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Sample records for gorges area south

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Bristow, Thomas F.; Wampler, J. M.; Środoń, Jan; Marynowski, Leszek; Elliott, W. Crawford; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2013-04-01

    The geochemical and fossil record preserved in the Ediacaran age (635-551 Ma) Doushantuo Formation of South China has been extensively examined to explore the impact of changing climate and the oxidation state of the oceans on the development and distribution of early multicellular life. In the Yangtze Gorges area, this formation shows many of the geochemical trends and features thought to typify global ocean chemistry in the Ediacaran Period, but there are indications that post-sedimentary processes modified these signals. This study of clay minerals and organic matter builds a more detailed picture of the type and degree of post-sedimentary alteration at different stratigraphic levels of the formation and focuses on how this alteration influenced stable carbon and oxygen isotope records. In the cratonward Jiulongwan and Huajipo sections of the Doushantuo Formation, its lower part (Members 1 and 2) consists largely of dolomitic shale, rich in authigenic saponite that crystallized in an alkaline sedimentary basin. Saponite has been altered to chlorite via corrensite across tens of meters of strata in lower Member 2, with increased alteration downward toward the cap dolostone. The greater chloritization is accompanied by lower δ18O and higher δD values of trioctahedral clays. This pattern of alteration of trioctahedral clays is likely due to hydrothermal fluid activity in the underlying, relatively permeable Nantuo Formation and cap dolostone. A concomitant increase of solid bitumen reflectance toward the base of the formation supports this idea. In the uppermost part of the formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (Member 4), a typical open water marine dolomitic shale rich in illite and organic matter, increases in the methylphenanthrenes ratio index and solid bitumen reflectance correlate with decrease of the bulk rock K/Al ratio upward, providing evidence for hot fluid migration above the nearly impermeable shale. Clay from the upper part of the formation is

  2. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacements in the Three Gorges Area, Crustal Tectonic Movement in Tibet and Subsidence in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muller, J.-P.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, D.; Riedel, B.; Niemeier, W.; Liang, C.; Zeng, Q.; Jiao, J.; Ye, Y.; Green, B.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Xiao, R.; He, X.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    During the first half of the DRAGON-3 project, various projects have been running through collaborations between research groups focusing on different geographical studies in the Three Gorges Region (3G), Tibet, Coal Mining areas in West China, Daduhe River and Southeast China. Stimulated by the interest and concerns of demonstrated and potential geo-hazards in the 3G Region, research has been undertaken focusing on deformation monitoring using SAR images with much higher spatial and temporal sampling. The use of different strategies including sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT) have been evaluated in challenging areas with steep slopes and dense vegetative cover. In addition to the development and validation of algorithms to improve previous attempts using InSAR, studies have been conducted on environmental impacts included mapping of subsidence caused by mining activities; assessment of building collapse after earthquakes using polarized SAR; landslide monitoring of a hydraulic engineering resettlement zone using GPS and InSAR, etc.

  3. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacements in the Three Gorges Area, Crustal Tectonic Movement in Tibet and Subsidence in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muller, J.-P.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, D.; Riedel, B.; Niemeier, W.; Liang, C.; Zeng, Q.; Jiao, J.; Ye, Y.; Green, B.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Xiao, R.; He, X.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    During the first half of the DRAGON-3 project, various projects have been running through collaborations between research groups focusing on different geographical studies in the Three Gorges Region (3G), Tibet, Coal Mining areas in West China, Daduhe River and Southeast China.Stimulated by the interest and concerns of demonstrated and potential geo-hazards in the 3G Region, research has been undertaken focusing on deformation monitoring using SAR images with much higher spatial and temporal sampling. The use of different strategies including sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT) have been evaluated in challenging areas with steep slopes and dense vegetative cover.In addition to the development and validation of algorithms to improve previous attempts using InSAR, studies have been conducted on environmental impacts included mapping of subsidence caused by mining activities; assessment of building collapse after earthquakes using polarized SAR; landslide monitoring of a hydraulic engineering resettlement zone using GPS and InSAR, etc.

  4. Microbial mat structures in the basal Ediacaran Doushantuo cap dolostone from the Yangtze Gorges area of South China and their environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, J.; Xiao, S.; Hu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental changes after the terminal Cryogenian snowball Earth event have been debated extensively in the literature. But there have been relatively few studies on the biotic response in the aftermath of this snowball Earth event. In fact, a variety of potential microbial facies are preserved in basal Ediacaran cap dolostones as peloids, clotted fabrics, and morphologically diverse microbialites (e. g., tube-like stromatolites and stratiform biolaminites). In South China, centimeter-sized domal and conical stromatolites consisting of wavy or wrinkled microbial mats occur at the top of the Doushantuo cap dolostone. Sedimentological investigation of these stromatolites on outcrop and in core samples from the Yangtze Gorges area suggests that they are likely biological in origin. These stromatolites are characterized by vertical accumulation of dark and light laminae. The dark laminae are sub-millimetric in thickness and are composed of probably biogenic kerogen as determined by Raman spectroscopy. The dark laminae is also rich in pyrite, likely derived from organic degradation by sulfate reduction bacteria. Microsparry calcite occur as cements between the dark laminae. Within the Doushantuo stromatolites, there are patches of randomly oriented calcite needles. The precipitation of these calcite needles may have also been facilitated by microbial processes such bacterial sulfate reduction. Our study shows that shallow marine environment became habitable soon after the snowball Earth glaciation ended and benthic microbes were among some of the first organisms to colonize these environments.

  5. 8. INTERIOR GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING SOUTH AT UNITS 23, 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING SOUTH AT UNITS 23, 22, AND 21 FROM THE TOP OF UNIT 24. THE SHAW BRIDGE CRANE IS AT THE TOP REAR OF THE POWERHOUSE. THE UPPER SET OF WINDOWS TO THE LEFT ARE FOR THE VISITORS' GALLERY; THE LOWER SET ARE THE POWERHOUSE CONTROL ROOM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  6. 22. TURBINE PIT AREA GORGE POWERHOUSE SHOWING RELIEF VALVE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TURBINE PIT AREA GORGE POWERHOUSE SHOWING RELIEF VALVE FOR UNIT 23 IN FOREGROUND AND GOVERNOR OIL TANKS AND PUMPS IN THE LEFT REAR, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. Regional Impact of Climate on Japanese Encephalitis in Areas Located near the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Deqiang; Luo, Chao; He, Yuanyuan; Liang, Guodong; Lu, Bo; Bisesi, Michael S.; Sun, Qinghua; Xu, Xinyi; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. Methods We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic factors of the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus for both the whole study area and for each individual region; linear regression models were conducted to examine the fluctuation of climatic variables over time during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Results Between 1997 and 2008, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis decreased throughout the entire city of Chongqing, with noticeable variations taking place in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The eastern region, which is closest to the Three Gorges Dam, suffered the highest incidence of Japanese encephalitis, while the western region experienced the lowest incidence. Linear regression models revealed that there were seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models indicated a significant positive association between temperature (with a lag of 1 and 3 months) and Japanese encephalitis incidence, and a significant negative association between rainfall (with a lag of 0 and 4 months) and Japanese encephalitis incidence. Conclusion The spatial and temporal trends of Japanese encephalitis incidence that occurred in the City of Chongqing were associated with temperature and rainfall. Seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period were also observed. Additional studies that focus on long-term data collection are needed to validate the findings of this study and to further explore the effects of the Three Gorges Dam on Japanese encephalitis and other related

  8. YANGTZE project: Investigation of mass movements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (P. R. China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Dominik; Rohn, Joachim; Wiedenmann, Johannes; Rudolph, René; Otte, Karel; Ernstberger, Stefanie; Eckstein, Susan; Dumperth, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Within the German YANGTZE Project, mass movement hazard is investigated for the Xiangxi Catchment which is part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (P. R. China). The objective of our sub-project is to investigate the impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir on slope stability and (re-)activation of mass movements. Within this paper first results of investigations on mass movements in the Xiangxi Catchment that were started in summer 2008 are presented. They show a significant correlation between mass movement distribution and activity on the one hand and lithology and altitude on the other hand. In Xiangxi Catchment, correlation between geology and occurrence of mass movements can be studied ideally as most of the geological formations outcropping in the reservoir area can be found there. Furthermore, the mouth of Xiangxi River is quite close to the Three Gorges Dam so that the impact of the impoundment is distinctive in the Xiangxi Catchment. In 2008 and 2009, about 70 km² were mapped geotechnically. The mapping was done for (a) the backwater area of Xiangxi River influenced by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (from Yangtze River to Gaoyang Town), (b) Quyuan Valley as a sub-catchment of Xiangxi Catchment, and (c) along the main roads from Gaoyang Town towards Gufu City and towards Shennongjia Nature Reserve. The investigated area comprises marine and continental sedimentary layers from Cambrian to Jurassic Period. The lithology of these layers is dominated by carbonates (limestone, dolostone and marlstone) on the one hand and clastic sediments (shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate) on the other hand. A total of 180 mass movements was found and mapped. Mainly rotational or combined rotational-translational landslides, but also some rockslides and rockfalls were found. As expected, a strong correlation between lithology on the one side and occurrence and activity of mass movements on the other side could be found. In the study area, Jurassic

  9. The Empirical Study on the Labor Export of Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bangyong

    There are many large surplus labor force in the three gorges reservoir area, export of labor services is one way to tackle the problem of employment of the surplus-labor and increase farmers income, export of labor is also a effective way to solve three rural issues. This paper analyzes the need for the development of service economy, study the problems of export of labor services, at last the author give some suggestion to develop labor economy.

  10. Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area Using Multi-Frequency Insar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Balz, T.; Tantianuparp, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a term describing the downslope movement of soil, rock, and organic materials under the effects of gravity. Landslides are very destructive forces. In order to decrease landslide occurrences and its impacts, landslide monitoring is applied to analyze, forecast, and control landslides. The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, began to function in 2003. The dam site is situated at Sandouping in China's Hubei Province. The reservoir has a length of approximately 600 km along the Yangtze River. In 2001, in a statistical survey, carried out by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, landslides were observed in all counties surrounding the Three Gorges reservoir and nearly 2500 landslide bodies were observed. There are many landslide triggering factors in this area, for example the dam was built on a geologically unstable zone, the large surface-water level change, the construction of new buildings and roads, deforestation, etc. The potential landslide hazards are threatening the lives of millions of residents in the area. The Three Gorges area has a rough topography and is heavily vegetated. In an effort to reduce the landslide risks, advanced monitoring techniques and methods, such as a GPS network and other terrestrial surveillance technologies, are used in the area. Although these techniques can acquire highly accurate results, their results are only available over sparse measurement points and it they requires high costs for manpower and rather high costs for the instrument manipulation. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), an active microwave imaging system, suffers from temporal decorrelation when monitoring heavily vegetated area as the Three Gorges. In order to analysis long-term and continuous displacement trend in this area, Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are applied. Both techniques are able to detect surface motions. We use high resolution TerraSAR-X X

  11. Assessing Collembola biodiversity under human influence at Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wang, Tianle; Luo, Yongzheng; Chen, Shi; Kim, Ke Chung

    2013-04-01

    In this study we comprehensively assessed Collembola biodiversity at Three Gorges Area, one of most diverse habitat regions in China. In total, 3,796 Collembola specimens comprising 9 families, 45 genera, and 103 species (including 14 new species and new records in China) were collected from three primary sampling areas: one nature reserve and two rural and urban areas representing different degrees of human influence. Each sampling area was further divided into nine sampling sites associated with different habitats and altitudes. Analyses of biodiversity data showed that individual abundance was highest in the nature reserve followed by mildly human influenced areas, and then highly influenced areas, and species richness was lowest in highly influenced areas. Hence, we suggest Collembola biodiversity is systematically lost after urbanization. In the nature reserve, altitude significantly influenced both the species richness and individual abundance, whereas in rural and urban areas, both altitude and the human-altered environmental gradient were influential. We also measured sampling efficiency and estimated potential species richness in these areas. This study serves as both a fundamental survey of Collembola biodiversity, as well as an assessment of human/environmental influence on the Collembola community, and can provide further insight into protecting the soil integrity of the Three Gorges Area.

  12. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  13. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  14. Susceptibility analysis for landslides in the Xiangxi catchment (Three Gorges Reservoir area / China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohn, J.; Ehret, D.; Xiang, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Xiangxi River is a tributary of the Yangtze River. In 2009 the Three Gorges Reservoir will reach its final retention water elevation level (175 m asl). Parts of the Xiangxi valley will then flooded. Especially Jurassic sedimentary layers are predestined for intense landslides in this area. As a first step a landslide inventory map is produced. All slopes influenced directly by impoundment are mapped geotechnically in detail to assess the spatial distribution of the landslides and their shape. Furthermore, two sub-catchments in the wide-stretched catchment area of the Xiangxi River were chosen for intense investigation. All in all, about 200 km2will finally be mapped geotechnically in detail to provide data for continuative investigations. The investigation fields are divided into test and training areas for further analysis using the neural networks method. By this means the susceptibility for landslides in dependency of different features, like lithology, slope angle, exposition, distance to the river, etc will be analysed. In a second step the results of the neural network analysis will be the base of a more regional landslide susceptibility analysis for the whole catchment area of the Xiangxi River. The performance of the method will be tested by additional inspections in areas that have been found to have a high susceptibility for landslides. These works are part of the joint research project "Yangtze: land use change - erosion - landslides" financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Joint aim of this project is to produce a landslide and erosion risk map for the whole region and to analyse the land use change caused by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam in this area.

  15. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  16. Multi-Orbit Ps-Insar for Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.; Shi, X.; Tantianuparp, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, became operational in 2003. The construction and operation of the dam significantly increased the number of active landslide bodies in the reservoir area. The reservoir area is huge, with approximately 600 km length along the Yangtze River starting from the dam at Sandouping in China's Hubei province. The dam itself was built on a rather geologically unstable zone, causing many concerns before, during, and after construction. Landslides are activated by the large surface-water level changes in each store-and-release cycle, but also by the construction of new buildings and roads and the deforestation in the area. Landslides are a huge safety concern in the area. To reduce the risks, various methods are applied in the area, such as a GPS networks and terrestrial surveillance. However, this sparse point information cannot cover the vast reservoir area. Furthermore, the area is densely vegetated and has a rough topography with steep mountainsides. Vast areas are practically inaccessible for terrestrial surveillance, due to the difficult terrain. Such a vast and inaccessible area is best to be surveyed using remote sensing techniques. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends using Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI). However, the steep mountainside and the dense vegetation are also hindering the use of interferometric SAR techniques. The very dense vegetation causes a strong temporal decorrelation of the interferometric signal in the area. This especially affects shorter wavelength systems, like the X-band systems of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed, but also the C-band systems. The longer wavelength L-band of ALOS PALSAR was less affected by the temporal decorrelation in the area, but unfortunately PALSAR is not operational anymore. The steep mountainsides also cause problems in the analysis of the

  17. [Seasonal variation of phosphorus in Xiaojiang backwater area, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Li, Zhe; Tian, Guang; Guo, Jing-song; Zhang, Chao

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorus is regarded as the limiting factor for eutrophication in backwater areas of tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, distinct seasonal variation patterns and potential ecological impacts of phosphorus are apparent due to the ultimate hydrodynamic condition in the site. Seasonal variation of different forms of phosphorus in Xiaojiang backwater area (XBA) in Three Gorges Reservoir from Mar. 2007 to Mar. 2008 was reported. It was found that average concentration of total phosphorus (TP) was (61.7 +/- 2.7) microg x L(-1). No remarkable difference was found among sampling sites, while significant variation among seasons were detected. Generally, TP was high in summer and winter while low in autumn. Particulate phosphorus (PP) was the major forms of phosphorus in XBA. The co-analysis among phosphorus and key environmental variables, i.e., chlorophyll, inorganic/organic particles, flows and water levels in river estuary, indicate that inorganic forms of PP should dominate in PP, and might transfer into the water body by rainfall and river flows, resulting in the increase of TP in XBA. This phenomenon was more significant when TGR was set at low water level. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had a significantly negative correlation with chlorophyll a, indicating the evident assimilation process of phosphorus by algae. It was inferred that heavy rainfall and increased river flow shortened the water renewal cycle and brought in amounts of suspended sediments that increased the light attenuation underwater. With the frequent flood impulse, phytoplankton community should suffered the instable living environment that decreased the concentration level of chlorophyll a in XBA. This might be the potential reason for the negative correlation between TP and chlorophyll a.

  18. Chemical quality of surface water in the Flaming Gorge Reservoir area, Wyoming and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, R.J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1973-01-01

    Construction of Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation started in 1959, and storage began in November 1962. A reconnaissance study was made during the period 1966-68 to determine the effects of the reservoir on the chemical quality of the effluent water and to describe the quality of the impounded water and inflowing water. The major inflow to the reservoir is from the Green River, which contributes an average of 81 percent of the water and 59 percent of the inflow load of dissolved solids. Together, Blacks Fork and Henrys Fork contribute an average of about 16 percent of the water and about 23 percent of the dissolved-solids load, whereas minor tributaries contribute approximately 3 percent of the total inflow water to the reservoir, but about 18 percent of the total incoming load of dissolved solids. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir in October 1966 was about 150 mg/l (milligrams per liter) greater than the concentration of the 1962-66 inflow and in September 1968 about 95 mg/l greater than the concentration of the 1962-68 inflow. The increased concentration is due. mostly to leaching of minerals from the reservoir bottom. For the 1963-68 water years, about 1.2 million tons of dissolved solids was leached from inundated areas. The major observable difference between the chemical composition of the inflow during 1963-66 and that of the reservoir in 1966 is an increase in the percentage of sulfate and a decrease in the percentage of bicarbonate. Impoundment of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir during the 1963-68 water years caused the concentration of dissolved solids in the river system to increase by 130 mg/l, or about 32 percent over what would have occurred without the reservoir. Evaporation accounted for an increase of 15 mg/l, and leaching accounted for an increase of 115 mg/l.

  19. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA.

  20. Research on the design of a buffer strip for nonpoint source pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2015-12-01

    Following the implementation of the Three Gorges Dam Project, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has become a serious problem in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). An urgent need exists to build buffer strips along the TGR to improve water quality. However, to design the optimal buffer strip for NPS pollution control is challenging because of spatial variations in topography, hydrology, slope and drainage patterns in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). This research focus on (1) plan the placement of buffer strip in the TGRA for water quality benefits using terrain analysis. (2) estimate suitable widths of buffer strip for different objectives of water quality protection to reflect regional variations in physical conditions. Terrain analysis can provide assessments for placement of conservation practices. There are some ineffective areas where the performance of conservation practices is minimal at watershed scale. The results showed that with increased conservation objectives, greater widths are required to ensure NPS pollutant removal and improvements in water quality. The widths of the modelling buffer vary significantly in spatial with variation in pollutant concentration, slope and soil conditions. It is necessary to install buffer strip along the tributary streams for NPS pollution control and water quality protection at the watershed scale.

  1. [Water storage characteristics of ground covers under three forests in Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinhua; Zhang, Hongjiang; Shi, Yuhu; Cheng, Yun; Qi, Shenglin; He, Fan; Pan, Lei

    2003-11-01

    Through water holding experiments and the survey of ground covers under three forests (mixed forest of Quercus variabilis and Pinus massoniana, pure Quercus variabilis forest and pure Pinus massoniana forest) in Three Gorges Area, the hydrological characteristic parameters, e.g., maximum water holding capacity and water absorption speed, were measured. The results showed that the maximum water holding capacity of moss under pure Quercus variabilis forest is the highest (303.1% of its dry weight), that under mixed forest of Quercus variabilis and Pinus massoniana was 283.8%, and that under pure Pinus massoniana forest was 242.3%. The maximum water holding capacity of litter under mixed forest stand of Quercus variabils and Pinus massoniana was 282.2% of its dry weight, that under pure Quercus variabilis forest is 262.5%, that under pure Pinus massoniana forest was 239.3%. The equation between water absorption speed of ground cover and its immersed period could be S = kt(n). The results also showed that when the forests were all in mid-age, the water holding ability of the mosses was higher than that of the litters under the same forest. The ground cover's variation with its immersed period had no relation to forest types.

  2. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity.

  3. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  4. [Research progress on remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China].

    PubMed

    Teng, Ming-jun; Zeng, Li-xiong; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Huang, Zhi-lin; Wang, Peng-cheng; Dian, Yuan-yong

    2014-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGR area) , one of the most sensitive ecological zones in China, has dramatically changes in ecosystem configurations and services driven by the Three Gorges Engineering Project and its related human activities. Thus, understanding the dynamics of ecosystem configurations, ecological processes and ecosystem services is an attractive and critical issue to promote regional ecological security of the TGR area. The remote sensing of environment is a promising approach to the target and is thus increasingly applied to and ecosystem dynamics of the TGR area on mid- and macro-scales. However, current researches often showed controversial results in ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area due to the differences in remote sensing data, scale, and land-use/cover classification. Due to the complexity of ecological configurations and human activities, challenges still exist in the remote-sensing based research of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The status, challenges and trends of ecological and environmental remote-sensing in the TGR area were further discussed and concluded in the aspect of land-use/land-cover, vegetation dynamics, soil and water security, ecosystem services, ecosystem health and its management. The further researches on the remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes were proposed to improve the ecosystem management of the TGR area.

  5. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  6. Design of monitoring and early warning system for geo-hazards in Three Gorges reservoir area using infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, N.; Zeng, Z. X.; Yang, Y. C.

    2009-04-01

    With the progress of the Three Gorges Dam Project, geological disasters have become increasingly prominent. The reservoir area prone to landslides, collapses, cracks, and earthquake disaster because the complex terrain and geological conditions. It is of significance to monitor and foresee geo-hazards in the reservoir area. Here we introduce our design of monitoring and early warning system for geo-hazards in Three Gorges reservoir area using infrasound. Infrasound may be abnormal during geological disasters, such as debris and earthquake occurred. The formation a d movement of debris flow in its basin will generate infrasound, and spread to the surrounding air medium. Velocity of infrasound is much larger than that of debris flow, so we can monitor and forecast debris flow using infrasound. The sudden vertical displacement brought about by earthquake will generate acoustic-gravity wave which can be observed in distance to monitor earthquake, especially to monitor earthquake precursors. So we try to monitor the geological disasters for the Three Gorges reservoir area in China by design a infrasound array monitor system. This work is supported by Chinese "985 Project". The infrasound monitor system is comprised of two observation stations arranged in Badong county inside the reservoir area and in Wuhan city, respectively. Each station has respectively arranged a kind of augmentable linear array in the form of quasi-uniform linear array and additional amending direction sensors. The linear array comprises eight sensors arranged in several different uniform intervals along a line. The amending direction sensor is situated at certain point in mid-perpendicular of linear array in order to reduce multiplicity in determine the direction of arrival. The sensors used in the system are CDC-2B capacitances infrasonic receiver which can observe frequency ranging 0~20Hz. The, measurement resolution is 750mV/LPa. Infrasonic wave signal collected by sensor is transferred from

  7. [Spatio-temporal changes of nitrogen balance in 1980-2005 for agricultural land in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-bao; Yang, Gui-shan; Li, Heng-peng

    2009-08-15

    Based on the long-term agricultural statistics data at the county scale, the estimation of nitrogen balance from 1980 to 2005 for agricultural land in Three Gorges Reservoir Area was made by the OECD soil surface nitrogen balance model with some suitable modification. The spatio-temporal changes of nitrogen balance and its drivers were analyzed. The results showed that the total inputs and total surplus of nitrogen from 1980 to 2005 presented increasing trends continuously, from 23.4 x 10(4) t and 14.4 x 104 t to 45.6 x 10(4) t and 30 x 10(4) t respectively. The total output of nitrogen in 1980-1995 was at the increasing trend, from 9.0 x 10(4) t to 16.7 x 10(4) t, while that of 1996-2005 was keeping steady. The average unit surplus of nitrogen in 1980-1998 was also at the increasing trend, from 133.4 kg/hm2 to 310.3 kg/hm(2); and the trend inclined to be steady after 1998, while the spatial differential pattern toned up. The great spatial changes for nitrogen surplus from 1980 to 2005, mainly centralized at the head and the middle of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, similar to the spatial distribution of the resettlement. Fertilizer, manure and biological fixation were the main contributors of nitrogen input sources, accumulatively totaled for above 90%. Nitrogen balance changes were mainly influenced by the macro-environment of fertilizer utilization before 1995, while which were influenced by the large amounts of the resettlement for Three Gorges Project after 1995. However, how much the effects of the resettlement on nitrogen balance need to be further explored. Developing sideline, agricultural structure transition or ecological resettlement should be considered to control nitrogen emission.

  8. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guozhu

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream. PMID:27391057

  9. The German-Chinese research collaboration YANGTZE-GEO: Assessing the geo-risks in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, S.; Behrens, T.; Bieger, K.; Ehret, D.; Frei, M.; Hörmann, G.; Seeber, C.; Schleier, M.; Schmalz, B.; Fohrer, N.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2012-04-01

    The river impoundment by The Three Gorges Dam leads to resettlement and land reclamation on steep slopes. As a consequence, ecosystem changes such as soil erosion, mass movements, and diffuse sediment and matter fluxes are widely expected to increase rapidly. In order to assess and analyse those ecosystem changes, the German-Chinese joint research project YANGTZE-GEO was set up in 2008. Within the framework of YANGTZE-GEO five German universities (Tuebingen, Erlangen, Giessen, Kiel, Potsdam) conducted studies on soil erosion, mass movements, diffuse matter inputs, and land use change and vulnerability in close collaboration with Chinese scientists. The Chinese partners and institutions are according to their alphabetic order of hometown the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES; Beijing), the Standing Office of the State Council Three Gorges Project Construction Committee (Beijing), the National Climate Centre (NCC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA; Beijing), the Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources (AES; Beijing), the Nanjing University, the CAS Institute of Soil Science (Nanjing), the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology at CAS (NIGLAS; Nanjing), the China University of Geosciences (CUG; Wuhan), the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (Wuhan), and the China Three Gorges University (Yichang). The overall aim of YANGTZE-GEO is the development of a risk assessment and forecasting system to locate high risk areas using GIS-based erosion modelling, data mining tools for terrace condition analysis and landslide recognition, eco-hydrological modelling for diffuse matter inputs, and state-of-the-art remote sensing to assess the landscape's vulnerability. Furthermore, the project aims at the recommendation of sustainable land management systems. YANGTZE-GEO showed the relevance of such research and crucially contributes to the understanding of the dimension and dynamics of the ecological consequences of

  10. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  11. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p < 0.05) during calibration and underpredicted by 6.7% with R2 of 0.90 (p < 0.05) during validation. But sediment loading was able to produce a moderate result. The model underpredicted the event-based sediment loading by 15.1% with R2 of 0.63 (p < 0.05) during calibration and 26.7% with R2 of 0.59 (p < 0.05) during validation. For the events of small magnitude, the model generally overpredicted sediment loading, while the opposite was true for larger events. Nitrogen loading prediction was slightly better with R2 = 0.68 (p < 0.05), and phosphorus loading performance was slightly poor with R2 = 0.65 (p < 0.05). In general, the model performs well in simulating runoff compare to sediment loading and nutrient loadings, and as a watershed management tools it can be used for Three Gorges Reservoir area conditions that with mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  12. [Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in Xiaojiang backwater area during the preliminary operation stage of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-song; Sheng, Jin-ping; Li, Zhe; Gao, Xu; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Hong

    2010-07-01

    According to one year's continuous observation on algae in the Xiaojiang backwater area in Three Gorges Reservoir, our group analyzed algae community and its succession in the Xiaojiang backwater area at the beginning of the function of the reservoir. The algae cell density and biomass are the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The maximal value of cell density is 421.64 x 10(3) cells x L(-1), and the minimal value is 2.06 x 10(5) cells x L(-1); and maximal value of biomass is 39,231.84 microg x L(-1), and the minimal value is 226.17 microg x L(-1). From May 2007 to May 2008, there are 7 phylum, 101 category, 262 genus appeared in the Xiaojiang backwater area, in which 51 categories are Chlorophyta accounting for 50.5%, 22 categories are Bacillariophyta accounting for 21.8%, 18 categories are Cyanophyta accounting for 17.8%, and 4 categories are Dinophyta, 2 categories are Cryptophyta, 3 categories are Euglenophyta, 1 category is Xanthophyta and others. Cryptomonas, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Oocystis, Chlamydomonas, Schroederia, Aulacoseira, Stephanodiscus and Fragilaria are familiar categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. Asterionnella, Aulacoseira, Coelastrunm, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Aclinastnrum, Dictyosphaerium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Merismopedia, Ceratium, Peridinium and Cryptomonas are the preponderant categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area.

  13. [Temporal variation of trophic status in drawdown area of Hanfeng Lake in the storage period of Three Gorges Reservoir in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; He, Bing-Hui; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Yu-Fei

    2015-03-01

    In order to explore the temporal variations of nutrient and biomass in drawdown area of Hanfeng Lake of the Three Gorges Reservoir region, this paper continuously observed the water quality in the storage period of 2013 October to 2014 February. And the concentrations of nutrients, water physical parameters and chlorophyll were determined. The results showed that the concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll increased, and the nutrition degree increased after the flooding. The concentrations of TN, TP, permanganate index and Chl-a in water in February 2014 were 4.7 times, 1.0 time, 0.2 times and 3.27 times the amount in October 2013. It should be noticed that the concentrations of TN and TP were above the algae growth limit value, which would be easy to cause water eutrophication with prolonged residence time. The single-factor evaluation of Chl-a reflected that the water quality was changed from poor nutrient to eutrophic. The results of N/P showed that TN in Han Feng Lake was a factor limiting the growth of algae in different period. In October to December 2013 and February 2014, TN limited the growth of algae. In January 2014, TP limited the growth of algae. The Chl-a had a significant positive correlation to pH, DO, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N, TN, permanganate index and TP, but significant negative correlations were observed with SD and TEMP. The water quality was influenced by the same source of pollution during the storage period. The result of factor analysis showed that the water quality in riparian zone of Hanfeng Lake was mainly affected by pH, DO, NO3(-)-N, TN, while Chl-a, TP, NH4(+) -N and aerobic organics pollution could not be ignored. The water had self-purification capacity in the early phase of the storage period, the eutrophication aggravated with the increase of retention time, and it should be controlled. During the storage period of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the nutrition levels of south river and east river were relatively high, and the

  14. High-resolution Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp and Qs models in the Three Gorges reservoir area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Zhao, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in Hubei province in the central China over the Yangtze River, is the world's largest capacity hydroelectric power station with a total generating capacity of 18,200 MW. Since the water impounding in June of 2003, more than thousands of small earthquakes have occurred around the area. For the purpose of investigating the influence of the reservoir impounding on the structure of the reservoir area, we obtained high-resolution 3-D Vp, Vp/Vs ratio, as well as the 3-D attenuation structure of Qp and Qs tomography images. The database of this study is composed of 4967 events recorded on 50 permanent and temporary seismometers, over the period from March, 2009 to June, 2010. After data selection on the basis of spatial distribution and quality, we used the following data sets: 1685 events and 27457 picks for Vp inversion, 1689 events and 27524 picks for Vp/Vs inversion, 2598 events and 24685 t* measurements for the Qp inversion, and 3921 events and 33579 t* measurements for the Qs inversion, respectively. The tomographic resolution was evaluated by restoring tests and the spreading values tests. The preliminary 3-D Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp and Qs results at depths of 0~10 km show significant heterogeneity in the Three Gorges reservoir area, suggesting the complexity of the media in the area. Remarkably low-Vp, high-Vp/Vs, low-Qp and low-Qs anomalies are observed at shallow depths along main rivers, indicating obvious influence on the media structure associated with fluid infiltration. The results of velocity and attenuation tomography indicate that the infiltrating depth of water may reach about 6 km under the convergence of the Yangtze, Xiangxi , Jiuwanxi, and Yandu Rivers, and the depth is about 2 km under Badong region in the upstream of the Yangtze River. In the dam area, there are prominently high-Vp, low-Vp/Vs, and high-Q, suggesting that the fluid infiltration has little influence on the dam. This research is supported by National Key Technology

  15. Rainfall-Runoff and Erosion Data from the Mancos Shale Formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, Southwestern Colorado, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Herring, James R.; Ingersoll, George P.; Kosovich, John J.; Fahy, Juli

    2008-01-01

    Data were collected and experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, to support research into understanding processes that liberate, disperse, and concentrate erosion byproducts in Mancos Shale landscapes. The study area was the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area near Montrose and Delta, Colorado. This report includes data collected from 24, small-plot, rainfall-runoff simulations, 6 hillslope-erosion monitoring plots, 20 hillslope-creep monitoring sites, and 3 precipitation gages. Small-plot rainfall-runoff simulations were performed on paired (undisturbed and disturbed) plots to examine the effect of off-highway vehicle use on runoff and erosion. These data were collected in conjunction with several other studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area. Data collected in companion studies are published in separate open-file reports.

  16. Monitoring Fast-Moving Landslide in the Three Gorges Area By Offset Tracking Method with High-Resolution SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide has long been considered as a major geological hazard with great threats to local residents and social economic developments within the Three Gorges area, China. With the regular operation of Three Gorges Dam since 2009, the reservoir water level undergoes an annual cycle from 145 m in early summer to 175 m in early winter caused by storage and discharge operations. Consequently, many ancient landslides were activated by such large variations of water level. One of typical examples is the famous Shuping landslide located in Zigui County. To reduce the risks of landslide collapse, long-term monitoring of ground surface deformation must be carried out. Terrestrial surveillance like GPS and extensometer have been installed at Shuping in 2003. Although these methods can achieve highly accurate displacement measurements, only sparse points can be observed, which is far from the requirement of monitoring vast reservoir area coverage. For such a vast and inaccessible area, D-InSAR and PS-InSAR can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends. Nevertheless, it has been revealed by several studies that InSAR can hardly retrieve accurate deformation signal on fast-moving landslides such as Shuping. Therefore, we further investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of pixel offset tracking (POT) method to detect fast-moving with high-resolution SAR data. One of the key points is to estimate displacement at each pixel through subpixel-level SAR image matching. In order to tackle the difficulties of using traditional POT technique, the point-like target offset tracking (PTOT) is developed. By making use of point-like targets with stable backscattering behavior over long time span, PTOT method is can achieve more reliable results with accuracies at 1/20 of SAR pixel resolution. More importantly, PTOT method can measure two-dimensional displacements, i.e. in both azimuth and slant range direction, while InSAR can measure displacement only along the line

  17. An Allocation of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources to Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Milici, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River in West Virginia. Using the results of an assessment of undiscovered resources from ten assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas, 1.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 45 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to part of Gauley River National Recreation Area, and 39 billion cubic feet of gas, 24 thousand barrels of oil, and 644 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to New River Gorge National River. These allocated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in undiscovered fields.

  18. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  19. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  20. [Reduction effects of agricultural management practices on non-point source pollution in a watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Lin; Tian, Yao-Wu; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Liu, Zhi-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Taking a typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) as test object, the AnnAGNPS model was used to evaluate the reduction effects of different cropping, different fertilization level, conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP), and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP) on the output of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPS) in the watershed. The simulation results showed that different cropping had no significant difference in the effect of reducing sediment yield, but had significant difference in the effect of reducing phosphorus output. Fertilization level had significant effects on the outputs of total nitrogen and total phosphorus. CTP decreased the sediment yield significantly but increased the nutrient output. CRP reduced sediment yield, but had less effect in reducing nutrient output. CCFP reduced both sediment yield and nutrient output significantly. After the implementation of CCFP, the sediment yield output on the croplands with a slope greater than 10 degrees was less than 5 t x hm(-2) and the nutrient output was within the permissible limit.

  1. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  2. The stepwise increase of continental weathering in the Ediacaran and early Cambrian: evidenced from radiogenic Sr isotope excursion in the strata at Three Gorges, South China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaki, Y.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Ediacaran to Cambrian period records one of the most dramatic biological episodes in Earth's history. The weathering influx from continents is thought to be a major influence on the change in composition of ancient seawater and on biological evolution. Its flux can be constrained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ancient carbonate rocks. However, the scarcity of well-preserved outcrops of Ediacaran rocks still leaves ambiguity in decoding ambient surface environmental changes and biological evolution. The Ediacaran strata in South China are almost continuously exposed, comprise mainly carbonate rocks with subordinate black shales, and contain many fossils. Therefore, they are suitable for study of a link between environmental and biological changes in the Ediacaran. We conducted on-land drilling from Liantuo, via Nantuo, Doushantuo, Dengying and Yanjiahe to Shuijingtuo formations at four sites in the Three Gorges area to obtain continuous, fresh samples. We analyzed radiogenic Sr isotope of the fresh carbonate rocks with a MC-ICP-MS at Kyoto University. The 87Sr/86Sr excursion preserved in the drilled samples displays a smooth curve and three large positive shifts in the Ediacaran. The first large positive excursion occurred together with negative δ13C and positive δ18O excursions. We interpret that global regression due to global cooling enhanced the oxidative decay of exposed marine organic sediments and continental weathering. The second large positive shift of 87Sr/86Sr firstly accompanied a positive δ13C excursion, and continued through the Shuram negative δ13C excursion. The higher 87Sr/86Sr values are the first compelling evidence for enhanced continental weathering in the Ediacaran, which was responsible for the large δ13C anomaly through the re-mineralization of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir by more active sulfate reduction due to a higher sulfate influx. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios display a large positive anomaly just below the PC/C boundary

  3. Flexibility of active-site gorge aromatic residues and non-gorge aromatic residues in acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an unusually large number of aromatic residues in the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has been a topic of great interest. Flexibility of these residues has been suspected to be a key player in controlling ligand traversal in the gorge. This raises the question of whether the over representation of aromatic residues in the gorge implies higher than normal flexibility of those residues. The current study suggests that it does not. Large changes in the hydrophobic cross sectional area due to dihedral oscillations are probably the reason behind their presence in the gorge.

  4. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  5. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  6. [Effects of Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment on the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake, South-central China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Bao; Dai, Yong; Yin, Ri-Xin; Yang, Yan; Li, Yu-dan; Wang, Ke-ying

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field investigation and measurement, and by using the monetary method, this paper estimated the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake before and after the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir (in 1996 and 2010, respectively). After the impoundment, the total ecosystem service value increased from 156.69x10(8) yuan in 1996 to 177.11x10(8) yuan in 2010. The main services value in 1996 was in the order of flood storage and regulation > water storage and supply > air regulation > scientific research and education, while that in 2010 was leisure tourism > shipping transportation > air regulation > water storage and supply. In the total service value of the wetland ecosystem, the direct value associated with water decreased from 110. 85x10(8) in 1996 to 27.47x10(8) in 2010, with a decrement of 75.2%. Though the proportion of the direct value in the production and supply of material products had somewhat increase, the indirect value in ecological environment regulation and maintenance and in culture and society still maintained at about 80% of the total value. In addition to climate factors, the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir and the reduction of water and sediment from Yangtze River to the Lake were the crucial reasons leading to the changes of the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake.

  7. [Landscape pattern change and its simulation forecast in Zigui County of Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ji-Hong; Fan, Wen-Yi; Bao, Chen-Guang

    2009-02-01

    Based on the TM images of 1987 and 2002, the landscape pattern change of Zigui County from 1987 to 2002 was analyzed by using landscape index method; and the simulation forecast of this change in next 50 years was conducted by using Markov model. The results showed that in 1987-2002, the landscape pattern of Zigui County changed dramatically. The area of sparse wood land increased greatly while that of upland and shrub land decreased obviously, and the distribution of the areas of different landscape types tended to balance. The average shape index of landscape had an overall decline, which was represented by the concentrated and connected distribution of different landscape types, simplification of landscape shape, and obvious human interference. As a whole, the landscape diversity and fragmentation in Zigui County were improved to some extent. In next 50 years, the area of sparse wood land in Zigui would have a rapid increase, followed by that of forestland, while the areas of upland and shrub land would be declining, and the other landscape types would have a less fluctuation in their areas. The main driving forces of the landscape pattern change in Zigui were the relocation of the County and the implementation of forestry policies.

  8. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  9. [Characteristics of nitrogen cycling in farm systems in a small watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Feng, Ming-lei; Hu, Rong-gui; Liu, Ren-yan; Wei, Mou-yong; Jiang, Cheng

    2010-03-01

    In China, the agricultural activities are often carried out by single family, and the balance of nitrogen in every farm may have great effect on agricultural production and environment. A farm survey was carried out on the amounts of chemical fertilizers consumed, the amounts of food and feed purchased, and the livestock manures used in Zhangjiachong watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir Area for each farmer. According to the characteristics of nitrogen flow, farms in this watershed could be divided into 5 types: breeding specialized farms, orange-growing farms, tea-growing farms, vegetable-growing farms and traditional farms. Differences in environmental nitrogen load were observed among the five farm types in the following order: breeding specialized farms > vegetable-growing farms > orange-growing farms > tea-growing farms approximately = traditional farms, being (363 +/- 129), (355 +/- 127), (345 +/- 107), (152 +/- 60) and (151 +/- 73) kg x (hm2 x a)(-1) respectively by nitrogen. Nitrogen cycle for different farm fields showed that field surplus nitrogen ranged from (102 +/- 68) to (303 +/- 134) kg x (hm2 x a)(-1) among different farms. Among the five farm types, the field surplus nitrogen followed the order of vegetable-growing farms > citrus-growing farms > tea-growing farms > breeding specialized farms approximately = traditional farms, being (303 +/- 134), (262 +/- 100), (111 +/- 46), (102 +/- 68) and (103 +/- 67) kg x (hm2 x a)(-1). The nitrogen from farm life activities accounted for 28% of the total N load, while the field surplus nitrogen was 72%. It was estimated that field nitrogen consumption was the predominated nitrogen pollution source in the watershed. However, the farmer's daily life pollution should not to be neglected. Breeding specialized farms, vegetable-growing farms and orange-growing farms were the high potential pollution sources for the water environment in the watershed, and the major attention should be paid to these types of farms

  10. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  13. [Temporal and Spatial Variation of Nutrients and Chlorophyll a, and Their Relationship in Pengxi River Backwater Area, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wei, Jian-jun; Fu, Li; Zhou, Chuan; Haffner, Douglas G

    2015-06-01

    In order to explore the temporal and spatial variation of nutrients and chlorophyll a and their relationship in the Three Gorges Reservoir, nutrients and chlorophyll a were monitored chronically and frequently in Gaoyang Lake in Pengxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir from May 2013 to May 2014. The study showed that the thermal stratification affected the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a and nutrients. The water thermal stratification in Gaoyang Lake occurred in early March and disappeared in the middle of September, and there was no stratification in winter ( November to February of the second year). Chlorophyll a in the surface water increased from 14.92 microg x L(-1) to 183.73 microg x L(-1) and then the chlorophyll a concentration decreased with the increasing depth of the mixing layer ( epilimnion) in the spring of 2014. Furthermore, phosphorus concentration was significantly different among layers when the water stratified and the concentration gradient of TP between the surface and the bottom was (0.18 +/- 0.04) mg x L(-1). When water was not stratified in Gaoyang Lake, the surface, middle and bottom layers had similar concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients, respectively. Nitrate N and dissolved phosphorus were the major components of TN and TP, respectively, during the high water level period in Gaoyang Lake with nitrate N accounting for 71.4%-95.4% of TN and dissolved phosphorus 42.7%-94.% of TP, showing that the backwater from the mainstream of Yangtze was the main source of nitrate N and dissolved phosphorus in Gaoyang Lake.

  14. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

    2013-10-01

    Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root

  15. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  16. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  17. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  18. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  19. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (p<<0.05) levels of NO2 with easterly (8.1 ppb) versus westerly (5.7 ppb) wind conditions. This suggests an eastern NOx source - potentially the 550 megawatt Boardman Coal Power Plant 100 km to the east. These measurements in the near-source environment will provide insight into uncertainties in HNO3 formation, regional ammonia levels, and the best strategy for managers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  20. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  1. Diversity and Above-Ground Biomass Patterns of Vascular Flora Induced by Flooding in the Drawdown Area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J.H.Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  2. View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south rond point, and grave area D. Note flagstone path and steps leading to rond point from Chapel. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  3. The Gorge of the Missouri: An Archeological Survey of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    culturally, and traditionally, closely affiliated and often allied with the Ponca. 29 f Traditional and Documentary History Dorsey (1881/82; 1896...from the 1760’s until 1845 when it was finally abandoned for a village near Papillion, Nebraska (Smith 1974). The earliest documentary mention of...their traditional oral history, nor do any of the documentary records place them there. The project area was claimed by them and this claim carried

  4. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-30

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m(-2) (origin) to 69.58 mg m(-2) (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m(-2) day(-1), respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m(-2) day(-1). The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  5. Distribution and health risk assessment of dissolved heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China (section in the main urban area of Chongqing).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Ting-Yong; Zhang, Tao-Tao; Luo, Wei-Jun; Li, Jun-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydropower station ever built in the world. A better understanding of the concentrations of heavy metals in the aquatic environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is crucial for national drinking water security and sustainable ecosystem development. To thoroughly investigate the impact of heavy metals on water quality after the impoundment to the maximum level of 175 m in the TGR, the concentrations of the dissolved heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As) were measured in April and August 2015, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (1) Except Zn and Pb, most of the heavy metal concentrations in the water of the TGR reached the level of the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB3838-2002) I of China, revealing that the water quality of the TGR was good overall. (2) There were significant positive correlations among the concentrations of Cu, As, and Cd, revealing that they may exhibit similar geochemical behaviors. (3) The spatial distribution of the heavy metal concentrations was diverse and complex. The Zn concentration obviously increased in the rainy season from upstream to downstream in the Yangtze River, while the other heavy metals exhibited no significant changes in their concentrations. The distribution characteristics of the heavy metal concentrations on both sides and the middle of the river were different at different sites. (4) The health risk of the six elements was assessed through a human health risk assessment (HHRA), and the assessment results were lower than the maximum acceptable risk level designed by the US EPA and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The HHRA model in the aquatic environment revealed that the risk of non-carcinogenic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) was at a negligible risk level of 10(-11)∼10(-9) a(-1). At all the study sites, the risk of carcinogenic heavy metals (Cr, Cd, and As) was higher than the risk of non

  6. [Responses of Cynodon dactylon population in hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir area to flooding-drying habitat change].

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Guo, Quan-Shu; Nie, Bi-Hong; Kang, Yi; Pei, Shun-Xiang; Jin, Jiang-Qun; Wang, Xiang-Fu

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the population density, morphological characteristics, and biomass and its allocation of Cynodon dactylon at different altitudinal sections of the hydro-fluctuation belt in Three Gorges Reservoir area, based on located observations. At the three altitudinal sections, the population density of C. dactylon was in the order of shallow water section (165-170 m elevation) > non-flooded section (above 172 m elevation) > deep water section (145-150 m elevation), the root diameter and root length were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section, the total biomass, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, and stem biomass allocation ratio were in the order of the shallow water section > non-flooded section > deep water section, and the root biomass allocation ratio, leaf biomass allocation ratio, and underground biomass/aboveground biomass were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section. The unique adaption strategies of C. dactylon to the flooding-drying habitat change in the shallow water section were the accelerated elongation growth and the increased stem biomass allocation, those in the deep water section were the increased node number of primary and secondary branches, increased number of the branches, and increased leaf biomass allocation, whereas the common strategies in the shallow and deep water sections were the accelerated root growth and the increased tillering and underground biomass allocation for preparing nutrition and energy for the rapid growth in terrestrial environment.

  7. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  8. Bivariate hydrologic risk analysis based on a coupled entropy-copula method for the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. R.; Huang, W. W.; Huang, G. H.; Huang, K.; Li, Y. P.; Kong, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a bivariate hydrologic risk framework is proposed based on a coupled entropy-copula method. In the proposed risk analysis framework, bivariate flood frequency would be analyzed for different flood variable pairs (i.e., flood peak-volume, flood peak-duration, flood volume-duration). The marginal distributions of flood peak, volume, and duration are quantified through both parametric (i.e., gamma, general extreme value (GEV), and lognormal distributions) and nonparametric (i.e., entropy) approaches. The joint probabilities of flood peak-volume, peak-duration, and volume-duration are established through copulas. The bivariate hydrologic risk is then derived based on the joint return period to reflect the interactive effects of flood variables on the final hydrologic risk values. The proposed method is applied to the risk analysis for the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicate the entropy method performs best in quantifying the distribution of flood duration. Bivariate hydrologic risk would then be generated to characterize the impacts of flood volume and duration on the occurrence of a flood. The results suggest that the bivariate risk for flood peak-volume would not decrease significantly for the flood volume less than 1000 m3/s. Moreover, a flood in the Xiangxi River may last at least 5 days without significant decrease of the bivariate risk for flood peak-duration.

  9. Reductions in non-point source pollution through different management practices for an agricultural watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaowu; Huang, Zhilin; Xiao, Wenfa

    2010-01-01

    Non-point source water pollution generated by agricultural production is considered a major environmental issue in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of China. The Annualised Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) model was selected to assess the impact of the application of various management treats, including seven crops, five fertilizer levels and three-group management practice scenarios, on water quality from Heigou River Watershed in TGRA. The scenario subsets include conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP) and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP). Results indicated that tea can not be replaced by other crops because comparatively tea resulted in a higher sediment yield. CTP with no-tillage was more effective to reduce sediment yield, but could increased nutrient loss. CRP reduced sediment yield significantly, but slightly benefited on nutrient loss. CCFP reduced not only sediment yield but also the nutrient loss significantly. The conversion of cropland with a slope greater than 10 degrees into forestland was found to be the best scenario as the sediment yield export is less than 5 tons/ha and nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

  10. [Relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in Pinus massoniana stands with different ages in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Ling-Ling; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-02-01

    Based on the measurements of soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), this paper studied the relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in different age Pinus massoniana stands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Among the test stands, mature stand had the highest contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and available phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer, followed by middle-aged stand, and nearly-mature stand. With the increase of the stand age, soil invertase activity increased after an initial decrease, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase activities decreased gradually, while urease and peroxidase activities decreased after an initial increase. CCA analysis showed that the effects of the main soil parameters on the soil enzyme activities in the stands ranked in the sequence of total nitrogen > organic matter > pH > bulk density > ammonium nitrogen > available phosphorus. Soil invertase activity had significant positive correlations with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, while soil peroxidase activity significantly negatively correlated with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and bulk density. The soil was rich in main nutrients, invertase activity was relatively high, while peroxidase activity was relatively low. The activities of soil invertase, cellulase and peroxidase could be used as the good biological indicators in evaluating soil quality and fertility.

  11. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  12. Soil-air greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by farming practices in reservoir drawdown area: A case at the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Lin, Chuxue; Chen, Yongbo; Wen, Anbang; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has large water level variations, creating about 393 km(2) of drawdown area seasonally. Farming practices in drawdown area during the low water level period is common in the TGR. Field experiments on soil-air greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in fallow grassland, peanut field and corn field in reservoir drawdown area at Lijiaba Bay of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the TGR were carried out from March through September 2011. Experimental fields in drawdown area had the same land use history. They were adjacent to each other horizontally at a narrow range of elevation i.e. 167-169 m, which assured that they had the same duration of reservoir inundation. Unflooded grassland with the same land-use history was selected as control for study. Results showed that mean value of soil CO2 emissions in drawdown area was 10.38 ± 0.97 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The corresponding CH4 fluxes and N2O fluxes were -8.61 ± 2.15 μmol m(-2) h(-1) and 3.42 ± 0.80 μmol m(-2) h(-1). Significant differences and monthly variations among land uses in treatments of drawdown area and unflooded grassland were evident. These were impacted by the change in soil physiochemical properties which were alerted by reservoir operation and farming. Particularly, N-fertilization in corn field stimulated N2O emissions from March to May. In terms of global warming potentials (GWP), corn field in drawdown area had the maximum GWP mainly due to N-fertilization. Gross GWP in peanut field in drawdown area was about 7% lower than that in fallow grassland. Compared to unflooded grassland, reservoir operation created positive net effect on GHG emissions and GWPs in drawdown area. However, selection of crop species, e.g. peanut, and best practices in farming, e.g. prohibiting N-fertilization, could potentially mitigate GWPs in drawdown area. In the net GHG emissions evaluation in the TGR, farming practices in the drawdown area shall be taken

  13. [Three-dimensional Fluorescence Spectral Characteristics of Different Molecular Weight Fractionations of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Water-level Fluctuation Zones of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-shuang; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Song; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Yan, Jin-long

    2016-03-15

    The study of the molecular weight (MW) fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environment is of interests because the size plays an important role in deciding the biogeochemical characteristics of DOM. Thus, using ultrafiltration ( UF) technique combined with three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, DOM samples from four sampling sites in typical water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorge Reservoir areas were selected to investigate the differences of properties and sources of different DOM MW fractions. The results showed that in these areas, the distribution of MW fractions was highly dispersive, but the approximately equal contributions from colloidal (Mr 1 x 10³-0.22 µm) and true dissolved fraction (Mr < 1 x 10³) to the total DOC concentration were found. Four fluorescence signals (humic-like A and C; protein-like B and T) were observed in all MW fractions including bulk DOM, which showed the same distribution trend: true dissolved > low MW (Mr 1 x 10³-10 x 10³) > medium MW (Mr 10 x 10³-30 x 10³) > high MW (Mr 30 x 10³-0.22 µm). Additionally, with decreasing MW fraction, fluorescence index (FI) and freshness index (BIX) increased suggesting enhanced signals of autochthonous inputs, whereas humification index ( HIX) decreased indicating lowe humification degree. It strongly suggested that terrestrial input mainly affected the composition and property of higher MW fractions of DOM, as compared to lower MW and true dissolved fractions that were controlled by autochthonous sources such as microbial and alga activities, instead of allochthonous sources. Meanwhile, the riparian different land-use types also affected obviously on the characteristics of DOM. Therefore, higher diversity of land-use types, and also higher complexity of ecosystem and landscapes, induced higher heterogeneity of fluorescence components in different MW fraction of DOM.

  14. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in the Next-Stage Grain-for-Green Project in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianying

    2015-08-01

    The policy implications for success in the next-stage Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP) in China are analyzed from the perspectives of farmers' willingness. The ecological protection belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was chosen as the case study area, where 1207 valid questionnaire surveys based on participatory rural appraisal were collected in 2012. Our study found that farmers with lower levels of education, older age, and higher livelihood dependency on farmland were more prone to reclamation if the compensation ended. Females and non-migrants were more reluctant to participate in the next GFGP than others. Nevertheless, traditional farming was no longer a preferred livelihood by all respondents. The majority of respondents (74.4 %) wished to be liberated from the low-income farmland work through the next GFGP, and half of them (50.6 %) hoped to get non-cash compensation. The Willingness to Accept (WTA) values of the next GFGP showed significant social heterogeneity and regional difference, with an average of annual RMB¥16,665 ha-1, about 4.5 times the local compensation standard in 2000. By revealing some limitations of the uniform nationwide compensation standard system and the single payment form in adapting to evolving socioeconomic conditions, our study highlighted the importance of developing a region-based compensation standard system, integrating the next GFGP into regional sustainable development organically by more comprehensive alternative policy, and bonding a vertical partnership between the local community and the nation. Our study revealed some key elements for success in the future design of restoration projects in China.

  15. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in the Next-Stage Grain-for-Green Project in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianying

    2015-08-01

    The policy implications for success in the next-stage Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP) in China are analyzed from the perspectives of farmers' willingness. The ecological protection belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was chosen as the case study area, where 1207 valid questionnaire surveys based on participatory rural appraisal were collected in 2012. Our study found that farmers with lower levels of education, older age, and higher livelihood dependency on farmland were more prone to reclamation if the compensation ended. Females and non-migrants were more reluctant to participate in the next GFGP than others. Nevertheless, traditional farming was no longer a preferred livelihood by all respondents. The majority of respondents (74.4%) wished to be liberated from the low-income farmland work through the next GFGP, and half of them (50.6%) hoped to get non-cash compensation. The Willingness to Accept (WTA) values of the next GFGP showed significant social heterogeneity and regional difference, with an average of annual RMB¥16,665 ha(-1), about 4.5 times the local compensation standard in 2000. By revealing some limitations of the uniform nationwide compensation standard system and the single payment form in adapting to evolving socioeconomic conditions, our study highlighted the importance of developing a region-based compensation standard system, integrating the next GFGP into regional sustainable development organically by more comprehensive alternative policy, and bonding a vertical partnership between the local community and the nation. Our study revealed some key elements for success in the future design of restoration projects in China.

  16. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water in industrial affected areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Ma, Yingqun; Qin, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yanmin; Cao, Wei; Yang, Chenchen; Han, Chaonan

    2016-12-01

    Water samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drain water (DW), major tributaries (MT), and main course of the Yangtze River (MY) in areas of three industrial parks (IPs) in Chongqing city in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Sixteen EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants were quantified to identify the effects of industrial activities on water quality of the TGR. The results showed that 11 individual PAHs were quantified and 5 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP)) were under detection limits in all of the water samples. Three-ring and four-ring PAHs were the most detected PAHs. Concentrations of individual PAHs were in the range of not detected (nd) to 24.3 ng/L. Total PAH concentrations for each site ranged from nd to 42.9 ng/L and were lower compared to those in other studies. The mean PAH concentrations for sites WWTP, DW, MT, and MY showed as follows: DW (25.9 ng/L) > MY (15.5 ng/L) > MT (14.0 ng/L) > WWTP (9.3 ng/L), and DW contains the highest PAH concentrations. Source identification ratios showed that petroleum and combustion of biomass coal and petroleum were the main sources of PAHs. The results of potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that, although PAH concentrations in MT and MY are likely harmless to ecosystem, contaminations of PAHs in DW were listed as middle levels and some management strategies and remediation actions, like strengthen clean production processes and banning illegal sewage discharging activities, etc., should be taken to lighten the ecosystem risk caused by PAHs especially risks caused by water discharging drains.

  18. [Release of mercury from soil and plant in water-level-fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its accumulation in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Xian; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Yang; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the production, distribution and bioavailability of methylmercury (MMHg) in soil and plants of the water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted in laboratory. Results indicated that the level of total mercury (THg) in soil decreased with the lengthening of submerging time while that in water increased obviously. The level of MMHg in inundated soil and water increased, especially in the water treated by Echinochloa crusgalli and soils. And the MMHg level in that treatment was 2.52 times higher than that treated only by soils for 21 days. This indicated that soil and plants of WLFZ were important sources of mercury in the water of the reservoir. Echinochloa crusgalli as the tested plant was decomposed after being submerged, leading to lower pH and DO and higher DOC, which had little effect on MMHg in soil but significant effect on MMHg in water. The level of THg in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish increased obviously, which had a significant correlation with that in water (P < 0.01). MMHg levels accumulated in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish differed to some degree, particularly in the head and muscle. After treated in the soils for 21 days, MMHg levels in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish were 1.75-6.25, 3.53-8.38 and 2.22-3.36 times higher than those in the control groups, respectively. While for the treatment of Echinochloa crusgalli and soil, MMHg levels in zebrafish's head, viscera and muscle were 3.57, 2.37 and 1.52 times higher than those treated only by soil, respectively. Therefore, submerged soil was the main source of MMHg in fish. And submerged plants changed the water condition and affected the release of mercury to water so as to cause elevated levels of MMHg in fish.

  19. [Distribution and Content of Transferable Nitrogen in the Soil of Water Level Fluctuating Zones of Mainstream and Its Tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    2016-03-15

    In order to find the intrinsic correlation between water eutrophication and transformation of nitrogen in soil of water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas (TGRA), the method of sequential extraction process was applied to analyze the content and distribution characteristics of total transferable nitrogen (TF-N) in the mainstream of Yangtze River (Wanzhou section) and its tributaries of Mixi and Zhuxi River. The results showed that, compared with the main stream, the contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) were higher, while cation exchange capacity( CEC) and pH value were lower in the tributaries during the dry period. The main species of TF-N in soil was organic matter-sulfide form of nitrogen (OSF-N) in the WLFZ and the content of different TF-N species was in the order of OSF-N > iron-manganese oxide form of nitrogen (IMOF-N) > ion extractable form of nitrogen (IEF-N) > carbonate form of nitrogen (CF-N). The spatial distribution pattern of total TF-N was in the order of Zhuxi River > Mixi Valley > the main stem of Yangtze River. There were no significant differences between IEF-N and OSF-N contents both in the main and tributaries of Yangtze River. The distribution of CF-N and IMOF-N had similar patterns, whereas the TF-N showed a reverse pattern in comparison with the former two species in the main and tributary of Yangtze River, which was a main factor of TF-N differences between the main steam and tributaries of the Yangtze River.

  20. Rates of litter decomposition and soil respiration in relation to soil temperature and water in different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenfa; Ge, Xiaogai; Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010-Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%-45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling.

  1. [Nitrogen and phosphorus loss in different land use types and its response to environmental factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tian, Yao-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The control of agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) is an urgent problem to be solved for the ecological environment construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We analyzed the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss and its response to environmental factors through monitoring the nutrient loss in different land use types after returning farmland to forest. The results showed that: 1) The variability of nutrient concentration loss was strong in different land use types under different rainfall conditions, and the variability in the concentration of available nutrient was much higher than that of total nutrient; 2) Compared to farmland, the annual phosphorus loss of different land use types was reduced by 84.53% - 91.61% after returning farmland to forest; the reduction of annual nitrogen loss was not significant except Chinese chestnut forest (Castanea mollissima) and arbor forest, and the nitrogen loss was much higher than the phosphorus loss in all land use types; 3) The particle phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) were the main forms of the phosphorus and nitrogen loss, respectively; 4) The nutrient loss of tea garden (Camellia sinensis) and bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens) showed a good correlation with precipitation, and the correlation of phosphorus was better than that of nitrogen, but there was no significant relation with the rainfall intensity; 5) The coverage of vegetation, tree layer and litter had a great influence on the loss of total nitrogen (TN). NO3(-)-N loss was highly influenced by the ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content in the surface soil, and P loss mainly by the total phosphorus (TP) and sand content in the soil.

  2. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  3. Rates of Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration in Relation to Soil Temperature and Water in Different-Aged Pinus massoniana Forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010–Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%–45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  4. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. [Effects of land use and landscape pattern on nitrogen and phosphorus exports in Lanlingxi Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Yang; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tian, Yao-Wu; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Wu, Dong

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of N, P exports and effects of land use and landscape pattern on N, P exports were analyzed in the Lanlingxi Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the TN, TP and NO3(-) -N were mainly generated by non-wood forest, the N, P exports in flood period (June to September) were significantly higher than the non-flood period (January to May). The NH4(+) -N export was derived from the residential area in the non-flood period, while from non-wood forest in the flood period. In addition, the performance of samples N, P exports with forest distributed were lower in both two periods. Also, the proportion of forest significantly negatively correlated with NO3(-) -N, TP in the non-flood period and TN, TP in the flood period. The residential area proportion notably positively correlated with NO3(-) -N, TN in non-flood period and NO3(-) -N, TN, TP in the flood period. The non-wood forest proportion also significantly positively correlated with NH4(+) -N, TN in the flood period. Moreover, PD closely positively correlated with N exports in non-flood period, with NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N in flood period. The CONT index strongly negatively correlated with N exports in flood period and TP in non-flood period. However, the proportions of farmland, unused land and the indices of ED were relatively weakened with N, P exports in both periods, while SHMN and water proportion did not show any positive or negative correlation. Moreover, the regression fitting degree of NH4(+)-N was superior to NO3(-) -N, TN and TP with the adjust R2 of 0.885 and 0.969 in two periods, while the regression relation was better than that of non-flood period. The result of redundancy analysis further demonstrated that the landscape fragmentation caused by patches types of different land uses could better explain impacts on the exports of nitrogen and phosphorus. The two canonical axes accumulated explained the 90% proportion of the variables and

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediment and bioavailability in streams in the New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, West Virginia, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terrence

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including some on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's priority pollutant list, were found in bottom sediment in streams in the coal-producing region of the Kanawha River Basin in 1996-1998, and in and near the New River Gorge National River in 2002, in concentrations exceeding those thought likely to cause adverse effects to wildlife. Very low concentrations of bioavailable PAHs were measured in streams in and near the New River Gorge National River by the use of semipermeable membrane devices. The apparent contradiction between the high concentrations of total PAHs and the low concentrations of bioavailable PAHs may result from the presence of a substantial amount of particulate coal in bottom sediment.

  7. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological

  8. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  9. View south of sail loft mid loft area. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of sail loft - mid- loft area. Note inflatable boats undergoing pressure testing. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    MMDMF does have relevance in identifying areas of conflict, and it can support the Cost-Benefit Analysis in assessing sustainability, as a Decision Support Tool. The research concluded that, based on both models, the Three Gorges Project as understood in 1988, and incorporating more recent sustainability analysis is contributing to enhanced sustainability.

  12. 20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA - LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to the left leads into empty can storage area from which a can conveyor track, for flat oval cans, can be seen descending at a forty-five degree angle. Cement bases in the foreground held brining tanks into which cut fish were sluiced. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Results of chemical analyses of soil, shale, and soil/shale extract from the Mancos Shale formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, southwestern Colorado, and at Hanksville, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli; Grauch, Richard I.; Ball, Bridget A.; Chong, Geneva W.; Elliott, John G.; Kosovich, John J.; Livo, Keith E.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2007-01-01

    Results of chemical and some isotopic analyses of soil, shale, and water extracts collected from the surface, trenches, and pits in the Mancos Shale are presented in this report. Most data are for sites on the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in southwestern Colorado. For comparison, data from a few sites from the Mancos landscape near Hanksville, Utah, are included. Twelve trenches were dug on the GGNCA from which 258 samples for whole-rock (total) analyses and 187 samples for saturation paste extracts were collected. Sixteen of the extract samples were duplicated and subjected to a 1:5 water extraction for comparison. A regional soil survey across the Mancos landscape on the GGNCA generated 253 samples for whole-rock analyses and saturation paste extractions. Seventeen gypsum samples were collected on the GGNCA for sulfur and oxygen isotopic analysis. Sixteen samples were collected from shallow pits in the Mancos Shale near Hanksville, Utah.

  15. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  16. View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones to Mill Street houses. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  20. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir.

  1. [Temporal and spatial variation of mercury in water of agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Ya; Mu, Zhi-jian; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of mercury (Hg) in four different sources of stream (aquaculture wastewater, bare land, forestry land and agro-forestry land) and well water of an agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the Three Gorge Reservoir region was studied during the period from March 2013 to March 2014. The total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged 9.95-15.26 ng x L(-1) with an average of (11.95 +/- 1.87) ng x L(-1), and the THg concentration decreased in the order of bare land > aquaculture wastewater> forestry land > agro-forestry land > well water. The total methylmercury (TMeHg) concentrations ranged 0.120-0.441 ng x L(-1) with an average of (0.232 +/- 0.099) ng x L(-1), and the TMeHg concentration decreased in the order of aquaculture wastewater > agro-forestry land > forestry land > bare land > well water. THg and TMeHg in well water were both dominated by the dissolved fraction, whereas for other sources of stream, the particulate phase accounted for the major fraction of THg and TMeHg. The THg concentrations in winter and spring were significant higher than those in summer and fall, however, no obvious seasonal trend of TMeHg distribution was observed. Comprehensive analysis showed human activities and weather conditions such as air temperature and precipitation etc. were the main reasons for the difference of temporal and spatial distribution of THg and TMeHg.

  2. Hydrology of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet; Williamson, Joyce; Putnam, Larry

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. This report summarizes the hydrology of the Black Hills area and the results of this long-term study.The Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming is an important recharge area for several regional, bedrock aquifer systems and various local aquifers; thus, the study focused on describing the hydrologic significance of selected bedrock aquifers. The major aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. The highest priority was placed on the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, which are used extensively and heavily influence the surface-water resources of the area.Within this report, the hydrogeologic framework of the area, including climate, geology, ground water, and surface water, is discussed. Hydrologic processes and characteristics for ground water and surface water are presented. For ground water, water-level trends and comparisons and water-quality characteristics are presented. For surface water, streamflow characteristics, responses to precipitation, annual yields and yield efficiencies, and water-quality characteristics are presented. Hydrologic budgets are presented for ground water, surface water, and the combined ground-water/surface-water system. A summary of study findings regarding the complex flow systems within the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers also is presented.

  3. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and

  4. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  6. 29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  8. 50 CFR 622.224 - Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region § 622.224 Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals. (a) Allowable octocoral closed area. No person... corals. 622.224 Section 622.224 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area. (a) The danger zone. The danger zone shall... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at...

  10. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  11. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  12. SOUTH RAMP 3.01.X AREA GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bonabian

    1999-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the stability and determine ground support requirements for the 3.01.X areas in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) South Ramp. The 3.01.X area refers to the ESF tunnel portions that were constructed under Section 3.01.X of the ESF General Construction Specification (Reference 8.4). Four 3.01.X areas in the ESF Main Loop are covered in this analysis that extend from Station 60+15.28 to 60+49.22, 62+04.82 to 62+32.77, 75+21.02 to 75+28.38, and 76+63.08 to 77+41.23. The scope of the analysis is (1) to document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support, (2) to evaluate the existing ground conditions, (3) to determine applicable design loads, (4) to evaluate the stability and determine a ground support system, and (5) to analyze the recommended system.

  13. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  14. [Effect of Drought and Subsequent Re-wetting Cycles on Transferable Nitrogen and Its Form Distribution in the Sediment of Water Level Fluctuating Zone in the Tributary of Three Gorge Reservoir Areas].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Zhen-yu; He, Li-ping; Zhou, Nong; Zhang, Qian-ru

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen is the most comment source of eutrophication in freshwater systems. In current study, we investigated the various forms of transferable nitrogen in sediments, which potentially contributed to the nitrogen output into waters. Sediments samples were collected in the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi River crossing three hydrological sections, e. g. upstream, midstream and downstream and two water level altitudes, 160 m and 170 m, with multiple depths for each site, 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100 cm. To characterize the response of transformation of nitrogen in sediment of the water level fluctuating zone towards cycles of drought and re-wetting processes, we analyzed the content and distribution of transferable nitrogen (TF-N) and its forms. The result showed that the changing of the amount of total nitrogen followed the pattern of upstream > midstream > downstream, the mean value was in the range of 313.02-3 255.53 mg. kg-1, while the content of total transferable nitrogen was on an average of 639.40 mg . kg-1 and coincided with the pattern of total nitrogen. In addition, TF-N followed the pattern of OSF-N > IMOF-N > OSF-N > IEF-N. It indicated that both OSF-N and IMOF-N dominated the form of TF-N in sediments by proportions of 50. 9% and 33. 3%, respectively. Since the transformation rate of OSF-N into dissolved phase was relatively slow, its contribution as a source of nitrogen to eutrophication was limited. We, thus, concluded that IMOF-N was the most important fraction which could be potentially affected by water fluctuation and contributed as dissolved nitrogen into water phase. This study indicated that the manner of manipulating water resource in the Three Gorges Reservoir area has raised the potential risk of transforming IMOF-N from sediment into water phase.

  15. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the western part of the Eastern Alps, the Strassberg gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth shows a marked asymmetry in height of its right/left brinklines. The gorge is incised into Upper Triassic dolostones, and parallels an older valley filled with Quaternary deposits. Upstream, the valley-fill consists of (a) glacial till (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM), overlain by (b) a rock avalanche deposit (RAD) at least a few tens of meters thick, and (c) alluvial deposits shed over the RAD (except for projecting boulders); the RAD is locally also downlapped by scree slopes. Downstream, the valley-fill consists of glacio-fluvial deposits overlain by LGM till and, on top, the RAD. The rock avalanche defaced from the west slope of mount Hohe Munde (2662 m asl), and consists exclusively of clasts of Wetterstein Limestone (Triassic p. p.). Rock avalanche defacement was tied to a system of NW-SE trending strike-slip faults (Telfs fault zone). The rock avalanche descended before the old valley was significantly cleared of glaciofluvial/glacial deposits of the LGM. On a plateau west of the present bedrock gorge, LGM till is veneered over a large area by RAD; the till and the RAD both were later involved in slumping. The RAD covers a total planview area of ~3.7 square kilometers. The fahrböschung of the rock avalanche is reconstructed between 16°-14.5°. In its proximal part, the rock avalanche propagated by dynamic fragmentation; in the distal part, propagation was by sheet-like 'plug flow', perhaps in part over a snow cover. The filling of the old valley by the RAD led to: (a) formation and filling of a small intramontane basin directly upstream, and (b) incision of the present Strassberg gorge along a course westward-parallel to the old valley. Mean rates of bedrock incision required to form the deepest reach of the present canyon range from 1 cm/a (since 10 ka) to 0.7 cm/a (since 15 ka). In the considered area, talus breccias of pre-LGM age locally show zones of

  16. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby given that the...] Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park... visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, for a term not...

  18. Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

  19. Fluvial incision into bedrock: Insights from morphometric analysis and numerical modeling of gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri

    2010-06-01

    Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys potentially allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, topographic maps, and field reconnaissance, we identified and characterized 30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges near their confluence with trunk streams in the Romanche watershed, French Western Alps. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. We reconstructed initial glacial profiles from glacially polished bedrock knobs surrounding the gorges in order to quantify the amount of fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Assuming a postglacial origin of these gorges, our results imply high postglacial fluvial incision (0.5-15 mm yr-1) and knickpoint retreat (1-200 mm yr-1) rates that are, however, consistent with previous estimates. Numerical modeling was used to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. A more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates predicts present-day channel geometry only if a significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls (˜10 mm yr-1) is triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition.

  20. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy... property, and facilitate the reasonable demands of commerce. This action will impose restrictions...

  1. Effects of vegetation on runoff generation, sediment yield and soil shear strength on road-side slopes under a simulation rainfall test in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Wei; Cai, Chong-Fa; Li, Zhao-Xia; Cheng, Dong-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Vegetation recolonization has often been used to control roadside slope erosion, and in this paper, four restoration models - Natural Restoration, Grass, Grass & Shrub, Sodded Strip - were chosen to recolonize the plants on a newly built unpaved roadside slope in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. After eight months growth, eight rainfall simulations (intensity of 90 mm h(-1) for 60 min) and in-situ soil shear strength test were then carried out to identify the impacts of vegetation on roadside slope erosion and soil shear strength. The erosion on cutslopes was higher than that on fillslopes. The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate were significantly lower on the Grass & Shrub model (4.3% and 1.99 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively) compared with the other three, which had the highest surface cover (91.4%), aboveground biomass (1.44 kg m(-2)) and root weight density (3.94 kg m(-3)). The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate on roadside slopes showed a logarithmic decrease with the root weight density, root length density and aboveground biomass. The soil shear strength measured before and after the rainfall was higher on Grass & Shrub (59.29 and 53.73 kPa) and decreased on Grass (46.93 and 40.48 kPa), Sodded Strip (31.20 and 18.87 kPa) and Natural Restoration (25.31 and 9.36 kPa). Negative linear correlations were found between the soil shear strength reduction and aboveground biomass, root weight density and root length density. The variation of soil shear strength reduction was closely related to the roadside slope erosion, a positive linear correlation was found between runoff coefficient and soil shear strength reduction, and a power function was shown between soil detachment rate and soil shear strength reduction. This study demonstrated that Grass and Grass & Shrub were more suitable and highly cost-effective in controlling initial period erosion of newly built low-volume unpaved road.

  2. 6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST TO THE FORMER GRAVITY OIL STORAGE BUILDING, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  3. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  4. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... potential economic effects of this action on small entities. South American cactus moth is a pest that... emergency forage for cattle during periods of drought and as wildlife feed for game animals. This...

  5. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  6. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  7. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  8. Geomorphic evolution of the Yangtze Gorges and the time of their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jijun; Xie, Shiyou; Kuang, Mingsheng

    2001-11-01

    The Three Gorges of the Yangtze link its upper rocky valley to downstream alluvial sections. A series of stepped landforms exist in the Three Gorges area, the Sichuan Basin upstream and the Jianghan Basin downstream. These landforms are characterized by two planation surfaces, one erosional surface, and up to seven terraces. The higher planation surface (named the Exi Surface, ~1800-2000 m a.s.l.) and the lower planation surface (1200-1500 m) were probably formed in the Tertiary (prior to 3.4-3.6 Ma B.P.). No correlation seems to exist between the drainage networks of earlier period with the present Yangtze system. It is suggested that the erosional surface found in the study area at 800-1200 m in elevation above sea level was formed in Late Pliocene of Early Pleistocene. During this period following the last planation event, the ancestral Yangtze might have begun to adjust its drainage network. The seven terraces, well developed along the eastern Sichuan Basin and the Three Gorges, date from Early to Late Pleistocene (1.16-0.01 Ma B.P). The chronostratigraphic evidence and diagnostic sediments are generally comparable in time and space from the Sichuan Basin, through the Three Gorges, to the Jianghan Basin. Therefore, the present study proposes that the Three Gorges were cut not later than the initiation of the earliest terrace. The fluvial landforms in the Yangtze Gorges are characterized also by valley-in-valley cross-sections, i.e. an older U-shaped valley cut by a younger V-shaped valley. A tectonic rise accompanied by a rapid downcutting of the river channels predominated in the region.

  9. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. The Environment of South Korea and Adjacent Sea Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    issued covering a period of eight days. In addition to the casualty list cited earlier, the South Korean Ministry of Social Affairs reported property ...7.4 ASW OPERATIONS Data on the major physical properties of the seas around the Korean Peninsula are somewhat sparse; therefore, the emphasis here is...MR. ISM~ Si + i+ + + + -4 o,+ + 4- 4-z +F ++30 + + +00 + +4 + + ± + + + + + AUGUIST771 B Figu.re C-21. Prof iles for August. C-34 SOUN SPED (/SFC

  12. Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, TylerMcconnell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge middleground, and Henry Clay Village and Walkers Mill in upper background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  14. VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. How a stationary knickpoint is sustained: new insights into the formation of the deep Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhou, W.

    2015-12-01

    Researches on south-east Tibet suggested that Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was resulted either from glacial dam (climatic control) or differential rock uplift (tectonic control). Most of these available studies agreed that this huge deepest gorge on Earth is a stationary knickpoint. Although different hypotheses were proposed to explain its origin, little attempt focused on the critical condition to sustain its stability in a theoretical and quantitative way. Here we derived a universal formula to express the upstream migration velocity of knickpoints via stream incision model. This formula was suitable for many conditions, for example, it allowed spatially varied channel uplift rates , linear or non-linear correlation between erosion and channel gradient. According to the formula and two primary viewpoints, a stationary knickpoint occured where incision rates of gorge matched the upstream deposition rates (glacial dam) or the difference of basement uplift rates between the upstream and downstream reaches of the knickpoint (tectonic control). We calculated the rock exhumation rates of the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge via published thermochronological age and one-dimension steady-state thermal diffusion equation, the channel steepness from digital elevation model, and the erodibility by dividing exhumation rates by channel steepness. Combining these parameters, we obtained river incision rates of the gorge. We found the incision rates were much larger than the upstream deposition rates but showing good accordance with the difference of basement uplift rates between the upstream and downstream reaches of the knickpoint. Our results shown here supported the conclusion that the stationary knickpoint on the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was resulted from tectonic control rather than glacial dam. Therefore, we speculated that the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge was controlled by tectonics more than climate. Our finding thus theoretically and quantitatively outlined how this stationary huge knickpoint

  16. Towards a better knowledge of flash flood forecasting at the Three Gorges Region: Progress over the past decade and challenges ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Hanbo; Wu, Tianjiao; Xu, Jijun; Gao, Bing; Xu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The study area, the Three Gorges Region (TGR), plays a critical role in predicting the floods drained into the Three Gorges Reservoir, as reported local floods often exceed 10000m3/s during rainstorm events and trigger fast as well as significant impacts on the Three Gorges Reservoir's regulation. Meanwhile, it is one of typical mountainous areas in China, which is located in the transition zone between two monsoon systems: the East Asian monsoon and the South Asian (Indian) monsoon. This climatic feature, combined with local irregular terrains, has shaped complicated rainfall-runoff regimes in this focal region. However, due to the lack of high-resolution hydrometeorological data and physically-based hydrologic modeling framework, there was little knowledge about rainfall variability and flood pattern in this historically ungauged region, which posed great uncertainties to flash flood forecasting in the past. The present study summarize latest progresses of regional flash floods monitoring and prediction, including installation of a ground-based Hydrometeorological Observation Network (TGR-HMON), application of a regional geomorphology-based hydrological model (TGR-GBHM), development of an integrated forecasting and modeling system (TGR-INFORMS), and evaluation of quantitative precipitation estimations (QPE) and quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) products in TGR flash flood forecasting. With these continuing efforts to improve the forecasting performance of flash floods in TGR, we have addressed several critical issues: (1) Current observation network is still insufficient to capture localized rainstorms, and weather radar provides valuable information to forecast flash floods induced by localized rainstorms, although current radar QPE products can be improved substantially in future; (2) Long-term evaluation shows that the geomorphology-based distributed hydrologic model (GBHM) is able to simulate flash flooding processes reasonably, while model

  17. Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

  18. 75 FR 6347 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... South Africa AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are... Republic of South Africa as pest-free areas for citrus black spot. Based on our site visit to the area and our review of the documentation submitted by South Africa's national plant protection...

  19. A Needs Assessment of Phoenix South Catchment Area Children: The Responses of Parents, Neighbors, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David

    Summarized in this document are results from a survey conducted from 1975 to 1977 with parents, neighbors, and fifth-grade teachers as part of a needs assessment of Phoenix, Arizona, South Catchment Area children. A questionnaire consisting of 34 items, generated from studies reviewed in the area of children's behavioral symptoms and strengths,…

  20. 75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the... Guard proposes to establish a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson..., provide for the safety of life and property, and facilitate the reasonable demands of commerce....

  1. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland... Grassland Conservation Area on September 21, 2011, with the purchase of a 318.18-acre grassland easement...

  2. The epidemiology of tinea manuum in Nanchang area, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jiang, Qing; Jin, Yun; Li, Caixia; Liu, Weida

    2013-08-01

    Tinea manuum is a common superficial fungal infection which is usually coexistent with tinea pedis; there are few studies available on the epidemiology of tinea manuum at present. This study aims to investigate the epidemiology of tinea manuum and its correlation with tinea pedis in south China. A total of 280 patients with tinea manuum were recruited. The epidemiological and clinical data were analyzed, and causative agents were isolated and identified mycologically. Totally, 84.3 % patients with tinea manuum had co-occurrence of tinea pedis, among which 88.4 % patients had experience of scratching their feet. There was a significant relationship between the touch habits and the hand infection (χ(2) = 65.451, P = 0.000). More than 90 % patients had quite the same species of isolates from multiple infected sites in one patient. Therefore, it seems that transmission of dermatophytes from the feet to hand by scratching might be a most common way. As for tinea manuum, whether "unilateral" or "bilateral" is just the result that pathogens spread from feet to hand(s), which is only a special clinical presentation of tinea.

  3. Inner gorge-slot canyon system produced by repeated stream incision (eastern Alps): Significance for development of bedrock canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard; Wischounig, Lukas; Gruber, Alfred; Ostermann, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Many inner bedrock gorges of the Alps show abrupt downstream changes in gorge width, as well as channel type and gradient, as a result of epigenetic incision of slot canyons. Many slot canyons also are associated with older gorge reaches filled with Quaternary deposits. The age of slot canyons and inner bedrock gorges, however, commonly is difficult to constrain. For the inner-bedrock gorge system of the Steinberger Ache catchment (eastern Alps), active slot canyons as well as older, abandoned gorge reaches filled with upper Würmian proglacial deposits record three phases of gorge development and slot-canyon incision. A 234U/230Th age of cement of 29.7 ± 1.8 ka in fluvial conglomerates onlapping the flank of an inner gorge fits with late Würmian valley-bottom aggradation shortly before pleniglacial conditions; in addition, the age indicates that at least the corresponding canyon reach must be older. During advance of ice streams in the buildup of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the catchment was blocked, and a proglacial lake formed. Bedrock gorges submerged in that lake were filled with fluviolacustrine deposits. During the LGM, the entire catchment was overridden by ice. During post-glacial reincision, streams largely found again their preexisting inner bedrock canyons. In some areas, however, the former stream course was 'missed', and a slot canyon formed. The distribution of Pleistocene deposits, the patterns of canyon incision, and the mentioned U/Th cementation age, however, together record a further discrete phase of base-level rise and stream incision well before the LGM. The present course of Steinberger Ache and its tributaries is a patchwork of (1) slot canyons incised during post-glacial incision; (2) vestiges of slot canyons cut upon an earlier (middle to late Würmian?) cycle of base-level rise and fall; (3) reactivated reaches up to ~ 200 m in width of inner bedrock gorge that are watershed at present, and more than at least ~ 30 ka in age; and (4

  4. Columbia Gorge Community College Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jonathon V.

    This is a report on a business survey conducted by Columbia Gorge Community College (CGCC) (Oregon) to review the success and quality of the college's degree and certificate programs in business administration, computer application systems, and computer information systems. The community college surveyed 104 local businesses to verify the…

  5. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  6. Geologic map of the South Jackson Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.

    1986-01-01

    The South Jackson Mountains Wilderness Study Area is in south-central Humboldt County, approximately 50 miles northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada. The boundaries originally specified for the wilderness study area encompassed an area of 60,211 acres. The draft Environmental Impact Statement issued in 1983 by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) identified 20,094 acres within the wilderness study area as potentially suitable for inclusion into the National Wilderness Preservation System. Subsequent (August 27, 1984) deletions by the BLM have resulted in the present study area of approximately 10,300 acres. The boundaries of the study area are approximated by the range crestline to the east and the 4,400-ft contour along the west side of the range from King Lear Peak north to the divide between Hobo and Christiorsson Canyons.

  7. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  8. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution.

  9. Altered streamflow and sediment entrainment in the Gunnison Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Gunnison River in the Gunnison Gorge is a canyon river where upstream dams regulate mainstem discharge but do not affect debris-flow sediment supply from tributaries entering below the reservoirs. Regulation since 1966 has altered flood frequency, streambed mobility, and fluvial geomorphology creating potential resource-management issues. The duration of moderate streamflows between 32.3 and 85.0 m3/s has increased threefold since 1966. This, along with flood-peak attenuation, has facilitated fine-sediment deposition and vegetation encroachment on stream banks. The Shields equation and on-site channel geometry and bed-material measurements were used to assess changes in sediment entrainment in four alluvial reaches. Sand and fine gravel are transported through riffle/pool reaches at most discharges, but the cobbles and boulders composing the streambed in many reaches now are infrequently entrained. Periodic debris flows add coarse sediment to rapids and can increase pool elevation and the streambed area affected by backwater and fine-sediment accumulation. Debris-flow supplied boulders accumulate on fans and in rapids and constrict the channel until reworked by larger floods. The response to streamflow-regime changes in the Gunnison Gorge could serve as an analog for alluvial reaches in other regulated canyon rivers.

  10. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  11. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  12. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  13. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRS AND OVERLOOK AT SOUTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRS AND OVERLOOK AT SOUTH APPROACH, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  14. 1. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION (Original print in the possession of Engineering Photograph Collection, Municipal Archives, city of Rochester, New York, c. 1890) - Driving Park Avenue Bridge, Spanning Genesee River Gorge, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  15. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit.

  17. The Italian-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Rasmussen, Karen

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Italian Americans can enhance cultural awareness. This document presents the story of Italians beginning with cultural roots in Italy and their subsequent emigration to the United States, including to South Bend, Indiana. Four major areas are explored. An account…

  18. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of...

  19. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  20. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. 162.210 Section 162.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  1. Temporal and spatial patterns of internal phosphorus recycling in a South Florida (USA) stormwater treatment area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas (STAs), have been deployed to remove phosphorus (P) in drainage waters before discharge into the Everglades in South Florida, USA. Their P removal performance depends on internal P cycling under typically hydrated, b...

  2. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature.

  3. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Lindsey, David A.; Bruce, R.M.; Soulliere, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of geologic studies in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area in the Rio Grande and San Isabel National Forests, south-central Colorado. The area was designated as a wilderness study area under Public Lay 96-560 in 1980. 

  4. Geologic map of the South Sierra Wilderness and South Sierra Roadless area, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F. ); Carter, K.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The study area is underlain predominantly by granitoid rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Metamorphic rocks are present in roof pendants mainly in the southwest corner of the study area and consist of quartz-biotite schist, phyllite, quartzite, marble, calc-silicate hornfels, and meta-dacite. Among the seven Triassic and (or) Jurassic plutons are three newly described units that consist of the gabbro of Deer Mountain, the tonalite of Falls Creek, and the quartz diorite of Round Mountain. The map shows one newly described unit that intrudes Triassic rocks: the granodiorite of Monache Creek which is a leucocratic, medium-grained, equi-granular, locally porphyritic biotite hornblende granodiorite. Among the seven Cretaceous plutons are two newly described units. The Cretaceous rocks are generally medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite with biotite and minor hornblende; it includes abundant pods of alaskite. The granite of Haiwee Creek is similar but only locally potassium-feldspar porphyritic and with only minor hornblende. Major-element data plotted on Harker diagrams show the older rocks to be higher in iron and magnesium and lower in silica than the younger rocks. There are abundant local pods of alaskite throughout the study area that consist of medium- to coarse-grained, leucocratic granite, alkali-feldspar granite and associated aplite and pegmatite bodies occurring as small pods and highly leucocratic border phases of nearby plutons. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rock include the rhyolite of Monache Mountain and Quaternary surficial deposits: fan, stream-channel, colluvium, talus, meadow-filling, rock-glacier, and glacial-moraine deposits. Important structures include the Sierran front fault and a possible extensional feature along which Bacon (1978) suggests Monache Mountain erupted.

  5. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  6. Calculation of area and volume for the south part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Resources, collected bathymetric data for the south part of Great Salt Lake during 2002-04 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 7.6 million depth measurements were collected along more than 930 miles (1,690 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 508,000 acres (2,056 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 9,257,000 acre-feet (11.42 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum water-surface altitude of the south part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) in the area just south of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Promontory Point and the western edge of the lake. At this altitude, and continuing up to about 4,176 feet (1,279 meters), the south part of the lake is separated into two areas by a ridge extending from Promontory Point to Hat Island. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  7. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  8. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving Ground Command, U.S. Air Force... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air...

  9. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840 Navigation...: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  10. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1,000 yards having its center on the...

  11. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  12. Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, looking northwest at the entrance and northwest shoeing damage to gorge wall as well as timber and earth blindage (see also HABS No. GA-2158-39). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-12-16

    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  15. Diagnosis of Leishmania infection in a nonendemic area of South America.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego Esteban; Borremans, Carlos Guillermo; Tonelli, Rosa Lydia; Carrizo, Liliana Carmen; Salomón, María Cristina

    2016-10-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is the generic name for a variety of cutaneous and mucocutaneous presentations of parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania. This is a widespread infection in the American continent, from the South of the United States to the North of Argentina. We herein describe the management of a patient with American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mendoza, Argentina, a nonendemic area of South America, whose diagnosis and treatment were significantly delayed, because the patient did not report a recent history of travel to any known endemic areas. This case stresses the need for training health-care professionals in the diagnosis and treatment of not only endemic parasitosis within their work zones but also nonendemic parasitosis.

  16. Cultural Resources Evaluation of the Upper Atchafalaya Backwater Area, Iberville and Pointe Coupee Parishes, SOuth Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    attempt to lage on Bayou Teche. The Cathcart expedition of attack the Bayagoula, killed the priest St. Cosme 1819 described it as a row of palmetto-covered...southeast of the present study area (Newton 1985:16; Prichard et al. 1945:760). Although Cathcart Raids between the Chitimacha and Indian groups does not...utiliz- artifacts on the east side of Bayou Maringouin, about ing centralized landfill and garbage services. Cer- 850 m south of the junction of West

  17. COMANCHE-BIG SOUTH, NEOTA-FLAT TOP, AND NEVER SUMMER WILDERNESS STUDY AREAS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource assessment was made of three wilderness study areas adjacent to the north and west sides of Rocky Mountain National Park in north-central Colorado. Gold, silver, and uranium prospects in major faults near the Comanche-Big South wilderness study area suggest the possibility that these commodities may also occur along numerous similar faults within the study area, but the lack of evidence for mineralized rock at the surface suggests little chance for deposits along these structures. The Neota-Flat Top wilderness study area shows no evidence of being mineralized and little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. The Never Summer wilderness study area has strong geologic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence indicating probable resource potential for molydenum deposits. The nature of the geologic terrain precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  18. The characteristics of heat flow in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Wan, Zhifeng; Wang, Xianqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Xia, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Marine heat flow is of great significance for the formation and occurrence of seabed oil, gas and gas hydrate resources. Geothermal gradient is an important parameter in determining the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The northern slope of the South China Sea is rich in gas hydrate resources. Several borehole drilling attempts were successful in finding hydrates in the Shenhu area, while others were not. The failures demand further study on the distribution regularities of heat flow and its controlling effects on hydrate occurrence. In this study, forty-eight heat flow measurements are analyzed in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, located in the northern South China Sea, together with their relationship to topography, sedimentary environment and tectonic setting. Canyons are well developed in the study area, caused mainly by the development of faults, faster sediment supply and slumping of the Pearl River Estuary since the late Miocene in the northern South China Sea. The heat flow values in grooves, occurring always in fault zones, are higher than those of ridges. Additionally, the heat flow values gradually increase from the inner fan, to the middle fan, to the external fan subfacies. The locations with low heat flow such as ridges, locations away from faults and the middle fan subfacies, are more conducive to gas hydrate occurrence.

  19. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project on Local Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z.; Liang, S.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydroelectric project in the world and has led to significant land cover changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Since its construction the debates on its environmental and climatic impacts have never stopped, especially after the extreme drought and flood in Yangtze River Basin these years. TGP reached its final impounding water level in 2010. However, studies on systematically monitoring the long-term variations in surface and atmospheric parameters in TGRA are still lacking. In this study, three important surface parameters - surface albedo, land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) and two climatic parameters - air temperature and precipitation were investigated from 2000 to 2013 by combining multiple remote sensing data and ground measurements. Results showed that along the reservoir albedo decreased significantly as a result of water impounding. Correspondingly, in the same region daytime LST decreased in spring and summer and nighttime LST increased in autumn and winter. In the western region of TGRA, albedo increased due to resettlement and LST also changed. The average ET increased by 20% in TGR but kept stable in the whole TGRA. In contrast to LST, air temperature showed less apparent spatial and temporal variability. Only in the region near the dam air temperature experienced a decrease at daytime and an increase at nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated precipitation revealed no apparent changes in TGRA and the precipitation anomaly in northwest of TGRA may not be connected with TGP. All of the findings provide a more substantial clues of local climate change caused by TGP.

  20. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  1. Patterns of drugs & poisons in southern area of South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Ha, Hongil; Chung, Heesun

    2016-12-01

    The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014. Among them, 15 cases were determined as drug intoxication or poisons as the cause of death, taking up 2.5% of total cases: 5 cases of intoxication by drugs, 5 by agricultural pesticides, 3 by illicit drugs, and 1 each by detergents and chemical substances. A total of 108 drugs in postmortem bloods were detected from the autopsy cases, and the top 5 drugs were chlorpheniramine, tramadol, diazepam, zolpidem and lidocaine. Meanwhile, a total of 1,728 cases were submitted for illicit drug testing in 2014. Among them, hair was the most common type of specimens, and the rate of positive detection of methamphetamine from the hair, urine, and seized materials in the southern area was over 50% in all cases, indicating that this is the most commonly abused drug in South Korea. A total of 12 types of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) were detected in the southern area in 2014; 10 were identified as synthetic cannabinoids and 2 as alkyl nitrites.

  2. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. ); Westbrook, T.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  3. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  4. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources, and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present a new synthesis of three field studies combining household surveys, participatory research approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews in Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. The results of our synthesis suggests that survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  5. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present their empirical approach combining household surveys, Participatory Research Approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews through its application in three case studies in Pakistan, Peru and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. In the future, survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  6. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840 Navigation...: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. (a) Effective date. This section is effective on...

  7. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  8. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  9. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  10. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  11. Non-Obese Diabetes and Its Associated Factors in an Underdeveloped Area of South China, Guangxi

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Fang, Zhifeng; Huang, Wei; Liu, Zhanhua; Chen, Yuzhu; Li, Zhongyou; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Qichun; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V.; Lin, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in underdeveloped areas in China, especially stratified into obesity and non-obese diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of non-obese diabetes in an underdeveloped area in South China, Guangxi. Methods: Data derived from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012 involved a sample of 3874 adults from Guangxi. Questionnaires and oral glucose-tolerance tests were conducted, and fasting and 2-h glucose levels and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess associated factors for non-obese diabetes. Results: 68.2% and 62.2% of instances of newly detected diabetes were those of non-obese diabetes based on BMI (NODB) and based on WC (NODW), respectively. The male sex, an age older than 50 years, lower education, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly associated with a higher risk of both NODB and NODW, while some associated factors for NODB were found different from those associated with NODW, and an interaction effect was found to increase the risk of NODW. Conclusions: Our study indicated that non-obese diabetes was highly prevalent in an underdeveloped area of South China. Non-obese diabetes should be considered for increased public attention in these areas. PMID:27706056

  12. P- and S-velocity structure beneath the Three Gorges region (central China) from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic experiment provides new insights on the crustal structure of the head area of the Three Gorges Reservoir in central China. The region is characterized by a relatively high rate of reservoir-induced seismicity that is often triggered within those areas associated with the ascending water level. Our 3-D velocity model of the Three Gorges region shows that the Huangling anticline (HLA) is characterized by a high-velocity crust, and the Zigui Basin (ZGB) has lower crustal velocities. The 3-D tomographic inversions are conducted using 11 901 P-wave and 12 032 S-wave arrival times from 1342 events recorded by the local network of seismic stations from early 2001 to late 2006. Initial models with varying velocity gradients are extracted to constrain a data-driven optimum 1-D model for 3-D iterative inversion scheme. Checkerboard tests are applied to assess model reliability, indicating a reasonable level of lateral and vertical resolutions. The P- and S-tomographic models reveal a local high-velocity anomaly from 5 to 10 km beneath SW portion of the HLA and a strong, large low-velocity anomaly between about 5-10 km depths at the south margin of the ZGB. Moreover, the southwest border of HLA underthrust the ZGB with slightly bigger angle. Also, a prominent high-velocity anomaly is located below 5 km beneath Shazhenxi, and to the west, the velocity anomaly turns out to be negative. There is no record help explaining the dramatic feature since incorporating local tectonic and topography, it suggests sharp gap in velocity near surface is primarily due to several secondary fracture zones. The surface responses of velocity discontinuity are generally aligned parallel to the trending of fault. Relatively good agreement between regional features and the velocity perturbations promotes further interpretation. Earthquake swarm activities from source relocation occur on the outer portions of high-velocity anomaly with nearly perpendicular dip angle. Thus, the seismicity

  13. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D'Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  14. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Doody, J. Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D’Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  15. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  16. Potentiometric surface of the Minnelusa Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  17. Potentiometric surface of the Minnekahta Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  18. Potentiometric surface of the Madison Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  19. Potentiometric surface of the Inyan Kara Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  20. Potentiometric surface of the Deadwood Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  1. Ground-water resources of the St. James area, South-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ropes, L.H.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the quality and quantity of the ground-water resources in the area of St. James, Minnesota. St. James is located in the center of Watonwan County in south-central Minnesota. The area is covered by a thick layer of glacial drift which is underlain by Cretaceous, Cambrian, and Precambrian rocks. St. James presently obtains its water supply from two aquifers. One is a Cretaceous sandstone 160 feet below the surface, in which two wells are completed. This aquifer yields abundant water but it is of poor quality and is expensive to treat. The second source, tapped by three municipal wells, is a surficial sand and gravel deposit less than 40 feet thick at the well field. This aquifer produces water of better quality, but its extent and capacity are not known. There are other wells in the area completed at depths ranging from 15 to 500 feet.

  2. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.

  3. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. ); Close, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

  4. Distribution of hydrogeologic units in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Schleicher, John R.; Fahrenbach, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. The map in this report is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps that are being produced for the study. Other maps include structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally

  5. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  6. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  7. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  8. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  9. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular... by the Commander, Headquarters 4756th Air Defense Wing (Weapons) U. S. Air Force, Tyndall Air...

  10. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  11. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed.

  12. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  13. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO GORGE WALL, LOOKING TOWARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO GORGE WALL, LOOKING TOWARD TO NORTHWEST BASTION, SHOWING DRAWBRIDGE AND MOAT (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. GA-2158-42) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast to northwest at the northern half of the wall ( see also HABS No. GA-2158-56 & 57). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  16. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  17. Natural recovery of different areas of a deserted quarry in South China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjun; Ren, Hai; Fu, Shenglei; Wang, Jun; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jinping

    2008-01-01

    A quarry is a surface mining operated place, which produces enormous quantities of gravel, limestone, and other materials for industrial and construction applications. Restoration and revegetation of deserted quarries are becoming increasingly important. Three areas of a typical quarry in South China: terrace for crushed materials (terrace), spoiled mound, and remaining side slope, were investigated, to compare the existing plant species and to study the relationship between environmental factors and revegetation. The plant species composition of these three areas was found to differ significantly after eight years of natural recovery. The typical plant communities found over them were composed of gramineous herbs, ferns, and shrubs. Soil organic matter, soil moisture, and soil bulk density were considered to be the major determining factors for vegetation succession. There existed abiotic and biotic thresholds during quarrying restoration. Suggestions had been presented that could have accelerated the process of natural recovery in quarries.

  18. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Olive, N.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes results from a comprehensive assessment of resource conditions on a large (24%) sample of the trail system within Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (BSF). Components include research to develop state-of-knowledge trail impact assessment and monitoring methods, application of survey methods to BSF trails, analysis and summary of results, and recommendations for trail management decision making and future monitoring. Findings reveal a trail system with some substantial degradation, particularly soil erosion, which additionally threatens water quality in areas adjacent to streams and rivers. Factors that contribute to or influence these problems are analyzed and described. Principal among these are trail design factors (trail topographic position, soil texture, grade and slope alignment angle), use-related factors (type and amount of use), and maintenance factors (water drainage). Recommendations are offered to assist managers in improving the sustainability of the trails system to accommodate visitation while enhancing natural resource protection.

  20. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area of South Rajasthan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Ankita; Mittal, Asit; Singh, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: During a period of 4 years (2010–2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed. All the suspected cases of CL were interrogated in detail regarding visit to areas where CL is known to occur. This was followed by clinical examination, relevant investigations, and treatment. All except one patient were treated with azole antifungals. In one patient, CO2 laser ablation was done. Results: There were 12 (52.17%) males and 11 (47.83%) females with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Duration of disease ranged from 7 days to 10 months. Face (15; 65.22%) and extremities (12; 52.17%) were involved in majority of the patients. Common morphologies were noduloulcerative lesions and crusted plaques. Tissue smear for Leishmania donovani bodies was positive in all except one patient. Conclusion: The present report highlights occurrence of CL in nonendemic area. Further epidemiological studies are required for identification of vector and strain of Leishmania involved. PMID:27688441

  2. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  3. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  4. Identifying priority areas for ecosystem service management in South African grasslands.

    PubMed

    Egoh, Benis N; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Grasslands provide many ecosystem services required to support human well-being and are home to a diverse fauna and flora. Degradation of grasslands due to agriculture and other forms of land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem services. Various efforts are underway around the world to stem these declines. The Grassland Programme in South Africa is one such initiative and is aimed at safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. As part of this developing programme, we identified spatial priority areas for ecosystem services, tested the effect of different target levels of ecosystem services used to identify priority areas, and evaluated whether biodiversity priority areas can be aligned with those for ecosystem services. We mapped five ecosystem services (below ground carbon storage, surface water supply, water flow regulation, soil accumulation and soil retention) and identified priority areas for individual ecosystem services and for all five services at the scale of quaternary catchments. Planning for individual ecosystem services showed that, depending on the ecosystem service of interest, between 4% and 13% of the grassland biome was required to conserve at least 40% of the soil and water services. Thirty-four percent of the biome was needed to conserve 40% of the carbon service in the grassland. Priority areas identified for five ecosystem services under three target levels (20%, 40%, 60% of the total amount) showed that between 17% and 56% of the grassland biome was needed to conserve these ecosystem services. There was moderate to high overlap between priority areas selected for ecosystem services and already-identified terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity priority areas. This level of overlap coupled with low irreplaceability values obtained when planning for individual ecosystem services makes it possible to combine biodiversity and ecosystem services in one plan using systematic conservation planning.

  5. The Characterization of Microearthquakes in Offshore Area of Northeastern South Korea from Multidisciplinary Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    A number of small earthquakes in offshore Gangneung-Sokcho-Goseong area of northeastern South Korea has been identified and the hypocenters of these events are relocated by double-difference algorithm using multidisciplinary data set. Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) lists 845 events for the period Jan. 2010 - Jun. 2015 with local magnitude up to 3.3. Peer review shows that the offshore events can be grouped into a number of small clusters, whereas onshore events are relatively few and unevenly distributed. It appears to have little relationship between the location of offshore event clusters and the direction of main onshore faults running NNE - SSW. In this study, we focus on the small events occurred in the area of N37°45´-38°35´ and E128°30´ - 129°20´. The Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) network operated by KIGAM and 5 temporary stations with Guralp CMG-40T short-period seismometers placed along the east coast of South Korea record the seismic energy generated from small events. The 137 events recorded from May to October 2014, ranging in local magnitude from 0.4 to 2.3, are already relocated using 1849 direct P-wave traveltimes identified from 29 stations. Relocation produced two major clusters in offshore Goseong (cluster 1) and Yangyang (cluster 2) province. The waveforms of relocated events in cluster 1 and 2 are similar to those from explosion in waters rather than earthquake, and spectrum analysis shows energy concentration on low frequencies below 10 Hz. We are combining the multidisciplinary data set from land based broadband and short-period seismometers, Guralp OBS system deployed in July this year, accelerometer and hydrophone array mounted on the offshore platforms of the underwater seismic observatory in the north of the study area. The integration of seismic and hydro-acoustic data in offshore supplements uneven azimuthal coverage and gives improved characterization of offshore seismic activity.

  6. The prevalence of Culicoides spp. in 3 geographic areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie; Venter, Estelle; Steyn, Jumari; Coetzee, Peter; van Vuuren, Moritz; Crafford, Jan; Schütte, Christine; Venter, Gert

    2016-09-30

    The seasonal abundance of Culicoides midges, the vector of Bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses (BTV/AHSV) and the presence of viruses in midges were determined in 3 geographic areas in South Africa. In the Onderstepoort area, more than 500,000 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were collected. Eighteen midge species were collected throughout Winter and the presence of AHSV and BTV RNA in midges was detected using real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The nucleic acid of AHSV was found in 12 pools out of total pools of 35 Culicoides. Twenty‑five Culicoides species were detected in the Mnisi area. The RNA of BTV was detected in 75.9% of the midge pools collected during Winter and 51.2% of those collected during Autumn. Antibodies for BTV were detected in 95% of cattle sampled using a competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The dominant species in these 2 areas was Culicoides imicola. Eight Culicoides species were collected in Namaqualand. Culicoides imicola represented the 0.9% and Culicoides bolitinos the 1.5% of total catches, respectively. Antibodies for AHSV were detected in 4.4% of 874 equines tested using an indirect ELISA. Results showed that transmission of AHSV and BTV can carry on throughout Winter and the outbreak may begin as soon as Culicoides populations reach a certain critical level.

  7. Simulation of the advective methane transport and AOM in Shenhu area, the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wu, N.

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) occurs in the transition zone between the presence of sulfate and methane. This reaction is an important process for methane and the global carbon cycle. Methane gas hydrates bearing sediments were recovered in Shenhu Area, the Northern South China Sea, and methane advective transport was detected in this area as well. A one dimension numerical simulation tool was implemented to study the AOM process combined with the advective methane transport in Shenhu Area according to the local drilling data and geochemical information. The modeled results suggest that local methane flux will be consumed in the sediment column via dissolution, sorption and AOM reaction. A portion of methane will enter water column and possibly atmosphere if the methane flux was one order of magnitude higher than current level. Furthermore, the calculated rates of AOM in Shenhu area range similar to that of gas hydrate mounds in Mexico Golf. However, AOM is ability to consume more methane than that in Golf of Mexico due to the lower permeable sediment associated with a deeper sulfate methane transition layer.

  8. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K. Vinod; Raj, R. Vimal; Vedhagiri, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  9. Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360…

  10. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  11. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    PubMed

    Clark, Natalie E; Boakes, Elizabeth H; McGowan, Philip J K; Mace, Georgina M; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  12. Protected Areas in South Asia Have Not Prevented Habitat Loss: A Study Using Historical Models of Land-Use Change

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Natalie E.; Boakes, Elizabeth H.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mace, Georgina M.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system. PMID:23741486

  13. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  16. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a... bombing target hulk James Longstreet in Cape Cod Bay at latitude 41°49′46″, longitude 70°02′54″. (b)...

  17. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Observational Analysis of Filaments in the Serpens South Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-López, M.; Arce, H. G.; Looney, L.; Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D.; Isella, A.; Tobin, J. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Plunkett, A.; Kwon, W.; Kauffmann, J.; Ostriker, E.; Tassis, K.; Shirley, Y. L.; Pound, M.

    2014-08-01

    We present the N2H+ (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin2 and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s-1, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N2H+ emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N2H+ filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  18. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  19. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average δ18O and δD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average δ18O and δD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater

  20. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  1. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  2. Caledonian granitoids in the Jinxiu area, Guangxi, South China: Implications for their tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Chunzeng

    2017-02-01

    Jinxiu area is tectonically located between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks of South China. The area has three granitic plutons, Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons. Geochemically the plutons are high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Ba, Sr, P, and Ti and rich in Pb, with decoupled Nb and Ta, and show non-island-arc magmatic affinity. Biotite monzogranite samples collected from the Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons yield zircon SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 419.0 ± 5.0 Ma, 436.0 ± 4.0 Ma, and 446.1 ± 8.2 Ma, respectively, indicating that the plutons were emplaced during the Late Ordovician to Late Silurian of the Caledonian time. The granodiorite within the Lingzu biotite monzogranite pluton yields a zircon 206Pb/238U age of 174.5 ± 1.9 Ma, indicating a superimposed Late Jurassic magmatic event. The monzogranites and their enclaves show εNd(t) values of - 14.7 to - 11.1 and - 8.0 respectively and TDM2 values of 2.1-2.4 Ga and 1.8 Ga, respectively, demonstrating that the magmas were derived from re-melted Paleoproterozoic continental crust. Based on geochronology and geochemistry of the granitic plutons, as well as regional stratigraphy and paleontology, it is concluded that any existence of oceanic crust and oceanic subduction was unlikely in the Jinxiu area and vicinity during the Paleozoic Caledonian Ordovician-Silurian time.

  3. Salt distribution in the Louisiana South Additions area from 3D seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines some preliminary observations based on a large interpretation project that was carried out with a grid of 3D time migrated seismic data, covering over 7,500 mi{sup 2} of the South Additions region of offshore Louisiana. Depth migrated data, covering a smaller subset of the study area, was also utilized in the interpretation. Top and base of salt were interpreted and the resulting maps have identified patterns of salt and weld geometry that show some regional trends. Historically, 2D time migrated seismic has been the primary dataset of most of the published regional salt studies. This paper focuses on areas where 3D time migrated data potentially shows most improvement over 2D data, specifically in the subsalt regions. In particular, relationships between base-of-salt keels, welds, basins, regional faulting and basement architecture are investigated. A generalized model is outlined to help explain the current salt geometry in the study area and comparisons are made with recently published salt evolution models.

  4. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  5. Perceptions of a Nearby Exurban Protected Area in South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, David B.; Lawton, Laura J.

    2008-03-01

    To address the dearth of literature on the relations between local residents in urban areas and nearby higher-order exurban protected areas, this study examined the perceptions of Columbia (South Carolina) residents toward Congaree National Park. Mail-out survey results from a random sample of 455 adult residents showed positive overall attitudes toward the park, although this did not extend to a desire to personally volunteer in park activities. Cluster analysis on the basis of seven perceptual statements produced three groups: “very enthusiastic park supporters” (VEPS), accounting for one fourth of the sample; “less enthusiastic park supporters” (LEPS), accounting for approximately one half of the sample; and “ambivalents” (AMBS), accounting for the rest. The AMBS tend to be younger than members of the other clusters and have higher income, but enthusiasm was more clearly related to high levels of interaction and awareness relative to the park. Managerial implications of the study are considered, including the need to encourage higher levels of park awareness and visitation, as well as more ecologically responsible behavior, among residents of the greater Columbia urban area.

  6. Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Antoci, Maria Lucia; Brugaletta, Luana; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage process of macro-elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), held in the irrigation water and the massive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that may pass through the unsaturated zone of the soil profile. Moreover, the area is characterized by the presence of several wells (about 15 wells/km²) for agricultural use that cause the aquifer overexploitation and the consequent risk of seawater intrusion. The agriculture practices adopted in the study area (irrigation volumes, fertilizer concentrations, use of pesticides…) were monitored since February 2009; moreover, the pollution risk of the aquifers was evaluated through the analysis of groundwater water samples collected (monthly) in the monitoring wells; in particular, nitrogen compounds, soluble phosphorous (PO₄²⁻), potassium, as well as the main pesticides commonly used in the study area, were measured.The results show that electrical conductivity and chloride concentration values can cause reduction of production and leaf damage problems, respectively, for most of the monitored farm systems. The high nitrogen compounds concentrations observed in the monitored wells can cause health and environmental problems. Moreover high pesticide contamination of groundwater was found in two of the five monitored wells.

  7. An oilspill risk analysis for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) outer continental shelf lease area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuels, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model ; and locations of environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid analysts in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were: (1) that oil exists in the lease area, (2) that either 0.228 billion (mean case) or 1.14 billion (high case) barrels of oil will be found and produced from tracts sold in sale 78, and (3) that all the oil will be found either in the northern or the southern portion of the lease area. On the basis of these resource estimates, it was estimated that 1 to 5 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or greater will occur over the 25 to 30-year production life of the proposed sale 78 tracts. The results also depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given the above assumptions, the estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is less than 15 percent for all cases considered; for spills 10,000 barrels or larger, the probability is less than 10 percent. These probabilities also reflect the following assumptions: oilspills remain intact for up to 30 days, do not weather, and are not cleaned up. It is noteworthy that over 80 percent of the risk of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 is due to transportation rather than production of oil. In addition, the risks of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 (mean resource estimate) are less than one-tenth of the risks of existing tanker transportation of crude oil imports and refined products in the South Atlantic area.

  8. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  9. Fertility trend and pattern in a rural area of South Africa in the context of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Garenne, Michel; Moultrie, Tom A

    2004-08-01

    Little is known about the dynamics of fertility transition in South Africa, though recent studies have begun to shed light on demographic changes in the country. This study presents trends and patterns of fertility observed in a rural South African population. Various demographic and statistical techniques were used to examine fertility patterns in a population of 21,847 women in a rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) demographic surveillance area. These are compared with patterns seen in another South African rural population under demographic surveillance, and with data from the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey. Findings are interpreted in light of contraceptive use patterns and HIV prevalence in the population. In South Africa, the end of the fertility transition is now in sight. In rural KZN, where national fertility levels are highest, fertility has declined rapidly for about two decades and would have reached below replacement level in 2003. While fertility has declined rapidly among all women over age 18 years, fertility levels among adolescents have not changed in decades. Although most adolescents in rural KZN were sexually active (60%), few had ever used contraception (200%). High HIV seroprevalence appears to explain a small part of the fertility decline (12%); however, this effect is likely to grow in the near future as the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in South Africa. If the current trends continue in the future, below replacement fertility, together with high mortality due to AIDS, it could soon lead to negative natural population growth in rural South Africa.

  10. Crustal Structure Across the Three Gorges Dam from Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is one of the biggest engineering projects in the world. In order to understand the crustal structure across the TGD, a wide-angle seismic profile was acquired from Fengjie, Sichuan Province, to Guanyindang, Hubei Province. The crustal velocity and reflectivity cross-section across the TGD shows lateral velocity variation and a northward-slipping, crustal-scale, strong reflector. The TGD is located at a transition in crustal thickness from about 45 km in the northwest to about 35 km in the southeast. The topography of China is characterized by three terraces. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the first terrace with a surface elevation above sea level of >4500 m; the second terrace lies north and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at an elevation of 1000-2000 m; the third terrace is in the eastern part of China with an elevation of <500 m. Three cross sections along latitude 30, 31 and 32 from eastern Tibet to the East China Sea illuminate two steep topographic gradients at Longmenshan (97.5E), between eastern Tibet and the Sichuan basin, the TGD area (110E), and the flanking marginal seas (125E). The TGD area, named after the three gorges of Xiling Xia, Wu Xia, and Qutang Xia (Xia means "gorge" in Chinese), is located at the middle segmentations of the Yangtze River, extending from Fengjie, Sichuan Province, to Yichang, Hubei Province, with a total length of about 200 km. Due to the abrupt relief from the second to third topographic terrace of China, the unstopping, huge amounts of river stream provide the best place for the construction of the largest hydro power plant ever in the world. In order to provide a background of the crustal environment for the dam project, a wide-angle seismic profile along the Yangtze River was carried out. Tectonically, the studied area belongs to the Yangtze block and cut several sub-tectonic units: the Wanxian depression fold belt, the Zigui platform fold belt, the southwestern Hubei province complex fold belt

  11. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  12. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons.

  13. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  14. Human-carnivore coexistence on communal land bordering the greater Kruger area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lagendijk, D D Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents' natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  15. Human Carnivore Coexistence on Communal Land Bordering the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents’ natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  16. Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ = 0.005 μg/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 μL) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 μg/L in groundwater (n = 60), <0.005-30.2 μg/L in surface water (n = 11), and 0.063-0.393 μg/L in tap water (n = 3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 μg/L), further investigation on human health is warranted.

  17. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  19. Hydrogeology and structure of the Bluewater Springs area south central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, C.E.; Osborne, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    The Bluewater springs area in south central Montana was the site of oil and gas exploration in the first half of this century. Though no significant oil was found, artesian water wells produced over 3,000 gallons per minute. Artesian springs in the area produce tufa deposits over faulted, northwest dipping Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sediments. Two new faults were mapped in the vicinity, one of these a high angle vertical fault dissects an anticline. The Tensleep and Madison aquifers (700-1,000 feet deep) leak water to the surface through faults and fractures, producing variable water quality depending on the minerals dissolved from overlying rock formations. Evaluation of limited aquifer data reveals the following: (1) hydraulic conductivity of 40,000 to 300,000 gpd/ft, (2) hydrostatic head greater than 400 feet above land surface. (3) Total dissolved solids concentrations were 2,370 ppm in Big Bluewater Springs, but only 1,200 ppm in a Tensleep well in the vicinity. Flowing wells 45 to 70 years old have failed leading to major yield reductions, and cessation of flow. Potentially corrosive groundwater coupled with excessive flow velocities and inadequate well construction has likely led to well failures. In response, major uncontrolled alterations of groundwater flow systems have occurred with outbreaks of new springs and sinkholes near failed wells. New wells must be carefully planned, constructed and tested to avoid excessive interference, depressurization and failure.

  20. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  1. Geology of the area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.; Smith, W.A.; Snoke, A.W.; Peck, L.S.; Pitcher, D.M.; Prowell, D.C.; Simpson, D.H.

    1982-08-10

    This study provides geological background information necessary for an evaluation of the earthquake hazard in an area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. This region contains a thick stratified sequence of Proterozoic Z and Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. In the early to middle Paleozoic, this sequence was recrystallized and deformed under metamorphic conditions that ranged from greenschist to amphibolite facies and experienced at least two episodes of folding. The region has been intruded by late kinematic to postkinematic granitoid plutons of Silurian and Carboniferous ages and by numerous northwest trending diabase diks of Late Traissic and Early Jurassic age. The region south of Monticello Reservoir in the Carolina slate belt experienced two episodes of faulting in the late Paleozoic and/or early to middle Mesozoic. The older group of faults trends approximately east, has only small displacements, and is characterized by extensive silicifiction of the fault zones. The younger group of faults trends approximately north has experienced dip slip displacements up to 1700 m and is characterized by carbonate mineralization in the fault zones. Both sets of faults are cut by an undeformed diabase dike of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. The induced seismic activity around Monticello Reservoir is occurring in a heterogeneous quartz monzonite pluton of Carboniferous age. The pluton contains large enclaves of country rock and is cut by numerous, diversely oriented small faults and joint. These local inhomogeneities in the pluton together with an irregular stress field are interpreted to control the diffuse seismic activity around the reservoir. In view of the apparent absence of lengthy faults it is unlikely that a large-magnitude earthquake will occur in response to the stress and pore pressure changes related to the impoundment of Monticello Reservoir.

  2. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  3. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  4. 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in the faulted Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Numerical investigations of 3D modes of large-scale convection in faulted aquifers are presented with the aim to infer possible transport mechanisms supporting the formation of thermal springs in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), at the border between Israel and Jordan. The transient finite elements models are based on a geological model of the LYG that introduces more realistic structural features of the basin, compared to previous existing models of the area (Magri et al., submitted). The sensitivity analysis of the fault permeability showed that faults cross-cutting the main regional flow direction allow groundwater to be driven laterally by convective forces within the fault planes. Therein thermal waters can either discharge along the fault traces or exit the fault through adjacent permeable aquifers. The location of springs can migrate with time, is not strictly constrained to the damage zones and reflects the interplay between the wavelength of the multicellular regime in the fault zone and the regional flow toward discharge areas in the lowlands. The results presented here suggest that in the LYG case, crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of fault convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the Gorge, and additional flow fields that can be induced either by topography N-S gradients, e.g. perpendicular to the major axe of the Gorge, or by local thermal convection in permeable aquifers below Eocene aquiclude. The sensitivity analysis is consistent with the analytical solutions based on viscous-dependent Rayleigh theory. It indicates that in the LYG coexisting transport processes likely occur at fault hydraulic conductivity ranging between 2.3e-7 m/s and 9.3e- 7 m/s (i.e. 7 m/yr and 30 m/yr). The LYG numerical example and the associated Rayleigh analysis can be applied to study the onset of thermal convection and resulting flow patterns of any fractured hydrothermal basin. References Magri F, Möller S, Inbar N, M

  5. Delineation of Areas Contributing Water to the Dry Brook Public-Supply Well, South Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; Stone, Janet Radway

    2004-01-01

    Areas contributing water to the Dry Brook public-supply well in South Hadley, Massachusetts, were delineated with a numerical ground-water-flow model that is based on geologic and hydrologic information for the confined sand and gravel aquifer pumped by the supply well. The study area is along the Connecticut River in central Massachusetts, about 12 miles north of Springfield, Massachusetts. Geologic units in the study area consist of Mesozoic-aged sedimentary and igneous bedrock, late-Pleistocene glaciolacustrine sediments, and recent alluvial deposits of the Connecticut River flood plain. Dry Brook Hill, immediately south of the supply well, is a large subaqueous lacustrine fan and delta formed during the last glacial retreat by sediment deposition into glacial Lake Hitchcock from a meltwater tunnel that was likely near where the Connecticut River cuts through the Holyoke Range. The sediments that compose the aquifer grade from very coarse sand and gravel along the northern flank of the hill, to medium sands in the body of the hill, and to finer-grained sediments along the southern flank of the hill. The interbedded and overlapping fine-grained lacustrine sediments associated with Dry Brook Hill include varved silt and clay deposits. These fine-grained sediments form a confining bed above the coarse-grained aquifer at the supply well and partially extend under the Connecticut River adjacent to the supply well. Ground-water flow in the aquifer supplying water to Dry Brook well was simulated with the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-flow modeling code MODFLOW. The Dry Brook aquifer model was calibrated to drawdown data collected from 8 observation wells during an aquifer test conducted by pumping the supply well for 10 days at a rate of 122.2 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min; 914 gallons per minute) and to water levels collected from observation wells across the study area. Generally, the largest hydraulic conductivity values used in the model were in the sand and

  6. Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

  7. Landslides in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Evarts, Russell C.; Bard, Joseph A.

    2016-11-04

    SummaryRecent light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery has allowed us to identify and map a large number of previously unrecognized landslides, or slides, in heavily forested terrain in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington, and it has revealed that the few previously recognized areas of instability are actually composites of multiple smaller landslides. The high resolution of the imagery further reveals that landslides in the map area have complex movement histories and span a wide range of relative ages. Movement histories are inferred from relative landslide locations and crosscutting relations of surface features. Estimated age ranges are based on (1) limited absolute dating; (2) relative fineness of landscape surface textures, calibrated by comparison with surfaces of currently active and dated landslides as interpreted from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), global positioning system (GPS), and historical records; (3) sharpness and steepness of larger-scale surface morphologic features, calibrated by comparison with similar dated features in other regions; (4) degree of surface erosion; and (5) evidence of erosion or deposition by late Pleistocene (15–22 ka) Missoula floods at or below 200 m altitude. The relative age categories are recent (0 to ~1,000 years old), intermediate-age (~1,000 to ~15,000 years old), and old (>~15,000 years old). Within the 221.5 km2 map area, we identified 215 discrete landslides, covering 140.9 km2 (64 percent of the map area). At least 12 of the recent landslides are currently moving or have moved within the last two decades. Mapping for this study expanded the area of previously recognized unstable terrain by 56 percent. Landslide geometries suggest that more than half (62 percent) of these slope failures are translational landslides or composite landslides with translational elements, with failure occurring along gently sloping bedding planes in zones of deeply weathered, locally clay rich

  8. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  9. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  10. Vehicular emission exposure of bicycle commuters in the urban area of Guangzhou, South China (PRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L.Y.; Hung, W.T. ); Qin, Y. )

    1994-01-01

    Guangzhou is a major city in South China and is at the forefront of economic reform since 1978. The population of Guangzhou is rapidly increasing and most people either walk or cycle to and from work. These commuters are highly vulnerable to vehicular emissions. An indirect approach was adopted to estimate vehicular emission exposure to Guangzhou bicycle commuters. Four bus routes were selected as typical commuting routes. Concentrations of NO[sub x] and CO as well as traffic volume, vehicle speed, ground-level wind speed, and direction were measured at monitoring points set up along the routes of typical street links passing through areas of various land uses. CO and NO[sub x] were recognized to be two major vehicular emission pollutants. The average CO exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 3.7 [mu]L/L to 8.2 [mu]L/L. Few CO samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. No adverse effect on health was expected. The average NO[sub x] exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 0.13 [mu]L/L to 0.26 [mu]L/L. More than half of the NO[sub x] samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. Adverse effects on the health of bicycle commuters might result. Other factors such as street configurations and land uses were also analyzed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-06-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  12. Storm-reworked shallow-marine fans in the Middle Triassic Baise area, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahao; Xie, Xinong; Pang, Xiong; Liu, Baojun

    2017-03-01

    Shallow-marine fans have been analyzed for sedimentary characteristics and genetic mechanisms far less commonly than deep-marine fans. Based on outcrop observations, this study reveals that large-scale submarine fans in the Middle Triassic Baise area, south China, consisted of a braided channel-levee facies complex in the inner fans; sinuous channel-levee facies complex, overbank facies and crevasse splay facies in the medial fans; and sand sheet facies in the outer fans, which present different lithology assemblages and depositional successions. The lithofacies of dominant massive sandstone, secondary graded sandstone and laminated sandstone from bottom to top is similar to the Bouma sequence, indicative of gravity flow processes. However, the laminated sandstones mostly bear sedimentary structures of gutter casts, wave-generated ripple marks, hummocky cross-bedding, wave-generated cross-bedding and ripple bedding, and were thus attributed to frequent storm reworking processes. Moreover, discontinuous deposition recorded by abrupt sediment grain-size changes, distinct interfaces and divergent paleocurrent orientations occurred between the laminated sandstones and the underlying massive (or graded) sandstones. Accordingly, storm reworking processes together with abundant fossils of Daonella, Ammonite and Crinoidea indicate a shallow-marine paleo-environment. As a whole, this study provides a good example of large-scale shallow-marine fans and laminated sandstones resulted from storm reworking.

  13. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dynamics and anthropogenic impacts of multiple karst flow systems in a mountainous area of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Criss, Robert E.; Zhou, Hong; Huang, He; Han, Zhaofeng; Shi, Tingting

    2016-12-01

    The Xiangxi River basin, South China, is a steep terrane with well-developed karst features and an important Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer. Meteoric water in this mountainous area features a mean δ18O elevation gradient of -2.4 ‰/km. This gradient was used to estimate mean recharge elevations of 760 m for Shuimoxi (SMX) spring, 1,060 m for Xiangshuidong (XSD) spring, and 1,430 m for drill hole ZK03, indicating multiple flow paths in the Cambrian-Ordovician karst aquifer. Mean residence times of 230 and 320 days and ˜2 years were estimated for these features, respectively, using the damped running average model that predicts the isotopic variations in groundwater from those in precipitation. Groundwater in the regional karst flow system has the longest residence time, the highest recharge elevation, the longest flow paths, the lowest addition of anthropogenic components, and the greatest amount of water-rock interaction as indicated by its higher dissolved solids, Mg2+ concentrations and Mg/Ca ratios than the springs. In contrast, the local and shallow karst flow systems respond rapidly to recharge events. Artificial tracer tests prove that these shallow karst systems can also quickly transmit anthropogenic contaminants, indicating that they are highly vulnerable to human impacts, which include the enrichment of NO3 -. The intensity of water-rock interaction and groundwater vulnerability are mainly determined by the structure and dynamics of the multiple karst flow systems.

  15. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  16. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    PubMed

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  17. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  18. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis.

  19. Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.; Stieve, A.

    1992-03-01

    Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

  20. Geochemistry of archean shales from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa: source-area weathering and provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Condie, K.C.

    1987-09-01

    With a few exceptions, shales from the Archean Witwatersrand Supergroup in South Africa are depleted in Na, Ca, Large ion lithophile elements (LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and half field strength elements ((HFSE) compared to Phanerozoic shales. Cr, Co and Ni are enriched in all Witwatersrand shales and Fe and Mg are high in shales from the West Rand Groups (WRG) and lower Central Rand Group (CRG). Shales from the CRG and uppermost WRG are enriched in Na, Al, LILE, REE, HFSE and transition metals relative to shales from the lower WRG. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for all Witwatersrand shales are enriched in light-REE and exhibit small to moderate negative Eu anomalies. Relative to shales from the CRG, shales from the WRG exhibit depletions of Na, Ca and Sr, a feature probably reflecting intense chemical weathering of their source rocks. CIA indices in Witwatersrand shales are variable, even within the same shale unit. Such variations reflect chiefly variable climatic zones or rates of tectonic uplift in source areas with perhaps some contribution from provenance and element remobilization during metamorphism. Compared to present-day upper continental crust, all but the Orange Grove, Roodepoort, and K8 shales appear to have been derived from continental sources depleted in LILE, REE, and HFSE and enriched in transition metals. Computer mixing models abased on six relatively immobile elements (Th, Hf, Yb, La, Sc, Co) and four source rocks indicate that the relative proportions of granite, basalt and komatiite increased with time in sediment source areas at the expense of tonalite.

  1. Geostatistical analysis of soil geochemical data from an industrial area (Puertollano, South-Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José M.; Higueras, Pablo; López-Berdonces, Miguel A.; García-Noguero, Eva M.; González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Martínez-Coronado, Alba

    2015-04-01

    Puertollano is the biggest industrial city of Castilla-La Mancha, with 48,086 inhabitants. It is located 250 km South of Madrid in the North border of the Ojailén River valley. The industrial area includes a big coal open pit (ENCASUR), two power plants (EON and ELCOGAS), a petrochemical complex (REPSOL) and a fertiliser factory (ENFERSA), all located in the proximities of the town. These industries suppose a complex scenario in terms of metals and metalloids emissions. For instance, mercury emissions declared to PRTR inventory during 2010 were 210 kg year-1 (REPSOL), 130 kg year-1 (ELCOGAS) and 11,9 kg year-1 (EON). Besides it still remains an unaccounted possibly of diffuse sources of other potentially toxic elements coming from the different industrial sites. Multielemental analyses of soils from two different depths covering the whole valley were carried out by means of XRF with a portable Oxford Instruments device. Geostatistical data treatment was performed using SURFER software, applying block kriging to obtain interpolation maps for the study area. Semivariograms of elemental concentrations make a clear distinction between volatile (Hg, Se) and non-volatile elements (Cu, Ni), with differences in scales and variances between the two soil horizons considered. Semivariograms also show different models for elements emitted by combustion processes (Ni) and for anomalous elements from geological substrate (Pb, Zn). In addition to differences in anisotropy of data, these models reflect different forms of elemental dispersion; despite this, identification of particular sources for the different elements is not possible for this geochemical data set.

  2. Late Miocene/Pliocene Ostracod Biostratigraphy from South Carpathian Foredeep, Romania (Badislava-Topolog Area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floroiu, Alina; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    The Paratethys epicontinental sea has been an essential paleogeographic feature defining the Eurasian interior since Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, ongoing tectonic activity in the region determined severe restrictions of the connection of the large former Paratethys sea resulting in the formation of several smaller subbasins: the Pannonian basin, the Dacian basin, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the western part of the Dacian Basin, the thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Getic Depression of Romania provide an exceptional opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced important sea level changes related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These sedimentary successions were the basis of high-resolution magnetobiostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the Geological Time Scale. Here, we present the main characteristics of the ostracod assemblages of the Late Miocene/Pliocene sedimentary succession from Badislava-Topolog section covering the Eastern Paratethys regional Maeotian and Pontian, stages that are, at moment, under ongoing formal stratigraphic definition process. The Mio-Pliocene is exposed in the central part of the Getic Depression, especially Topolog-Arges area, where it riches up to 500 m in thickness being incorporated into a large monocline structure with 15o-20o plungeto the south. The Upper Maeotian deposits from the area have developed mainly in fluviatile-deltaic facies with frequent continental intercalations. The ostracod assemblage is represented by rare fresh water ostracods of Candona, Pseudocandona and Ilyocypris genera, capable to populate unstable environments like flood-plains, lakes and rivers with temporary existence. The scarce Maeotian ostracod fauna from this marginal section differs essentially from the more diversified one of the same age recorded in areas that evolved in basinal

  3. Subsistence and Settlement at Rathbun Reservoir Area in South Central Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    paleolithic of south central Europe. Paper presented at the 42nd annual Society for American Archaeology meetings, New Orleans, LA. 1978 Variability in the...Early Upper Paleolithic of South Central Europe. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Brown, Lionel A. 1965

  4. Selected South African Grade 10 Learners' Perceptions of Two Learning Areas: Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldenhuys, J. L.; Kruger, C.; Moss, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Mathematical Literacy (ML) and Life Orientation (LO) were introduced into South Africa's Grade 10 national curriculum. The implementation of the ML programme in schools stemmed from a need to improve the level of numeracy of the general population of South Africa, while LO was introduced to equip learners to solve problems and to make…

  5. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  6. Rock shelters in Gorges Valley, Mount Kenya Afroalpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Churcher, C. S.; Spence, John R.

    Two rock shelters were located during the course of a field survey of important Quaternary sections on Mount Kenya. Located in dense riverine vegetation, in and around a sequence of end moraines, in the Ericaceous zone on the mountain, they appear to contain the remains of relatively recent ephemeral occupation by transient hunters. The origin of the shelters, their relationship to multiple glaciation on the mountain, and the remains of fragments and bones found in associated hearths are described and discussed. Fragments of wood and bone from a pigeon or dove? ( Streptopelia sp.) and from a small artiodactyl mammal (? Cephalophus grimmia) were recovered, some from within hearths.

  7. Methane emissions from the surface of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huai; Yuan, Xingzhong; Chen, Zhongli; Wu, Yuyuan; Liu, Xianshu; Zhu, Dan; Wu, Ning; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Li, Weizhong

    2011-11-01

    After our previous study about methane (CH4) emissions from littoral marshes of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), Chinese dams have raised a world-wide concern. Through measurements from the surface of the TGR, a CH4 emission rate was recorded as 0.26 ± 0.38 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 (Mean ± SD), relatively low compared with those from other hydropower reservoirs. We also recorded CH4 emission rate from the surface of downstream water, which was also relatively low (0.24 ± 0.37 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Such result may indicate that TGR is not a great CH4 emitter (not "CH4 menace"). One possible reason for such a low emission rate is that measures to maintain water quality and protect environment and ecosystem decrease the input of organic materials (for methanogenesis), which in turn limits the CH4 production in the sediment of the TGR. We also found that CH4 emission from the flooding drawdown area (0.29 ± 0.37 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) was higher than other permanently flooded sites (0.23 ± 0.38 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Because of annual vegetation re-growth, the drawdown zone is the especially important carbon source for methanogenesis in flooding season. Interestingly, we also observed that mean CH4 emission was significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer. This was partly due to seasonal dynamics of hydrology. In order to estimate the net CH4 emissions caused by the reservoir and reservoir operation, the best approach would be Life Cycle Analysis.

  8. 3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  10. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valid West Virginia State hunting license or permit, or are exempt under provisions of West Virginia law... Superintendent for reasons of public safety, resource protection, or other management considerations. (2) Do West Virginia state hunting laws apply within New River Gorge National River? Yes, non-conflicting State...

  11. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases.

  12. The potential of Biochar technology in combating rocky desertification in the Karst area of south China*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, X.; Xing, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhang, L.; Yang, F.; Zhou, H.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation in the Karst region is characterized by soil erosion and subsequent exposure of bedrocks in hillsides, i.e. the rocky desertification. The primary causative forces lie in the deforestation and cultivation on the slopes of mountain topography that inherently lacks for soil deposition due to the dissolving nature of the limestone or dolomite. Realizing the far-reaching impact of the Karst land degradation, which not only impoverishes the local farmers, but also jeopardizes the ecosystem's safety in the middle and lower reaches of the Xijiang and Yangtze rivers, the important economic zones in the south and east China, the Chinese central and provincial governments pushed very hard in recent decade to implement restoration of the hill slopes. Hundreds of millions of money have been invested in this effort. The achievement, however, falls far short of the expectations because, as we believe, of the neglect of the inevitability of the mass development of the mountain slopes. As the most intensely degraded area in southwest China, Guizhou province exemplies the other Karst regions in south China in the development of the rocky desertification. With the establishment of the P. R. China, this mountainous province, like other regions of China, witnessed the soaring of population, of which 86% occurred in the countryside. The urge to support the increased population led to the most prevalent land reclamation in Guizhou's history. Due to lack of plat land resources, the farmers have no alternative but to turn their axes and hoes to the hillsides. The disturbances deprived the meager soil of its fragile stability and made it an easy prey to the flooding waters and thus resulted in the widespread rocky desertification. The restoration of the hillsides, therefore, must be compensated by incomes from other sources. Accordingly, we proposed an approach through increasing the productivity of the basic farmland, the fields that are located in the flat lands, and did

  13. Temporal and spatial patterns of internal phosphorus recycling in a South Florida (USA) stormwater treatment area.

    PubMed

    Dierberg, Forrest E; DeBusk, Thomas A; Henry, Jaimee L; Jackson, Scott D; Galloway, Stacey; Gabriel, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Large constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas (STAs), have been deployed to remove phosphorus (P) in drainage waters before discharge into the Everglades in South Florida, USA. Their P removal performance depends on internal P cycling under typically hydrated, but with occasionally desiccated, conditions. We examined the spatial and temporal P removal capacity under different hydrologic conditions along a STA flow path. While inflow soils are P enriched, the outflow region of the wetland contained P-unsaturated soils with minimal net recycling of bound soil P to the water column as plant-available P. The outflow-region soils were characterized by low porewater soluble reactive P (SRP) (≤40 μg L) and high total sulfide (TS) (2-9 mg L) concentrations, and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) and SRP flux rates that averaged 1.51 and 0.002 mg m d, respectively. Pronounced increases in porewater and surface-water concentrations of SRP, dissolved organic P (DOP), and TAN were observed immediately after rehydration of the cell after an extended drought. Elevated total P concentrations persisted at the outfall of the cell for several months thereafter, resulting in an annual outflow total P concentration nearly threefold higher than the long-term mean. Relative to processes that can occur during extended periods of inundation, such as sulfate-enhanced P release from organic matter mineralization or iron sulfide formation, aerobic oxidation of organic matter during prolonged dryout periods is a more significant biogeochemical process in compromising soil P retention in STAs.

  14. MRS experiments in a noisy area of a detrital aquifer in the south of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, Juan; Rubio, Felix

    2002-05-01

    The signal measured in a Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) is of very low amplitude, of the order of tens of nanovolts and is very easily disturbed by the presence of electromagnetic noise of industrial or natural origin. To expand the capabilities of this new geophysical method, it is of great importance to develop field and analytical techniques to reduce the influence of noise in the final results of the MRS. Some field techniques are analyzed in this paper, for several MRS taken in a noisy area at a detrital aquifer in the south of Spain. Two kinds of noise are present, both of amplitude higher than 1500 nV: continuous random noise and spiky noise, with bursts of very high amplitude and occurrence depending on the site and on the time of the day. Trial records made at these places are of little significance, and only complete records taken with the most suitable size, shape and orientation of the antenna, and with a large stacking number, allow to detect the decay pattern of the signal coming from the water-rich layers. The appropriate design of these recording parameters have proven capable of diminishing the effect of random noise, but the results are not as good for spikes, which demand the use of different techniques. The knowledge of the noise pattern obtained in the MRS measurement could be used to design digital filters to attenuate noise influence, together with the aid of surgical muting. The interpretation of the field data has been made without any prior knowledge of the geological information. Despite the high noise level observed on this site, the inversion result achieved present a remarkable correlation with geological data for the water content distribution and are worse for the decay time determination, which seems to be more affected by the existence of noise. Phase and frequency seem to be good quality control parameters before inverting the data, regardless the noisy aspect of the recorded values.

  15. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan

    2013-09-01

    The paper takes China's authoritative Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangzi (Yangtze) Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 1992 as a benchmark against which to evaluate emerging major environmental outcomes since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. The paper particularly examines five crucial environmental aspects and associated causal factors. The five domains include human resettlement and the carrying capacity of local environments (especially land), water quality, reservoir sedimentation and downstream riverbed erosion, soil erosion, and seismic activity and geological hazards. Lessons from the environmental impact assessments of the TGP are: (1) hydro project planning needs to take place at a broader scale, and a strategic environmental assessment at a broader scale is necessary in advance of individual environmental impact assessments; (2) national policy and planning adjustments need to react quickly to the impact changes of large projects; (3) long-term environmental monitoring systems and joint operations with other large projects in the upstream areas of a river basin should be established, and the cross-impacts of climate change on projects and possible impacts of projects on regional or local climate considered.

  16. Floodplain morphodynamics and distribution of trace elements in overbank deposits, Vistula River Valley Gorge near Solec nad Wisłą, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowska, Ewa; Falkowski, Tomasz; Tatur, Andrzej; Kałmykow-Piwińska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in the floodplain of the Vistula River Valley gorge near Solec nad Wisłą (Małopolska Gorge of the Vistula River). Geological mapping was supported by DEM and remote sensing analysis. Sediment samples were taken from depths of 0.5 m and 1.5 m from all geomorphological features identified. The geochemical analysis included determination of Cr, V, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb and Zn concentrations. Results indicate that the main factors affecting the pattern of features in the floodplain of this area are (1) the highly dynamic flood flow in the narrow section of the gorge and (2) the relief of the top surface of the sub-alluvial basement. The variable concentrations of trace elements are closely related to the floodplain features. Their concentrations can be considered as valuable geochemical proxies that enable a more thorough reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Vistula River Valley and other similar river valleys, especially in gorge sections.

  17. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte River of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  18. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  19. Database of well and areal data, South San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, D.A.; Fio, J.L.; Metzger, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    A database was developed to organize and manage data compiled for a regional assessment of geohydrologic and water-quality conditions in the south San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area in California. Available data provided by local, State, and Federal agencies and private consultants was utilized in the assessment. The database consists of geographicinformation system data layers and related tables and American Standard Code for Information Interchange files. Documentation of the database is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of the data and to make users aware of potential errors and limitations. Most of the data compiled were collected from wells and boreholes (collectively referred to as wells in this report). This point-specific data, including construction, water-level, waterquality, pumping test, and lithologic data, are contained in tables and files that are related to a geographic information system data layer that contains the locations of the wells. There are 1,014 wells in the data layer and the related tables contain 35,845 water-level measurements (from 293 of the wells) and 9,292 water-quality samples (from 394 of the wells). Calculation of hydraulic heads and gradients from the water levels can be affected adversely by errors in the determination of the altitude of land surface at the well. Cation and anion balance computations performed on 396 of the water-quality samples indicate high cation and anion balance errors for 51 (13 percent) of the samples. Well drillers' reports were interpreted for 762 of the wells, and digital representations of the lithology of the formations are contained in files following the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The usefulness of drillers' descriptions of the formation lithology is affected by the detail and thoroughness of the drillers' descriptions, as well as the knowledge, experience, and vocabulary of the individual who described the drill cuttings. Additional data layers were created that

  20. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J D; Codilean, A T; Stroeven, A P; Fabel, D; Hättestrand, C; Kleman, J; Harbor, J M; Heyman, J; Kubik, P W; Xu, S

    2014-05-09

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  1. Antibodies to the Ross River virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern New South Wales Australia, between December 1999 and May 2004, were tested for antibodies to Ross River virus (RRV). In one population in northwest Sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in Newcastle, New South Wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. Antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (Macropus robustus) (36%) but not in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) (n=5), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) (n=12) and southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) (n=2) from the Sydney area. These data support the possible role of marsupials as urban amplifying hosts for RRV.

  2. Application of ERTS imagery in estimating the environmental impact of a freeway through the Knysna area of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    In the coastal areas north-east and south-west of Knysna, South Africa lie natural forests, lakes and lagoons highly regarded by many for their aesthetic and ecological richness. A freeway construction project has given rise to fears of the degradation or destruction of these natural features. The possibility was investigated of using ERTS imagery to estimate the environmental impact of the freeway and found that: (1) All threatened features could readily be identified on the imagery. (2) It was possible within a short time to provide an area estimate of damage to indigenous forest. (3) In several important respects the imagery has advantages over maps and aerial photos for this type of work. (4) The imagery will enable monitoring of the actual environmental impact of the freeway when completed.

  3. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  4. RESOURCES FOR SOUTH ASIAN AREA STUDIES IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE CONVENED BY THE COMMITTEE ON SOUTH ASIA OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR ASIAN STUDIES FOR THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION (FEBRUARY 23-25, 1961).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAMBERT, RICHARD D.

    THE 21 WORKING PAPERS IN THIS BOOK WERE PREPARED BY AMERICAN SCHOLARS IN THE FIELD OF SOUTH ASIAN AREA AND LANGUAGE STUDIES FOR A CONFERENCE CONVENED BY THE COMMITTEE ON SOUTH ASIA OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR ASIAN STUDIES IN 1961. THE CONFERENCE DEALT WITH THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ON SPECIFIC COUNTRIES AND IN SPECIFIC DISCIPLINES AS WELL AS THE PRESENT…

  5. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  6. CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing anomaly extraction of metallogenic prediction research in Gansu Beishan South Beach area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yongfei; Zhao, Yingjun

    2014-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has one of the technical advantages atlas. The known deposits of Gansu Beishan South Beach deposits as the study area, based on the theory of wall rock alteration, using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (CASI/SASI), extracted mineralization alteration information and analysis. Based on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing mineral mapping results in the study area, Combining analysising of possible mineral formation fluid properties, spatial distribution characteristics and time evolution with analysising of mineral formation environment (lithology and tectonic environment), construction of the South Beach gold deposit location model, the deposit location model as a guide, comprehensive analysis of mineralization geological background and surface geochemical data, delineated mineralization favorable areas. The field investigation showed that signs of altered development of strong in the delineation of the mineralization favorable areas and metallogenic potential of better, is worth paying attention to the prospecting target area. Further explanation that the hyperspectral remote sensing can provide accurate and reliable information for the prospecting, and is worthy of further mining the ore prospecting potential.

  7. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... point five nautical miles southeasterly from USC&GS Station Tuck 3, at latitude 30°23′10.074″ N, longitude 086°48′25.433″ W, three nautical miles offshore of Santa Rosa Island; thence easterly three... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south...

  8. The Mexican-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Calvin, Richmond

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Mexican Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness of minority groups. The document opens with historical background information beginning in 1877 during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz of Mexico. The narrative follows migration…

  9. School Leadership Practices That Work in Areas of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoko, Vitallis; Naicker, Inbanathan; Mthiyane, Siphiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on evidence from five school principals regarding leadership practices that work in multiple deprived contexts. The South African educational landscape is complex, often described as a cocktail of first and third world institutions. Looking at the schooling system on a continuum, on the one end there are first class schools…

  10. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific Coast from a foreign place in the Western Hemisphere south of... U.S. 122.23 Section 122.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...) Place of last departure; (6) Estimated time and location of crossing U.S. border/coastline;...

  11. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific Coast from a foreign place in the Western Hemisphere south of... U.S. 122.23 Section 122.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...) Place of last departure; (6) Estimated time and location of crossing U.S. border/coastline;...

  12. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific Coast from a foreign place in the Western Hemisphere south of... U.S. 122.23 Section 122.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...) Place of last departure; (6) Estimated time and location of crossing U.S. border/coastline;...

  13. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific Coast from a foreign place in the Western Hemisphere south of... U.S. 122.23 Section 122.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...) Place of last departure; (6) Estimated time and location of crossing U.S. border/coastline;...

  14. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific Coast from a foreign place in the Western Hemisphere south of... U.S. 122.23 Section 122.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...) Place of last departure; (6) Estimated time and location of crossing U.S. border/coastline;...

  15. Analysis of Staining Observed on Structures in the Georgetown, South Carolina Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Govier, R. Dale

    2002-05-01

    Beginning around 1970, the Georgetown, SC, community complained about black dust and red stains collecting on houses, cars, boats, and other structures. The community, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), seeks to identify the source or cause of the staining and ways to reduce or eliminate it in the future.

  16. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing lignites in the Bar H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard D.

    1953-01-01

    Core drilling in the Car H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota, under a contract with the B. H. Mott Drilling Co., Huntington, West Virginia, was resumed June 12, 1952 after a 6-month recess during the winter and was completed July 18, 1952. The drilling was undertaken to obtain information on the distribution and extent of the uranium-bearing lignite beds along the southeast edge of the Bar H area. Eight holes totalling 885 feet were drilled and 52 feet of lignite core submitted for study and analysis. The report includes detailed lithographic descriptions of the lignite cores, Bureau of Mines coal analyses, and the results of 100 chemical analyses for uranium. The drilling showed that the thicker, more persistent lignite beds exposed in the northern part of the Bar H area were removed by erosion prior to the deposition of the overlaying White River formation in the south-eastern part of the area. The beds penetrated by drilling were not of sufficient thickness or uranium content to add to the previously known reserves.

  17. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    estimating the volume of erosion and deposition for a given time interval. Analysis of the geomorphic variations for the period February 2002-February 2008, shows that the banks formed by lahar deposits in 1997 and 2001 at the study site receded from 48.6% to 27.4% in favor of the riverbed, and 31.0% to 52.7%, in favor of the terraces formed by secondary lahars. The time sequence for the cross-profiles depicts a general widening and infilling of the gorge floor, with greater emphasis on erosion from September 2003-February 2008 (1523 m3as compared to 387 m3of accretion). The changes, however, were not homogeneous during the study period, due to varying rainfall patterns that cause fluctuations in runoff. This relationship became evident after comparing geomorphologic and topographic alterations and heavy precipitation (maximum/24 hrs), and variations in monthly precipitation yield and average yield for the period 1971-2000 (data provided by the Mexico's National Meteorological Service). Although both lower slope recession and lahar-induced deposition on the floor of the channel increased during the period February-October 2002, down cutting and evacuation of materials (677 m3) greatly surpassed deposition (145 m3). The predominance of one process in relation to another was much more acute for this period than for any other, even though it occurred during a relatively dry rainy season with below average precipitation. The explanation for this is attributed to the onset of lahar activity in January 2001 and high maximum rainfall late in the rainy season. This was followed by a dry spell and a second very wet rainy season from October 2002 - September 2003. During this time, the slopes continued to recede in favor of the riverbed, where some down cutting and infilling occurred, resulting in a slight net gain in surface area. During the next five months of the dry season, changes in the landforms were proportionally greater, producing a substantial increase in surface area and

  18. Small Arms Range Training Area Environmental Screening-Level Assessment at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Pursuant to Section 305(b) of the Federal Clean Water Act, FY 2000. 22. SCDHEC, Watershed Water Quality Management Strategy: Saluda- Edisto Basin , June...July 1992. 33. SCDHEC Bureau of Water, Watershed Water Quality Assessment - Saluda River Basin , Technical Report No. 005-98, December 1998. 62...to southeasterly direction across Fort Jackson towards two major discharge points, the Congaree River to the south and southwest, and the Wateree

  19. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    South Dakota and Federal Ambient Air Quality Standards .............................................. 3 -20 3 -4 Summary of Annual Emissions ( TPY ...power plants show the highest annual emissions for all parameters. Table 3 -4. Summary of Annual Emissions ( TPY ) Counties VOCs CO NOx SOx PM10 PM2.5...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage

  20. EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ON WATER QUALITY IN THE BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, William P.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The South Fork Cumberland River begins in Tennessee at the confluence of the New River and Clear Fork. Strip mining for coal in the New River basin has been ongoing for decades with little reclamation prior to 1977. Water-quality data show that suspended-sediment and dissolved-constituent loads from the New River dominate the water quality in the National River and Recreation Area. The suspended sediment can impart a highly turbid and aesthetically displeasing appearance to the water during low-flow periods which are times of maximum recreational use. High suspended-sediment concentrations are also potentially harmful to the aquatic habitat in the Recreation Area. In addition to the suspended-sediment load, a large supply of coarse material is slowly moving through the channels of the New River basin toward the Recreation Area.

  1. Delineation of the subsurface geological structures of Omu-Aran area, south-western Nigeria, using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayode, J. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Baioumy, H. M.; Khalil, A. E.; Khiruddin, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    Omu-Aran area is characterized by mining activities to exploit the valuable mineralization there. These facts motivated the present work to evaluate the factors controlling the mineralization in the study area using aeromagnetic data obtained from the Nigerian Geological survey Agency. The data was processed and interpreted with the mean of delineating subsurface geological structures around Omu-Aran in Kwara State, South-western Nigeria. Data enhancement methods was performed on the aeromagnetic map using Regional Residual Separation of the total field anomalies map; horizontal gradient enhanced and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRS) removed; reduced to the pole magnetic shaded relief image was carried out; Magnetic vertical gradient calculated, Magnetic horizontal gradient measured and Analytical signal map was constructed using some computer aided packages. The interpreted map enabled delineation of various subsurface geological structures such as the rock contacts, fractured and faulted areas.

  2. A baseline record of trace elements concentration along the beach placer mining areas of Kanyakumari coast, South India.

    PubMed

    Simon Peter, T; Chandrasekar, N; John Wilson, J S; Selvakumar, S; Krishnakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2017-03-23

    Trace element concentration in the beach placer mining areas of Kanyakumari coast, South India was assessed. Sewage and contaminated sediments from mining sites has contaminated the surface sediments. Enrichment factor indicates moderately severe enrichment for Pb, minor enrichment for Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe and no enrichment for Cr and Cu. The Igeo values show higher concentration of Pb ranging in the scale of 3-4, which shows strong contamination due to high anthropogenic activity such as mining and terrestrial influences into the coastal regions. Correlation coefficient shows that most of the elements are associated with each other except Ni and Pb. Factor analysis reveals that Mn, Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb and Cu are having a significant loading and it indicates that these elements are mainly derived from similar origin. The cluster analysis clearly indicated that the mining areas are grouped under cluster 2 and non-mining areas are clustered under group 1.

  3. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by (137)Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area.

  4. [Nitrogen Losses Under the Action of Different Land Use Types of Small Catchment in Three Gorges Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-long; Gao, Ming; Ni, Jiu-pai; Xie, De-ti; Deng, Hua

    2016-05-15

    As an independent water-collecting area, small catchment is the source of non-point source pollution in Three Gorges Region. Choosing 3 kinds of the most representative land-use types and using them to lay monitoring points of overland runoff within the small catchment of Wangjiagou in Fuling of Three Gorges Region, the author used the samples of surface runoff collected through the twelve natural rainfalls from May to December to analyze the feature of spatial-temporal change of Nitrogen's losses concentrations under the influence of different land use types and the hillslopes and small catchments composed by those land use types, revealing the relation between different land-use types and Nitrogen's losses of small catchments in Three Gorges Region. The result showed: the average losses concentration of TN showed the biggest difference for different land use types during the period of spring crops, and the average value of dry land was 1. 61 times and 6.73 times of the values of interplanting field of mulberry and paddy field, respectively; the change of the losses concentration of TN was most conspicuous in the 3 periods of paddy field. The main element was NO₃⁻-N, and the relation between TN and NO₃⁻-N showed a significant linear correlation. TN's and NO₃⁻-N's losses concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the area ratio of corn and mustard, but got a significant negative correlation with the area ratio of paddy and mulberry; NH₄⁺-N's losses concentrations got a significant positive correlation with the area ratio of mustard. Among all the hillslopes composed by different land use types, TN's average losses concentration of surface runoff of the hillslope composed by interplantating field of mulberry and paddy land during the three periods was the lowest, and the values were 2.55, 11.52, 8.58 mg · L⁻¹, respectively; the hillslope of rotation plough land of corn and mustard had the maximum value, and the values were

  5. "Possible impacts of climate change on the Danube river along the Iron Gate gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients and getting runoff depth (h) and discharge (Q) as the final outputs. The results according to this model, show that the river flow of the Danube, in this part of its basin, will decrease over 50% with a great consequences to the dams Iron Gate I and II, their accumulations and ecosystems. Furthermore, if we take into account predictions made by IPCC which say that the south-east Europe will face temperature growth of 0.2 degrees in the next two decades for the range of SRES scenarios, makes the

  6. Middle Paleozoic metamorphism in the Hongseong area, South Korea, and tectonic significance for Paleozoic orogeny in northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Whan; Imayama, Takeshi; Yi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Taeseong; Ryu, In-Chang; Jeon, Jimin; Yi, Keewook

    2014-12-01

    The Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas are located within the Hongseong collision belt of South Korea, and the discovery of late Permian-Triassic eclogites has confirmed this belt as an extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt records a middle Paleozoic continental collision in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision of the North and South China cratons. In this paper, we present evidence for middle Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic events in the Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas. Metabasites and meta-basaltic andesites in the Baekdong area originated in an arc tectonic setting at ca. 470-437 Ma, and underwent an intermediate-P/T metamorphism (6.2-8.2 kbar, 620-700 °C) at ca. 418-405 Ma. The meta-basaltic andesite in the Gwangcheon area underwent a high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (close to the eclogite facies) at ca. 392-381 Ma. P-T values of 15.7-19.9 kbar and 860-890 °C were obtained for the peak metamorphism using conventional geothermobarometry, and conditions of 16-17 kbar and 870-920 °C were estimated by thermodynamic pseudosection analysis using the Perplex X program. Together with the late Permian-Triassic eclogites previously reported from the Hongseong area, these middle Paleozoic igneous activities that were related to subduction and metamorphism indicate that the Hongseong area underwent collision in the middle Paleozoic (418-381 Ma), in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision, as recorded in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt in China.

  7. Recreation impacts to cliff resources in the Potomac Gorge: Final report, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Carr, C.; Davis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Managers of the National Park Service (NPS) are directed by law to accommodate appropriate types and amounts of visitation while ensuring that: any adverse impacts are the minimum necessary, unavoidable, cannot be further mitigated, and do not constitute impairment or derogation of park resources and values. (NPS 2006). The increasing popularity of the national park system presents substantial management challenges. High visitatation may cause unacceptable impacts to fragile natural and cultural resources, and may also cause crowding and other social impacts, which can also degrade the quality of visitor experiences. Responding to these concerns, NPS managers at Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH) and George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP) sponsored this research within the upper Potomac Gorge portions of these parks to investigate visitation-related impacts to the park?s cliff resources. The cliffs and rocky areas within the Great Falls and Mather Gorge areas provide important habitats for numerous sensitive rare plants and plant communities. A recent General Management Planning process for Great Falls Park (GFP), a portion of GWMP, highlighted the potential impacts of cliff-associated recreational activities, including hiking, climbing, and fishing, on sensitive cliff resources. The planning process identified the need for development of a Climbing Management Plan and a Trail Plan to more specifically address site and visitor management actions needed to protect rare and sensitive natural and cultural resources. Good science to assess cliff-associated rare plants and communities and to determine the existing and potential effects of cliff-related recreational activities is required for these new planning efforts. This research is designed to specifically address these informational needs and to assist park managers on both sides of the river with current and future cliff and recreation management decisions.

  8. All That Remains. The Traditional Architecture and Historic Engineering Structures, Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area, Georgia and South Carolina. Appendix A. The Inventory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Engineering Structures of the Richard B. Russell L Multiole Resource Area. Georgia and South Carolina 7. Authqs) . Ptef-mIne Oulettm, *ea. Ne. 0. Perflmin...75 Spring Street, S. W. Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (a) 1L sponseins Orgnlzatlaon Nme and Address 13. Type of Repo" a Pwied Cos erd Same 14. 1. Seme,tare...Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area Georgia and South Carolina APPENDIX A: The Inventory Prepared by Archeological Services, Atlauta National Park

  9. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

  10. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration.

  11. Flood-Inundation Maps of Selected Areas Affected by the Flood of October 2015 in Central and Coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Painter, Jaime A.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2016-02-22

    Heavy rainfall occurred across South Carolina during October 1–5, 2015, as a result of an upper atmospheric low-pressure system that funneled tropical moisture from Hurricane Joaquin into the State. The storm caused major flooding in the central and coastal parts of South Carolina. Almost 27 inches of rain fell near Mount Pleasant in Charleston County during this period. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages recorded peaks of record at 17 locations, and 15 other locations had peaks that ranked in the top 5 for the period of record. During the October 2015 flood event, USGS personnel made about 140 streamflow measurements at 86 locations to verify, update, or extend existing rating curves (which are used to compute streamflow from monitored river stage). Immediately after the storm event, USGS personnel documented 602 high-water marks, noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Later in October, 50 additional high-water marks were documented near bridges for South Carolina Department of Transportation. Using a subset of these high-water marks, 20 flood-inundation maps of 12 communities were created. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, and water depth rasters are all available for download.

  12. Implications of differential urbanization on deconcentration in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H S

    1990-01-01

    Population migration and differences in urbanization patterns in South Africa are examined. "Indications are that the Blacks--a low-income group--are increasing proportionally, while the Whites--the highest-income group--are diminishing proportionally in the inner core zone of the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area (PWV), and vice versa in the other zones.... Study results presented in this paper reiterate [inadequacies of government policies] and stress the need for changes in the present official spatial policy for the PWV."

  13. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of

  14. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  15. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  16. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  17. Pollen allergy related to the area of residence in the city of Córdoba, south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Cariñanos, Paloma; Sánchez-Mesa, Juan Antonio; Prieto-Baena, Jose Carlos; Lopez, Angeles; Guerra, Francisco; Moreno, Carmen; Dominguez, Eugenio; Galan, Carmen

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the distribution of hay-fever patients in the city of Córdoba, south-western Iberian Peninsula, and the specific atmospheric biological content originating from local sources. Four different districts were established in the metropolitan area of the city, according to vegetational and urbanistic characteristics. Air samples were taken in each area using portable Hirst-type samplers (Lanzoni VPPS 1000) and the spectrum of biological content was defined. Patients attending the Allergy Unit at Córdoba Teaching Hospital in 2000 with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, and displaying a positive reaction to aeroallergen extracts, were distributed within the areas as a function of their district of residence. Aerobiological results revealed differences in pollen content between areas, in terms of both quantity and number of pollen types recorded. These differences were largely due to proximity to rural areas, prevalence of pollen from typically urban species and the possible effect of urban architecture as a barrier to the dispersal/ concentration of particles and other pollutants. Patients were not uniformly distributed within the city. The majority lived in districts in which pollen from rural species was mixed with pollen from ornamentals. Patients living in typically urban districts displayed a higher prevalence of allergy to pollen from ornamentals. It is concluded that a high degree of exposure to the same environment may influence the development of sensitisation to the particular pollen load associated with that area.

  18. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  19. Population structure of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) in maize-growing areas with atrazine application versus non-maize-growing areas in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Preez, L.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Weldon, C.

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been suggested to cause gonadal deformities in frogs and could possibly impact on reproduction. Since the early 1960s, atrazine has been used in large amounts in maize production areas of South Africa. These areas overlap with populations of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) that has a wide distribution in southern Africa and is found in most water-bodies including those where atrazine residues are detected. The aim of this study was to compare various attributes of individual- and population-level responses of X. laevis from maize-growing and non-maize-growing areas. Xenopus laevis were studied in three reference and five maize-growing sites. Sex ratio, snout-vent length, body-mass and age profiles were found to be similar for populations in maize-growing and non-maize-growing areas. Our mark-recapture data indicated that all sites had robust populations. There were no significant relationships between exposure to atrazine and any of the parameters investigated in populations of X. laevis.

  20. Marine Protected Area Management in South Africa: New Policies, Old Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa.

  1. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  2. The regional distribution regularity of landslides and their effects on the environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keqiang, He; Guangming, Yu; Xiangran, Li

    2009-06-01

    On the basis of research and analysis of the landslide system of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, this paper systematically analyzes and studies the temporal-spatial distribution law of landslides of this reservoir area and their impacts on environment of this area. The paper puts forward that the temporal-spatial distribution of this area’s landslides is mainly controlled by lithologic characters of strata, geological structure, valley landscape, and types of bank slope structure; landslide deformation and failure have such characteristics as simultaneity, laggardness, cyclical instability, and stage. Besides, the paper systematically analyzes and studies the main impacts of landslide on environment and points out that landslides and collapses will bring about relatively serious impacts on relocation and layout of cities and towns along the banks. These impacts mainly include the increase of relocation investment, number of migrants, and compensation for losses. Much attention and evaluation should be paid to the impacts of Xintan Landslide and Lianziya Landslide—large landslides near the Dam—on the construction and safety of the Three Gorges Project. However, landslides have relatively small impacts on shipping and reservoir capacity. The above-mentioned research is of great guiding significance for the construction of the Three Georges Project, planning and construction of cities and towns along the banks, and protection of geological environment.

  3. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  4. Commercial sex work or ukuphanda? Sex-for-money exchange in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2002-09-01

    This article introduces the concept of ukuphanda, a Zulu verb that is used to describe the sex-for-money exchanges that take place outside of commercial sex work in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa. In line with the ethnographic literature from others areas of sub-Saharan Africa, it is argued that women who exchange sex for money in taverns do not self-identify as commercial sex workers and experience less stigma from the community. Unlike commercial sex work (as characterized by the commercial sex work in Hillbrow, Johannesburg), which is understood to be associated with short skirts and other revealing attire, sex-for-money exchange in the taverns is viewed as more private, ambiguous and informal. Women who work as informal sex workers, or "-phandela imali" ('try to get money'), are understood to be using sex-for-money exchange to survive financially.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): sources and depositional history.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2011-01-01

    Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatão industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  6. Survey of selected design and ventilation characteristics of racehorse stables in the Pretoria, Witwatersrand, Vereeniging area of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lund, R J; Guthrie, A J; Killeen, V M

    1993-12-01

    Stables housing more than 20 horses in training were surveyed in the Pretoria, Witwatersrand, Vereeniging area of South Africa. Most racehorses were kept in loose boxes, bedded on straw or sawdust and remained indoors while the stables were cleaned. The average floor area was 13 m2 and airspace was 55 m3 per animal. The average predicted minimum air change rate by natural convection in calm winds was 7.0 air changes per hour, which was reduced to 2.2 when the doors and shutters were closed. The survey showed that many of the stables had been built without due consideration to factors that might have adverse effects on the occupants.

  7. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation Area can be contacted on VHF marine band radio, channel 13 or 16. The COTP can be contacted at... or on VHF channel 13 or 16 to seek permission prior to transiting the affected regulated area. (4... Marine Safety Information Broadcast on VHF-FM marine band radio, channel 22A (157.1 MHZ)....

  8. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir — A Spatio-Temporal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunping; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui; Holbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world’s third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR’s total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U) as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River). Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence). TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution. PMID:26510158

  9. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  10. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a.

  11. Chemometric evaluation of nitrate contamination in the groundwater of a hard rock area in Dharapuram, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajil Kumar, P. J.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations on groundwater nitrate contamination in the Dharapuram area of Tamil Nadu in south India as a primary step to initiate denitrification. Groundwater samples were collected from 26 selected locations during the pre-monsoon season in July 2010 and analysed for nitrate and other water quality parameters. Two important water types were identified, viz. Ca-Na-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl. It is found that the majority of samples possess high nitrate concentration; 57 % of samples exceeded the permissible limit of Indian (45 mg/L) and WHO (50 mg/L) drinking water standard. Spatial distribution map of NO3 suggested that major contamination was observed in the SW and NW parts of the study area. This result was in agreement with the corresponding land-use pattern in this study area. Denitrification process at greater depths was evident from the negative correlation between NO3 and well depth. The sources and controlling factors of high nitrate were investigated using cross plots of NO3 with other selected hydrochemical parameters. Positive correlation for NO3 was observed with EC, K, Cl and SO4. This analysis was capable of differentiating the various sources of nitrate in groundwater. The major sources of nitrate contamination are identified as areas of high fertilizer application, sewages and animal waste dumping yards. Regulation of these pollutant sources with appropriate and cost-effective denitrification process can restore the water quality in this area.

  12. Modeling underwater transport of oil spilled from deepwater area in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; An, Wei; You, Yunxiang; Lei, Fanghui; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model was developed to simulate the underwater transport of oil from a deepwater spill. This model comprises two submodels: a plume dynamics model and an advection-diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by the initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil, while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by the ambient current and turbulence. The model validity was verified through comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data from several laboratory flume experiments and a field experiment. To demonstrate the capability of the model further, it was applied to the simulation of a hypothetical oil spill occurring at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea. The results of the simulation would be useful for contingency planning with regard to the emergency response to an underwater oil spill.

  13. Identification of airborne microbiota in selected areas in a health-care setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of bio-aerosols in the spread of disease and spoilage of food has been described in numerous studies; nevertheless this information at South African hospitals is limited. Attributable to their size, bio-aerosols may be suspended in the air for long periods placing patients at risk of infection and possibly settling on surfaces resulting in food contamination. The aim of the study is to assess the microbial composition of the air in the kitchen and selected wards at a typical district hospital in South Africa. Air samples were collected using the settle plates and an SAS Super 90 air sampler by impaction on agar. These microbial samples were quantified and identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Analytic Profile Index (API). Results Microbial counts were found to be higher in the fourth (≤6.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds when compared to the first (≥2 cfu/m-3), second (≤3.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) and third (≤1.5 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds. Genera identified included Bacillus, Kocuria, Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter, Candida, Aureobasidium, Penicillium and Phoma amongst others. The presence of these pathogens is of concern, attributable to their ability to cause diseases in humans especially in those with suppressed host immunity defenses. Furthermore, fungal genera identified (e.g. Candida) in this study are also known to cause food spoilage and fungal infections in patients. Conclusion Results from this study indicate the importance of air quality monitoring in health-care settings to prevent possible hospital-acquired infections and contamination of hospital surfaces including food contact surfaces by airborne contaminants. PMID:24750818

  14. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  15. Dating the Naisiusiu Beds, Olduvai Gorge, by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, A. R.; Hay, R. L.; Masao, F.; Blackwell, B. A. B.

    2003-05-01

    The lower beds at Olduvai Gorge are well known for containing early hominid fossils and Oldowan stone tools, and their ages have been established by 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Ages are generally less certain for the upper deposits at Olduvai Gorge because of the scarcity of datable tuffs. The youngest archaeologically significant site at Olduvai is microlithic LSA, which lies in the type section of the Naisiusiu Beds. The age for the site is controversial, with 14C dates of 17,000-17,550 (Hay, R.L., 1976 Geology of Olduvai Gorge, University of California Press, Berkeley) and >42,000 BP (Manega, P.C., 1993. Geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic study of the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid sites and the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland in Northern Tanzania. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The tuff bed in the zone with artifacts does not contain materials datable by 40Ar/ 39Ar, and some other dating method was needed. In the summer of 2001, five equid teeth were collected from the type Naisiusiu site. Another tooth had previously been collected. ESR ages have been determined for three teeth from the archaeological level and their ages cluster around 62±5 ka, assuming linear uranium uptake. Another tooth from a level without artifacts and believed to be significantly younger dated to 39±5 ka, again assuming LU. These dates are considerably older than previous estimates and suggest that the East African MSA/LSA transition occurred very early.

  16. Identifying the Source and Generation of Thermal Groundwaters based on Stable Isotopes and Rare Earths - the Case of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge Artesian Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Möller, P.; Magri, F.; Kraushaar, S.; Dulski, P.; Guttman, J.; Rödiger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Along the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, thermal groundwaters with varying chemical and isotopic signatures emerge from Cenozoic Limestones. The bordering semiarid Golan and Ajloun Heights host fresh and variable tempered groundwaters in Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. Sources and mineralisation of these groundwaters are derived from mutual discussion of d2H, d18O and d34S, major elements, rare earth distribution patterns and the (hydro)geological setting. Positive shift of d18O and d2H occur due to evaporation before replenishment and the interaction with basalts. Major infiltration areas for Golan Heights are the limy foothills of the Mt. Hermon and for the Ajloun Heights the Plateau itself. To a less degree, precipitation infiltrates also the basaltic catchments. Groundwaters are mineralised by water/rock (i) variably altered limestones by diagenesis, (ii) evaporates and seawater brines enclosed in limestone matrix and (iii) locally occurring basaltic intrusiva. In the Yarmouk Gorge, a deep-seated brine of the Ha'on type ascends and mixes with the fresh shallow groundwater. REY and isotope fingerprints prove that water from the Syrian Hauran Plateau is recharging springs and wells in the lowermost Yamouk Gorge. Although capping wide areas, the basaltic cover of the Golan Heights is of minor importance for recharge of the underlying A7/B2 aquifer, which becomes recharged at the foothills of Mt. Hermon and gets confined southwards, leading ibid. to ascension of water into the basaltic cover. Anomalous heat flux near the Yarmouk gorge and locally in the western escarpment of the Ajloun may be produced by ascending fluids from greater depth and/or by basaltic intrusions.

  17. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  18. Ground water in the Crow Creek-Sand Lake area, Brown and Marshall Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, F. C.

    1957-01-01

    Transpiration by vegetation and evaporation account for most of the ground water discharged in the area; relatively little ground water is discharged by streams, wells, and springs, or as underflow out of the area. Much of the low-lying land is waterlogged. However, by improving and cleaning both the natural and artifical drains and by lowering the water table by pumping, waterlogging can be materially decreased and its recurrence prevented.

  19. Road Climate in Cities: A Study of the Stockholm Area, South-East Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Bogren, Jörgen; Green, Cecilia

    2001-12-01

    The difference between air and road surface temperature in urban and rural areas is an important consideration when modelling the road climate. In this study the effect of the urban heat island in the Stockholm area on road climate is examined. Factors such as distance from the city centre, traffic and topography are analysed in order to assess their impact on the spatial variation of road and air temperature.

  20. Fission-Track Dating of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Leakey, L S

    1965-04-02

    The discoveries of a series of hominid remains in the Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, has focused attention upon the age of the deposits of Bed 1, in which both Zinjanthropus and Homo habilis were found. Because the age of 1.75 million years, as determined by the radioactive decay of potassium and argon, has been questioned several times, a fission-track age was measured for the pumice from Bed 1. The result is 2.03 +/- 0.28 million years, in good agreement with the result obtained by the potassium-argon decay method.

  1. Processes Driving Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Nutrient Fluxes in a Semi-arid Coastal Area: Coastal South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Douglas, A. R.; Spalt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Assessments of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), an important pathway for material transport to coastal embayments, are difficult, as there is no simple means to estimate the water flux. Because of processes like tidal pumping, non-homogeneous bottom sediment compositions, high hydrologic and hydrogeologic "heterogeneity", and the likelihood of multiple sources (i.e. different aquifers or recirculated seawater) within a study region, there could be significant variation in the magnitude of discharge. Furthermore, in highly saline semi-arid environments such as south Texas, density-driven flow will also influence the discharge rates and location of seepage faces. Thus, discharge throughout a bay is undoubtedly variable temporally and spatially so it is not reasonable to extrapolate a single flow rate to the entire surface area. Multiple approaches are necessary especially where the terrestrial groundwater is not fresh like in coastal area of south Texas. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of high-resolution continuous subsurface imaging techniques, continuous radon monitoring, and other geochemical tracers to more precisely measure SGD and nutrient fluxes to coastal zone waters over time periods of hours and under different climatic conditions. This approach allowed us to differentiate between fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater, delineate seepage faces as dependent on / independent of sediment heterogeneity and convective flow caused by density differences. We were able to also correct SGD rates derived from continuous radon monitoring that can be significantly variable on account of observation uncertainties associated with the above-mentioned complications. Areas of significant SGD, as shown by both continuous resistivity profiling and radon and radium isotopes, were also associated with the highest non-conservative nutrient (i.e. nitrate) concentrations. Overall, this combination of methods shows promise in differentiating between flow

  2. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  3. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  4. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  5. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  6. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  7. Microphysical properties of low-level clouds and fogs in a mountain area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-Yim; Lee, Chulkyu; Jung, Hyun-Sook; Nam, Jae-Chul

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of microphysical properties in low-level clouds and fogs were carried out at Daegwallyeong in the northeastern mountainous region of South Korea. The microphysical characteristics are presented through analyzing the number concentration, mean diameter, liquid water contents and size distribution of cloud particles sampled with the groundbased Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP). The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the proposed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) type on the size and the number of cloud droplets. Observational cases are classified 5 sectors according to backward air mass trajectories from the NOAA/ARL HYSPLIT model. Clean maritime cloud is characterized by sector 1 trajectories and clean continental cloud is by sector 2. Contaminated maritime cloud is by sector 3 and contaminated continental cloud is by sector 4. Sector 5 trajectories are undefined air masses. On average, the droplet number concentrations in marine clouds were lower than for continental clouds, while the mean diameters and liquid water contents for marine clouds were larger than for continental clouds. Our observed values of microphysical properties are similar to the reported values from previous studies.

  8. Saline water in the Little Arkansas River Basin area, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Kleinschmidt, Melvin K.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene age in part of the Little Arkansas River basin has been polluted by the influx of saline water. The source of the saline water generally is oil-field brine that leaked from disposal ponds on the land surface. Locally, pollution by saline water also has been caused by upwelling of oil-field brine injected under pressure into the "lost-circulation zone" of the Lower Permian Wellington Formation and, possibly, by leakage of brine from corroded or improperly cased disposal wells. Anomalously high concentrations of chloride ion in some reaches of the Little Arkansas River probably can be attributed to pollution by municipal wastes rather than from inflow of saline ground water. Hydraulic connection exists between the "lost-circulation zone" and unconsolidated deposits, as evidenced by the continuing development of sinkholes, by the continuing discharge of saline water through springs and seeps along the Arkansas River south of the Little Arkansas River basin and by changes in the chloride concentration in water pumped from wells in the "lost-circulation zone." The hydraulic head in the "lost-circulation zone" is below the base of the unconsolidated deposits, and much below the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in those deposits. Any movement of water, therefore, would be downward from the "fresh-water" aquifer to the saline "lost-circulation zone."

  9. Early Cretaceous araucarian driftwood from hemipelagic sediments of the Puez area, South Tyrol, Italy.

    PubMed

    Kustatscher, Evelyn; Falcon-Lang, Howard; Lukeneder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We describe a calcareously permineralised fossil tree-trunk, preserved as driftwood, within hemipelagic sediments of the Cretaceous Puez Formation near Wolkenstein, South Tyrol, Italy. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages recovered from the marls containing the fossil wood indicate a latest middle Albian age. Based on its wood anatomy, the trunk is assigned to Agathoxylon and probably has an affinity with the conifer family Araucariaceae. The wood lacks pronounced tree-rings consistent with tree growth within the broad humid tropical belt that existed at that time. The trunk contains cylindrical chambers filled within faecal pellets, demonstrating that oribatid mites infested the tree, either during life, or shortly after death. Prior to final burial, the tree-trunk drifted out into the open sea for a considerable period as indicated by extensive borings assigned to the ichnospecies Teredolites longissimus and produced by teredinid bivalves. Relatively little is known about the Cretaceous floras of Italy, so this new finding fills a gap in our knowledge of the composition and ecology of the vegetation of this region.

  10. 40-years of fires in a touristic area from South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Costa del Sol in the Province of Malaga is one of the major touristic region in Spain. Its develop started in the 1960s of the XXth century at the same time as other regions in Mediterranean Europe. Since then, this area has become a holiday touristic centre for different countries and regions from Europe (United Kingdom, Escandinavia, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, etc.). Likewise, Costa del Sol has been characterised by a constant grow of the residence tourism rendering in an extreme increment of urban areas, especially in those municipalities located in the coast. This expansión of urban áreas was carried out against rural and natural vegetated areas. The region is characterised by very montanious topography, predominant impermeable rocks (shales, schists and peridotites) and abundant rainfalls from October to May, especially, in the western area (where a climatic gradient is observed from humid to dry conditions). All of these features, joined a very spread and intense occupation by urban, infrastructures and touristic land uses, renders in a very high vulnerability to fires and their consequences. As fire removes vegetation cover and accelerate water erosion, local relief and climatic conditions induce to extreme high risk of soil loss and floodings. During the last 40 years, in the study area, the number of fires increased as weell as the affected area, following the similar trend for the rest of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. This situation increases the exposition to fire risk for more than one-million of people, which become at least two-millions during the summer months when fire conditions are expected.

  11. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  12. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Michael P; Mackey, Benjamin H; Farley, Kenneth A

    2014-01-07

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic ((3)He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars.

  13. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Michael P.; Mackey, Benjamin H.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic (3He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars. PMID:24344293

  14. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Majatladi, Daphney; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Lourens, Carina; Ebersohn, Karen; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-11-14

    In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June-August). Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March) to < 100 (July and August), no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  15. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P < 0.05). Cattle in the sweet rangeland had significantly lower tick loads than those in the sour rangeland in all the seasons except the hot-dry season. The Nguni breed had lower (P < 0.05) tick loads of R. appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended.

  16. Water-resources data for the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia, 1961-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, James B.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is the sole source of water supply for the city of Valdosta, Ga., and much of the surrounding area. Users and water-resources managers and developers are concerned about the quality of water in the aquifer. The water quality of a large part of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta area is affected by direct recharge of water from the Withlacoochee River to the aquifer through sinkholes in the river channel north of Valdosta. Furthermore, because the Withlacoochee River receives little filtration as it recharges the aquifer in this area, ground water might be vulnerable to contamination as a result of human activities within the Withlacoochee River basin. Stream-discharge and water-quality data from 17 surface-water sites and ground-water-quality dam from 111 wells in the vicinity of Valdosta, Ga., are presented for the period 1961-93. Also, ground- water-level data for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta area are presented in a series of potentiometric-surface maps. The water-resources data were collected mostly in Lowndes County in the vicinity of Valdosta and lesser amounts were collected in surrounding Berrien, Brooks, Cook, Echols, and Lanier Counties.

  17. Selected hydrologic data, Kolob-Alton-Kaiparowits coal-fields area, south-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plantz, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Kolob-Alton-Kaiparowits coal field area includes about 4,500 sq mi in parts of the Colorado River Basin and the Great Basin. The area varies in altitude from < 4,000 to > 10,000 ft, and is comprised chiefly of plateaus, benches, and terraces that are dissected by deep, narrow canyons. Water quality was studied in principal streams draining the area, the Virgin, Sevier, Escalante, and Paria Rivers; and Coal, Kanab, and Wahweap Creeks. Most of the data included in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1980 to September 1982, as part of a hydrologic study in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to evaluate potential impacts of coal mining on the area 's water resources. Data include: discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and pH. Data collected from selected wells and springs include: specific conductance, pH, hardness, and dissolved quantities of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfates, chlorides, fluorides, silica, nitrogen, boron, iron, and manganese. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  19. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any such vessel is within the danger zone, the officer in charge of firing operations will cause the... entire area involved will be under constant observation of both surface patrol vessels and air patrol... in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and...

  20. Anderson Canyon--A Classic Area in South-Central Idaho for Teaching Alpine Glacial Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Rachel Krebs

    1988-01-01

    Describes a source of diversity and enrichment for summer field experiences. Presents information on the geographic and geologic setting, glacial history and record, relative dating of deposits, and use for student experience. Tables include a generalized location of the area, summary of moraine morphology, and pictures. (RT)

  1. Delinquency Prevention in South Chicago. A Fifty-Year Assessment of the Chicago Area Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlossman, Steven; And Others

    This report examines the Chicago Area Project (CAP), the first community-based delinquency prevention program, from both a historical and a contemporary perspective. The analysis is in three parts. The first part describes CAP's founding in the 1930s and analyzes the process through which it was established and the operation of its prevention…

  2. Yakima basalt of the Tieton River area, south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.

    1967-01-01

    The basalts are warped into five nearly west-trending folds and an eastward-sloping homocline. The homocline is related directly to Cascade uplift, which may have begun at about the time that Yakima-type flows ceased flooding the area.

  3. Analysis of Miscellaneous Human Osteological Remains Recovered from Multi-County Areas of South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Metric and Non-Metric Description ............................. 17 3.4 Dentition .................................................... 19 3.5 Radiographic...Area - Exhibit AA, Catalogue No. 29 79 4.30 Brule Flat Village (39BR10) - Exhibit BB, Catalogue No. 30 81 5.0 Dentition ...169 10.1 Burial and Site Characteristics ............................. 169 10.2 Dentition

  4. Ground-Water Resources in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2003-01-01

    The availability of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area is influenced by many factors including location, local recharge and ground-water flow conditions, and structural features. Thus, the availability of ground water can be extremely variable throughout the Black Hills area, and even when water is available, it may not be suitable for various uses depending on the water quality. The major bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Minor bedrock aquifers occur in other hydrogeologic units, including confining units, due to fracturing and interbedded permeable layers. Various information and maps are presented in this report that describe availability and quality of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area. However, there is no guarantee of obtaining usable water at any location due to the extreme potential variability in conditions that can affect the availability and quality of ground water in the area. Maps presented in this report include the distribution of hydrogeologic units; depth to the top of the five formations that contain major aquifers; thickness of the five formations that contain major aquifers; potentiometric maps for the five major aquifers; saturated thickness of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers; water temperature in the Madison aquifer; specific conductance in the Madison, Minnelusa, and Inyan Kara aquifers; hardness in the Inyan Kara aquifer; sulfate concentrations in the Minnelusa aquifer; and radon concentrations in the Deadwood aquifer. Water quality of the major aquifers generally is very good in and near outcrop areas but deteriorates progressively with distance from the outcrops. In the Minnelusa aquifer, an abrupt increase in concentrations of dissolved sulfate occurs downgradient from outcrop areas, where a zone of active anhydrite dissolution occurs. Most limitations for the use of ground water are related to aesthetic qualities associated with

  5. Water-quality characteristics in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics of ground-water and surface-water in the Black Hills area. Differences in groundwater quality by aquifer and differences in surfacewater quality by water source are presented. Ground-water characteristics are discussed individually for each of the major aquifers in the Black Hills area, referred to herein as the Precambrian, Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Characteristics for minor aquifers also are discussed briefly. Surface-water characteristics are discussed for hydrogeologic settings including headwater springs, crystalline core sites, artesian springs, and exterior sites. To characterize the water quality of aquifers and streams in the Black Hills area, data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System water-quality database were examined. This included samples collected as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study as well as for other studies within the time frame of October 1, 1930, to September 30, 1998. Tables of individual results are not presented in this report, only summaries. Constituents summarized and discussed include physical properties, common ions, nutrients, trace elements, and radionuclides. Comparisons of concentration levels are made to drinking-water standards as well as beneficial-use and aquatic-life criteria. Ground water within the Black Hills and surrounding area generally is fresh and hard to very hard. Concentrations exceeding various Secondary and Maximum Contaminant Levels may affect the use of the water in some areas for many aquifers within the study area. Concentrations that exceed Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCL's) generally affect the water only aesthetically. Radionuclide concentrations may be especially high in some of the major aquifers used within the study area and preclude the use of water in some areas. The sodiumadsorption ratio and specific conductance may affect irrigation use for some wells. High

  6. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  7. Distribution of Extreme Winds in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantz, J. William; Sinclair, Robert E.

    1981-12-01

    Annual extreme 1 min wind speeds at 78 Pacific Northwest locations were analyzed using the Fisher-Tippet type II extreme value function. From computed mean recurrence intervals, we could easily determine the wind speed likely to recur in a specified period. We plotted and analyzed these computed 1 min extreme wind speeds for return periods of two and 50 years. Adjustments were made to computed extremes if station location, exposure and frequency of observation precluded a wind speed which adequately represents extreme wind frequency over 98% of the local area. Extremely windy areas appear to be directly related to topography, and were revealed to be along the Pacific Coast, through the Columbia Gorge, across the plains of central Washington, and in south-central Idaho.

  8. Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the

  9. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-06

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.

  10. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-01-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element ‘draft-tube’ that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700–1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  11. Local Climate Sensitivity of the Three Gorges Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Jin, Jiming; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2005-02-18

    Two simulations, control and land use change, were performed for an eight week period (2 April-16 May 1990) to determine the net sensitivity of the local climate around the Three Gorges Dam. The analysis indicates that the large reservoir acts as a potential evaporating surface that decreases the surface temperature, cools the lower atmosphere, decreasing upward motion, and increasing sinking air mass. Such sinking results in low level moisture divergence, decreasing cloudiness, and increasing net downward radiation, which increases the surface temperature. However, results indicate that evaporative cooling dominates radiative warming in this initial study. The strong evaporation also supplies moisture to the atmosphere, suggesting an increase in precipitation, but the sinking moist air diverges away from the TGD region with no net change in precipitation. This numerical study represents an initial methodology for quantification of the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the local climate and a more comprehensive, fine-scale set of multi-season simulations with additional observational data is needed for a more complete analysis.

  12. Spatial patterns of erosion in a bedrock gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Alexander. R.; Turowski, Jens M.; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes driving bedrock channel formation is essential for interpreting and predicting the evolution of mountain landscapes. Here we analyze bedrock erosion patterns measured at unprecedented spatial resolution (mm) over 2 years in a natural bedrock gorge. These spatial patterns show that local bedrock erosion rates depend on position in the channel cross section, height above the streambed, and orientation relative to the main streamflow and sediment path. These observations are consistent with the expected spatial distribution of impacting particles (the tools effect) and shielding by sediment on the bed (the cover effect). Vertical incision by bedrock abrasion averaged 1.5 mm/a, lateral abrasion averaged 0.4 mm/a, and downstream directed abrasion of flow obstacles averaged 2.6 mm/a. However, a single plucking event locally exceeded these rates by orders of magnitude (˜100 mm/a), and accounted for one third of the eroded volume in the studied gorge section over the 2 year study period. Hence, if plucking is spatially more frequent than we observed in this study period, it may contribute substantially to long-term erosion rates, even in the relatively massive bedrock at our study site. Our observations demonstrate the importance of bedrock channel morphology and the spatial distribution of moving and static sediment in determining local erosion rates.

  13. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004–2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m−3, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. PMID:18838199

  14. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  15. Processing and interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Santa Cruz Basin - Patagonia Mountains area, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Sial Geosciences Inc. for a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the Santa Cruz basin and Patagonia Mountains area of south-central Arizona. The contractor's Operational Report is included as an Appendix in this report. This section describes the data processing performed by the USGS on the digital aeromagnetic data received from the contractor. This processing was required in order to remove flight line noise, estimate the depths to the magnetic sources, and estimate the locations of the magnetic contacts. Three methods were used for estimating source depths and contact locations: the horizontal gradient method, the analytic signal method, and the local wavenumber method. The depth estimates resulting from each method are compared, and the contact locations are combined into an interpretative map showing the dip direction for some contacts.

  16. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  17. Hydrochemistry and noble gas origin of geothermal waters of Icheon and Pocheon area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Shin, Seon Ho; Nagao, Keisuke; Kim, Kyu Han; Koh, Yung Kwon; Kim, Gun Young

    2010-05-01

    Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (δ18O and δD) and noble gas isotopic analyses of seven geothermal water samples, eleven groundwater samples and six surface water samples collected from the Icheon and Pocheon area were carried out to find out hydrochemical characteristics, and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical evolution of the geothermal waters. The geothermal waters show low temperature type ranging from 21.5 to 31.4 ℃ and the pH value between 6.69 and 9.21. Electrical conductivity of geothermal waters has the range from 310 to 735 μS/cm. Whereas the geothermal in the Icheon area shows the geochemical characteristics of neutral pH, the Ca-HCO3(or Ca(Na)-HCO3) chemical type and a high uranium content, the geothermal water in the Pocheon area shows the characteristics of alkaline pH, the Na-HCO3 chemical type and a high fluorine content. These characteristics indicate that the geothermal water in the Icheon area is under the early stage in the geochemical evolution, and that geothermal water in the Pocheon area has been geochemically evolved. The δ18O and δD values of geothermal waters show the range of -10.1˜-8.69‰ and from -72.2˜-60.8‰, respectively, and these values supply the information of the recharge area of geothermal waters. The 3He/4He ratios of the geothermal waters range from 0.09×10-6 to 0.65×10-6 which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. Whereas the helium gas in the Icheon geothermal water was mainly provided from the atmospheric source mixing with the mantle(or magma) origin, the origin of helium gas in the Pocheon geothermal water shows a dominant crustal source. 40Ar/36Ar ratios of geothermal water are in the range of an atmosphere source. Key words: hot spring water, hydrochemical composition, low temperature type, 3He/4He ratios, crustal source

  18. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  19. Metallic elements and isotope of Pb in wet precipitation in urban area, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, Daniela Montanari; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2012-04-01

    The atmosphere of urban areas has been the subject of many studies to show the atmospheric pollution in large urban centers. By quantifying wet precipitation through the analysis of metallic elements (ICP/AES) and Pb isotopes, the wet precipitation of the Metropolitan Area of the Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, was characterized. The samples were collected between July 2005 and December 2007. Zn, Fe and Mn showed the highest concentration in studied sites. Sapucaia do Sul showed the highest average for Zn, due to influence by the steel plant located near the sampling site. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions from vehicular activity and steel plants in wet precipitation and suspended particulate matter in the MAPA was identified by the isotopic signatures of 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb. Moreover the analyses of the metallic elements allowed also to identify the contribution of other anthropic sources, such as steel plants and oil refinery.

  20. A study of sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of south Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies were used as aids in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne, a coastal marshland of Louisiana. Problems were found in the aerial photography method used. Vegetational differences do not always reflect sediment differences. Only areas containing different soils and sediments are easily defined with aerial photography. The shoreline erosion rate is 75 to 100 ft/yr. Areas which are undergoing erosion shift due to changes in wave refraction. In canals and channels with strong currents, erosion also occurs at a rapid rate. It is recommended that drainage patterns be studied carefully before breaches are made as man-made breaches could reverse drainage.

  1. Geomorphic analysis in areas of low-rate neotectonic deformation: South Epirus (Greece) as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntokos, Dimitrios; Lykoudi, Evdoxia; Rondoyanni, Theodora

    2016-06-01

    River morphology and the distribution of river deposits reliably reflect the neotectonic activity of a region in relation to rock resistance and climatic changes. Geomorphic indices have been used to identify landscape evolution and active faults, particularly in areas of high-rate tectonic deformation. In areas of low-rate deformation, the influence of neotectonic activity on landscape evolution is less apparent, although it is important. The aim of this study is to examine the region of south Epirus (Greece), a region where the rates of active tectonic processes are low. Because rock resistance is low and the sediment supply is intense in this region, the fault surfaces are either not well preserved or they are covered. For the purposes of this paper, geomorphic analysis (including the drainage basin asymmetry factor, the basin hypsometric curve and integral, the valley floor width-to-height ratio, longitudinal river profiles, the stream-length gradient index normalized by the graded river gradient, and the mountain front sinuosity index) was used to evaluate neotectonic activity and to identify covered, potentially active faults. In places where fault surfaces could be observed, geological mapping and tectonic analysis were applied to determine the fault characteristics. The first result of this work is that important active or potentially active faults extend for a significant distance into the alluvial plains of south Epirus. In this case study, we considered that geomorphic indices constitute a valuable tool for identifying neotectonic activity in regions of low-rate deformation. Furthermore, geomorphic analysis reveals the location of covered fault structures, contributes to evaluating fault capability, and therefore to estimating seismotectonic hazard.

  2. Water quality analysis of the Rapur area, Andhra Pradesh, South India using multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-11-01

    The groundwater samples from Rapur area were collected from different sites to evaluate the major ion chemistry. The large number of data can lead to difficulties in the integration, interpretation, and representation of the results. Two multivariate statistical methods, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate their usefulness to classify and identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Four statistically significant clusters were obtained from 30 sampling stations. This has resulted two important clusters viz., cluster 1 (pH, Si, CO3, Mg, SO4, Ca, K, HCO3, alkalinity, Na, Na + K, Cl, and hardness) and cluster 2 (EC and TDS) which are released to the study area from different sources. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), assists in the interpretation of complex data matrices for a better understanding of water quality of a study area. From PCA, it is clear that the first factor (factor 1), accounted for 36.2% of the total variance, was high positive loading in EC, Mg, Cl, TDS, and hardness. Based on the PCA scores, four significant cluster groups of sampling locations were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality.

  3. Evidence of Macroalgal Colonization on Newly Ice-Free Areas following Glacial Retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  4. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  5. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies.

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  7. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  8. Serological, clinical and epidemiological evaluation of toxocariasis in urban areas of south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colli, Cristiane M; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Paludo, Marcia L; Falavigna, Dina L M; Guilherme, Edson V; Mattia, Salete; Araújo, Silvana M; Ferreira, Erika C; Previdelli, Isolde T S; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

    2010-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide public-health problem that poses major risks to children who may accidentally ingest embryonated eggs of Toxocara. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in children and adolescents and the variables that may be involved, as well as environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs, in urban recreation areas of north central mesoregion, Paraná State, Brazil. From June 2005 to March 2007. a total of 376 blood samples were collected by the Public Health Service from children and adolescents one to 12 years old, of both genders. Samples were analyzed by the indirect ELISA method for detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies. Serum samples were previously absorbed with Ascaris suum antigens, and considered positive with a reagent reactivity index >1. Soil samples from all of the public squares and schools located in the four evaluated municipalities that had sand surfaces (n = 19) or lawns (n = 15) were analyzed. Of the 376 serum samples, 194 (51.6%) were positive. The seroprevalence rate was substantially higher among children aging one to five years (p = 0.001) and six to eight years (p = 0.022). The clinical signs and symptoms investigated did not show a statistical difference between seropositive and seronegative individuals (p > 0.05). In 76.5% of the investigated recreation places, eggs of Toxocara were detected in at least one of the five collected samples. Recreation areas from public schools were 2.8 times more contaminated than from public squares. It is important to institute educational programs to inform families and educators, as well as to improve sanitary control of animals and cleaning of the areas intended for recreation in order to prevent toxocariasis.

  9. Mapping land surface emissivity from NDVI: Application to European, African, and South American areas

    SciTech Connect

    Valor, E.; Caselles, V.

    1996-09-01

    Temperature is an important magnitude for many environmental models: (1) energy and matter exchange between atmosphere and surface, (2) weather prediction, (3) global ocean circulation, (4) climatic change, etc. Several methods have been developed to obtain surface emissivity from satellite data. In this way the authors propose a theoretical model that relates the emissivity to the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) of a given surface and explains the experimental behavior observed by van de Griend and Owe. They can use it to obtain the emissivity in any thermal channel, but in this work they have focused on the 10.5- to 12.5-{micro}m region, where most thermal sensors on board satellites work at present.The model is applicable to areas with several soil and vegetation types an where the vegetation cover changes. From the theoretical model the authors have developed an operational methodology to obtain the effective emissivity combining satellite images and field measurements.The error of the methodology ranges from 0.5% (due to the experimental limitations of the field methods) to 2% (considering the case in which they have no information about the studied area). To check the general validity of the model, the authors have validated and applied it in different atmospheric environments and in areas with a different degree of roughness, i.e., from midlatitude (France, Argentina) to tropical (Sahel, Botswana) atmospheres, and from flat (La Mancha, Spain) to rough (Valencia, Spain) surfaces, and they have obtained an error of estimate of 0.6% on the emissivity.

  10. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kafatos, Menas; Son, Yowhan; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision, using geo-registered 3D-points. Based on this concept, the Effective Plant Area Indices (PAI(e)) for areas of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) and Oak (Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types. Initially, the canopy gap fraction (G ( LiDAR )) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface, or inner canopy area, using k-means statistics. The LiDAR-derived PAI(e) was then estimated by using G ( LIDAR ) with the Beer-Lambert law. A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAI(e) revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine, Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82, 0.64 and 0.59, respectively. These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAI(e) for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands. The absence of leaves, in the case of both Larch and Oak, meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches. The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density. This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track. Therefore, a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  11. Forestry, geology and hydrological investigations from ERTS-1 imagery in two areas of Ecuador, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Oriente area, well-drained forests containing commercially valuable hardwoods can be recognized confidently and delineated quickly on the ERTS imagery. In the tropical rainforest, ERTS can provide an abundance of inferential information about large scale geologic structures. ERTS imagery is better than normal aerial photography for recognizing linears. The imagery is particularly useful for updating maps of the distributary system of the Guagas River Basin and of any other river with a similarly rapid changing channel pattern.

  12. Estimation of the recharge areas contributing water to the south well field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, C.W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The city of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells, designed to yield 42 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), in southern Franklin County, Ohio, as part of their municipal supply of water. The collector wells are adjacent to, and designed to induce infiltration from, Big Walnut Creek and Scioto River. A previously constructed, three-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water-flow model of this river-aquifer system was used to estimate contributing recharge areas (CRA's) and calculate particle flowpaths in southern Franklin County. The simulations were of two steady-state periods (October 1979 and March 1986) and one 5-year transient period (March 1986---June 1991). The first simulation (1979) was of conditions before construction of the collector wells. The second simulation (1986) was of conditions when the collector wells were producing 8 Mgal/d. During the 5 years covered in the transient simulation, production at the well field averaged 18.5 Mgal/d. Under the 1979 conditions, the largest ground-water contributing areas were of the quarries and Scioto River (41 and 47 percent of the study area, respectively). During 1986, when 8 Mgal/d was withdrawn, the primary contributing areas were of the quarries (40 percent), collector wells (34 percent), and rivers (8 percent). Travel times associated with simulated particles of water tracked from cells along Big Walnut Creek to their discharge points in cells along Scioto River were about 5 to 60 years in the 1979 simulation and about 7 to 41 years in the 1986 simulation. The endpoints of these particles varied as simulated pumping rates were increased to 22 Mgal/d. The 1986, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells under 8 Mgal/d-conditions totalled about 4.5 mi2. As the pumping rate was increased to 22 Mgal/d in a predictive simulation, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells increased to 6.7mi2. Because the transient simulation encompassed only 5 years, the 10-year CRA's could not be estimated from the

  13. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  14. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  15. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  16. PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Hu, Wei; Westrich, Bernhard; Peng, Chengrong; Bi, Yonghong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-09-01

    Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase.

  17. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of the Lake Dakota Plain area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, William B.; Petri, Lester R.

    1963-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age mantle the Cretaceous rocks. Although they consist mostly of material that is too fine grained to yield water freely to wells, the Quaternary deposits contain bodies of moderately to highly permeable material that yield water copiously. Such bodies may be located only by exploratory drilling or, possibly, geophysical methods. The water differs widely in amount of mineralization and in chemical composition; the specific conductance of water from 322 wells ranged from 246 to 13,300 micromhos per centimeter. In most of the report area the water is of unsuitable quality for irrigation and domestic use. The principal source of recharge to the Quaternary deposits is infiltrating precipitation. Evapotranspiration accounts for nearly all the water discharged; the amount of water discharging into stream channels and withdrawn from wells is almost negligible by comparison. Irrigation of the area would increase the rate of recharge to the Quaternary deposits and would cause the water table to rise. Probably it would also cause an increase in the concentration of dissolved minerals in much of the ground water. Artificial drainage would be necessary to prevent waterlogging of cropland.

  19. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  20. Trichinella zimbabwensis in wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of South Africa.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-04-06

    Recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in crocodiles from Zimbabwe, Lake Cahora Basa, Mozambique, and from lake Abaja, Ethiopia, prompted strict control measures to curb the possible spread of the infection to humans and also to prevent its introduction to other countries, which were considered free of this pathogen. In 2006, the Chief Directorate Veterinary Services of Mpumalanga Province of South Africa launched a survey to investigate the status of wild and commercial breeding crocodiles in the province. To evaluate if T. zimbabwensis was circulating in the environments where crocodiles are living in South Africa, 9 fish, 36 reptiles (including 27 Nile crocodiles) and 4 mammals have been investigated to detect Trichinella sp. larvae in their muscles. In January 2008, a Nile crocodile from Komatipoort, sampled by means of a tail biopsy, tested positive for Trichinella larvae. In June-July 2008, Trichinella sp. larvae were also detected in four other Nile crocodiles from the Olifants River Gorge. The prevalence of Trichinella infection in the investigated wild Nile crocodiles from South Africa is 38.5%. The larvae were identified as belonging to T. zimbabwensis by multiplex-PCR. These are the first reports of T. zimbabwensis in South Africa and suggest that the distribution area of this parasite species is wider than that believed in the past.

  1. Occurrence and Mineralogical Characteristics of Tremolite Asbestos Occurred in Boryeong area, Chungnam, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    Abandoned tremolite mines, which had been exploited for several decades since 1930, are distributed in Boryeong, Chungnam. It is known that tremolite asbestos is approximately 100 times more harmful than chrysotile asbestos. Recently, it become a regional social problem because lung disease (mesothelioma and lung cancer) suspect patients are largely found among the residents of the mining area. Therefore, Korean government making every endeavor to remove asbestos risk in the area. However, there is insufficiency geological and mineralogical studies for tremolite asbestos. In the present study, the occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of tremolite asbestos were studied using polarization microscope, XRD, XRF, EPMA, SEM and TEM. Mica-schist of precambrian metasedimentary rock, which is widely distributed in the area, is the host rock of tremolite deposits. The rocks are largely disturbed by faults and folds, and shows sudden changes in strike and slope of strata. Tremolite ore bodies, which show relatively light colored, mainly occur as stratiform or veinlet and some occurs in brecciated rock fragments. Tremolite is a major asbestos mineral, and chrysotile, talc, mica, chlorite and quartz occurs as associated minerals. Considerable amount of ore containing pure tremolite is found, and ores having mineral assemblages of tremolite+talc, tremolite+quartz and chrysotile+talc also occurs. From optical microscope observations, most tremolites are asbestos from that meets to the criterion (length > 5 μm, diameter < 3 μm, aspect ratio > 3:1) defined by the international organization (WHO, ILO), but non-asbestos form tremolites are also included. Most asbestos form tremolites have the size range of 1.0-2.0 μm width and 5-10 μm length. The length can be shorten with crushing experiments, but the width remains unchanged. Non-asbestos form hardly change to asbestos form by mechanical crushing. From comprehensive studies for geological occurrence and mineral

  2. Landscape changes of desertification in arid areas: the case of south-west Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hirche, Aziz; Salamani, Mostefa; Abdellaoui, Abdelkader; Benhouhou, Salima; Valderrama, Jaime Martínez

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to monitor the arid Algerian High Plateaus, a key region for pastoral activities which has suffered harsh and widespread degradation from the eighties. This area is not sufficiently known by the international scientific community. For this purpose, we considered phytoecological inventories and thematic maps that have been carried out during 30 years. Available data for the study are vegetation maps derived from aerial photographs (1975-1978) and from satellite imagery (2006). The parameters considered include vegetation, flora, and soil surface properties. The study area is part of the ROSELT/OSS (ROSELT: Réseau d'Observatoires de Surveillance Ecologique à Long Terme (Long Term Ecological Monitoring Observatories Network); OSS: Observatory of the Sahara and the Sahel) network observatory (OSS 2008). To assess land degradation, we used landscape ecology parameters. These include the number and surface area of vegetation units, synthesized by the large patch index and the Shannon landscape diversity index. All parameters reflect an increase in landscape heterogeneity. The largest decline is observed for Stipa tenacissima vegetation units constituting 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupied just 1/10 in 2006. Vegetation units linked to degradation, such those dominated by Salsola vermiculata, inexistent in 1978, now dominate the steppe. Another result of the ongoing landscape degradation on the plateaus between 1975 and 2006 is the decrease of vegetation cover. In 1978, 1/3 of rangelands only had low vegetation covers, inferior to 15%. Presently 9/10 present the same class cover. This can be explained by severe spells of drought combined by an exponential rise of livestock during the last 30 years. This has in turn greatly undermined the fodder potential of the steppe. Results suggest that the "greening-up" described by several authors in the Sahel over the last 40 years is not observed in the Algerian, nor in the North African steppes. On the

  3. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in around Tirupati Area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, E.; Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sharifi, Zahed

    2016-08-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. The main aim of this study has been to assess the variability of groundwater parameters to develop water quality of Tirupati area and its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. Further, the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI) have been calculated. Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  4. Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in south-west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-04-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure and ice velocity data. Using 20 years of data covering the whole ablation area, we show that there is not a strong positive correlation between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Annual velocities even slightly decreased with increasing melt. Results also indicate that melt variations are most important for velocity variations in the upper ablation zone up to the equilibrium line altitude. During the extreme melt in 2012, a large velocity response near the equilibrium line was observed, highlighting the possibility of meltwater to have an impact even high on the ice sheet. This may lead to an increase of the annual ice velocity in the region above S9 and requires further monitoring.

  5. Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in South-West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure, and ice velocity data. We show using twenty years of data covering the whole ablation area that there is no strong feedback between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Annual velocities even slightly decreased with increasing melt. Results also indicate that melt variations are most important for velocity variations in the upper ablation zone up to the equilibrium line altitude. During the extreme melt in 2012 a large velocity response near the equilibrium line was observed, highlighting the possibility of rapidly changing bed conditions in this part of the ice sheet that may lead to a doubling of the annual ice velocity.

  6. [A services value of different landscape types in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian; Li, Zheng-Hai; Niu, Jian-Ming; Bao, Ya-Jing; Cheng, Yan; Lü, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hai-Mei; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2008-09-01

    Based on the RS image of Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region (LRGR) in 2001, the study area was classified into seven first-class landscape types (forestland, grassland, farmland, wetland, water body, urban land, and glacier), and 26 second-class landscape types in consideration of climate belt, vegetation, and topography. By using GIS technology, the services value of different landscape types of LRGR were studied in regards to the study results on services value of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. The results indicated that the total services value of LRGR was 5 302.35 x 10(8) yuan x a(-1), accounting for 9.47% of the whole country. The service value of soil conservation was the highest, which occupied 18.05% of the total services value, while the service values of gas adjustability and biodiversity protection ranked the second and third. Due to its distribution extent and services intensity per unit area, the forest landscape, which covered 66.11% of the total area, contributed most (85.34%) to the total service value of LRGR, followed by grassland and farmland landscapes.

  7. Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

    1953-01-01

    The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

  8. Hydrodynamic features of the South Aegean Sea as derived from Argo T/ S and dissolved oxygen profiles in the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassis, Dimitris; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Korres, Gerasimos; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic picture of the South Aegean Sea is examined through an analysis of recent measurements in its sub-basins, the Myrtoan and Cretan Sea. Both sub-basins play an important role in the water circulation, exchange, and formation processes that affect the dynamics of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. For the first time, Bio-Argo floats were deployed in the area under the Greek Argo Research Infrastructure coordination. The acquired profiles cover an almost 2-year period (November 2013-July 2015) and are compared with previous Argo profiles and the re-processed time-series data recorded from the E1-M3A POSEIDON observatory operating in the area since 2007. The spatio-temporal distribution of the physical and chemical properties in each sub-basin is examined. Dense water formation events are revealed in the northern part (Myrtoan), while the wider area can be characterized as pre-conditioned. In the Cretan basin, a strong inter-annual variability of the salinity field at intermediate and deep layers is observed that is associated with water exchange from its open boundaries. Furthermore, comparison of the dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution with physical water properties within both the mixed layer, and at greater depths, indicated that relatively high but still under-saturated DO values are more likely to be associated with convection events. Finally, an updated picture of the physical properties and the DO distribution is presented based on the last 5 years of measurements and the recent introduction of Bio-Argo floats with DO sensors in the area.

  9. Tidal elevation, current and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. X.; Fang, G. H.; Susanto, R. D.; Adi, T. R.; Fan, B.; Setiawan, A.; Li, S. J.; Wang, Y. G.; Gao, X. M.

    2015-11-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2 and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in-situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in Karimata and Gaspar Straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The major semi axis lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semi-diurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semi-diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the loop band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semi-diurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  10. Tidal elevation, current, and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Dwi Susanto, R.; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Fan, Bin; Setiawan, Agus; Li, Shujiang; Wang, Yonggang; Gao, Xiumin

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents, and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2, and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in the Karimata and Gaspar straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The semi-major axes lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semidiurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semidiurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the antinodal band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semidiurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  11. Methane Release and Pingo-Like Feature Across the South kara Sea Shels, an Area of Thawing Offshore Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, P.; Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Our recent studies revealed extensive gas release over an area of at least 7500 km2and presence of pingo-like features (PLFs), showing severe methane leakage, in the South Kara Sea in water depths >20m (Serov et al., 2015). Specifically, we detected shallow methane ebullition sites expressed in water column acoustic anomalies (gas flares and gas fronts) and areas of increased dissolved methane concentrations in bottom water, which might be sufficient sources of carbon for seawater-atmosphere exchange. A study of nature and source of leaking gas was focused on two PLFs, which are acoustically transparent circular mounds towering 5-9 m above the surrounding seafloor. One PLF (PLF 2) connects to biogenic gas from deeper sources, which is reflected in δ13CCH4 values ranging from -55,1‰ to -88,0‰ and δDCH4values varied from -175‰ to -246‰. Low organic matter content (0.52-1.69%) of seafloor sediments restricts extensive in situ methane production. The formation of PLF 2 is directly linked to the thawing of subsea permafrost and, possibly, decomposition of permafrost related gas hydrates. High accumulations of biogenic methane create the necessary forces to push the remaining frozen layers upwards and, therefore, form a topographic feature. We speculate that PLF 1, which shows ubiquitously low methane concentrations, is either a relict submerged terrestrial pingo, or a PLF lacking the necessary underlying methane accumulations. Our model of glacial-interglacial permafrost evolution supports a scenario in which subsea permafrost tapers seaward and pinches out at 20m isobaths, controlling observed methane emissions and development of PLFs. Serov. P., A. Portnov, J. Mienert, P. Semenov, and P. Ilatovskaya (2015), Methane release from pingo-like features across the South Kara Sea shelf, an area of thawnig

  12. Acoustic velocity log numerical simulation and saturation estimation of gas hydrate reservoir in Shenhu area, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method.

  13. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105–106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning.

  14. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105–106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning. PMID:27694889

  15. Acoustic Velocity Log Numerical Simulation and Saturation Estimation of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in Shenhu Area, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method. PMID:23935407

  16. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  17. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training.

  18. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  19. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  20. Excavation of Tunnel Valleys and Inner Gorges by Subglacial Meltwater Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, F.; Flowers, G. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Subglacial meltwater erosion (SME) is thought to contribute to the excavation of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, yet the underpinnings of the formation of these landforms remain obscure. Tunnel valleys are large channel-like features (100s of metres to few kilometres wide and up to 10s of kilometres in length) commonly found in the vicinity of former continental ice-sheet margins. The main question concerning their formation is: does SME excavate them gradually or by large subglacial floods? Inner gorges are V-shaped incisions in an otherwise glacially overprinted landscape. The initial assertion of their fluvial origin has recently been disputed, as they have been shown to persist through multiple glaciations and SME has been invoked to explain some inner gorges in Scandinavia and the Alps. The question is therefore: can SME explain the excavation of an inner gorge? In order to test these hypotheses related to the genesis of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, we use a 1-D model of subglacial hydrology to drive a model of bedrock erosion by total sediment load based on the tools and cover effect. Calculated values of subglacial transport stage in response to ordinary seasonal processes are comparable to those during large floods in rivers. Subglacial floods therefore limit bedrock erosion by transporting sediment farther from the bed, thus inhibiting impacts. Consequently, we find that gradual SME is likely to produce more incision over a glacial cycle. When we simulate the total SME that occurs through a glacial cycle under a synthetic ice-sheet margin, we are able to produce tunnel valleys or inner gorges over the timespan of a glaciation. Based on these results, we propose that (1) tunnel valleys and inner gorges can both be the result of SME, (2) tunnel valleys in bedrock can be formed through gradual processes rather than floods, and (3) SME enhances inner gorge relief.

  1. Geology of uranium in the Chadron area, Nebraska and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Robert Jacob

    1961-01-01

    The Chadron area covers 375 square miles about 25 miles southeast of the Black Hills. Recurrent mild tectonic activity and erosion on the Chadron arch, a compound anticlinal uplift of regional extent, exposed 1900 feet of Upper Cretaceous rocks, mostly marine shale containing pyrite and organic matter, and 600 feet of Oligocene and Miocene rocks, mostly terrestrial fine-grained sediment containing volcanic ash. Each Cretaceous formation truncated by the sub-Oligocene unconformity is stained yellow and red, leached, kaolinized, and otherwise altered to depths as great as 55 feet. The composition and profile of the altered material indicate lateritic soil; indirect evidence indicates Eocene(?) age. In a belt through the central part of the area, the Brule formation of Oligocene age is a sequence of bedded gypsum, clay, dolomite, and limestone more than 300 feet thick. Uranium in Cretaceous shale in 58 samples averages 0.002 percent, ten times the average for the earths crust. Association with pyrite and organic matter indicates low valency. The uranium probably is syngenetic or nearly so. Uranium in Eocene(?) soil in 43 samples averages 0.054 percent, ranging up to 1.12 percent. The upper part of the soil is depleted in uranium; enriched masses in the basal part of the soil consist of remnants of bedrock shale and are restricted to the highest reaches of the ancient oxidation-reduction interface. The uranium is probably in the from of a low-valent mineral, perhaps uraninite. Modern weathering of Cretaceous shale is capable of releasing as much as 0.780 ppm uranium to water. Eocene(?) weathering probably caused enrichment of the ancient soil through 1) leaching of Cretaceous shale, 2) downward migration of uranyl complex ions, and 3) reduction of hydrogen sulfide at the water table. Uranium minerals occur in the basal 25 feet of the gypsum facies of the Brule formation at the two localities where the gypsum is carbonaceous; 16 samples average 0.066 percent uranium and

  2. Measurement of particle number and related pollutant concentrations in an urban area in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, D. M.; Teixeira, E. C.; Rolim, S. B. A.; Pereira, F. N.; Wiegand, F.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze atmospheric particle number concentration at Sapucaia do Sul, in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, and associate it with the pollutants NO, NO2, and O3. Measurements were performed in two periods: August to October, in 2010 and 2011. We used the following equipment: the continuous particulate monitor (CPM), the chemiluminescent nitrogen oxide analyzer (AC32M), and the UV photometric ozone analyzer (O342M). Daily and hourly particle number concentrations in fractions PR1.0 (0.3-1.0 μm), PR2.5 (1.0-2.5 μm), and PR10 (2.5-10 μm), and concentrations of pollutants NO, NO2, NOx, and O3 were measured. These data were correlated with meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The daily variation of OX (NO2 + O3) and its relation with NO2 were also established. The results obtained for daily particle number concentration (particles L-1) showed that the area of study had higher particle number of PR2.5 and PR1.0 size ranges, with values of 19.5 and 28.51 particles L-1, respectively. Differences in particle number concentrations in PR1 and PR2.5 size ranges were found between weekdays and weekends. The daily variation per hour of concentrations of particle number, NO, and NOx showed peaks during increased traffic flow in the morning and in the evening. NO2 showed peaks at different times, with the first peak (morning) 2 h after the peak of NO, and a second peak in the evening (19:00). This is due to the oxidation of NO and to the photolysis of NO3 formed overnight. Correlation analysis suggests that there may be a relationship between the fine and ultrafine particles and NO, probably indicating that they have similar sources, such as vehicular emissions. In addition, a possible relationship of solar radiation with fine particle number concentrations, as well as with O3 was also observed. The results, too, show an inverse relationship between particle number

  3. Integrated 3D geophysical and geological modelling of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (south Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, P.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2004-04-01

    This paper combines geological knowledge and geophysical imagery at the crustal scale to model the 3D geometry of a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France). The Champtoceaux complex consists of a stack of metamorphic nappes of gneisses and micaschists, with eclogite-bearing units. The exhumation of the complex, during early Carboniferous times, was accompanied by deformation during regional dextral strike-slip associated with a major Hercynian shear zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone, SASZ). Dextral shearing produced a km-scale antiformal structure with a steeply dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward plunging axis. Armor 2 deep seismic profile shows that the regional structure was cut by a set of faults with northward thrusting components. Based on the seismic constraint, direct 2D crustal-scale modelling was performed throughout the Champtoceaux fold on seven radial gravity profiles, also using geological data, and density measurements from field and drill-hole samples. The 3D integration of the cross-sections, the digitised geological map, and the structural information (foliation dips) insure the geometrical and topological consistency of all sources of data. The 2D information is interpolated to the whole 3D space using a geostatistical analysis. Finally, the 3D gravity contribution of the resulting model is computed taking into account densities for each modelled geological body and compared to the Bouguer anomaly. The final 3D model is thus compatible with the seismic and gravity data, as well as with geological data. Main geological results derived from the modelling are (i) the overall 3D geometry of the south dipping thrust system interpreted on the seismic profile emphasises northward thrusting and folding of the Champtoceaux complex which was coeval with strike-slip along the South Armorican Shear Zone; (ii) the gravity modelling suggests the presence of a relatively dense body below the

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology in a South African Community: A Second Study of a Very High Prevalence Area*

    PubMed Central

    VILJOEN, DENIS L.; PHILLIP GOSSAGE, J.; BROOKE, LESLEY; ADNAMS, COLLEEN M.; JONES, KENNETH L.; ROBINSON, LUTHER K.; EUGENE HOYME, H.; SNELL, CUDORE; KHAOLE, NATHANIEL C.O.; KODITUWAKKU, PIYADASA; ASANTE, KWADWO OHENE; FINDLAY, RICHARD; QUINTON, BARBARA; MARAIS, ANNA-SUSAN; KALBERG, WENDY O.; MAY, PHILIP A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. Method: Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993. Characteristics of children with FAS were contrasted with characteristics of a randomly selected control group from the same classrooms. Physical growth and development, dysmorphology and psychological characteristics of the children and measures of maternal alcohol use and smoking were analyzed. Results: The rate of FAS found in this study is the highest yet reported in any overall community in the world, 65.2-74.2 per 1,000 children in the first grade population. These rates are 33-148 times greater than U.S. estimates and higher than in a previous cohort study in this same community (40.5-46.4 per 1,000). Detailed documentation of physical features indicates that FAS children in South Africa have characteristics similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, facial and limb dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. Frequent, severe episodic drinking of beer and wine is common among mothers and fathers of FAS children. Their lives are characterized by serious familial, social and economic challenges, compared with controls. Heavy episodic maternal drinking is significantly associated with negative outcomes of children in the area of nonverbal intelligence but even more so in verbal intelligence, behavior and overall dysmorphology (physical anomalies). Significantly more FAS exists among children of women who were rural residents (odds ratio: 7.36, 95% confidence interval: 3.31-16.52), usually among workers on local farms. Conclusion: A high rate of FAS was documented in this community. Given social and economic similarities and racial admixture, we suspect that other communities in the Western Cape

  5. Bio-concentration of chromium--an in situ phytoremediation study at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Pattnaik, Mausumi M; Mishra, Aruna K; Patra, Hemanta K

    2012-01-01

    Mine waste water at South Kaliapani usually contains toxic levels of hexavalent Cr(VI). The present in situ study was conducted at South Kaliapani chromite mine area in Orissa state, India, to assess the phytoremediation ability of three plants, namely, rice (Oryza sativa L.), paragrass (Brachiaria mutica), and an aquatic weed (Eichhornia crassipes), in attenuating Cr(VI) from mine waste water and to correlate the bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Cr. Water hyacinth (E. crassipes) showed 24% to 54% reduction whereas paragrass (B. mutica) was able to reduce 18% to 33% of Cr(VI) from mine water. This reduction was studied over a period of 100 days of plant growth. The reduction was observed through a passage of a sum total of 2,000 sq. ft. cultivated plots and ponds separately. Reduction in Cr(VI) content in mine water varies with plant age as well as with the distance of passage. Cr accumulation and BCF values increased with high soil Cr levels as well as the age of plants. High BCF and transportation index (Ti) values, i.e., 10,924 and 32.09, respectively, were noted for water hyacinth. The Ti values indicated that the root-to-shoot translocation of Cr was very high after 100 days of growth. The total accumulation rate was maximum (8.29 mg Cr kg dry biomass(-1) day (-1)) in paragrass. The BCF values for roots were noted to be higher than those of leaves, stems, and grains of the 125-day-old plants. Hence, paragrass and water hyacinth may be used as tools of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination.

  6. Migration And wintering areas Of Glaucous-winged Gulls From south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.

  7. Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  8. Landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anna; Pedersen, Eja; Weisner, Stefan E B

    2012-12-30

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers' good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  9. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th), and potassium-40 (40K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424

  10. Development of integrative bioethics in the Mediterranean area of South-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Kukoč, Mislav

    2012-11-01

    With regards to its origin, foundation and development, bioethics is a relatively new discipline, scientific and theoretical field, where different and even contradicting definition models and methodological patterns of its formation and application meet. In some philosophical orientations, bioethics is considered to be a sub-discipline of applied ethics as a traditional philosophical discipline. Yet in biomedical and other sciences, bioethics is designated as a specialist scientific discipline, or a sort of a new medical ethics. The concept of integrative bioethics as an interdisciplinary scholarly and pluriperspectivistic area goes beyond such one-sided determinations, both philosophical and scientistic, and intends to integrate the philosophical approach to bioethics with its particular scientific contents, as well as different cultural dimensions and perspectives. This concept of integrative bioethics has gradually developed at philosophical and interdisciplinary conferences and institutions on the "bioethical islands" of the Croatian Mediterranean. In this paper, the author follows the formation, development and prospects of integrative bioethics in the wider region of the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe.

  11. The Transantarctic Mountains between South Pole and Scott Glacier area: a geophysical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; Buck, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains and associated West Antarctic rift system are among the most enigmatic tectonic regions on Earth and many aspects of their formation remain controversial or little understood. The difficulty to resolve the controversies is mainly related to a gap in the onland geologic record of the uplift and exhumation history between the extrusion of the Jurassic Kirkpatrik Basalts (~180 Ma) and the Eocene glacial sediments (~34 Ma) in the Ross Embayment. Furthermore, the geologic footprint of the mountains inland of the Transantarctic Mountains has not yet been sampled because of the ice cover and geophysical data coverage is sparse. In order to better constrain the tectonic and geologic framework aerogeophysical remote sensing of the hinterland is a crucial step forward. The aerogeophysical data set presented here is part of a project to study variations in crustal architecture along the Transantarctic Mountains along two aerogeophysical transects. The aeromagnetic anomaly field is generally very smooth. Over the Transantarctic Mountains, the anomaly field shows several small (tens of kilometers) positive amplitudes that can be correlated with known rock outcrops of Granite Harbour Intrusives. Source depth estimates, using multiple-source Werner deconvolution, indicate shallow sources for the Granite Habour Intrusives. The typical pattern of short-wavelength and high amplitude anomalies caused by the Jurassic Ferrar doleritic dykes and sills along the TAM is absent. A comparision with an aeromagnetic transect in Southern Victoria Land shows that there are no or little Ferrar rocks in the Scott Glacier area. We have also mapped several geologic contacts, often fault related, by multiple-source Werner deconvolution of the magnetic data. We used gravity data to constrain the crustal thickness variations along a transect parallel to 150 °W.

  12. Depth of Small Scale Landslide in Slate Area : Case of 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Ai-Liao River, South Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. C.; Yen, H. Y.; Zhou, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the depth and magnitude of the small scale landslide in slate area in Ai-Liao-Shi catchment, South Taiwan. Landslide inventory of 2009 Typhoon Morakot, 5×5 m DEM, and aero photo have been interpreted by GIS software to assess the slope type and the scale of landslide events. The research database includes 276 landslides which orthographic projection areas are smaller than 1 ha. The slopes were also classified into dip, orthoclinical-dip, escarpment, and orthoclinical- escarpment 4 types of slope based on the slope aspect to the bedding orientation. The sliding plane, or so call the failure plane, was identified by aero photo, field reconnaissance and verification, and DEM before and after the typhoon event. Colluvium material deposited on the slip plane was removed based on the scarp and foot position, mass movement pattern, weak plane orientation, and the micro topography of a landslide to achieve the reasonable sliding plane. The maximum depth of sliding surface is explored through the slope type and sliding plane in total of 276 landslide cases. Results demonstrate that the average maximum depth, Dam, of dip slope is 4.6 m, Dam of orthoclinical-dip, escarpment, and orthoclinical-escarpment slopes are 5.8, 6.0, and 6.3 m respectively. In general, Dam is creasing with the average slope of landslide, the relationship of both factor is achieved in the study. Meanwhile, the orthographic projection area of landslide is increasing with the slope angle till the angle up to 40 degree then decreasing. The depth also varies with landslide magnitude. Finally, the relation of the depth normal to slope surface and the depth in gravity direction of landslides in four types slope are proposed, the R square values are 0.862 to 0.891 showing a good correlation between two types of depth.

  13. The functional importance of Acropora austera as nursery areas for juvenile reef fish on South African coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floros, C.; Schleyer, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    Many coral reef fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as nursery areas. However, in certain regions, the absence or scarcity of such habitats suggests that juvenile coral reef fish may be seeking refuge elsewhere. The underlying biogenic substratum of most coral reefs is structurally complex and provides many types of refuge. However, on young or subtropical coral reefs, species may be more reliant on the living coral layer as nursery areas. Such is the case on the high-latitude coral reefs of South Africa where the coral communities consist of a thin veneer of coral overlaying late Pleistocene bedrock. Thus, the morphology of coral species may be a major determinant in the availability of refuge space. Acropora austera is a branching species that forms large patches with high structural complexity. Associated with these patches is a diverse community of fish species, particularly juveniles. Over the past decade, several large (>100 m2) A. austera patches at Sodwana Bay have been diminishing for unknown reasons and there is little evidence of their replacement or regrowth. Seven patches of A. austera (AP) and non- A. austera (NAP) were selected and monitored for 12 months using visual surveys to investigate the importance of AP as refugia and nursery areas. There were significant differences in fish communities between AP and NAP habitats. In total, 110 species were recorded within the patches compared to 101 species outside the patches. Labrids and pomacentrids were the dominant species in the AP habitats, while juvenile scarids, acanthurids, chaetodons and serranids were also abundant. The diversity and abundance of fish species increased significantly with AP size. As the most structurally complex coral species on the reefs, the loss of APs may have significant implications for the recruitment and survival of certain fish species.

  14. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  15. Diversity and Characteristics of Benthic Foraminifera in Cold Seep Areas in the Active Margin of the northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Meng-Ting; Thomas, Ellen; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Yu-Shih; Lin, Saulwood; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The active continental margin in northeastern South China Sea (SCS) has been considered to have high potential to be a reservoir of gas hydrate, based on geographic features, geophysical evidences, as well as geochemical analyses of samples from the water column, pore water and sediments. Compared to a typical sea floor area, cold seep areas have more food for benthos and more diverse habitats. As a result, we can expect a higher species diversity of benthic organisms in cold seep areas of the SCS. Based on preliminary results of species identification of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the upper most sediments (0-5 cm) of box cores collected around cold seeps at water depth ~1300m, the species diversity is significantly higher at seep sites (Shannon-Wiener index = 274) than at background sites (Shannon-Wiener index = 3). The faunal assemblages consist of ~68% calcareous benthic foraminifera (CBF) and ~32% agglutinated benthic foraminifera (ABF) at seep sites. On the other hand, faunal assemblages are composed of only ~24% CBF and ~76% ABF at background sites. By staining the sample with rose Bengal-ethanol solution, we were able to recognize in-situ individuals which were alive at the time of collection, and separate them from dead specimens. Among the living individuals, the most abundant CBF species in seep sites is Bulimina aculeata (~51% in the living CBF fauna), followed by the typical 'shelf-species,' Lenticulina inornata, (~10%) and the common 'brackish-species,' Miliolinella subrotunda, (~9%), while the most abundant ABF species is Cribrostomoides subglobosus (~19% in the living ABF fauna). The most common species thus are typical for shallower, more food rich environments.

  16. Isotopic, trace element and nutrient characterization of coastal waters from Ubatuba inner shelf area, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, P. P.; de Oliveira, J.; Braga, E. S.; Comanducci, J.-F.; Gastaud, J.; Groening, M.; Levy-Palomo, I.; Morgenstern, U.; Top, Z.

    2008-02-01

    Stable isotopes, tritium, radium isotopes, radon, trace elements and nutrients data were collected during two sampling campaigns in the Ubatuba coastal area (south-eastern Brazil) with the aim of investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the region. The isotopic composition ( δD, δ18O, 3H) of submarine waters was characterised by significant variability and heavy isotope enrichment. The stable isotopes and tritium data showed good separation of groundwater and seawater groups. The contribution of groundwater in submarine waters varied from a few % to 17%. Spatial distribution of 222Rn activity concentration in surface seawater revealed changes between 50 and 200 Bq m -3 which were in opposite relationship with observed salinities. Time series measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in Flamengo Bay (from 1 to 5 kBq m -3), obtained by in situ underwater gamma-spectrometry showed a negative correlation between the 222Rn activity concentration and tide/salinity. This may be caused by sea level changes as tide effects induce variations of hydraulic gradients, which increase 222Rn concentration during lower sea level, and opposite, during high tides where the 222Rn activity concentration is smaller. The estimated SGD fluxes varied during 22-26 November between 8 and 40 cm d -1, with an average value of 21 cm d -1 (the unit is cm 3/cm 2 per day). The radium isotopes and nutrient data showed scattered distributions with offshore distance and salinity, which implies that in a complex coast with many small bays and islands, the area has been influenced by local currents and groundwater-seawater mixing. SGD in the Ubatuba area is fed by coastal contaminated groundwater and re-circulated seawater (with small admixtures of groundwater), which claims for potential environmental concern with implications on the management of freshwater resources in the region.

  17. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  18. Dechlorane Plus in human hair from an e-waste recycling area in South China: comparison with dust.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Mi; He, Luo-Yiyi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2010-12-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorination product, 1,6,7,8,9,14,15,16,17,17,18-octadeca-7,15-diene (anti-Cl(11)-DP), were measured in human hair and indoor dust collected from an e-waste recycling area and two control areas (rural and urban) in South China. DP was detected in hair and dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.02-58.32 ng/g and 2.78-4197 ng/g, respectively. anti-Cl(11)-DP, mainly detected in human hair and dust samples from the e-waste recycling area, ranged from nd (nondetected) to 0.23 ng/g in hair and from nd to 20.22 ng/g in dust. Average values of anti-DP fractional abundance (f(anti) ratio) in hair of e-waste dismantling workers (0.55 ± 0.11) and dust from e-waste recycling workshops (0.54 ± 0.15) were significantly lower than those in other groups (0.62-0.76 means for hair and 0.66-0.76 means for dust). Significantly positive correlation between DP concentrations in dust and hair and similarity in f(anti) ratios between hair and dust suggest that ingestion of dust comprise one of the major routes for DP exposure. Significantly positive relationships were also observed between anti-Cl(11)-DP and anti-DP for both hair and dust samples with similar regression line slopes. The ratios of anti-Cl(11)-DP to anti-DP between hair and dust show no significant difference. These results suggest that anti-Cl(11)-DP in the human body is likely accumulated from the environmental matrix and not formed from biotransformation of the parent DP.

  19. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guosheng; Qiu, Zhiqun; Qi, Junsheng; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Fengdan; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Jiaohua; Shu, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China.

  20. Assessing internal biophysical vulnerability to landslide hazards - a nested catchment approach: Xiangxi Watershed / Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Matthias; Seeber, Christoph; Hartmann, Heike; Xiang, Wei; King, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    The Three Gorges dam construction was completed in 2006. Besides the international media, also the responsible authorities and various scholarly communities pay close attention to potential and actual environmental impacts related to the impoundment and development activities. The geo-environment within the Three Gorges region is highly conducive to landslides. Consequently, a scientific monitoring and risk mitigation system was established and is still under development. Risk analysis with regard to gravity driven mass movements is highly complex and strongly site specific - several aspects hamper a universal methodology applicable for landslide risk and site assessment. The interdisciplinary Sino-German Yangtze-Project Research co-operation aims, among others, to support the sustainable cultivation of the newly developed ecosystems within the Yangtze catchments. Land use change and increasing population growth are causing severe pressure on the scarce land resources. Landslides are acknowledged as important threat, hence vulnerability of certain landscape components have to be identified, quantified and monitored. A nested quantitative approach for vulnerability analysis is developed. The applied risk and vulnerability model understands risk as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Whereas vulnerability is characterized by: mass movement intensity and susceptibility of the respective element at risk. The watershed of Xiangxi river serves as study area. In general, catchment approaches intent and proved to be a functional geographical unit for successful integrated resources management. Several limitations with regard to data accessibility, availability and accuracy have to be considered due to restrictions of feasible scales. Comprehensive large-scale site investigations are confined to training areas for model calibration and validation. Remote sensing potentials are utilised for land use/ land cover change analysis and localization of selected elements

  1. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  2. Rapid Gorge Formation in an Artificially Created Waterfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have examined rates of gorge formation, nick point retreat, and the controls on those rates via bedrock erodibility, the effectiveness of bedrock erosion mechanisms and the role of hillslope processes. Most findings are based on conceptual / empirical models or long term landscape analysis; but studies of recent quantifiable events are scarce yet highly valuable. Here we present expert eye witness account and quantitative survey of large and rapid fluvial erosion events that occurred over an artificially created waterfall at a spillway mouth. In 6 years a ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide canyon was carved, and ~1.58 x106 m3 of granite bedrock was removed from the spillway site. Available flow data indicates that the erosion took place under unremarkable flood discharge conditions. The analysis of historic topographic maps enables the reconstruction of the former topography and successive erosion events, enabling the quantification of bedrock erosion amounts, and rates. Analysis of bedrock erodibility and discontinuity patterns demonstrates that the bedrock is mechanically strong, and that similar rock strength and fracture patterns are found throughout the region. It is apparent that structural pre-conditioning through fracture density and orientation in relation to flow and slope direction is of paramount importance in the gorge development. The presented example provides an exceptional opportunity for studying the evolution process of a bedrock canyon and to precisely measure the rate of bedrock channel erosion over a six year period. Results illustrate the highly episodic nature of the erosion and highlight several key observations for the adjustability of bedrock rivers. The observations have implications for the efficiency of bedrock erosion and raise important questions about incision rates, driving mechanisms and timescale assumptions' in models of landscape change.

  3. Geological studies of the COST GE-1 well, United States South Atlantic outer continental shelf area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    The COST No. GE-1 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled in the southern part of the U.S. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) area. The well was drilled within the Southeast Georgia Embayment to a total depth of 13,254 ft (4,040 m). It penetrated a section composed largely of chalky limestones to a depth of about 3,300 ft (1,000 m) below the drill platform. Limestones and calcareous shales with some dolomite predominate between 3,300 and 7,200 ft (1,000 and 2,200 m), whereas interbedded sandstones and shales are dominant from 7,200 to 11,000 ft (2,200 to 3,350 m). From 11,000 ft (3,350 m) to the bottom, the section consists of highly indurated to weakly metamorphosed pelitic sedimentary rocks and meta-igneous flows or intrusives. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 3,500 ft (1,060 m) is Tertiary, the interval from 3,500 to 5,900 ft (1,060 to 1,800 m) is Upper Cretaceous, and the section from 5,900 to 11,000 ft (1,800 to 3,350 m) is apparently Lower Cretaceous. The indurated to weakly metamorphosed section below 11,000 ft (3,350 m) is barren of fauna or flora but is presumed to be Paleozoic based on radiometric age determinations. Rocks deposited at upper-slope water depths were encountered in the Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene parts of the section. All other units were deposited in outer-shelf to terrestrial environments. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs shows that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present within the chalks in the uppermost part of the section as well as in sandstone beds to a depth of at least 10,000 ft (3,000 m). Sandstones below that depth, and the metamorphic section between 11,000 and 13.250 ft (3,350 and 4,040 m) have extremely low permeabilities and are unlikely to contain potential reservoir rock. Studies of organic geochemistry, vitrinite reflectance, and color alteration of visible organic matter indicate that the chalk section down to

  4. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  5. Occurrence and Characteristics of Microplastic Pollution in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Xiong; Hu, Hongjuan; Wu, Chenxi; Bi, Yonghong; Wu, Yonghong; Zhou, Bingsheng; Lam, Paul K S; Liu, Jiantong

    2017-04-04

    Microplastic pollution in inland waters is receiving growing attentions. Reservoirs are suspected to be particularly vulnerable to microplastic pollution. However, very limited information is currently available on pollution characteristics of microplastics in reservoir ecosystems. This work studied the distribution and characteristics of microplastics in the backwater area of Xiangxi River, a typical tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Microplastics were detected in both surface water and sediment with concentrations ranging from 0.55 × 10(5) to 342 × 10(5) items km(-2) and 80 to 864 items m(-2), respectively. Polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were identified in surface water, whereas polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate, and pigments were observed in sediment. In addition, microplastics were also detected in the digestion tracts of 25.7% of fish samples, and polyethylene and nylon were identified. Redundancy analysis indicates a weak correlation between microplastics and water quality variables but a negative correlation with water level of the reservoir and Secchi depth. Results from this study confirm the presence of high abundance microplastics in reservoir impacted tributaries, and suggest that water level regulated hydrodynamic condition and input of nonpoint sources are important regulators for microplastic accumulation and distribution in the backwater area of reservoir tributaries.

  6. Investigating the impact of global climatic and landuse changes on groundwater resources in hard rock areas of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrant, S.; Perrin, J.; Marechal, J.; Dewandel, B.; Aulong, S.; Ahmed, S.

    2010-12-01

    In most parts of India, and particularly in South India, groundwater levels are hazardously declining, while agricultural groundwater use is increasing. The current issue is to address the probable evolution of water table levels in relation with climate and agricultural changes. The aim of the SHIVA-ANR project (http://www.shiva-anr.org) is to provide some indicators of the water availability at the village scale to evaluate the vulnerability of farmers facing global changes. This study focuses on a particularly water stressed semi-arid area of South India characterized by hard rock geology with naturally low recharge capacity and limited surface water availability. The study catchment is located in the agricultural area of the Kudaliar river watershed (980km^2) located 50 km north of Hyderabad, India. It is composed of about 120 villages. Socio economic surveys have been carried out at the village scale to evaluate the present socio-economic situation of farmers. It also provides more details on various cultural and irrigation practices at this scale. The landuse has been evaluated by remote sensing with two satellite images, one after monsoon (October 2009), and the other during dry season (March 2010). Groundwater-irrigated rice paddies represent about 10% of the area, whereas rainfed crop (corn and cotton) represent about 45%. Numerous small tanks (reservoir) situated on the river network define a water harvesting system of 2% of the catchment area which captures surface runoff during monsoon. No discharges data are available at the outlet, as the river is dry most of the year. A hydro-geological survey has been carried out to provide a map of aquifer thickness and the general state of the groundwater level before and after monsoon. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model (SWAT) has been calibrated to assess the water budget of the agricultural catchment under present conditions. Soil parameters calibration is made first on seasonal groundwater recharge for

  7. Spatio-temporal distribution and environmental risk of sedimentary heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jiandong; Zhang, Xilin; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Jinqing

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-five surface sediments and one sediment core sample were collected from the study area. Grain size, major elements, and heavy metals were determined. The content of fine-grained sediments (silt and clay), as well as the concentrations of major elements and heavy metals, showed seaward decreasing trends, with high content in the coastal areas of the East China Sea (ECS) and south west of Jeju Island. Low enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values were found, indicating that the ecological risk of heavy metals was low. The EF values obtained from the high-resolution sedimentary records of heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary could be divided into Stage 1 (1950s to the late 1970s) and Stage 2 (late 1970s to the current sampling day), which coincided with economic development of the Yangtze River Basin, implementation of environmental protection, and impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

  8. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  9. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  10. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  11. Inhalation Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in an Electronic Waste and Urban Area in South China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profile within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounting for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (< 0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area. PMID:22913732

  12. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India

    PubMed Central

    George, Jismary; Nair, Divya; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Saravanan, Nirmala; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Roy, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women's health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Results: Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–15.7 P: 0.03). The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue. PMID:28217603

  13. A rapid gas hydrate dissociation after the Younger Dryas event in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Ge, Q.; Xu, D.; Yang, K.

    2013-12-01

    The methane released from gas hydrates has been suggested to play a great role in global warming. The Shenhu area is one of the most important Gas Hydrate Stability Zones (GHSZ) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), where the records of carbonate contents for Core 17940, MD2905 and ZHS-176 all revealed a Carbonate Minimum (CM) at 11.3-8 ka BP. The CM was characterized by an asymmetric pattern of a rapid decrease of carbonate content followed by a gradual recovery. The benthic foraminifer δ13C levels in the shells of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Cibicidoides kullenbergi were depleted by 1.4‰ and 0.7‰, respectively, during the CM period. Meanwhile, the Mass Accumulation Rate (MAR) of the organisms suddenly increased nearly twofold on the seabed. These records may indicate the release of a large amount of methane from the gas hydrates after the Younger Dryas event (YD), which has caused a strong lysocline shoaling but no significant influence on the sea surface ecosystem. This gas hydrate dissociation may be induced by the temperature increase at the end of the YD.

  14. Promotion of sanitation and hygiene in a rural area of South India: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Veerapu, Nagapraveen; Subramaniyan, P.; Praveenkumar, B. A.; Arun, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, billions of people do not have access to improved sanitation and many defecate in the open air. Poor hand washing practices and limited access to sanitation facilities perpetuate the transmission of disease-causing germs. The objectives of the study were to find out the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) on sanitary latrine, footwear, and hand washing among rural people and to assess the improvement in KAP after health education intervention. Materials and Methods: A health education intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2014 in a rural area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, South India among the people aged 15 years and above. The individuals were selected by multistage random sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. After a baseline KAP assessment, intervention activities were conducted twice. The intervention activities were group level talks and discussions, free soap distribution, and display of posters at anganwadi centers. Post-KAP was assessed twice, and the significance of difference was found by using McNemar's test. Results: After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in the overall KAPs among the subjects in post test-1 and post test-2 (P1 < 0.0001, P2 < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: Health education as an intervention has significantly increased KAP more than 30%. Hence, it is imperative that education interventions are needed to bring or sustain positive change. PMID:28217588

  15. Base flow of streams in the outcrop area of southeastern sand aquifer, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Virginia

    1983-01-01

    The base flow component of streamflow was separated from hydrographs for unregulated streams in the Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic outcrop area of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. The base flow values are used in estimating recharge to the sand aquifer. Relations developed between mean annual base flow and stream discharge at the 60- and 65-percent streamflow duration point can be used to approximate mean annual base flow in lieu of hydrograph separation methods for base flows above 10 cu ft/s. Base flow recession curves were used to derive estimates of hydraulic diffusivity of the aquifer which was converted to transmissivity using estimated specific yield. These base-flow-derived transmissivities are in general agreement with transmissivities derived from well data. The shape of flow duration curves of streams is affected by the lithology of the Coastal Plain sediments. Steep flow duration curves appear to be associated with basins underlain by clay or chalk where a low percentage of the discharge is base flow while flatter curves appear to be associated with basins underlain by sand and gravel where a high percentage of the discharge is base flow. (USGS)

  16. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  17. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  18. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  19. Lake surface area variation and its responses to climatic change in Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet during 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Tian, Y.; Sun, R.

    2015-12-01

    The research on lake extraction from multi-source and multi-temporal satellite images and the lake size variation can provide reliable method and indispensable information to deepen the understanding about alpine lake changes with the accelerating warming. With field survey experience in the Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet, the outlines of five lakes (i.e., Yamzhog Yumco, Chen Co, Kongmu Co, Bajiu Co and Puma Yumco) were delineated by the adoption of 42 scenes of satellite images from Landsat, CBERS and HJ from 1970 to 2010, basing on which the responses of alpine lakes to climate change at different timescales were explored. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The seasonal fluctuation of lake surface area was similar with different trend for the five alpine lakes. As for the last 41 years, the annual variation of lake surface area exhibited two kinds of patterns for the five alpine lakes. And the Yamzhog Yumco declined by 9.41%, while the rest four lakes expanded. (2) The responses of alpine lakes to climate change rely on different timescale and water replenishment types. On the one hand, the precipitation change was the predominant driving forces for the seasonal fluctuation and variation trend of lake size, and the rising temperature accounted for the inter-annual lake surface variation. On the other hand, the two kinds of alpine lakes behaviors were well correspondent with the warming temperature over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lakes supplied mainly by precipitation shrunk as a result of increased evaporation, and lakes supplied mainly by glacier and snow meltwater, however, expanded because of the remarkable glacier recession. (3) The quantification of hydrological components would hopefully be improved, according to uncertainties analysis, with the adoption of microwave satellite images and higher resolution ones to disclose the interaction mechanism among climate, glacier, and lake in alpine regions.

  20. Reproductive Isolation among Sympatric Molecular Forms of An. gambiae from Inland Areas of South-Eastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Konaté, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Faye, Ousmane; Dia, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species, one of which, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa. Sympatric ecological diversification of An. gambiae s.s. is in progress within this complex, leading to the emergence of at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms now recognized as good species and named An. coluzzii and An. gambiae respectively) that show heterogeneous levels of divergence in most parts of Africa. However, this process seems to have broken down in coastal areas of West Africa at the extreme edge of the distribution. We undertook a longitudinal study to describe An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from two inland transects with different ecological characteristics in south-eastern Senegal. Analysis of samples collected from 20 sites across these two transects showed the M and S molecular forms coexisted at almost all sampled sites. Overall, similar hybridization rates (2.16% and 1.86%) were recorded in the two transects; sites with relatively high frequencies of M/S hybrids (up to 7%) were clustered toward the north-western part of both transects, often near urban settings. Estimated inbreeding indices for this putative speciation event varied spatially (range: 0.52–1), with hybridization rates being generally lower than expected under panmictic conditions. Such observations suggest substantial reproductive isolation between the M and S molecular forms, and further support the ongoing process of speciation in these inland areas. According to a recent reclassification of the An. gambiae complex, the M and S molecular forms from this zone correspond to An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, respectively. There is considerable evidence that these molecular forms differ in their behavioural and ecological characteristics. Detailed study of these characteristics will allow the development

  1. Indoor inhalation dose estimates due to radon and thoron in some areas of South-Western Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Singh, Bhupinder; Sabharwal, Arvind D; Eappen, K P

    2012-08-01

    LR-115 (type II)-based radon-thoron discriminating twin-chamber dosemeters have been used for estimating radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) concentrations in dwellings of south-western Punjab, India. The present study region has shown pronounced cases of cancer incidents in the public [Thakur, Rao, Rajwanshi, Parwana and Kumar (Epidemiological study of high cancer among rural agricultural community of Punjab in Northern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008; 5(5):399-407) and Kumar et al. (Risk assessment for natural uranium in subsurface water of Punjab state, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2011;17:381-93)]. Radon being a carcinogen has been monitored in some dwellings selected randomly in the study area. Results show that the values of radon ((222)Rn)  varied from 21 to 79 Bq m(-3), with a geometric mean of 45 Bq m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD 1.39)], and those of thoron ((220)Rn)  from minimum detection level to 58 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 19 Bq m(-3) (GSD 1.88). Bare card data are used for computing the progeny concentration by deriving the equilibrium factor (F) using a root finding method [Mayya, Eappen and Nambi (Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin-cup dosemeter with three track detectors. Radiat Prot Dosim 1998;77(3):177-84)]. Inhalation doses have been calculated and compared using UNSCEAR equilibrium factors and by using the calculated F-values. The results show satisfactory comparison between the values.

  2. Geology and stratigraphy of the Challis Volcanic Group and related rocks, Little Wood River area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandford, Richard F.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2005-01-01

    The southwestern part of the Challis volcanic field occupies the valley of the Little Wood River and its tributaries in the Hailey and Idaho Falls 1??2? quadrangles of south-central Idaho. The Little Wood River area is a structurally controlled topographic basin that is partly filled by Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and younger rocks. Rock types in the Challis Volcanic Group of the Little Wood River area include, in order of decreasing abundance, andesite lava flows and tuff breccia, dacite lava flows and flow breccia, volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, lithic tuff, nonvolcanic conglomerate, and rhyolite dikes. A basal nonvolcanic conglomerate, that locally rests on upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks at a regional unconformity, was deposited prior to eruption of volcanic rocks. Andesite was the first volcanic rock erupted and is a voluminous sequence as thick as 3,000 ft (1,000 m). Locally thick volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks accumulated in topographic lows. A sharp transition marks the beginning of dacite eruption from fissures and flow-dome complexes. Dacite flows and breccias are as thick as 2,000 ft (600 m). An upper volcaniclastic unit was deposited in paleotopographic lows following emplacement of the main dacite unit. Next, a widespread, distinctive, lithic rich ash flow tuff, correlated with the tuff of Stoddard Gulch, was deposited over much of the area. Deposition of the tuff was followed by eruption of thin andesite and dacite lava flows and deposition of conglomeratic sedimentary rocks. The entire sequence was then intruded by a dacite flow-dome complex composed of at least three separate intrusions. The Challis Volcanic Group in the study area is calcalkaline. Andesitic rocks are typically high potassium basaltic andesite, high potassium andesite, shoshonite, and banakite (latite). Dacitic rocks are high potassium dacite and trachyte. Tuffs and vitrophyres range in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte. The paleotopographic basin in which the

  3. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion

  4. 76 FR 51393 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Porcupine Coal Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Porcupine Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Record of Decision (ROD) for the South Porcupine Coal Lease-by-Application (LBA) included in the Wright... is for the South Porcupine Coal Tract and addresses leasing Federal coal in Campbell County,...

  5. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  6. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  7. The Three Gorges Dam: Does it accelerate or delay the progress towards eliminating transmission of schistosomiasis in China?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-07-05

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in the largest endemic area of schistosomiasis in China, is one of the world's largest hydroelectric projects to date. Some large-scale hydro projects have resulted in schistosomiasis emergence or re-emergence. Therefore, the dam's potential impact on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum has raised concerns from medical researchers worldwide. A systematic literature review, coupled with an analysis of data on the water level and snail density in the Yangtze River was conducted to assess the impact of the dam on schistosomiasis transmission after more than 10 years of operation. The dam has significantly altered the water levels in the Yangtze River according to different seasons. These changes directly impact the ecology of the schistosome snail host. Due to the dam, there has been a reduction in the density of Oncomelania snails and/or changes in the distribution of snails. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum has decreased in the downstream areas of the dam, including in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum in humans has decreased from 6.80 % in 2002 (before the dam began operating) to 0.50 % in 2012, and the number of people infected with S. japonicum have decreased from 94 208 in 2002 to 59 200 in 2011 in the Poyang Lake region. The presence of the dam does not seem to affect snail breeding or the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Overall, the Three Gorges Dam has significantly contributed to changes in hydrology after more than 10 years of the dam operating. The changes caused by the dam, together with integrated control of schistosomiasis, might be accelerating the progress towards eliminating the transmission of S. japonicum in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite the positive effect the dam is having in controlling S. japonicum transmission, continued surveillance is required to monitor the future ecological impacts of the

  8. Vertical Variation of Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Hong, Qian; Xie, Hui; Qiu, Jiali; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered the main reason for water deterioration, but there has been no attempt to incorporate vertical variations of NPS pollution into watershed management, especially in mountainous areas. In this study, the vertical variations of pollutant yields were explored in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) and the relationships between topographic attributes and pollutant yields were established. Based on our results, the pollutant yields decreased significantly from low altitude to median altitude and leveled off rapidly from median altitude to high altitude, indicating logarithmic relationships between pollutant yields and altitudes. The pollutant yields peaked at an altitude of 200–500 m, where agricultural land and gentle slopes (0–8°) are concentrated. Unlike the horizontal distributions, these vertical variations were not always related to precipitation patterns but did vary obviously with land uses and slopes. This paper also indicates that altitude data and proportions of land use could be a reliable estimate of NPS yields at different altitudes, with significant implications for land use planning and watershed management. PMID:23951110

  9. The Stakeholder Preference for Best Management Practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived ( P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area.

  10. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. X.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, R. S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Li, P.

    2017-02-01

    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur.

  11. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Luo, X X; Yang, S L; Wang, R S; Zhang, C Y; Li, P

    2017-02-01

    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur.

  12. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    Luo, X. X.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, R. S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Li, P.

    2017-01-01

    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur. PMID:28145520

  13. The stakeholder preference for best management practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived (P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area.

  14. Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: the Era of the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Gray, Darren J.; Li, Yuesheng; Feng, Zheng; Williams, Gail M.; Stewart, Donald; Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The potential impact of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis transmission in China has invoked considerable global concern. The TGD will result in changes in the water level and silt deposition downstream, favoring the reproduction of Oncomelania snails. Combined with blockages of the Yangtze River's tributaries, these changes will increase the schistosomiasis transmission season within the marshlands along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The changing schistosome transmission dynamics necessitate a comprehensive strategy to control schistosomiasis. This review discusses aspects of the epidemiology and transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China and considers the pathology, clinical outcomes, diagnosis, treatment, immunobiology, and genetics of schistosomiasis japonica together with an overview of current progress in vaccine development, all of which will have an impact on future control efforts. The use of synchronous praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy for humans and domestic animals is only temporarily effective, as schistosome reinfection occurs rapidly. Drug delivery requires a substantial infrastructure to regularly cover all parts of an area of endemicity. This makes chemotherapy expensive and, as compliance is often low, a less than satisfactory control option. There is increasing disquiet about the possibility that PZQ-resistant schistosomes will develop. Consequently, as mathematical modeling predicts, vaccine strategies represent an essential component in the future control of schistosomiasis in China. With the inclusion of focal mollusciciding, improvements in sanitation, and health education into the control scenario, China's target of reducing the level of schistosome infection to less than 1% by 2015 may be achievable. PMID:20375361

  15. Recent Fault Activity in the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina Earthquake Epicentral Area and its Relation to Buried Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, T. L.; Shah, A. K.; Horton, J. W., Jr.; Chapman, M. C.; Beale, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 1886 Charleston, SC earthquake (M6.8-7.3) is the largest recorded earthquake to strike the U.S. east of the Appalachian Mountains. It occurred along the U.S. passive margin within an area of extensive Mesozoic rifting and beneath the ~800-m thick, subhorizontal Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) strata. The fault(s) that caused the 1886 earthquake remain the subject of debate. We examine reprocessed seismic reflection data in the epicentral area to discern faults cutting the Cretaceous and Cenozoic ACP strata, and relate them to deeper structures revealed by the seismic profiles and filtered aeromagnetic data. Faults are identified on the seismic profiles by sharp vertical displacements of strata, abrupt but small changes in dip, and folding of the ACP strata. Some of these faults dip steeply and locally displace deeper reflectors within the underlying South Georgia rift basin with minor displacement; in places they bound uplifted blocks of ACP strata. These observations and the lack of surface scarps during the 1886 earthquake suggest a component of strike-slip for the Cretaceous and Cenozoic displacements, whereas some modern focal mechanisms show thrust motion. A prominent magnetic anomaly high shows a NE-trending west edge in the epicentral area, and short-wavelength magnetic anomalies show disruptions aligned along NE trends. These latter disruptions appear to be related to the seismically imaged faults that offset ACP strata. One of the faults, previously interpreted by Chapman and Beale (2010), shows folding and perhaps faulting of ACP strata with ~50 m vertical displacement and is aligned along the NW edge of the magnetic high. The vertical uplift is nearly equal through the ACP section with little or no upward decrease across the fault, indicating the motion is primarily Cenozoic. The fault lies near Summerville about 35 km NW of Charleston, where 1886 ground deformation was focused. Another NE-trending fault, crossing beneath the Ashley River ~15 km NW of

  16. Salt-water encroachment, geology, and ground-water resources of Savannah area, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counts, H.B.; Donsky, Ellis

    1964-01-01

    The Savannah area consists of about 2,300 square miles of the Coastal Plain along the coast of eastern Georgia and southeastern South Carolina. Savannah is near the center of the area. Most of the large ground-water developments are in or near Savannah. About 98 percent of the approximately 60 mgd of ground water used is pumped from the principal artesian aquifer, which is composed of about 600 feet of limestone of middle Eocene, Oligocene, and early Miocene ages. Industrial and other wells of large diameter yield as much as 4,200 gpm from the principal artesian aquifer. Pumping tests and flow-net analyses show that the coefficient of transmissibility averages about 200,000 gpd per ft in the immediate Savannah area. The specific capacity of wells in the principal artesian aquifer generally is about 50 gpm per ft of drawdown. The coefficient of storage of the principal artesian aquifer is about 0.0003 in the Savannah area. Underlying the Savannah area are a series of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. The Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lower Eocene sediments supply readily available and usable water in other parts of the Coastal Plain, but although the character and physical properties of these formations are similar in the Savannah area to the same properties in other areas, the hydraulic and structural conditions appear to be different. Deep test wells are needed to evaluate the ground-water potential of these rocks. The lower part of the sediments of middle Eocene age acts as a confining layer to the vertical movement of water into or out of the principal artesian aquifer. Depending on the location and depth, the principal artesian aquifer consists of from one to five geologic units. The lower boundary of the aquifer is determined by a reduction in permeability and an increase in salt-water content. Although the entire limestone section is considered water bearing, most of the ground water used in the

  17. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  18. "An assessment of changes the Danube river flow along the Iron Gate gorge for XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Prior to the assessment of changes of water resources of the Danube river, including the climate change effects, there was determined the terrain's spatial regionalization. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia was divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part, was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) for the time frame 1961-1990 in order to get relevant coefficients

  19. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan,