consistent with our model, assuming a rate of misreplication between 0.65 and 0.80 at each replication of an alkylated strand. Crossing treated males to mismatch-repair-deficient females had no apparent effect on mutation rate. PMID:26163187

  15. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol exposure on Xenopus laevis gonadal histopathology.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A; Holden, Larry R; Krueger, Henry O; Hosmer, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    The natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E2) is a potential environmental contaminant commonly employed as a positive control substance in bioassays involving estrogenic effects. The aquatic anuran Xenopus laevis is a frequent subject of reproductive endocrine disruptor research; however, histopathological investigations have tended to be less than comprehensive. Consequently, a study was designed to characterize gross and microscopic changes in the gonads of X. laevis as a result of E2 exposure. Additional goals of this study, which consisted of three separate experiments, included the standardization of diagnostic terminology and criteria, the validation of statistical methodology, and the establishment of a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for E2 as defined by an approximately 50% conversion of presumptive genotypic males to phenotypic females. In the first experiment, frogs were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1.5, or 6.0 microg/L E2. From these experimental results and those of a subsequent range finding trial, the EC50 for E2 was determined to be approximately 0.2 microg/L. This E2 concentration was utilized in the other two experiments, which were performed at different facilities to confirm the reproducibility of results. Experiments were conducted according to Good Laboratory Practice guidelines, and the histopathologic evaluations were peer reviewed by an independent pathologist. Among the three trials, the histopathological findings that were strongly associated with E2-exposure (p<0.001 to 0.0001) included an increase in the proportion of phenotypic females, mixed sex, dilated testis tubules, dividing gonocytes in the testis, and dilated ovarian cavities in phenotypic ovaries. A comparison of the gross and microscopic evaluations suggested that some morphologic changes in the gonads may potentially be missed if studies rely entirely on macroscopic assessment.

  16. Ovarian Granulosa Cell Survival and Proliferation Requires the Gonad-Selective TFIID Subunit TAF4b

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Lovasco, Lindsay A.; Gyuris, Aron; Baumgartner, Robert A.; Parlow, Albert F.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    Oocyte development in the mammalian ovary requires productive interactions with somatic granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Proliferating granulosa cells support the progression of follicular growth and maturation, multiplying dramatically as it unfolds. The cell cycle recruitment of granulosa cells is regulated at least in part by hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen. Follicles recruited into the growth phase following formation of multiple layers of granulosa cells have two major fates: either to continue proliferation followed by differentiation, or to die by programmed cell death, or atresia. While many of the signaling pathways orchestrating ovarian follicle development are known, the downstream transcriptional regulators that integrate such signals in the mammalian ovary remain to be defined. Recent experiments in diverse organisms have revealed multiple instances of gonad-selective components of the basal transcriptional machinery. One such protein, TAF4b, is a gonadal-enriched coactivator subunit of the TFIID complex required for normal female fertility in the mouse. To determine the etiology of female infertility of the TAF4b-deficient mice, we have determined multiple functions of TAF4b during postnatal ovarian follicle development. Here we demonstrate that the TAF4b protein is expressed in the granulosa cell compartment of the mammalian ovarian follicle. Furthermore, TAF4b-deficient mouse ovaries contain reduced numbers of primordial as well as growing follicles and a concomitant increased proportion of apoptotic follicles in comparison to wild type counterparts. Importantly, TAF4b-null follicles are largely resistant to induction of proliferation in response to multiple hormonal stimuli including estrogen and FSH and demonstrate compromised granulosa cell survival. Together, these data suggest that TAF4b integrates a program of granulosa cell gene expression required for normal ovarian follicle survival and proliferation

  17. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Viviana; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Burguillo, Ana; Frigato, Elena; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Piferrer, Francesc; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h) and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h). In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase) and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase) presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish. PMID:27322588

  18. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Yue, Huamei; Li, Chuangju; Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy management of cultured fish.

  20. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; East, Marion L; Ganswindt, Andre; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an "in-house" epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2) no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection and (3) significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas.

  1. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. Results The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusions This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy

  2. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  3. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  4. Analysis of a novel gene, Sdgc, reveals sex chromosome-dependent differences of medaka germ cells prior to gonad formation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Herpin, Amaury; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Hara, Ikuyo; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Saito, Taro L; Yoshimura, Jun; Morishita, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Satoru; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Schartl, Manfred; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-09-01

    In vertebrates that have been examined to date, the sexual identity of germ cells is determined by the sex of gonadal somatic cells. In the teleost fish medaka, a sex-determination gene on the Y chromosome, DMY/dmrt1bY, is expressed in gonadal somatic cells and regulates the sexual identity of germ cells. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which sex chromosomes cell-autonomously confer sexually different characters upon germ cells prior to gonad formation in a genetically sex-determined species. We have identified a novel gene, Sdgc (sex chromosome-dependent differential expression in germ cells), whose transcripts are highly enriched in early XY germ cells. Chimeric analysis revealed that sexually different expression of Sdgc is controlled in a germ cell-autonomous manner by the number of Y chromosomes. Unexpectedly, DMY/dmrt1bY was expressed in germ cells prior to gonad formation, but knockdown and overexpression of DMY/dmrt1bY did not affect Sdgc expression. We also found that XX and XY germ cells isolated before the onset of DMY/dmrt1bY expression in gonadal somatic cells behaved differently in vitro and were affected by Sdgc. Sdgc maps close to the sex-determination locus, and recombination around the two loci appears to be repressed. Our results provide important insights into the acquisition and plasticity of sexual differences at the cellular level even prior to the developmental stage of sex determination. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Reproductive condition and behavior in relation to plasma levels of gonadal steroids in the spiny damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, N W; Hilder, P I; Pankhurst, P M

    1999-07-01

    Gonadal condition and plasma levels of gonadal steroids were measured in relation to behavior in the biparental brood-protecting spiny damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Fish were captured by SCUBA divers from natural populations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef and immediately bled underwater, following diver or video observation of precapture behaviour. In winter (July), most fish were nonterritorial, with a low proportion of mature males, or vitellogenic females present. In spring (November), most fish were territorial with broods of young at varying stages of maturity, and all stages of gonadal development were represented. Territorial males were larger than nonterritorial fish, but territorial fish that had large (older) young (the end of the brooding phase) had lower condition factors than fish at other stages. Males of all gonad stages had a high proportion of spermatozoa in the testis, but this was higher in November than in July. Ovaries of females commonly had several classes of developing follicles present, although fish that were brooding large young had regressed ovaries with a high incidence of atresia. Plasma levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone were elevated in males of advanced gonadal maturity, and also in relation to recent or imminent spawning behaviour, but there were no changes in plasma 17, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20betaP), which was near assay detection limits at all times. Females had elevated T and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in association with vitellogenesis and elevated T in relation to spawning activity in some fish, but as in males, 17,20betaP levels were low and unchanging. Territorial females without young had lower cortisol levels than nonterritorial fish, or females protecting young. The results confirm the importance of elevated androgens to spawning activity in territorial male fish, but not females where endocrine activity is more closely related to stage of ovarian development. Extended brooding

  6. Gonadal transcriptomic analysis of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): identification of sex-related genes and genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Luan, Peixian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Shuqun; Peng, Lina; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has been recognized as a vital freshwater aquaculture species in East and Southeast Asia. In addition to its commercial interest, it is also attracted much attention because of its value in studying sex-determination mechanisms. A comprehensive gonadal transcriptome analysis is believed to provide a resource for genome annotation, candidate gene identification, and molecular marker development. Herein, we performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish gonad transcriptome by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 82,123 contigs were obtained, ranging from 351 to 21,268 bp, and N50 of 2,329 bp. Unigenes of 21,869 in total were identified. Of these, 229 and 1,188 genes were found to be specifically expressed in XY gonad tissue for 1 yr and 2 yr old yellow catfish, respectively; correspondingly, 51 and 40 genes were identified in XX gonad tissue at those two stages. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were conducted and classified all contigs into different categories. A large number of unigenes involved in sex determination were identified, as well as microsatellites and SNP variants. The expression patterns of sex-related genes were then validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggesting the high reliability of RNA-Seq results. In this study, the transcriptome of yellow catfish gonad was first sequenced, assembled, and characterized; it provides a valuable genomic resource for better understanding of yellow catfish sex determination as well as development of molecular markers, thereby assisting in the production of monosex yellow catfish for aquaculture.

  7. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge.

    PubMed

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgard, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by β-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC migration. PGCs were present in the hind gut epithelium, in the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesentery and in the developing gonadal ridge of 4-6 wpc embryos, prior to connections between the enteric and the sympathetic nervous system. From 6 wpc onwards, the PGCs travelled along the developing nerve fibers from the wall of the hind gut via the dorsal mesentery to the midline of the dorsal wall and laterally into the gonads. Numerous PGCs were still present in the nervous system by 14 wpc. PGCs in 4-5 wpc embryos are suggested to leave the gut epithelium by EMT-like transition. SCF may facilitate further migration, but after establishment of connections between the enteric and sympathetic nervous systems. PGCs follow sympathetic nerve fibers towards the gonads. PGCs failing to exit the nerve branches at the gonadal site, may continue along the sympathetic trunk ending up in other organs where they may form germ cell tumors if not eliminated by apoptosis.

  8. Fighting and assessment in male cichlid fish: the effects of asymmetries in gonadal state and body size.

    PubMed

    Neat; Huntingford; Beveridge

    1998-04-01

    In fights between animals over limited resources, the larger contestant often wins. Game theoretical models of animal fighting predict that relative body size is assessed during the fight and thus determines fight duration and intensity. In addition, if the contestants differ in the value they place on the disputed resource, this can also influence the outcome, duration and intensity of the fight. We studied territorial fighting in a cichlid fish, Tilapia zillii, in relation to relative body size and gonad weight. Relative gonad weight was a much stronger predictor of fight outcome than relative body size, even when body weight asymmetries were as large as 30%. This suggested that males with large gonads were fighting harder to defend their territory, perhaps because the value of a territory correlates with the gonadal state of the individual. A detailed analysis of mouth wrestling observed during fighting suggested that relative body size is assessed. However, contestants smaller than their opponent often continued to fight in spite of their size disadvantage. Weight disadvantaged winners appeared to fight more fiercely as suggested by a negative correlation between weight asymmetry and the proportion of bites inflicted by the winner. During escalated fighting, winners and losers differed consistently with regard to a behaviour termed mouth locking. Although neither biting nor persistence in mouth locking was related to gonad weight, we propose that the fish may have been assessing asymmetries unrelated to relative body size and possibly more related to levels of cost and the motivation to persist. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. Phenotypic correlations of somatic and gonad traits of sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis in two sampled periods: first insight into its breeding and aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shibin; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhao, Chong; Zhou, Haisen; Zhang, Weijie; Feng, Wenping; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-03-01

    Prior knowledge of the correlations among commercially important traits in Glyptocidaris crenularis can be used to guide development of breeding and aquaculture programs for this species. We evaluated the phenotypic correlations between somatic and gonadal traits in G. crenularis during two sample periods (October 2010 and April 2011). The coefficients of variation (CV%) for body weight (BW), redness ( a*), yellowness ( b*), gonad wet weight (GW), and gonad index (GI) were >20% in both periods, while those of other traits were very low. GW was significantly correlated with somatic traits (diameter, height, and body weight) in both periods, although the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.473 to 0.636 ( P <0.01). Gonad moisture content (GC), a*, and lightness ( L*) were not significantly correlated with somatic traits ( P >0.05). The color trait b* was negatively correlated with somatic traits (test diameter, test height, and body weight) during the period when the gonads were well developed (April 2011, P <0.05). We observed little difference in the nature of the phenotypic correlations between the two sample periods. The high variation in the somatic and gonad weight traits in G. crenularis suggests there is considerable potential for selective breeding. However, our results suggest that gonad quality traits cannot be selected indirectly by selecting for body weight. Our study provides an insight into the method for improving the breeding and aquaculture of G. crenulari.

  10. Epigenetic control of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1) in temperature-dependent sex determination of red-eared slider turtles.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Buemio, Alvin; Chu, Randy; Vafaee, Mozhgon; Crews, David

    2013-01-01

    In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5'-flanking region of the aromatase gene, gonad-specific promoter, and the temperature-dependent DNA methylation signatures during gonad development in the red-eared slider turtle. The 5'-flanking region of the slider aromatase exhibited sequence similarities to the aromatase genes of the American alligator, chicken, quail, and zebra finch. A putative TATA box was located 31 bp upstream of the gonad-specific transcription start site. DNA methylation at the CpG sites between the putative binding sites of the fork head domain factor (FOX) and vertebrate steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and adjacent TATA box in the promoter region were significantly lower in embryonic gonads at the female-producing temperature compared the male-producing temperature. A shift from male- to female-, but not from female- to male-, producing temperature changed the level of DNA methylation in gonads. Taken together these results indicate that the temperature, particularly female-producing temperature, allows demethylation at the specific CpG sites of the promoter region which leads the temperature-specific expression of aromatase during gonad development.

  11. Epigenetic Control of Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1) in Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination of Red-Eared Slider Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Buemio, Alvin; Chu, Randy; Vafaee, Mozhgon; Crews, David

    2013-01-01

    In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5′-flanking region of the aromatase gene, gonad-specific promoter, and the temperature-dependent DNA methylation signatures during gonad development in the red-eared slider turtle. The 5′-flanking region of the slider aromatase exhibited sequence similarities to the aromatase genes of the American alligator, chicken, quail, and zebra finch. A putative TATA box was located 31 bp upstream of the gonad-specific transcription start site. DNA methylation at the CpG sites between the putative binding sites of the fork head domain factor (FOX) and vertebrate steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and adjacent TATA box in the promoter region were significantly lower in embryonic gonads at the female-producing temperature compared the male-producing temperature. A shift from male- to female-, but not from female- to male-, producing temperature changed the level of DNA methylation in gonads. Taken together these results indicate that the temperature, particularly female-producing temperature, allows demethylation at the specific CpG sites of the promoter region which leads the temperature-specific expression of aromatase during gonad development. PMID:23762231

  12. Carotenoids in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: occurrence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the dominant carotenoid in gonad colour determination.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Rachael C; Kelly, Maeve S; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Young, Andrew J

    2007-12-01

    Regular sampling of wild Paracentrotus lividus was carried out over a 12-month period to examine seasonal effects on the pigment profile and content of the gonads, especially in comparison to gonad colour. The major pigments detected in the gut wall were breakdown products of fucoxanthin, namely fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin A. Lower levels of other dietary carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) together with some carotenoids not found in the diet, namely isozeaxanthin and echinenone ( approximately 20% total carotenoid) were also detected in the gut wall. The presence of echinenone in the gut wall demonstrates that this organ acts as a major site of carotenoid metabolism. Echinenone is the dominant carotenoid in the gonads, accounting for approx. 50-60% of the total pigment. Both all-trans and 9'-cis forms of echinenone were detected in both the gut wall and in the gonad, with levels of the 9'-cis form typically 10-fold greater than the all-trans form in the gonad. The detection of large levels of 9'-cis-echinenone in wild sea urchins is unexpected due to the absence of 9- or 9'-cis forms of carotenoids in the natural, algal, diet. Whilst echinenone clearly contributes towards gonad pigmentation, levels of this carotenoid, cannot be directly linked to a qualitative assessment of gonad colour in terms of market acceptability. Indeed, unacceptable gonad colouration can be seen with both very low and high levels of echinenone and total carotenoid. The presence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the major carotenoid contributing to the pigmentation/colour of the gonad is an important observation in terms of developing artificial diets for urchin cultivation.

  13. Sexual differentiation of gonads as a function of temperature in the turtle Emys orbicularis: endocrine function, intersexuality and growth.

    PubMed

    Pieau, C; Dorizzi, M; Richard-Mercier, N; Desvages, G

    1998-08-01

    Emys orbicularis is a freshwater turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Estrogens play a major role in gonadal differentiation; when they are produced at high levels during the thermosensitive period (TSP), ovaries differentiate; when their synthesis is very low, testes differentiate. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens through the activity of aromatase. We examine here two aspects of gonadal differentiation, intersexuality and growth, in E. orbicularis. For gonadal intersexuality, we studied the relationship between gonadal aromatase activity and gonadal structure at 28.5 degrees C (pivotal temperature), from the beginning of TSP to hatching, and compared results to those obtained at 30 degrees C (producing 100% females) and 25 degrees C (producing 100% males). At 28.5 degrees C, both males and females are obtained. However, histological differentiation of gonads is delayed compared to that at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and an ovarian-like cortex of various thicknesses often develops at the surface of the male gonads; thus, several individuals display ovotestes at hatching. Despite important individual variations, the aromatase activity in ovaries differentiating at 28.5 degrees C increases during development as in ovaries differentiating at 30 degrees C. In most cases, however, activity is slightly lower than at 30 degrees C, and at the end of embryonic life, it becomes similar to that at 30 degrees C. In testes or ovotestes differentiating at 28.5 degrees C, aromatase activity remains low but is generally slightly higher than in testes at 25 degrees C; however, at the end of embryonic development, it becomes similar to that at 25 degrees C. Oocytes in the cortex of ovotestes begin to degenerate around hatching and continue to degenerate after hatching. Therefore, ovotestes evolve as testes. However, some oocytes may persist at the surface of testes up to the adult age. To estimate gonadal growth, the protein content was measured at

  14. Vitellogenin, sex steroid levels and gonadal biomarkers in wild Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from NW Mediterranean fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Solé, M; Mañanós, E; Blázquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Specimens of Solea solea and Solea senegalenesis at different developmental stages were obtained from seven fishing grounds along the NW Mediterranean. Gonad development in males was classified into five stages, from early spermatogenesis to recovery, while four stages were considered in females, from growth to maturation. Vitellogenin (VTG) and sex steroid levels including an estrogen (estradiol, E2), two androgens (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) and a progestin (17,20β-dihydroxy pregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β-P or maturation inducing steroid, MIS) were analysed in plasma. Their levels were more clearly related to the developmental stage of the gonads than to the sampling site characteristics. In addition, enzyme activities in gonads, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) were gender-dependent and higher in males than in females. Gonadal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was enhanced in the most anthropogenic impacted sites. VTG was absent in males and very low or undetectable in immature females, while mature females exhibited high VTG levels, clearly related to the gonado-somatic index. Sex steroid levels (ng/ml) varied in males and females regardless of the species. E2 levels in females ranged from 0.22 to 6.98 while in males ranged from 0.11 to 0.27. T varied from 0.12 to 0.93 in females and from 0.56 to 1.36 in males, while 11KT in females fluctuated from 0.03 to 0.57 and from 0.26 to 6.42 in males. Similarly, MIS in females ranged from 0.75 to 3.71 and from 1.12 to 5.61 in males. The lack of endocrine disturbances was confirmed by histological examination of the gonads. This study informs on basal sex hormone levels and enzyme activities during gonadal maturation of wild Solea spp. that can be useful in the identification and further remediation of possible pollution events.

  15. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis with Turner`s phenotype and mosaic karyotype

    SciTech Connect

    Tarim, O.; Lieber, E. |

    1994-09-01

    A 14 8/12-year-old white female patient was evaluated for short stature and amenorrhea. The past and family history were unremarkable. The physical examination revealed a short girl (131.4 cm; height age: 9) with a weight of 39.5kg (weight age: 11-6/12). The blood pressure was in the normal range in all four extremities and the peripheral pulses were positive. She had stigmata of Turner`s syndrome including short neck and slight webbing, cubitus valgus, and shield chest. There was no heart murmur. The only pubertal sign was pubic hair of Tanner stage II. The chromosome study showed a mosaic pattern. A total of 67 cultured lymphocytes from peripheral blood were analyzed which revealed 13 cells with 45,XO; 14 with 46,XY,r(Y); 39 with 46,XY. The patient had a normal vagina and hypoplastic uterus by sonogram. The diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy and bilateral gonadectomy. The histologic examination of the gonads showed a testicle on the left and a streak ovary on right. The karyotype of the testicular tissue revealed 45,XO in 32 out of 40 and 46,XY in the remaining 8 cells. Pre-operative hormonal evaluation showed elevated gonadotropin levels of FSH 73.5 and LH 12.5 mIU/ml, low estradiol level of 5 pg/ml, normal testosterone level of 18 and DHEA-S of 181 mcg/dl, and normal thyroid function test with T4 of 6 mcg/dl and TSH of 4.2 mIU/ml. Her bone age was 12 years. The patient was also found to have subnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion by overnight GH study (1.55 ng/ml), clonidine stimulation test (7.3ng/ml), and insulin stimulation test (9.2 ng/ml). She responded well to human synthetic GH treatment with a growth velocity of 11.5 cm in two years. Replacement of sex hormones will be initiated after the completion of growth.

  16. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  17. Seasonal variability in gonad development in the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) on the Basque coast (southeastern Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Menchaca, Iratxe; Belzunce, María Jesús; Franco, Javier; Revilla, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The main limiting factor to carrying out toxicological bioassays with sea urchin larvae is the restricted period for the availability of viable gametes. Although studies have been undertaken of the reproductive cycle of the sea urchin for several areas of the Bay of Biscay, only limited information exists for the southeasternmost area (the Basque coast). Furthermore, this geographical zone presents some particular environmental conditions, e.g., relatively warm waters. In this study, the gonad state of a population of Paracentrotus lividus, settled on the rocky shores of the city of Donostia-San Sebastian have been monitored. These sea urchins are observed to behave like a typical Atlantic population, with generally high gonad indices and a single yearly main spawning period, between April and May. Further, females show a shorter spawning period than males, becoming the limiting organisms for the availability of larvae.

  18. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  19. Long term follow-up of a child with ambiguous genitalia, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and unusual mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, Vlady; De Luca, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a condition of abnormal and asymmetrical gonadal development. This disorder is typically associated with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; however, other karyotypes have been rarely reported. The phenotype characterizing MGD is highly variable, although in most cases ambiguous genitalia are found. In addition, many individuals with MGD exhibit stigmata of Turner's syndrome. We describe a patient with MGD, found to have a 45,X/47,XYY karyotype, with the majority of the cell lines being 47,XYY. To our knowledge, our report is the first to describe the long-term follow-up of a patient with ambiguous genitalia diagnosed at birth with 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism.

  20. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis with 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)/46,XY,idic(Y) karyotype.

    PubMed

    Caglayan, A O; Demiryilmaz, F; Kendirci, M; Ozyazgan, I; Akalin, H; Bittmann, S

    2009-01-01

    To present the new karyotype with mixed gonadal dysgenesis, the aetiologic approach and difficulties in genetic counseling in mosaic sex chromosome disorders. We report a fourteen-year-old boy presented with slightly ambigious genitalia. Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization investigations were carried out on his peripheral lymphocytes. As a result, three cell lines, 45,X, 46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) and 46, XY were observed. A markedly higher percentage of Y-containing cells was observed in the blood (68%), which was not considered to be the major reason why the case did not have distinct ambiguous genitalia. We suggest that study of cytogenetic and molecular mosaicism involving sex chromosomes may help to further unravel the mysterious process in mixed gonadal dysgeneic patients.

  1. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  2. Uptake of benzo(a)pyrene by gonadal tissue of flatfish (family pleuronectidae) and its effects on subsequent egg development

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Hannah, J.B.; Landolt, M.L.; Miller, B.S.; Felton, S.P.; Iwaoka, W.T.

    1981-06-01

    Accumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sexually mature flatfish gonad, its transfer to developing gametes, and its subsequent effects on developing embryos were studied. Thin-layer chromatography revealed both unmetabolized BaP and polar metabolites in the ovary, wolffian ducts, oocytes, and semen of English sole 24 h after ip injection with 200 ..mu..Ci 1/sup 3/H)BaP. Concentrations of BaP and its metabolites were 3 to 11 times higher in oocytes and semen than in gonadal tissue. Fertilized eggs from flathead sole that had been fed 4.0 mg BaP 5 h before spawning demonstrated a significantly lower (p <0.001) hatching success (11.9%) than eggs from control fish (56.6%). Morphological abnormalities were found in only 1.6% of control embryos but in 5.6% of embryos from treated females.

  3. Gonadal histopathology following nickel intoxication in the giant gaurami Colisa fasciatus (Bloch and Schneider), a freshwater tropical perch

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, K.; Kumar, N. )

    1990-08-01

    Large variety of data regarding toxic effects of nickel on mammals has been reported. Nickel refinery workers had increased mortality from lung or sinonasal cancers. In human populations exposed to nickel and chromium compounds, chromosomal abberations have been reported. Biochemical as well as histopathological alterations arising from nickel exposure in mammals have also been documented. Very scanty data is available concerning histopathological impact of nickel on fish tissues. However, to the authors' knowledge, there are no reports available on the fish gonads of either sex encountered with nickel. The present study appears to be the first report on the topic. Therefore, in the present investigation impact of nickel on the histological architecture of gonads of both sexes of a freshwater tropical perch, Colisa fasciatus have been assessed.

  4. The function of fat bodies in relation to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in the frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, G; Rastogi, R K; Iela, L; Milone, M

    1975-08-18

    In this study the authors have tried to furnish experimental support for the importance of fat bodies in the normal functioning of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system of the male frog, Rana esculenta. These experiments have shown a hypothalamo-hypophyseal control of the mobilization of fat body contents, directly involved in the control of testicular activity. Furthermore it is proposed that the fat body contents are released into the testis through direct vascular contacts between the two organs. We suggest that the A1 cells (lactotrophs) and/or B2 cells (FSH-gonadotrops) of the pars distalis gonadotropins are incapable of stimulating the testis in the absence of fat bodies. In the light of these results a scheme has been put forward showing the position of fat bodies in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis of the frog.

  5. Molecular analysis of Frasier syndrome: mutation in the WT1 gene in a girl with gonadal dysgenesis and nephronophthisis.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Nanclares, G; Castaño, L; Bilbao, J R; Vallo, A; Rica, I; Vela, A; Martul, P

    2002-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) encodes a protein that is believed to exert transcriptional and tumor-suppressor activities. Mutations in this gene have occasionally been associated with Wilms' tumor (<15% patients) and, more consistently, with three syndromes characterized by urogenital abnormalities (WAGR, Denys-Drash and Frasier syndromes). We report 17 years follow-up of a 29 year-old phenotypic female with 46,XY karyotype, gonadal dysgenesis and nephronophthisis in order to identify possible germline alterations of the WT1 gene. Frasier syndrome was suspected and confirmed by genetic analysis. Sequence analysis permitted the identification of an A40-->G mutation in position +5 in the donor splice site of intron 9. During surgery for streak gonads extirpation, a microscopic gonadoblastoma was found, a typical complication of Frasier syndrome.