Science.gov

Sample records for gorny altai southern

  1. Geology of the Gorny Altai subduction accretion complex, southern Siberia: Tectonic evolution of an Ediacaran Cambrian intra-oceanic arc-trench system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Tsutomu; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Uchio, Yuko; Isozaki, Yukio; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Shigenori; Kitajima, Koki; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Ikuo

    2007-07-01

    The Gorny Altai region in southern Siberia is one of the key areas in reconstructing the tectonic evolution of the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This region features various orogenic elements of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic age, such as an accretionary complex (AC), high- P/ T metamorphic (HP) rocks, and ophiolite (OP), all formed by ancient subduction-accretion processes. This study investigated the detailed geology of the Upper Neoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks in a traverse between Gorno-Altaisk city and Lake Teletskoy in the northern part of the region, and in the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun area in the southern part. The tectonic units of the studied areas consist of (1) the Ediacaran (=Vendian)-Early Cambrian AC, (2) ca. 630 Ma HP complex, (3) the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian OP complex, (4) the Cryogenian-Cambrian island arc complex, and (5) the Middle Paleozoic fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The AC consists mostly of paleo-atoll limestone and underlying oceanic island basalt with minor amount of chert and serpentinite. The basaltic lavas show petrochemistry similar to modern oceanic plateau basalt. The 630 Ma HP complex records a maximum peak metamorphism at 660 °C and 2.0 GPa that corresponds to 60 km-deep burial in a subduction zone, and exhumation at ca. 570 Ma. The Cryogenian island arc complex includes boninitic rocks that suggest an incipient stage of arc development. The Upper Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic complexes in the Gorno-Altaisk city to Lake Teletskoy and the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun areas are totally involved in a subhorizontal piled-nappe structure, and overprinted by Late Paleozoic strike-slip faulting. The HP complex occurs as a nappe tectonically sandwiched between the non- to weakly metamorphosed AC and the OP complex. These lithologic assemblages and geologic structure newly documented in the Gorny Altai region are essentially similar to those of the circum-Pacific (Miyashiro-type) orogenic belts, such as the

  2. First native silica findings in bismuth from garnet skarns of Ribny Log - 2 gold ore target in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, T.; Timkin, T.; Savinova, O.

    2015-02-01

    The nanomineralogic investigation results of ore minerals in metasomatites (garnet skarns) of Ribny Log- 2 gold ore in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai) revealed the native silica impurities (Si) of 1 - 5 nm within the grains of native bismuth (Bi). Polished sections were examined by using Tescan Vega 3 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Oxford energy-dispersive spectrometer at the Department of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Institute of Natural Resources, Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  3. Geology and mineralogy of the Alakha spodumene granite porphyry deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annikova, I. Yu.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Gavryushkina, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Alakha lithium-tantalum deposit in the southern Altai, Russia, is represented by a stock of spodumene-bearing granite porphyry localized in the Kalba-Narym-Koktogai lithium-tantalum rare-metal granitic belt, unique in extent (more than 1000 km). This belt is a part of the Altai accretionary-collisional system. Judging from forecasting, the Alakha deposit can be regarded as an uneroded proxy of a pegmatite body both in dimensions and mean Li2O and Ta2O5 contents (0.98 wt % and 114 ppm, respectively); however, the oregenerating potential of this deposit remains insufficiently studied and had not yet been claimed. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap with a detailed mineralogical study, which allows us to provide insights into the crystallization of Li-bearing high-silicic magma and redistribution of components during magmatic and postmagmatic processes. Accessory mineral assemblages in muscovite-spodumene-K-feldspar granite porphyry and muscovite albitite—the main petrographic rock varieties of the Alakha stock—turned out to be almost identical. A significant similarity in the chemistry of major rock-forming minerals is established for spodumene granite porphyry of the Alakha stock and spodumene pegmatites from large deposits, which makes it possible to suggest that they are close in the petrogenetic mechanism of their formation. The mineral assemblages of muscovite albitite in the apical portion of the Alakha stock are connected by gradual transition with those of spodumene granite porphyry. Such a transition is caused by postmagmatic metasomatic alteration of the latter.

  4. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  5. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a

  6. [Age-related changes in blood plasma antioxidant activity in population of the southern Altai].

    PubMed

    Chanchaev, E A; Aĭzman, R I

    2012-01-01

    The blood plasma antioxidant activity was studied in the Russian and Kazakh aborigines of the southern Altai low and high mountains. There was established a decrease of the blood plasma antioxidant activity with age and a relatively low plasma antioxidant activity in the mid-mountain population; in its senior age groups, the gender differences of this parameter were revealed.

  7. Structural evolution of zonal metamorphic sequences in the southern Chinese Altai and relationships to Permian transpressional tectonics in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Jiang, Yingde; Cai, Keda

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Altai in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is characterized by the occurrence of kyanite- and andalusite-type metamorphic zones. However, the tectonic setting associated with these metamorphic zones is still debated. Here we present structural observations from the southern Chinese Altai (Aletai area), where a relict kyanite zone occurs within an andalusite-type metamorphic zonal sequence of sillimanite, andalusite-sillimanite, andalusite-staurolite, staurolite-garnet and biotite. We document two major phases of folding in this area. The earlier structures (D1) developed synchronously with kyanite growth and are represented by an axial planar fabric of tight folds. D1 fabric is mostly obliterated by later deformation, but is inferred to be penetrative as indicated by a profound intersection lineation (L21). The second generation of deformation (D2) is associated with superimposed F2 folds and a dominant axial planar foliation (S2) with NW-SE orientation. Microstructural observations show that D2 structures are associated with the andalusite-type metamorphic series, which is characterized by an early-D2 occurrence of sillimanite, staurolite-garnet and biotite zonal sequence overprinted by the late-D2 growth of andalusite. Combining with previous metamorphic data, we consider that these two folding events (D1 and D2) correspond with the development of kyanite- and andalusite-type metamorphic zones, respectively, which records the burial and exhumation history of metamorphic rocks possibly in response to Devonian-Carboniferous accretion/collision and Permian transpressional tectonics. The latter was associated with oblique convergence between the Chinese Altai and the intra-oceanic arc system of the East/West Junggar.

  8. Structure-geochemical zoning of Topolninsk gold-ore field (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkin, T. V.; Lavrov, D. S.; Askanakova, O. Y.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2014-08-01

    Geochemical zoning of prospective mineable gold-bearing skarns was carried out. The geochemical field abnormal structures of different hierarchy levels associated with gold- skarn formations were revealed. The interrelation between the structure of ore-geochemical fields and associated ring structures was studied. Complex structure-geochemical criteria for gold mineralization prospecting and evaluation were proposed.

  9. Altai Empathy Culture: Ontological Design of Altai Cognitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronin, Maksim; Belousova, Valeria; Khalina, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the features of Altai cultural semantics through the cognitive materialism of culture basing on the assumption that the linguistic structures are part of culture, and the metaphorical linguistic use is the basis for cultural cognitive structures forming. Altai text is considered as a structural unit of Altai cognitive…

  10. A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

    2010-05-01

    At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions

  11. The northernmost and latest occurrence of the fossil porcupine (Hystrix brachyura vinogradovi Argyropulo, 1941) in the Altai Mountains in the Late Pleistocene (ca. 32,000-41,000 cal BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Fadeeva, Tatyana V.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-04-01

    Several new finds of the Late Pleistocene porcupine (Hystrix brachyura vinogradovi) in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia and the Urals occur far north of previously assigned range for porcupine. These finds have necessitated a renewed study of this species's chronology and spatial distribution. We conclude that the oldest records of this porcupine in the Ural Mountains date to MIS 5e, and its geographic range possibly included also the Altai at that time. Directly radiocarbon-dated porcupine bones in the Altai fall in MIS 3 (ca. 32,000-41,000 cal BP). It is the northernmost record of this species and the youngest find outside its current geographic range.

  12. Aktashite Cu6Hg3As4S12 from the Aktash deposit, Altai, Russia: Refinement and crystal chemical analysis of the structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Ev, V. I.; Pervukhina, N. V.; Borisov, S. V.; Magarill, S. A.; Naumov, D. Yu.; Kurat'eva, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    The composition and structure of aktashite from the Aktash deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia, have been studied by electron microprobe and X-ray structural analysis. On the basis of close compositions and crystal structures, the identity of aktashite from the Gal-Khaya and Aktash deposits has been demonstrated. Crystals of aktashite are of trigonal symmetry; the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 13.7500(4), c = 9.3600(3) Å, V = 532.54(8) Å3, space group R3, Z = 3 for the composition of Cu6Hg3As4S12, R = 0.043. The structure of aktashite as a framework of vertex-shared HgS4- and CuS4- tetrahedrons of the same orientation is intimately related to the sphalerite-type structure. The earlier identified uncommon cluster group [As4] has been verified and its parameters have been refined. It is shown that the structure may be represented as construction blocks (As4S12)12- packed according to the law of the distorted cubic I-cell.

  13. Aspiring Geopark "Altai" as a Way of Sustainable Development of Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoeva, Shuralai; Kocheewa, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Mountainous Altai is the centre of biological and cultural diversity where indigenous people still maintain their traditional way of life. Collapse of the Soviet Union led to withdrawal of many industrial companies and dramatic increase in unemployment. Nowadays Altai is working on a formidable task trying to develop economy while preserving and perpetuating traditions of indigenous people. Recently tourism is becoming economic priority. The Altai Republic has a great potential for the development of the tourism industry, due to climatic conditions of the region, rich cultural and historical heritage and unique landscapes. Currently a concept of formation of Geopark in this region of Russia is being developed. It is expected that this new direction for the Russian tourism is most suitable for the traditions of the indigenous peoples and will expand the number of tourists, attracting more intelligent people to visit our territory. The indigenous people of the Altai worship nature and take care of many objects which have spiritual significance and carry out important cultural functions throughout centuries.

  14. Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The

  15. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  16. The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W.D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust

  17. Biological Ice Core Analysis in Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, J.; Nakazawa, F.; Kohshima, S.; Miyake, T.; Narita, H.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakawo, M.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2003, a 171m long ice core was excavated from top of Belukha glacier (4,200m a. s. l.) in the Russian Altai Mountains. We examined vertical distributions of microorganisms (unicellular green algae, fungal spore, yeast) and pollens for potential use of ice core dating and reconstruction of past climate. Microorganisms have no seasonal variation in pit samples, however 5 genus of pollen (Fir, Spruce, Pine, Birch tree and Mugwort) have seasonality of each dispersed season. Therefore, this ice core can be identified past seasonal layers by pollen distribution. Pollen dating analysis of ice core estimate upper 48m ice core contain 86 years snow and ice, and this dating method well correspond to the 1963 peak in Tritium. This dating analysis is more accurate than other markers (oxygen isotope, dust, chemical concentration and melt percentage). Oxygen isotope trend from 1917 and temperature record of meteorological station near the glacier slightly increased and melt percentage have some anomalies from 1950s show recent temperature rising in this region. Otherwise, microorganisms and pollen have no trend except yeast. Vertical distribution of yeast peaks are well correspond to peaks of melt percentage show that yeast cell can grow in surface snow only in the warm period when liquid water available. In 1970s and 1980s, Nitrate increased and peaked because of anthropogenic emissions. Nitrate is major nutrient of photosynthetic microorganism, however, no clear relationship nitrate between unicellular green algae.

  18. The National Forest Heritage of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antamoshkina, O. A.; Trofimova, N. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the methodology of the selection and ranking Intact Forest Landscapes of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion. This method is developed to identify the most valuable areas of forests, which currently does not legally protect. These areas are planned to recommend for inclusion in the National Forest Heritage of Russia.

  19. Complex patterns of glacier advances during the late glacial in the Chagan Uzun Valley, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Jansson, Krister N.; Lukas, Sven; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Blomdin, Robin; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Heyman, Jakob; Petrakov, Dmitry A.; Rudoy, Alexei; Clifton, Tom; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-10-01

    The Southern part of the Russian Altai Mountains is recognized for its evidence of catastrophic glacial lake outbursts. However, little is known about the late Pleistocene paleoglacial history, despite the interest in such reconstructions for constraining paleoclimate. In this study, we present a detailed paleoglaciological reconstruction of the Chagan Uzun Valley, in the Russian Altai Mountains, combining for the first time detailed geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially-transported boulders. The Chagan Uzun Valley exhibits the most impressive glacial landforms of this sector of the Altai, with extensive lobate moraine belts deposited in the intramontane Chuja Basin, reflecting a series of pronounced former glacial advances. Observations of "hillside-scale" folding and extensive faulting of pre-existing soft sediments within the outer moraine belts, together with the geomorphology, strongly indicate that these moraine belts were formed during surge-like events. Identification of surge-related features is essential for paleoclimate inference because these features correspond to a glacier system that is not in equilibrium with the contemporary climate, but instead largely influenced by various internal and external factors. Therefore, no strict relationship can be established between climatic variables and the pronounced distal glacial extent observed in the Chagan Uzun Valley/Chuja basin. In contrast, the inner (up-valley) glacial landforms of the Chagan Uzun valley were likely deposited during retreat of temperate valley glaciers, close to equilibrium with climate, and so most probably triggered by a general warming. Cosmogenic ages associated with the outermost, innermost, and intermediate moraines all indicate deposition times clustered around 19 ka. However, the actual deposition time of the outermost moraine may slightly predate the 10Be ages due to shielding caused by

  20. [Toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai. Geoinformation mapping simulation].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Kurepina, N Iu; Dovgalev, A S

    2012-01-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important zooanthroponotic natural-focal parasitic diseases in the Republic of Altai. The prevalence of their invasion among the inhabitants of the Republic has increased by more than 7 times. The data of the authors' observations ofToxocara infection in animals (cats, dogs), soil contamination with helminth eggs, and prevalence of human toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai, by considering the results of tests for antibodies against its pathogen in the inhabitants of the region, were automatically processed using geoinformation mapping simulation, which yielded a mapping model to rank the region's area by morbidity rates. The use of up-to-date computers and geo information systems makes it possible to systematize information on this invasion and to see major foci of the disease to reveal the reasons for their assignment to the specific type of the region's landscape.

  1. Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue [1962], topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.

  2. Provenance of Early Paleozoic metasediments in the central Chinese Altai: Implications for tectonic affinity of the Altai-Mongolia terrane in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial εNd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons

  3. [Additions to the fauna of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Altai Republic].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, A V

    2008-01-01

    Fauna of blackflies from the Altai Republic was investigated, four species were recorded. One new species, Sulcicnephia stekolnikovi sp. n., is described. Two species are for the first time reported from Western Siberia.

  4. Antiviral activity of polyporoid mushrooms (higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia).

    PubMed

    Teplyakova, Tamara V; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Kosogova, Tatiana A; Mazurkova, Natalia A; Khanin, Viacheslav A; Vlasenko, Viacheslav A

    2012-01-01

    Antiviral activity against type A influenza virus of birds A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (H5N1) and humans A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) was investigated for aqueous extracts from mycelium of 11 basidial fungi species collected in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic, Russia). The most perspective strains for producing antiviral medicines are studied strains Daedaleopsis confragosa, Datronia mollis, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Trametes gibbosa, T. versicolor, Laricifomes officinalis, and Lenzites betulina.

  5. Hybrid dysgenesis determinants in a natural Drosophila population from Altai

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhemyakina, T.A.; Furman, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    Localization of mobile elements P and hobo in the genomes of isofemale Drosophila lines obtained from a natural population from Biisk (Altai) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The average copy number per genome was 27.1 for P and 22.0 for hobo. The highest number of P and hobo copies was recorded in the 3R and 21 chromosomes, respectively. The X chromosome contained the lowest number of hobo copies. For P, this relationship was not shown. Both transposons had preferential localization sites, or {open_quotes}hot spots,{close_quotes} which partly coincided with intercalary heterochromatin regions. Correlation analysis of P and hobo copy number showed independent distribution of these hybrid dysgenesis determinants. The 1A site, which is thought to be associated with the P cytotype expression, was not labelled in any line. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Isotopic composition of winter precipitation in Altai foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygina, N. S.; Eirich, A. N.; Papina, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, some general circulation models have been improved by using stable water isotopologues, such as HDO (δD) and H2 18O (δ18O). In this paper, the results of a study of the isotopic composition of precipitation sampled in the winter seasons of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 in Altai foothills are presented. The isotopic composition varied greatly: from -17.4 ‰ to -30.63 ‰ for δ18O and from -132.1 ‰ to -235.0 ‰ for δD in 2014-2015; from -15.9 %„ to -26.8 ‰ for δ18D and from -118.5 ‰ to -207.7 ‰ for δD in 2015-2016. The weighted average values of δ18O and δD for both seasons were close to each other (-21.2 ‰ and -160.1 ‰ for the first season and -20.4 ‰ and -157.5 ‰ for the second season), while the values of dexc differed significantly. A trajectory analysis (by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory - (HYSPLIT) model) has shown that the difference in the isotopic composition of the precipitation is largely associated with the change of the main source regions of atmospheric moisture, namely, the change of the North Atlantic waters (the 2014-2015 winter season) for the inland waters (the 2015-2016 winter season). A comparison of the results of an isotopic analysis has shown good agreement with data of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) interpolated for 1960-2010. Thus, with a proper interpretation the data of the isotopic composition of the winter precipitation in Altai foothills can be used for this territory as an alternative source of the GNIP network data.

  7. No vertical axis rotations during Neogene transpressional orogeny in the NE Gobi Altai: coinciding Mongolian and Eurasian early Cretaceous apparent polar wander paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straathof, G. B.; Hinsbergen, D. V.; Kuiper, K. F.; Cunningham, W.; Wijbrans, J.

    2007-12-01

    Here we test the role of vertical axis rotations during transpressional mountain building. To this end, we carried out a paleomagnetic study in the NE Gobi Altai of southern Mongolia, sampling widely exposed lower Cretaceous lavas allowing comparison of rotation histories of the Ih Bogd, Baga Bogd and Artz Bogd restraining bends at the eastern termination of the Bogd strike-slip zone. We provide new 40Ar/39Ar ages to show that the stratigraphy of mafic lavas and fluvio-lacustrine sediments on the southern flanks of Mt Ih Bogd and Mt Baga Bogd have ages between ~125 and ~122 Ma, and a mafic sill that intrudes the sequence has an age of 118.2 ± 0.8 Ma. The lavas are older than previously dated lavas south of Artz Bogd, with ages of 119-115 Ma. Paleomagnetic results from the 119-115 Ma lavas south of Artz Bogd show a significant steeper inclination than both results from 125-122 Ma lavas of Baga Bogd and Ih Bogd, as well as from newly sampled and previously published younger lavas and necks of the 107-92 Ma Tsost Magmatic Field and Shovon and Khurmen Uul basalts. We explain this result by insufficient averaging of secular variation and small errors induced by overcorrection of bedding tilt. We show that individual lavas in the SE Artz Bogd locality represent individual spot readings of the Earth's magnetic field and integrate all results obtained from lower Cretaceous lavas in the Gobi Altai. We present a pole, or rather, an apparent polar wander path without significant plate motion from ~125-95 Ma, with n=126, ë=80.8, ö=158.4, ê=25.3, A95=2.5, paleo-latitude = 48.2 with a scatter Së=16.7 (Sl=15.3, Su=17.8) and a regionally consistent direction for the Gobi Altai of D/I = 11.1/65.9, ÄD/ÄI = 3.8/1.9. This is one of the best-determined paleopoles/APWP's for Asia. There is no significant deviation of the 125-95 Ma pole position of the Gobi Altai from the reference positions of Eurasia. Formation of the Ih Bogd, Baga Bogd and Artz Bogd restraining bends was thus

  8. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July

  9. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  10. Paleoglaciology of the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomdin, Robin

    Central Asia is home to some of the highest and most spectacular mountain ranges in the world, including the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains, and plays a major role in global and regional climate and hydrology. Understanding the glacial history of this vast region is important for several reasons, but in particular there is a general lack of paleoclimatic data from this highly continental region, at the confluence of major climate systems, and glaciers are sensitive monitors of climate change. This thesis examines the pattern and history of glacial deposition and erosion in the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains using a combined approach including 1) geomorphological mapping, 2) spatial analysis of glacial geomorphology, 3) hypsometry, 4) Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA), and 5) 10Be exposure dating of erratic boulders on glacial landforms. Preliminary mapping of the Altai Mountains suggests the area mainly experienced alpine style glaciations, with glacial centers as ice caps and ice fields located around the higher mountainous areas. This is consistent with previous work on the Tian Shan. For the Tian Shan we have new apparent minimum 10Be exposure ages from ~0.2 ka to ~ 180 ka, with large site-specific scatter. Most of our apparent exposure ages come from boulders with an age range between 30 ka to 0.2 ka. Although we recognize that more studies combining mapping, dating and modeling are needed to understand the full history of past glaciation in this region, our conclusions to date include: 1) The oldest recorded glacial event occurred in the Taragay Basin in the Tian Shan, dated to 92.1+/-11.4 ka, and two MIS 2 glacial advances have been recorded on opposite sides of the Ak-Shyrak Range, dated to 16.0+/-3.4 and 17.3+/-4.7 ka respectively. 2) Remote-sensing-based mapping and cosmogenic nuclide dating indicate that Pleistocene glaciations were restricted to the mountains and plateau areas of the Tian Shan. 3) Glaciation ages indicate that glacial events occurred during

  11. Dynamical downscaling with COSMO and COSMO-CLM in the Sino-Mongolian Altai region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzrock, Frederik; Buerkert, Andreas; Byambaa, Oyunmunkh; Goenster, Sven; Jin, Luxi; Ohlwein, Christian; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    For the first time, regional atmospheric simulations with spatial resolution down to 6 km have been performed in the Sino-Mongolian Altai region using the COSMO weather forecast and regional climate model. Two 5-year periods (1979-1982 and 2008-2012) have been simulated for a first evaluation of the model in this special region. The added value of a dynamical downscaling with the COSMO regional climate model CCLM towards the driving ERA-Interim reanalysis is investigated by comparison with weather station observations. In the mountainous region, the CCLM simulation much better relates to the observed monthly mean 2 m temperature and maximum monthly precipitation sums in summer than ERA-Interim. In addition, the intensity distribution of sub-daily precipitation amounts becomes more realistic with increasing altitude. CCLM does, however, overestimate convection in the mountains and accordingly simulates too much precipitation. Moreover, wintertime near-surface temperature inversions are underrated in the southern near-Gobi area, which leads to too high 2 m temperatures in that region. To examine the ability of the COSMO model to reproduce the vertical thermodynamic structure of the troposphere, additional simulations with the weather forecast version of COSMO were performed for July 2013 and compared to radiosonde measurements of the WATERCOPE field experiment in this region. The results indicate that the COSMO model is quite capable of qualitatively simulating a range of features of the local tropospheric stratification. Mean differences between observed and simulated dew point and temperature profiles were in the range of only to 1-2 °C in the lower troposphere.

  12. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  13. Prime Astroarchaeological Researches near Mountain Monastyri in the Western Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsadolov, L.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2009-08-01

    On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically represents human figures with joined hands. One kilometer to the west from the complex there is a sharp-pointed mountain Zhangiztas. In its bottom part a ``zoomorphic'' ledge is visible; it reminds a sideview of a ``head with the opened mouth and tongue''. Observing the sunset on the days of equinox, one can watch the Sun ``setting down'' on the top of Mt. Zhangistas, then ``sliding'' along the right-side slope and finally ``rolling into the mouth''; in other words, it is ``swallowed by a monster''. The ``zoomorphic'' peculiarity of the mountain outliers (monad nocks) of the Monastyri complex as a whole and of their separate rocky juts was comprehended in the antiquity; the evidence for it is the presence of manmade holes near them; these holes might have an astronomical meaning.

  14. Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better

  15. [The medical demographic situation in the Republic of Altai].

    PubMed

    Pisareva, L F; Odintsova, I N; Ananina, O A; Khriyapenkov, A V; Doctorova, E E

    2014-01-01

    The demographic situation impacts the level of morbidity indirectly. The evaluation of demographic situation if the Republic of Altai was made. In 2010, in the ethnic structure of population the percentage of Russians reduced up to 55.7% and of indigenous population increased up to 35.3%. In the Republic positive dynamics of population size is preserved. More than 3/5 of population live in rural territories. The main factor of increase of population size is its natural growth (11 per 1000 of population). The high level of natal V.M.ity and low death rate are observed. In the age structure of population percentage of persons younger than able-bodied age (25.8%) is larger than in persons of older than able-bodied age (15.4%). The tendency of decreasing of percentage of persons younger than able-bodied age and persons of able-bodied age is marked. The process of aging of population is expressed in deterioration of ratio between age groups younger than able-body age and groups of able-bodied age. The low indicator of life expectancy of population if noted. The neoplasms are at third place among causes of death (140.6 per 100 000 of population) after diseases of cardiovascular system and traumas and intoxications. In the structure of disability neoplasms are at second place (12.3%) after diseases of cardiovascular system. The demographic situation has to be taken into account in the process of organization of medical care of population.

  16. The Role of Environmental Knowledge in Altai Peoples' Adaptation to the Conditions of Ecological

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shishin, Michail; Engoyan, Oksana; Zhukova, Elena; Surazakova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the experience of traditional nature conservation when it needs to adapt social and natural systems to global climate change. The study provides a brief overview of the regulatory and legal aspects of decision issues concerning land management in Altai region in the context of the problems involved. We also studied…

  17. Projections of glacier change in the Altai Mountains under twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2016-11-01

    We project glacier surface mass balances of the Altai Mountains over the period 2006-2100 for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using daily near-surface air temperature and precipitation from 12 global climate models in combination with a surface mass balance model. The results indicate that the Altai glaciers will undergo sustained mass loss throughout the 21st for both RCPs and reveal the future fate of glaciers of different sizes. By 2100, glacier area in the region will shrink by 26 ± 10 % for RCP4.5, while it will shrink by 60 ± 15 % for RCP8.5. According to our simulations, most disappearing glaciers are located in the western part of the Altai Mountains. For RCP4.5, all glaciers disappearing in the twenty-first century have a present-day size smaller than 5.0 km2, while for RCP8.5, an additional 7 % of glaciers in the initial size class of 5.0-10.0 km2 also vanish. We project different trends in the total meltwater discharge of the region for the two RCPs, which does not peak before 2100, with important consequences for regional water availability, particular for the semi-arid and arid regions. This further highlights the potential implications of change in the Altai glaciers on regional hydrology and environment.

  18. Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.

    2010-05-01

    The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up

  19. Current state of the Altai glaciers (Russia) and trends over the period of instrumental observations 1952-2008.

    PubMed

    Narozhniy, Yuriy; Zemtsov, Valeriy

    2011-09-01

    Results of research into climate and glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (Russia) over the period of instrumental observations (1952-2008) are presented in this article. About 1030 glaciers with a total area of 805 km2 and volume of 42.5 km3 have been recorded in the Altai Region. The average summer air temperature in different regions of the Altai has increased during the study period from about 0.2 degrees C (Aktru) to 1.1 degrees C (Akkem). The annual atmospheric precipitation rate has also increased, by 8-10%. Since 1952, the glacier area in different regions of the Altai has decreased by 9-27%, and volume by 12-24%. By 2008, as a result of degradation, the total number of glaciers was 953 with an area of 724 km2 and volume of 38 km3.

  20. Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog

    PubMed Central

    Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  1. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  2. Fires in the Altai-Sayan region: Landscape and ecological confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, E. I.; Shvetsov, E. G.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation fires in the Russian part of Altai-Sayan region over the period of instrumental satellite observations (1996-2014) have been studied. The distribution of fires by landscape categories, natural zones, altitudinal belts, and terrain profile forms is presented. We estimate the confinement of fire development in forests dominated by dark coniferous, light coniferous, and deciduous forest stands. The results are standardized taking into account the ratio between plant-cover areas of the selected categories, classes, and zones in the region. We have found an exponential decrease in the number of fires in the area of transition from plains and lowlands to highlands. Middle mountains are characterized by the largest burnt areas. Up to 50% of all fires are observed in the northern and adjacent slopes. The fire occurrence on concave slopes is 40% higher than that on convex slopes. The logarithmic growth in the number of burnt areas and fire frequency was found for all natural zones (forest, steppe, and forest steppe); the greatest seasonal variability in fire frequency and fire statistics is observed in the forest-steppe zone of the region. It is shown that the spatial distribution of fires is in agreement with the selected climatic facies. On the whole, the long-term dynamics of forest burning in the Altai-Sayan region and Siberia is strongly related to the variation of meteorological parameters characterizing climatic changes.

  3. Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan belts in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Beekman, F.; Sokoutis, D.; Burov, E.; Buslov, M. M.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.

    2013-08-01

    Central Asia is a classical example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. Both areas have a heterogenous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene-early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that they were initiated in an extensional context and inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. In these basins, fault-controlled deformation alone appears largely insufficient to explain their architecture. Lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence also played an important role. They form typical basins in a folding lithosphere (FLB). Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime, time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results.

  4. Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-03-07

    In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

  5. A new species of wolf-spider (Alopecosa ogorodica sp.n.) from the Russian Mountain Altai with remarks on Arctosa meitanensis Yin et al., 1993 (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Trilikauskas, Laimonas A; Azarkina, Galina N

    2014-08-25

    Alopecosa ogorodica sp.n. (♂♀), a new wolf-spider species (Lycosidae) from the Russian Mountain Altai is described. New data, diagnosis, description and drawings on Arctosa meitanensis Yin et al., 1993 are provided. 

  6. [Extreme Climatic Events in the Altai Republic According to Dendrochronological Data].

    PubMed

    Barinov, V V; Myglan, V S; Nazarov, A N; Vaganov, E A; Agatova, A R; Nepop, R K

    2016-01-01

    The results of dating of extreme climatic events by damage to the anatomical structure and missing tree rings of the Siberian larch in the upper forest boundary of the Altai Republic are given. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the revealed dates over seven plots (Kokcy, Chind, Ak-ha, Jelo, Tute, Tara, and Sukor) allowed us to distinguish the extreme events on interregional (1700, 1783, 1788, 1812, 1814, 1884), regional (1724, 1775, 1784, 1835, 1840, 1847, 1850, 1852, 1854, 1869, 1871, 1910, 1917, 1927, 1938, 1958, 1961), and local (1702, 1736, 1751, 1785, 1842, 1843,1874, 1885, 1886, 1919, 2007, and 2009) scales. It was shown that the events of an interregional scale correspond with the dates of major volcanic eruptions (Grimsvotn, Lakagigar, Etna, Awu, Tambora, Soufriere St. Vinsent, Mayon, and Krakatau volcanos) and extreme climatic events, crop failures, lean years, etc., registered in historical sources.

  7. Debatable aspects of initial human colonization of Siberia and age of the Karama site in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Smolyaninova, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    Debatable aspects of age, stratigraphic position, and natural conditions of the oldest stratified Early Paleolithic Karama site in the Altai Mountains are critically revised. The extensive geological, stratigraphic, and paleontological data allow the sufficiently well-substantiated assumption that accumulation of the Karama Formation and existence of the Early Paleolithic Karama site correspond to a long period of climate warming in the Early Pleistocene correlated with the Tiglian of northwestern Europe lasting from 2.23 to 1.59 Ma. The age model proposed for the formation of the Quaternary sequence in the Anui River valley, which includes the artifact-containing deposits of the Karama site, seems to be the most probable one proceeding from interpretation of available data on the geological structure, stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and paleontological and lithological properties of Upper Cenozoic sequences observable both in the Anui River valley and in Siberian areas adjacent to the Altai mountainous region.

  8. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  9. Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium

    PubMed Central

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

  10. Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.

    PubMed

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts.

  11. Global warming stops in Altai and Northern Mongolia in 2010-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.

    2010-03-01

    We studied the cores of bottom sediments of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [1] and Lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [2]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with spatial resolution 0.1 mm using synchrotron radiation [3]. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change.We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: annual T = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2750, 1500, 1015, 825, 615, 500, 375, 325, 290, 230, 215, 203, 190, 157, 135, 109, 88, 65, 48, 37, 24 and 10 years. The sum of 22 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature with the coefficient +0.87 (for more than 3000 points). 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 09-05-13505 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 92 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [2] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the

  12. Complex patterns of glacier advances during the Lateglacial in the Chagan-Uzun Valley, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Lukas, Sven; Jansson, Krister N.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Preusser, Frank; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Blomdin, Robin; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Heyman, Jakob; Petrakov, Dmitry; Rudoy, Alexei; Clifton, Tom; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, numerous paleoglacial reconstructions have been carried out in Central Asian mountain ranges because glaciers in this region are sensitive to climate change, and thus their associated glacial deposits can be used as proxies for paleoclimate inference. However, non-climatic factors can complicate the relationship between glacier fluctuation and climate change. Careful investigations of the geomorphological and sedimentological context are therefore required to understand the mechanisms behind glacier retreat and expansion. In this study we present the first detailed paleoglacial reconstruction of the Chagan Uzun valley, located in the Russian Altai. This reconstruction is based on detailed geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially transported boulders, and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. The Chagan Uzun valley includes extensive lobate moraine belts (>100 km2) deposited in the intramontane Chuja basin, reflecting a series of pronounced former glacial advances. Observation of "hillside-scale" folding and extensive faulting of pre-existing soft sediments within the outer moraine belts, together with the geomorphology, indicate that these moraine belts were formed during glacier-surge like events. In contrast, the inner (up-valley) glacial landforms of the Chagan Uzun valley indicate that they were deposited by retreat of temperate valley glaciers and do not include features indicative of surging. Cosmogenic ages associated with the outermost, innermost and intermediary stages, all indicate deposition times clustered around 19.5 ka, although the 10Be ages of the outermost margin are likely slightly underestimated due to brief episode of glacial lake water coverage. Such close deposition timings are consistent with periods of fast or surge advances, followed by active glacier retreat. OSL dating yields significantly older ages of thick lacustrine

  13. A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as

  14. DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0 °C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings.

  15. Monitoring of high-altitude terrestrial ecosystems in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshok, E. E.; Timoshok, E. N.; Nikolaeva, S. A.; Savchuk, D. A.; Filimonova, E. O.; Skorokhodov, S. N.; Bocharov, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    The Aktru mountain glacier basin (the North-Chuya Ridge, Altai Mountains) is a region of highly important ecosystems. We have been performing a monitoring of the autotrophic component of the basin ecosystems for the last 16 years. The primary indicator species with the most clearly defined response to climatic changes are Siberian stone pine and Siberian larch with their individuals and populations. The ecosystem level of the monitoring includes that of old forests, ecotone ecosystems, and ecosystems on the new moraines. The old forests have remained stable for about 1000 years. The reasons for this stability are the long lifespan and the long generative stage of stone pine and larch, their ability to produce several growth forms, optimal ecological conditions of the basin for these species and high a-diversity of the old forests. The treeline has moved up by 100-200 m for the last 150 years and by 40-90 m for the last 40 years, mostly because of an invasion of stone pine to the ecotone. The primary successions on the moraines are also relatively stable, although at present only stone pine has been involved in the successions. No regeneration of larch has been observed for the last 16 years in the entire basin.

  16. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region.

  17. Biological ice-core analysis of Sofiyskiy glacier in the Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, J.; Kohshima, S.; Nakazawa, F.; Suzuki, K.; Kohno, M.; Kameda, T.; Arkhipov, S.; Fujii, Y.

    We examined microorganisms and pollen in a pit (4.5 m deep) and a shallow ice core (25.01 m long) from Sofiyskiy glacier in the Altai mountains of Russia for potential use in dating ice cores from a mid-latitude glacier. The ice-core and pit samples contained various green algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi and pollen. In the vertical profiles of the pit, algal biomass peaks corresponded to high δ18O layers and Pinaceae pollen peaks, suggesting that these algae grew during the melt season. In contrast, the layer with the lowest δ18O contained almost no algal cells. Major peaks of the cyanobacteria, bacteria and a fungus roughly corresponded to those of the algae. However, seasonal changes in these microorganisms became indistinct deeper in the core, as did the seasonal variation in δ18O and major ions, most likely due to heavy meltwater percolation and/or post-depositional decomposition. In contrast, clear seasonal cycles were evident in the algal biomass and pollen in snow samples. Assuming that the peaks of the snow algae and Pinaceae pollen marked summer layers and that the layers with almost no snow algae represented the winter layers, we estimated that the ice core contained 16 annual layers (1985-2001). The mean annual mass balance for the period was estimated to be 1.01 m w. e. The value agreed well with those estimated from stake measurements, indicating that snow algae and pollen could provide reliable boundary markers of annual layers in the ice cores of this region.

  18. Methanogenesis at extremely haloalkaline conditions in the soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-04-01

    Microbial methanogenesis at extreme conditions of saline alkaline soda lakes has, so far, been poorly investigated. Despite the obvious domination of sulfidogenesis as the therminal anaerobic process in the hypersaline soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, southwestern Siberia), high concentrations of methane were detected in the anaerobic sediments. Potential activity measurements with different substrates gave results significantly deviating from what is commonly found in hypersaline habitats with neutral pH. In particular, not only a non-competitive methylotrophic pathway was active, but also lithotrophic and, in some cases, even acetate-dependent methanogenesis was found to be present in hypersaline soda lake sediments. All three pathways were functioning exclusively within the alkaline pH range between 8 and 10.5, while the salt concentration was the key factor influencing the activity. Methylotrophic and, to a lesser extent, lithotrophic methanogenesis were active up to soda-saturating conditions (4 M total Na(+)). Acetate-dependent methanogenesis was observed at salinities below 3 M total Na(+). Detection of methanogens in sediments using the mcrA gene as a functional marker demonstrated domination of methylotrophic genera Methanolobus and Methanosalsum and lithotrophic Methanocalculus. In a few cases, acetoclastic Methanosaeta was detected, as well as two deep lineage methanogens. Cultivation results corresponded well to the mcrA-based observations. Enrichments for natronophilic methylotrophic methanogens resulted in isolation of Methanolobus strains at moderate salinity, while at salt concentrations above 2 M Na(+) a novel member of the genus Methanosalsum was dominating. Enrichments with H2 or formate invariably resulted in domination of close relatives of Methanocalculus natronophilus. Enrichments with acetate at low salt concentration yielded two acetoclastic alkaliphilic Methanosaeta cultures, while at salinity above 1 M Na(+) syntrophic associations

  19. [Sociological analysis of healthcare delivery in Russia regions with inclement natural conditions (in case of the Republic of Altai)].

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a sociological study of delivery of healthcare in the Republic of Altai to search for ways to improve its quality and to provide access to the local population. Analysis was made with regard to an interdisciplinary, comprehensive approach to considering the range of problems associated with not only the health of local residents and identifying risk factors leading to diseases, but also by determining the possibilities that could promote the minimization of causes that have a considerable impact on the occurrence of diseases and also hamper healthcare delivery in the human settlements of Gornyi Altai, which are difficult of access. The investigation has used sociological and statistical methods. It has been ascertained that the available healthcare forces and means should be today employed at the regional level, by applying the principles of necessary sufficiency in conjunction with the local population's social motivation to be involved in the activity associated with the rendering of medical services. In addition, it is necessary to systemically use mobile medical units as a significant factor for the optimization of medical care to the population living in Russia's regions which are difficult of access.

  20. Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

  1. Anatexis of accretionary wedge, Pacific-type magmatism, and formation of vertically stratified continental crust in the Altai Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Sun, M.; Å típská, P.; Guy, A.; Janoušek, V.; Lexa, O.; Yuan, C.

    2016-12-01

    Granitoid magmatism and its role in differentiation and stabilization of the Paleozoic accretionary wedge in the Chinese Altai are evaluated in this study. Voluminous Silurian-Devonian granitoids intruded a greywacke-dominated Ordovician sedimentary succession (the Habahe Group) of the accretionary wedge. The close temporal and spatial relationship between the regional anatexis and the formation of granitoids, as well as their geochemical similarities including rather unevolved Nd isotopic signatures and the strong enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements relative to many of the high field strength elements, may indicate that the granitoids are product of partial melting of the accretionary wedge rocks. Whole-rock geochemistry and pseudosection modeling show that regional anatexis of fertile sediments could have produced a large amount of melts compositionally similar to the granitoids. Such process could have left a high-density garnet- and/or garnet-pyroxene granulite residue in the deep crust, which can be the major reason for the gravity high over the Chinese Altai. Our results show that melting and crustal differentiation can transform accretionary wedge sediments into vertically stratified and stable continental crust. This may be a key mechanism contributing to the peripheral continental growth worldwide.

  2. High S-wave attenuation anomalies and ringlike seismogenic structures in the lithosphere beneath Altai: Possible precursors of large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses inhomogeneities in the short-period S-wave attenuation field in the lithosphere beneath Altai. A technique based on the analysis of the amplitude ratios of Sn and Pn waves is used. High S-wave attenuation areas are identified in the West Altai, which are related to the source zones of recent large earthquakes, viz., the 1990 Zaisan earthquake and the 2003 Chuya earthquake. Associated with the Chuya earthquake, a large ringlike seismogenic structure had been formed since 1976. It is also found that ringlike seismogenic structures are confined to high S-wave attenuation areas unrelated to large historical earthquakes. It is supposed that processes paving the way for strong earthquakes are taking place in these areas. The magnitudes of probable earthquakes are estimated using the earlier derived correlation dependences of the sizes of ringlike seismogenic structures and the threshold values of magnitudes on the energy of principal earthquakes with prevailing focal mechanisms taken into consideration. The sources of some earthquakes are likely to occur near to the planned gas pipeline route from Western Siberia to China, which should be taken into account. The relationship of anomalies in the S-wave attenuation field and the ringlike seismogenic structures to a high content of deep-seated fluids in the lithosphere is discussed.

  3. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.

  4. Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west

  5. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of

  6. [Prospects for the development of health resort and recreational resources in southern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Dzhabarova, N K; Iakovenko, E S; Levitskiĭ, E F; Lukovskaia, I A

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring natural health remedial factors of southern Siberia provided materials for the comparative evaluation of bioclimatic characteristics of sanatorium-and-spa facilities in major health and recreational areas of this region. The most promising localities for climatic balneotherapy, tourist and recreational activities have been identified at the territory of the Altai-Sayan mountain system. The database of sanatorium-and-spa facilities, health and recreational sites located in this region is presented. The rational exploitation of mountainous landscapes including strict constraints on nature use activities is recommended as a basis for the further development of recreational industry.

  7. Structural control on the shape of intrusions in the Koktokay ore district, Chinese Altai, north western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Qin, Ke Zhang; Zhou, Qi Feng; Paterson, Greig

    2016-02-01

    The Koktokay pegmatite-type rare-metal-bearing ore district in the Altai orogen is famous for both its large scale and its diversity of rare metals. However, the emplacement mechanisms of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions in the Koktokay ore district are still unclear. Based on field observations, the emplacement of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions falls into two types. The first type is typical of the formation of dykes and sills, whereby they intruded into fan shaped, moderate dipping, joints within plutonic rocks. The second type involves the formation of a punched laccolith that was fed by a pegmatite sill. Magmatic stoping is the main mechanism of the laccolith emplacement. The peripheral faults played an important role in helping the emplacement of the laccolith. The trend of dykes and sills indicate two potential prospecting areas, which are located in the western and northern regions of the Koktokay ore district.

  8. Hydrothermal metasomatism of a peralkaline granite pegmatite, Khaldzan Buragtag massif, Mongolian Altai; complex evolution of REE-Nb minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiński, Bogusław; Jokubauskas, Petras; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Kartashov, Pavel; Macdonald, Ray

    2016-09-01

    The low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of certain rare-metal minerals is recorded in a quartz-epidote metasomatite from the Tsakhirin Khuduk occurrence in the Khaldzan-Buragtag Nb-REE-Zr deposit, Mongolian Altai. A peralkaline granitic pegmatite was metasomatized by hydrothermal fluids released from associated intrusions, with the formation of, inter alia, chevkinite-(Ce), fergusonite-(Nd) and minerals of the epidote group. The textural pattern indicates recrystallization and coarsening of these phases. Later, low-temperature alteration by fluids resulted in the chevkinite-(Ce) being replaced by complex titanite-TiO2 -cerite-(Ce)-hingganite-hydroxylbastnasite-( Ce) assemblages. Calcite formed late-stage veins and patches. The hydrous fluids were poor in F and CO2 but had high Ca contents.

  9. Distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mts, Russia (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nefedieva, Julia S.; Nefediev, Pavel S.; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B.; Dyachkov, Yuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinus sibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinus sibirica ones. PMID:26257540

  10. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    PubMed

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too.

  11. Teleseismic Body Wave Analysis for the 27 September 2003 Altai, Earthquake (Mw7.4) and Large Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.

  12. Late Pleistocene slip rate of the Höh Serh-Tsagaan Salaa fault system, Mongolian Altai and intracontinental deformation in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Kurt L.; Wegmann, Karl W.; Bayasgalan, Amgalan; Carson, Robert J.; Bader, Nicholas E.; Adiya, Tsolmon; Bolor, Erdenebat; Durfey, Chelsea C.; Otgonkhuu, Jargal; Sprajcar, Jodi; Sweeney, Kristin E.; Walker, Richard T.; Marstellar, Tina L.; Gregory, Laura

    2010-12-01

    The Mongolian Altai is an intracontinental oblique contractional orogen related to the far-field effects of the Indo-Asian collision. Global Positioning System (GPS) data suggest that ~10-15 per cent of total Indo-Asia convergence is accommodated across this orogen. The Höh Serh-Tsagaan Salaa fault system is one of several NNW-SSE-trending oblique contractional faults acting to partition strain and accommodate shortening and dextral shear in the Mongolian Altai. This fault zone displaces late Pleistocene alluvium along the southwest piedmont of the Höh Serh range in western Mongolia. Along the central third of the fault zone, strain is partitioned onto two separate strands, one that accommodates nearly pure dextral shear and one that accommodates thrust motion. We determined late Pleistocene rates of deformation along each of the Höh Serh-Tsagaan Salaa fault strands based on differential GPS surveys and cosmogenic nuclide 10Be geochronology. Combining the measured offsets and 10Be dates yields a minimum right-lateral slip rate of 0.9 +0.2/-0.1 mm a-1 the minimum shortening rate is 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm a-1, with uplift of at least 0.1 +/- 0.1 mm a-1. Resolving the shortening and dextral components of deformation yields a slip vector of 0.8 +0.2/-0.1 mm a-1 toward 336°. This long-term deformation vector is consistent with the short-term strain field determined by GPS in the region and indicates that ~20 per cent of Indo-Asian deformation in the Mongolian Altai (~2 per cent of the total Indo-Asia strain accumulation) occurs along the Höh Serh-Tsagaan Salaa fault zone. Although rate data for other active faults in the Mongolian Altai are sparse, our results suggest that strain may be accommodated almost exclusively on discrete structures in this intraplate tectonic setting.

  13. [THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF TOXOCARIASIS FOCI AS AN ELEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IN CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALTAI)].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Astanina, S Yu; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological and epizootiological features of toxocariasis foci were investigated in the Republic of Altai. The results of coproovoscopic examinations of dogs, those of serological screening for toxocariasis among different age and occupational groups and coniingents at risk for HIV infection, hepatitis B and C, patients with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, toxocariasis mortality rates in the Republic of Altai, and the materials of sanitary and parasitological studies of soil and other environmental constituents for Toxocara canis eggs provide support for the poor situation of toxocariasis in the region. Relying on the current standards and the findings of this study, the Republic of Altai may be referred to as a moderately dangerous area at medium risk for contamination in terms of epidemic, epizootic, and environmental hazards. The results of assessing the quality of laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic helminthisms call for further improvement of the professional knowledge, abilities, and skills of the employees from health care and veterinary facilities, as well as economic objects within production laboratory control, basing on the principles and requirements of the environmental management system and the food quality and safety management system.

  14. New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology

  15. Forecast of annual temperatures changes in Altai and Northern Mongolia regions for the period 2010-2050 year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.; Zolotarev, K.

    2009-04-01

    The method of scanning X-ray fluorescent analysis using synchrotron radiation [1,2] investigated sediment cores of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [3] and lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [4]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with resolution 0.1 mm. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change. We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: climate parameter = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature and precipitation change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with step 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2000, 1000, 660, 500, 400, 330, 270, 200, 155, 125, 105, 80, 45, 30 and 10 years. The sum of 15 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature in the time period of 1000-2000 years, with the coefficient 0.89. 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 07-05-92103 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 91 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] K. Zolotarev et all. Scanning SR-XRF beamline for analysis of bottom sediments. // Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics Research, A470 (2001), 1-2 , P.376-379. [2] A. Daryin et all

  16. Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea).

    PubMed

    Bever, Gabe S; Brusatte, Stephen L; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria--a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups.

  17. Cryogenesis study of a pingo-like mound in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahana, G.; Fukui, K.; Fujii, Y.; Ostanin, O.; Mikhailov, N.

    2008-12-01

    Vertical outcrop of a pingo-like mound found in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains is described. Several pingo-like mounds were found on the valley floor at about 2300 m ASL. They are 5 - 10 m high and up to 50 m in diameter. Part of a 5 m mound had collapsed into adjacent pond with continuous water supply from streams on the mountain ridge nearby and top 4 m section had been revealed. Highly complex combinations of segregated ice lenses were observed in the outcrop. Ice veins, which are consisted by a number of thick ice lenses, develop radially from the core of the mound. The areas in-between the ice veins had fine parallel lenticular cryostructure. Surface soil layer (about one meter) and patchy soil parts between ice lenses were made of fine till of lacustrine sediments. delta O18 values of water from these ice lenses range from -15 to -18. Spatial distribution of the isotope values was well correlated with the spatial pattern of the ice lenses"f distribution. In addition to segregation of ice lenses perpendicular to the temperature gradient, contribution of relatively rapid formation of ice in radial direction from the core of the mound can be large in this three dimensional frost heave phenomenon.

  18. [A genetic-demographic study of the South Altaian population of the Mendur-Sokkon village (Altai Republic)].

    PubMed

    Osipova, L P; Kashinskaia, Iu O; Posukh, O L; Ivakin, E A; Kriukov, Iu A

    1997-11-01

    The main demographic parameters of the population of South Altaians from the Mendur-Sokkon village, Ust'-Kanskii raion, Altai Republic, were studied. This population was classified as a growing one because the population's reproductive size was large (37%), the prereproductive part constituted the majority of the population (52%), and the average number of surviving children per spouse was 2.6. The population studied began to mix with other ethnic groups (mostly Russians and Kazakhs) only recently; therefore, the proportion of interethnic hybrids was only 5%. The tribal structure of the Mendur-Sokkon population was typical of all South Altaians and characterized by stringent observance of exogamous regulations. An ethnically pure core was preserved in the population. The degree of endogamy was 0.36; however, the population mostly exchanged marriage migrants within the Ust'-Kanskii raion. A study of postreproductive females revealed that the average number of surviving children and pregnancies per female was 4.9 and 5.3, respectively; these values were lower than those in indigenous northern Siberian populations studied earlier. The high value of the Crow's index of total selection (Itot = 0.63) was mainly accounted for by the differential fecundity component, I(f) = 0.40, whereas the prereproductive mortality component (Im = 0.16) was considerably lower than in northern Siberian populations (Nganasans, Forest and Tundra Nentsi, Evens, Asian Eskimos, etc.) and closer to the values characteristic of urban human populations.

  19. Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2014-12-01

    counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.

  20. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from multiple arc-basin systems in Altai-Junggar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to understand the Late Paleozoic continental growth of the Junggar area and its amalgamation history with the Altai terrane, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on seismic and borehole data, the Wulungu Depression can be divided into two NW-trending tectonic units by southward thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag is composed of gray basaltic andesite, andesite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava gushes and marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance, compared to the andesite in the Hongyan High. The SIMS Zircon U-Pb ages for andesites from Late Paleozoic strata indicate that these volcanics in Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3Ma and 313.4Ma, respectively. Most of the intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks exhibit calc-alkaline affinity, low initial 87Sr/86Sr and positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values. Furthermore, these rocks have high Th/Yb and low Ce/Pb and La/Yb ratios as well as variable Ba/Th and Ba/La ratios. These features imply that the rocks were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by subduction-related components in an island arc setting. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of island arc-type volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. The gravity and magnetic anomaly data suggest that Altai-Junggar area incorporates three arc-basin belts from north to south: the Karamaili-Luliang-Darbut, Yemaquan-Wulungu, and Dulate-Fuhai-Saur. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the northern Junggar area is built by amalgamation of multiple Paleozoic linear arcs and accretionary

  1. Microclimate affects soil chemical and mineralogical properties of cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Markus; Lessovaia, Sofia; Chistyakov, Kirill; Inozemzev, Svyatoslav

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation and temperature particularly influence soil properties by affecting the type and rates of chemical, biological, and physical processes. To a great extent, element leaching and weathering rates are governed by these processes. Vegetation growth and decomposition, that depend on temperature and the other environmental factors, influence weathering reactions through the production of acidity and organic ligands that may promote chemical weathering and subsequent elemental leaching. The present work focuses on cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). The investigated field site (2380 m asl) is characterised by cold winters (with absolute minimum temperatures of -50°C; a mean temperature in January is -21°C) and cool summers (+8°C mean temperature in July). The mean annual temperature is -5.4°C. Annual precipitations are relatively low (500 mm with 20% of precipitation in July). Permafrost is widespread and occurs sometimes at a depth of 30 to 50 cm. Several studies have shown the influence of slope aspect and the resulting microclimate on soil weathering and development. There is however no unanimous agreement whether weathering is more intense on north- or south-facing slopes and whether small differences in thermal conditions may lead to detectable differences. Higher temperatures do not necessarily lead to higher weathering rates in cold alpine regions as shown by previous investigations in the European Alps. Water fluxes through the soils seemed to be more important. We consequently investigated soils in the cold-alpine environment of the Central Altai Mountains on a very small area close to a local glacier tongue. Half of the investigated soil profiles were south-facing (5) and the other half north-facing (5). The soils have the same parent material (mica-rich till), altitude, topography, and soil age. The vegetation is alpine grassland that is partially intersected with some juniper and mosses, which portion in the soil

  2. Mineralogical and geochemical features of promising types of gold mineralization in the western Altai-Sayany folded region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, Alexandr

    2013-04-01

    The western Altai-Sayany folded region is one of the oldest mining regions of Russia. Typical gold deposits are quartz-viens and skarns, which formation is associated with intrusion of island-arc and collision granitoids. Due to the fact that the traditional gold ore base of the region has already been largely worked out, the necessity of prospecting for new gold deposits has arisen. On the basis of available data, one may state that the outlook for the development of gold-mining industry of the Altai-Sayany region is concerned with gold mineralization in weathering crusts, epithermal gold-silver, gold-porhyry and gold-sulfide formations. The total gold resource potential of these object types is estimated by us at the level of 2000 t. The gold mineralization of epithermal gold-silver formation is confined to Early-Middle Devonian volcanic-plutonic belt. Here, gold-bearing zones of beresitization, argillization, sulfidization and silicification are discovered among volcanites. Maximum contents of noble metals are found in quartz-sulfide veins among sulfidized (arsenic pyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite and fahlore, etc.) and silicified volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Ore zones are marked by anomalously high content of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Hg not only in bedrocks, but also in haloes of dispersion in loose deposits. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous carbonaceous strata is confined to Late Riphean, Early Cambrian and Devonian metamorphosed complexes. This rocks were formed in the marginal sea basins. Metamorphism and repeated tectono-magmatic activation in the region resulted in redistribution and accumulation of gold. Gold-ore zones are marked by intensive silicification and sulfidization and are characterized mostly by occurrences of multiple generations of pyrite and arsenic pyrite. Gold occurs both in free state and in sulphides. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg. Gold

  3. Quantitative reconstructions of mid- to late holocene climate and vegetation in the north-eastern altai mountains recorded in lake teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Andreev, Andrei; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei; Babich, Valery; Li, Hong-Chun; Shilov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We report the first high-resolution (20-50 years) mid- to late Holocene pollen records from Lake Teletskoye, the largest lake in the Altai Mountains, in south-eastern West Siberia. Generally, the mid- to late Holocene (the last 4250 years) vegetation of the north-eastern Altai, as recorded in two studied sediment cores, is characterised by Siberian pine-spruce-fir forests that are similar to those of the present day. A relatively cool and dry interval with July temperatures lower than those of today occurred between 3.9 and 3.6 ka BP. The widespread distribution of open, steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae reflects maximum deforestation during this interval. After ca. 3.5 ka BP, the coniferous mountain taiga spread significantly, with maximum woody coverage and taiga biome scores between ca. 2.7 and 1.6 ka BP. This coincides well with the highest July temperature (approximately 1 °C higher than today) intervals. A short period of cooling about 1.3-1.4 ka BP could have been triggered by the increased volcanic activity recorded across the Northern Hemisphere. A new period of cooling started around 1100-1150 CE, with the minimum July temperatures occurring between 1450 and 1800 CE.

  4. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single

  5. Atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time series from ice/firn cores and snow samples of central Asian glaciers (Pamir, Tien Shan and Altai).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Joswiak, D. R.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    from Aral region are for the Tien Shan; 3. Western and central Gobi and Kazakhstan dust are for the Altai. The Aral region is the source of dust aerosol for Altai also. Based on in-situ data in the western Central Asia and Altai ice core records of particle number content there is tendency on decrease of dust storms frequency from the 30th in central and eastern Asia.

  6. Assessing the geomorphological sensitivity of cold climate mountains to climate-driven permafrost degradation: the case of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan; Sannel, Britta; Goossens, Rudi; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Babin, Valery; Bourgeois, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Frankl, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, climate change related permafrost thawing is causing geomorphic processes to intensify. This is especially the case in mountain regions, where several studies indicate increased geomorphic activity with the recent thawing of permafrost bodies. In addition to the effect on geomorphic processes, permafrost degradation also results in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. This causes a positive feedback mechanism on climate change processes. For both the intensity of geomorphic processes and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little information exists for mountain areas in the permafrost belt worldwide. The Russian Altai Mountains are marginally glaciated and house sporadic and discontinuous permafrost. Due to global warming, temperature and precipitation are changing rapidly in the area, at rates higher than the global average. This result in highly dynamic environmental processes, making the Altai Mountains a potential area to understand the interrelations between geomorphology and permafrost, as influenced by climate change. Due to its marginal nature, permafrost degradation is rapid in the Russian Altai Mountains, and related geomorphological processes (e.g. landslides) are therefore accelerating. Therefore, a geomorphological time-depth analysis will be done focusing on geomorphic permafrost indicators such as rock glaciers, solifluction, permafrost creep, polygon patterned ground, palsas and thermokarst. Mapping the present day situation will be based on fieldwork, existing maps, satellite imagery and ASTER Digital Elevation Models. A specific geomorphological map representing the (peri)glacial geomorphology of the 1960s based on CORONA images will be prepared. In addition, 3D-photomodelling of rock glaciers and solifluction lobes will reveal short-term geomorphic dynamics. To understand the permafrost dynamics (1960s-2100) of the area, a statistical-empirical permafrost model will be used, using topo-climatic factors and temperature data from

  7. Detail climate reconstructions based on combined geochemistry of lake sediments and tree-ring data by the example of Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Holodova, Lyudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our knowledge of climate change with associated forcing during the last thousand-years remains limited because that cannot be studied thoroughly by instrumental data. So it is an actual task to find high resolution paleoclimate records and to compare it with recent patterns of short-period oscillations. Combination of lake sediments and tree rings appears to be effective for understanding of regional climate variability. The Altai mountain range in Central Asia has a climate divide between Siberian forests in the North and arid areas of Central Asia in the South. This region is characterized by the highest degree of continentality. In winter, due to the prevailing stable Siberian High, cold and dry arctic air masses are predominant. In summer, humid air masses from the Atlantic Ocean as well as recycled moisture are the main sources of precipitation. There are several dendrochronologies (up to 1700 years long) and annual reconstructions by Teletskoye Lake sediments (3000 years) in Altai region. They are calibrated by data from 14 local weather stations (time series up to 80 years) and Barnaul station (170 years) as well. The frequencies analysis of tree-ring width chronologies from Altai using by the spectral analysis shows that high frequencies are dominate. Most of cycles have periodicity up to 40 years. Maximum amplitude were found for 32.3, 142,9 and 200 year. High frequencies (2-40 years) are explain more 60% variability of tree-ring width chronologies. Decadal variabilities are found for 32.3, 40.0 and 43.5 years. Last two cycles are the same as Brikner cycle and could explain decadal moisture variability in Altai and Central Asia. Typical mountains lakes - Teletskoye and Kucherla - with accumulation rate of the fine-grained sediments 0,5-2 mm/year and free of human impact are selected to take sediment cores. A new generation of X-Ray Fluorescence instruments - the XRF scanner on Synchrotron Radiation - allows providing extraordinary high-resolution (up to 0

  8. [The involvement of some flea species in the epizootic process in the Gorno-Altai natural plague focus: spatial and temporary characteristics].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Iarygina, M B; Fomina, L A; Rozhdestvenskiĭ, E N; Denisov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The relative number of plague pathogen strains isolated from some flea species in different Gorno-Altai natural plague foci substantially varies; this indicator also varies with time. These patterns are due to the difference in the structure of multispecies communities of ectoparasites in these areas and their long-term transformation. As of now, the three species Paradoxopsyllus scorodumovi, Ctenophyllus hirticrus, and Amphalius runatus are widely involved in pathogen transmission in all three foci. These ectoparasites should be referred to as main plague vectors. In each focus, they are joined by other flea species, such as Rhadinopsylla dahurica and Amphipsylla primaris in the Ulandryk focus, Frontopsylla hetera, R. dahurica, Paradoxopsyllus kalabukhovi, and Paramonopsyllus scalodae in the Tarkhatin focus, and P. scalonae and P. kalabukhovi in the Kurai focus, which should be classified as an additional vector.

  9. Identification sources of pollen spectra in dry and wet atmospheric deposition in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples

  10. [Morphological variability and the structure of pre-reproductive age group of the cestode Proteocephalus torulosus from Altai osman (Oreoleuciscus, Cyprinidae) in water bodies of Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I; Mensajhan, B

    2013-01-01

    Morphological variability of immature Proteocephalus torulosus was studied for the first time. On the basis of scolex shape, three phenotypes were distinguished: clavate, rounded, and lanceolate. The clavate phenotype was found to be dominant, the rounded one is small in number, and the lanceolate one is rare. The wide ranges of morphometric variability were established. The clavate phenotype differs from the rounded one by its higher variability. The high morphologic variability of immature P. torulosus is comparable to that in adult mature parasites from Altai osman, the Central Asian endemic from the genus Oreoleuciscus. The conclusion is made on the influence of extremely changeable environmental condition in the region on the parasite and host adaptations during their co-evolution.

  11. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong

    2016-11-01

    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  13. Geochemical and detrital zircon studies of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks, Russian Altai: Implications on their tectonic affinity and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2015-04-01

    . The similarities in geochemical compositions and detrital zircon patterns with those for the Altai-Mongolian terrane suggest that the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks possibly represented the northern margin of this terrane with different crustal levels. Our study places further constraints that the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represented a large subduction-accretion complex built upon the active margin in the western Mongolia during the early Paleozoic.

  14. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  15. [Hygienic evaluation of the efficacy of the regional program of the modernization of school meals (on the example of Altai Krai)].

    PubMed

    Saldan, I P; Filippova, S P; Turchaninov, D V; Okolelova, O V; Vilms, E A

    2014-01-01

    With the use of the method for the analysis of the frequency of food intake there was studied the actual nutrition in adolescents at the age of 12-17 years (n = 257) who were the students of the urban and rural educational institutions (EI) of Altai Krai. The analysis of the menu-layout and assessment of nutritional status was performed with the use of clinical methods. The main group consisted of 125 adolescents from the EI with upgraded technological equipment of the nutrition unit, the comparison group--132 teenagers from EI with non-upgraded equipment of the nutrition department. The program of the modernization of school meals was implemented in several ways and included the reconstruction and technical re-equipment of school nutrition units on the base of modern technologies, delivery and introduction in accordance with the requirements of the school menu, differentiated by age groups with the use of food products aimed at the prevention of diseases caused by micronutrient deficiency. This led to the enlargement of the assortment of dishes, the increase of the coverage for catering students, improvement of the structure of student nutrition, the increased in the intake of a number of nutrients. Symptoms of skin lesions associated with insufficient provision of micronutrients in a core group of students occurred less common than in the comparison group (p < 0.01).

  16. A new approach for reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mongolian Altai: The high-resolution δ13C records of TOC and pollen complexes in Hoton-Nur Lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun

    2013-06-01

    δ13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and δ15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The δ13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen δ13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter δ13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen δ13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and δ13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.

  17. Precambrian crystalline basement in southern Mongolia as revealed by SHRIMP zircon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoux, Antoine; Kröner, Alfred; Liu, Dunyi; Badarch, Gombosuren

    2009-09-01

    Single zircon ages determined by ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) for granitoid gneisses from the southern slope of the Baga Bogd massif (Gobi-Altai, southern Mongolia) reveal several episodes of zircon growth, ranging from late Palaeoproterozoic to late Cambrian. The oldest events are documented by a zircon crystallization age for a gneiss protolith at 1519 ± 11 Ma and by a xenocrystic zircon from a dark grey augen-gneiss yielding an age of c. 1701 Ma. Discrete igneous events are recorded in granite-gneisses with protolith emplacement ages of 983 ± 6, 956 ± 3 and 954 ± 8 Ma. These ages provide the first record of early Neoproterozoic magmatic activity in this region. A much younger and discrete magmatic event is recorded by several dioritic to granitic orthogneisses which are tectonically interlayered with the older gneisses and have protolith emplacement ages between 502 and 498 Ma. These late Cambrian granitoids of calc-alkaline affinity are likely to have been emplaced along an active continental margin and suggest that the Baga Bogd Precambrian crustal fragment was either docked against the southward (present-day coordinates) growing margin of the CAOB or was a large enough crustal entity to develop an arc along its margin. We speculate that the Precambrian gneisses of this massif may be part of a crustal fragment rifted off the Tarim Craton.

  18. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia.

  19. Southern Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds

    This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Composition and formations conditions of andalusite-kyanite-sillimanite pegmatoid segregstions in metamorphic rocks of the Tseel block (Mongolian Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Vasiliy

    2010-05-01

    Quartz veins and pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications often occur in metamorphic complexes. Metapelites abound in various combinations of two Al2SiO5 polymorphs, e.g., andalusite + sillimanite and sillimanite + kyanite (Kerrick, 1990). Rocks with three polymorphs are much scarcer; they result from subsequent crystallization during progressive metamorphism or combined regional and contact metamorphism or from metastable crystallization (Kerrick, 1990). Study of veins containing various Al2SiO5 modifications can give insight into the PT-conditions of metamorphism and their temporal changes. The Tsel block is localized in the basins of the Tseliyn, Hudjertiyn, Sharin, and Deresetuin Rivers and is part of the Hercynides structure on the southern flank of Mongolian Altay. Pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications were discovered in the vicinity of the western contact of one of the largest basic-rock massifs, Buren-Hairhan.They are hosted by schists bearing paragenesis Bt + Ms + St + Grt + Ky + Sill + And + Fibr + Pl + Qtz. Visual examination of the pegmatoid segregations showed the presence of large (up to 4-5 cm) mineral aggregates —kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. They are prismatic, with rhombic sections, and are composed of chaotically arranged kyanite crystals with irregular-shaped andalusite relics between them. The samples also contain large (1 cm) muscovite plates localized between the pseudomorphs as well as quartz grains. The pegmatoid segregations bear the following mineral assemblage: And + Ky + Sil + Fibr + Ms + Qtz + Pl + St +Grt + Bt. Predominant minerals are Al2SiO5 polymorphs (30-50 vol.%), muscovite (30-60 vol.%), and quartz (up to 20 vol.%). Biotite and plagioclase are present in small amounts; staurolite and garnet are occasional. Based on the observed mineral correlations, the following sequence of formation of Al2SiO5 polymorphs has been established: First, andalusite was

  2. Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after

  3. Debris-covered glacial forms and dynamics of glaciers of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (Altai-Sayan mountain system).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkin, Dmitry; Chistyakov, Kirill

    2013-04-01

    Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (3970 m) is situated in the intersection of Altai and Sayan mountain ridges. Average annual temperature within the massif is below -2.6°C, annual precipitation 145-300 mm. Glaciation of the massif has total area of 20 km2. Geographers of Saint-Petersburg University study the glaciers and periglacial zone since 1990. Since the maximum of the LIA the glaciers retreat, short stabilizations took place in early 1920-s, mid-1960-s and mid-1980-s. In 1995-2008 glaciation lost 19% of area. Irregular rate of glacial retreat after the LIA lead to formation of 3 groups of debris covered objects. The first group is connected with moraines of LIA (altitude 2650-3000 m). They consist of ice core and debris cover of different thickness. The mechanism of their formation is the following: stabilization of the edges of the glaciers causes accumulation of the debris, they armor the ice, preventing it from melting. When warming starts the exposed part of the glacier grows thinner, the ice under the moraine looses contact with the main body of the glacier. Increased flow of glacial melt water in the last 10 years led to exposure of moraine ice. Some glaciers which supported LIA moraines on the internal side, retreated abruptly in the period of 1995-2008. Moraines lost their stability, they collapse intensely and ice core melts out. This is observed at Seliverstova glacier (2.8 km2). The second group (altitude 2850-2950 m) is situated between LIA moraines and glaciers. It is represented by layers of ice covered by thin (several dozen cm) moraine. Streams along the edges of the layers expose ice to the depth of 2-3 meters in many places. Edges of glaciers on aerial photos of 1965 coincide with the edges of these layers. It proves their glacial origin. Objects of the third group are parts of glaciers that lost their connection with the main glacial masses and turned into dead ice and small cirque glaciers that lost their accumulation area and activity in 1995

  4. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  5. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  6. Southern California Edison PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Southern California Edison report describes an evaluation of SCE’s Retail Appliance Recycling Program (Retail ARP) trial that was initiated in late October 2010 and completed in September of 2011.

  7. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  8. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  9. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  10. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  11. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  13. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  14. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  15. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  16. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  17. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  18. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  19. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  20. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  1. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  2. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  3. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  4. The University of Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Dawn Marie

    1985-01-01

    The University of Southern California's commitment to excellence as well as the significance of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program in the university's mission to prepare the community's future leaders are discussed. ROTC faculty selection criteria are identified. (MLW)

  5. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  6. The Southern Ocean silica cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguer, Paul J.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.

  7. Quaternary ledoyoms in the mountains of southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudoy, A. N.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1930s V.P. Nekhoroshev identified intermontane depressions in the Altai mountains that he suspected o be completely filled by glaciers from the surrounding mountains at the time of maximum glaciation. He called such depressions "ledoyoms," or "ice bodies." Some basins already contained lakes when the glaciers advanced into them; in others the valley glaciers impounded lakes when they advanced into the basins. The advancing glaciers in this case became floating or grounded "shelf" glaciers at their lower ends, and some—singly or with neighboring glaciers—armored completely the surface of the "catch lakes." Thus, ledoyoms may develop as: (1) ice only, with no related lake. (2) catch lakes, with both glaciers and related lakes. (3) aufeis ledoyoms; (4) ice-dammed lakes lacking glacial ice cover. During the last glacial maximum some Altai lakes were covered with glacial ice for thousands of years. They consisted of a thick lens of lake water covered by lake ice, aufeis, glacier ice, snow and firn, and became independent centers of glaciation with subradial ice outlets. Possible modern analogs are the subglacial lakes under 3-4 km of glacier ice at Dome B, Dome C, and Vostok Station in Eastern Antarctica.

  8. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  9. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  11. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern

  12. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  13. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  14. Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Matt; Sanders, Richard; Zhou, Meng

    2011-08-01

    Modeling and Synthesis of Southern Ocean Natural Iron Fertilization; Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 27-29 June 2011; For many years a major paradox in ocean science was the existence of regions where the major nutrients are present in nonlimiting concentrations yet phytoplankton biomass is low. Pioneering experiments in the 1990s firmly established that the likely cause of this high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition is a deficit of iron relative to other nutrients. Iron is required for numerous processes within the cell, including photosynthesis, respiration, and nutrient uptake, yet because of its chemical properties, in seawater it is present at vanishingly small concentration levels. Elucidating the role of iron in governing ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration is in its infancy; however, one promising approach is to make observations in regions where landmasses act as point sources of iron. In 2004-2006, three separate expeditions targeted the southern Indian Ocean around the Crozet and Kerguelen Islands and in the southern Scotia Sea around the southern Drake Passage. Representatives from all three programs met recently to compare findings and identify critical gaps in existing knowledge.

  15. RESOURCES FOR SOUTHERN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.

    INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…

  16. Four Neglected Southern Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cragg, T. A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper is a continuation of the study of several southern Mira stars presented at the 1996 Fall Meeting of the AAVSO in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The four stars herein included are 0828-44, CT Vel; 1553-23, BK Sco; 1557-23, TY Sco; and 2011-52, X Tel. X Tel is now on the regular observing list of the RASNZ.

  17. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  18. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    PubMed

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  19. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  20. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  1. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  2. Astrometry of southern radio sources.

    PubMed

    White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  3. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  5. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  6. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Houri, Ohad; Bazarsky, Elina; Berkowitz, Anat; Bulkowstein, Shlomi; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective, population-based study was to characterize demographically and clinically cystic-echinococcosis (CE) in southern Israel, between 2005 and 2012. Newly-diagnosed (nd-CE) and past-diagnosed (pd-CE, diagnosed before the study) cases were defined. Two populations live in southern-Israel, receiving medical treatment at a single hospital: the Jewish and the Bedouin populations (resembling resource-rich and resource-poor populations, respectively). 126 CE cases were identified; 55 nd-CE and 71 pd-CE. Mean annual nd-CE incidence per 100,000 in the Bedouin and Jewish populations were 2.7 ± 1.2 and 0.4 ± 0.3, respectively (P<0.001). None of the Bedouin and 86.5% of the Jewish patients were born outside Israel. Liver and lung involvement were recorded in 85.7% and 15.1% of overall-CE, respectively. Abdominal pain, cough, fever, eosinophilia and asymptomatic disease were documented in 63.6%, 32.7%, 27.3%, 41.5% and 12.7% of nd-CE, respectively. Serology sensitivity for first test and any positive test were 67.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and X-ray diagnosis were documented in 79.2%, 58.4% and 17.0% of overall-CE, respectively, with ultrasonography mainly used in liver-CE and X-ray in lung-CE. Treatment included surgery and albendazole in 50.0% and 55.3% of CE, respectively. We conclude that CE is endemic in southern-Israel among the Bedouin population, while disease is probably mainly imported in the Jewish population. Liver involvement and eosinophilia rates were high compared with those of other endemic regions, possibly due to differences in the timing of diagnosis. These findings may help developing treatment and prevention strategies.

  7. Microplastics in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Uchiyama-Matsumoto, Kaori; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi

    2017-01-15

    A field survey to collect microplastics with sizes <5mm was conducted in the Southern Ocean in 2016. We performed five net-tows and collected 44 pieces of plastic. Total particle counts of the entire water column, which is free of vertical mixing, were computed using the surface concentration (particle count per unit seawater volume) of microplastics, wind speed, and significant wave height during the observation period. Total particle counts at two stations near Antarctica were estimated to be in the order of 100,000pieceskm(-2).

  8. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  9. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  11. Investing in Our Future: A Southern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes From the Field, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This report focuses on the role Southern philanthropy can play in addressing racism, poverty, and inequality by supporting education and workforce improvement. "Framing the Conversation" takes input from George Autry (MDC), William Bynum (Enterprise Corporation of the Delta), Lynn Walker Huntley (Southern Education Foundation), and…

  12. Southern Women's Literature: A Process of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Elizabeth A.

    Teachers and students worked together at the University of Alabama to evolve a literature course that dealt with the Southern regional character and culture as manifested in the writings of women. The course began with an orientation to the region, with emphasis on the images and stereotypes of Southern women. Literary material included in the…

  13. Cystic echinococcosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de la Rue, Mario L

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is very common in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul State where sheep and cattle raising is the most important economical activity. Prevalence in intermediate hosts is well known due to reports in slaughterhouses while human reports are of discussed value. This is due to underreporting of cases and few epidemiological studies make it difficult to assess the situation of echinococcosis in the population. Whereas cattle infection rate is more or less stable around 12% of the slaughter animals, in sheep there has been an increasing number in the last five years. Some efforts have been done to control the zoonosis but no effective results were obtained so far. Probably educational efforts to change human practices (feeding dogs with raw viscera), periodic treatment of dogs with praziquantel and joined actions with slaughterhouses could bring more attention to improve some control measures.

  14. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-06

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized.

  15. Aseismic uplift in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, Robert O.; Church, Jack P.; Elliot, Michael R.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least 150 kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn the century, the described uplift seems to be an unusually large and probably unique event superimposed the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

  16. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  17. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  18. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  19. Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

    Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer

  20. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  1. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  2. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  3. NASA Analyzes Heavy Rainfall Over Southern Thailand

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA calculated rainfall over southern Thailand from Jan. 5 to 12, 2017. Extreme rainfall totals of over 700 mm (27.6 inches) were found over the Gulf of Thailand. Highest totals over land were gre...

  4. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  5. Southern Ute Indian Tribe NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0022853, the Southern Ute Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in La Plata County, Colorado,to Rock Creek, a tributary of the Los Pinos River.

  6. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  7. Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the η Aquariids and the Southern δ Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (θ^2 Sagittariids and τ Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

  8. The Southern Kansas Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically aseismic Harper and Sumner counties in Southern Kansas experienced a dramatic increase in seismicity beginning in early 2014, coincident with the development of new oil production in the Mississippi Lime Play. In order to better understand the potential relationships between seismicity and oil development, the USGS installed a real-time telemetered seismic network in cooperation with the Kansas Geological Survey, the Kansas Corporation Commission, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Harper County, and the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The network began operation in March 2014 with an initial deployment of 5 NetQuakes accelerometers and by July 2014 had expanded to include 10 broadband sites. The network currently has 14 stations, all with accelerometers and 12 with broadband seismometers. The network has interstation spacing of 15 - 25 km and typical azimuthal gap of 80 for well-located events. Data are continuously streamed to IRIS at 200 samples per second from most sites. Earthquake locations are augmented with additional stations from the USGS National Network, Oklahoma Geological Survey Seismic Network, Kansas Seismic Monitoring Network and the Enid Oklahoma Network. Since the spring of 2014 over 7500 earthquakes have been identified with data from this network, 1400 of which have been manually timed and cataloged. Focal depths for earthquakes typically range between 2 and 7 km. The catalog is available at earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ under network code 'Ismpkansas'. The network recorded the largest known earthquake in Harper County, Mw 4.3, on October 2, 2014 and in Sumner County, Mw 4.9, on November 12, 2014. Recorded ground motions at the epicenter of the October earthquake were 0.70 g (PGA) and 12 cm/s (PGV). These high ground motion values agree with near-source recordings made by other USGS temporary deployments in the U. S. midcontinent, indicating a significant shaking hazard from such shallow, moderate

  9. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  10. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  11. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  12. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  13. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  14. Trends in Southern Ocean Eddy Kinetic Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-04-01

    A recent study by Hogg et al. (JGR, 2015) has demonstrated a 20-year trend in eddy kinetic energy (EKE) computed from satellite altimetry data. However, this estimate is based on an averaging over large spatial areas. In this study, we use the same methods to examine regional EKE trends throughout the Southern Ocean, from 1993-2015. We do find significant positive trends in several areas of the Southern Ocean, mainly in regions with high mean EKE associated with interactions between jets and bathymetry. At the same time, however, there are also regions with significant negative trends. Overall, EKE in the majority of the Southern Ocean has not changed. These results suggest that the estimates of Hogg et al. may have been biased by these regional extremes, and that more work is needed to quantify climatic changes in EKE.

  15. A new fault lineament in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

  16. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  17. Situation in Southern US Row Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research from southern University weed scientists pre applied herbicides appear to provide the best chance for successful Palmer amaranth control without relying on glyphosate. Fomesafen applied 14 days before cotton planting (DBP) or flumioxazin applied 21 DBP has provided good control if activ...

  18. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  19. Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

  20. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    distribution of Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. In most incidences, Cannabis profits dwarfs local income...had its source in Tanzania and Tanzanians have identified markets for their fake US dollars in South Africa. Cannabis South Africa, Lesotho...Swaziland, Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia National and International markets Page 23. the listed states are the major cannabis - producing

  1. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  2. Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mary

    This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

  3. Southern College Women and "The Feminine Mystique."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihle, Elizabeth L.

    A study on female graduates of Southern colleges and universities during the postwar period is presented. The focus is on how their experiences match the assertions of Betty Friedan in her book "The Feminine Mystique." Interviews were done with graduates of public and private, coeducational and women's, and black and white colleges.…

  4. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  5. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  6. Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagin, Louise Crawford

    In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

  7. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  8. Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

  9. The Shakespeare Year in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bob

    1981-01-01

    Outlines plans for a year-long, integrated, interdisciplinary curriculum, in which Southern California social studies students in grades K-12 study Shakespeare, his works, and the Elizabethan period. Suggestions for activities for all discipline areas, resource materials, and human resources are included. (AM)

  10. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  11. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  12. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  13. Discontinuation among University Students in Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittichai, Ruthaychonnee; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan; McNeil, Nittaya

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a statistical model to account for the pattern of discontinuation of university study at Pattani campus of Prince of Songkla University (PSU) in southern Thailand. University records for 11,408 bachelor degree students enrolled between 1999 and 2006 were used. Discontinuation rates were analyzed by using a logistic regression model…

  14. Development of Southern Cross University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  15. Southern Theory Perspective and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a preliminary exploration of Connell's idea of southern theory and its potential application to career development. Four assumptions of metropolitan (northern) social theory are described: (a) the claim of universality, (b) reading from the centre, (c) gestures of exclusion, and (d) grand erasure. These assumptions are…

  16. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  17. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  18. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation The Norfolk Southern Corporation (NS) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking the approval of...

  8. Development of the southern reaches of Laurentia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C. Jr. . Federal Center)

    1993-02-01

    Laurentia, the Late Proterozoic continental fragment that now forms the core of North America, has a long and complex history, much of which involves development along its southern margin. The southernmost parts of the Archean continental core are the Wyoming and Superior cratons, both of which contain gneisses that record crust-forming events in the interval 3.8--3.1 Ga as well as greenstone belts that reflect continental growth in the interval 2.8--2.6 Ga. Each of these cratonic elements was assembled and stabilized prior to deposition of passive margin sequences along their southern flanks during the interval [approximately]2.5--1.9 Ga. Between [approximately]1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga arc-related sedimentary and volcanic rocks were accreted to the southern margin of the Laurentian core during a complex series of tectonic episodes that included events locally referred to as the Penokean, Ivanpah, Yavapai, and Mazatzal orogenies, resulting in the addition of a belt of continental crust at least 1,000 km wide. Voluminous highly evolved granite and rhyolite were emplaced along this southern marginal belt between [approximately] 1.45 and 1.35 Ga under conditions of general tectonic stability, or perhaps dispersed regional extension. This same interval was also marked by onset of deposition of thick Middle Proterozoic sedimentary sequences along the western and southern margins of Laurentia. The eastern margin of Laurentia contains the complexly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the 1.25 to 1.1 Ga Grenville orogen which, according to recent reconstructions, may record a collision with cratonic elements in western South America. The 2,000 km-long Midcontinent rift system in central Laurentia opened and filled with basalt and sediments at about the same time as the end of Grenville activity.

  9. Roses in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already

  10. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the…

  11. 76 FR 70437 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 26, 2011, Southern California Edison Company filed its compliance filing, pursuant to the Federal...).\\1\\ \\1\\ Southern California Edison Company, Order on Waiver Request 136 FERC ] 61,133 (2011)....

  12. 75 FR 48323 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing August 4, 2010. Take...) December 17, 2009 Order on Petition for Declaratory Order, Southern California Edison Co., 129 FERC ] 61,246 (2009) (December 17, Order), Southern California Edison Company filed a compliance...

  13. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  15. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dana L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K.; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gaul, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  16. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  17. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  18. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  19. Sensitive ammonia observations in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D. F.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Batty, M.; Gardner, F. F.; Jauncey, D. L.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The 64-m spacecraft communication antenna of the NASA-JPL Deep Space Network has been equipped for spectral line observations at K band (18-25 GHz). To demonstrate the potential of this system, preliminary observations of the (1, 1) transition of ammonia are reported for a selection of eight southern molecular clouds. Estimates of gas density and ammonia column density are reported for six sources.

  20. New southern galaxies with active nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

    1987-03-01

    A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

  1. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  2. Staff Study Olympic Operations in Southern Kyushu

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-29

    miles north of MIYAZAKI. (3) High ground southwest of MIYAZAKI ..dominating coastal road leading to MIYAIlAHOJO. c. Beaches. TAKANABE BEACH AREA. • • (1...width of r.bout 1O miles.. It is locally hilly but the most hilly portion approaches close to the sea northward of TAKANABE ,. The terrain...immediately behind the beach consists mainly of a belt of wind-blown sand along the southern half of the beach. Inland of the beach from TAKANABE northward

  3. Deglacial Atlantic Radiocarbon: A Southern Ocean Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. F.; Burke, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Chen, T.; Spooner, P.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Southern Ocean is an important component of the climate system, acting as a key site for carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and oceans. The deglaciation with its associated millenial climate changes is a key time period for testing the mechanisms behind these exchanges. Ascertaining the precise timing of these events is a challenge given complications from variable and largely unconstrained reservoir ages, dissolution of carbonate hard parts and sediment redistribution by strong currents. Nevertheless improvements to our understanding of Southern Ocean dynamics in the past requires accurately-dated proxy records that can be embedded in GCM models. Radiocarbon measured in deep-sea corals offers just such an archive and proxy. Using the skeletons of deep-sea corals we are now able to reconstruct aspects of the history of three distinct water masses in the Drake Passage on a precise timescale, allowing direct comparison to U-series dated speleothem terrestrial records and polar ice cores. We present here a new deglacial radiocarbon record from the Drake Passage which more than doubles the resolution of published records. We focus on the deglacial, as well as providing insights from the contrasting period leading up to the LGM. Together with new data from far-field sites we interpret our results as evidence for a Southern Ocean control on atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon evolution during the deglaciation, and a northern hemisphere control during the run up to the LGM.

  4. A complete southern sky redshift survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Da Costa, L. Nicolaci; Geller, M. J.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Latham, D. W.; Fairall, A. P.; Marzke, R. O.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Huchra, J. P.; Calderon, J. H.; Ramella, M.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a magnitude-limited redshift survey covering a region around the south Galactic pole (SSRS2). The survey includes 3592 galaxies and covers a region of 1.13 sr to a limiting m(sub B(0)) = 15.5, directly comparable to CfA2. Together, CfA2 and SSR2 cover more than a third of the sky. The northern and southern surveys are remarkably similar. Both contain voids with diameters as large as 5000 km/s. The southern survey contains the Southern Wall, similar to the northern Great Wall. The distributions of velocity dispersions for systems extracted from the SSRS2 and CfA2 surveys are also remarkably similar. For the SSRS2, an inhomogeneity-independent technique yields Schechter luminosity function parameters M(sup *) = -19.50 and alpha = -1.20 (H(sub O) = 100 h km/s/Mpc, h = 1 unless otherwise specified). The steep faint-end slope is probably attributable to bluer galaxies. By examining the normalized density fluctuations in the SSRS2 and CfA2 surveys, we suggest that the combined sample is not yet large enough to be 'fair.' There are large fluctuations in shells at 10,000 km/s.

  5. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  6. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  7. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  8. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  9. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  10. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  11. El Niño–Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation events of 1950–2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December–March 1950–2010 over the African Continent south of 15∘S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  12. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  13. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  14. Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of

  15. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  16. Late Pliocene deglaciation of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Carlson, A. E.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Mathias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the response of the remaining Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is an important goal of climate science. The late Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma; formerly the middle Pliocene) may offer a natural quasi-analogue to climate in the upcoming centuries: CO2 levels were ~400 PPM, global surface temperatures were 2-3 degrees higher, and sea level was likely at least 6 m higher than today. Yet little is currently known about the history of the pre-Quaternary Greenland ice sheet. IODP Expedition 303 site U1307 at 2575 m depth on the Eirik Ridge extends back to 3.4 Ma, capturing the late-Pliocene warm period adjacent to the southern Greenland ice sheet. Ice-rafted debris records, interpreted on a paleomagnetic reversal age model, suggest roughly 40 ka cyclicity of between ~5% and ~40% sand. Between ~3.3 and 3.2 Ma there is a significant change in lithology characterized by an abrupt reduction in magnetic susceptibility, during which time the sand fraction remains below 10%. Assuming a magnetite mineralogy, hysteresis ratios support a much finer magnetic assemblage of unique provenance in this interval; Mrs/Ms values of the silt fraction range from ~0.2-0.25, compared to ~0.1 in the sediments above and below. The origin this material will be discussed, although this observation is unambiguously consistent with the disappearance of silt transported from the southern Greenland ice sheet. The lack of Greenlandic source material observed in this interval is unique in the last 3.4 Ma at this location, and may indicate full deglaciation of southern Greenland in the late Pliocene.

  17. Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  18. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  19. Ecology of rabies in Southern Rhodesia

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, J. S.

    1954-01-01

    The spread of rabies since 1950 in Southern Rhodesia is described, and its probable causes analysed; the outbreak is attributed chiefly to the vast domestic-dog population, but cases have been noted among many other species of animal. The difficulties encountered in enforcing general control measures are discussed; however, the advent of Flury-strain avianized vaccine has allowed of a successful inoculation campaign which, in spite of some failure in immunization, is satisfactorily controlling the disease in most of the areas involved. PMID:13182596

  20. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  1. SCSI: the Southern Connecticut Stellar Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Weiss, Samuel A.; Rupert, Justin D.; DiMaio, Alex J.; Nusdeo, Daniel A.; Peronio, Pietro; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Giudice, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The construction of a new prototype visible-light intensity interferometer for use in stellar astronomy is described. The instrument is located in New Haven, Connecticut, at Southern Connecticut State University, but key components of the system are also portable and have been taken to existing research-class telescopes to maximize sensitivity and baseline. The interferometer is currently a two-station instrument, but it is easily expandable to several stations for simultaneous measurement using multiple baselines. The design features single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays, which increase the throughput and signal-to-noise ratio of the instrument. Predicted system performance and preliminary observations will be discussed.

  2. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. The Failure of an Interracial Southern Rhetoric: The Southern Tenant Farmers Union in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Keith H.

    When the American Civil War ended, the southern aristocracy turned to sharecropping as a means for continuing its existence and for keeping former slaves in the fields. Tenant families during the economic depression of 1929 were forced to live in squalid conditions, and the natural antagonism between whites and blacks was exacerbated by the…

  4. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  5. Southern Africa winter temperature shifts and their link to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo

    2015-11-01

    The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.

  6. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  7. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Geomorphical and Geochronological Constrains of the Last Glacial Period in Southern Patagonia, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S. A.; Hein, A.; Gómez, G. N.; Ferrada, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the outer limits of the former Patagonian ice sheet (PIS, ~38-55S) having been extensively mapped, it remains unknown if the Patagonian glaciers fluctuated synchronously or asynchronously during the last glacial period. Previous work has revealed asynchronous spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice-margins at the end of the last glaciation but it is not well understood if the northern and southern parts of the PIS reached concurrent maximum glaciation during the last glacial cycle. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass involving the southern westerly wind belt latitudinal range, which is thought to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the cause of glaciations in Patagonia and the role of the westerlies in climate change. Here, we discuss paleoglaciological and paleoclimatological implications of new 10Be and 14C data obtained from moraines and strategically selected mires in two contiguous glacially molded basins of south Patagonia (48-55S): Torres del Paine (51S) and Última Esperanza (52S). In this region, we focused our 10Be cosmogenic-dating efforts in the previously undated outer moraines deposited (supposedly) during the last glacial cycle. In order to crosscheck cosmogenic data we collected boulders embedded in moraines and cobbles from the main glaciofluvial plains grading from the outermost moraines. Geomorphic and cosmogenic dating affords evidence for glacial maximum conditions occurring between 40-50 ka (ka = thousand of years before present) in southern Patagonia, which is different from other chronologies within southern South America. We obtained 14C basal ages from sites located within moraine depressions and on former paleolake shorelines and thus these may provide key data on deglaciation and debated regional paleolake history.

  9. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being β-endosulfan>α-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles.

  10. SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Findlay E.

    1960-01-01

    The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

  11. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  12. Modelling Crustal Stress in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, A.; McKinnon, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of stress measurement data from the near-surface to crustal depths in southern Ontario show a misalignment between the direction of tectonic loading and the orientation of the major horizontal principal stress. The compressive stress field appears to be oriented subparallel to the major terrane boundaries such as the Grenville Front, the Central Medisedimentary Belt boundary zone and the Composite Arc Belt boundary zone. This suggests that the stress field has been modified by these deep crustal scale fault zones. In order to test this hypothesis, a geomechanical model was constructed using the three-dimensional discontinuum stress analysis code 3DEC. The model consists of a 45 km thick crust of southern Ontario in which the major crustal scale fault zones are represented as discrete faults. Lateral velocity boundary conditions were applied to the sides of the model in the direction of tectonic loading in order to generate the horizontal compressive stress field. Preliminary results show that for low strength (low friction angle and cohesion), fault slip results in the stress field rotating toward the strike of the faults, consistent with the observed direction of misalignment with the tectonic loading direction. Further analysis of the model may be used to provide constraints on the strength of these faults.

  13. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  14. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Richards, Kelvin J.

    2011-09-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on timescales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  15. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 < V < 18), white dwarf candidates uses the technique of reduced proper motion with inputs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database combined with photographic magnitudes. Crude distance estimates from the linear photographic magnitude-color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  16. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  17. Observations of change in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stan

    2006-07-15

    The Southern Ocean has been in a state of disequilibrium with its atmosphere and cryosphere during recent decades. Ocean station and drifting float observations have revealed rising temperatures in the upper 3000m. Salinity has declined in intermediate waters and more rapidly in the sparsely sampled high latitudes. Dissolved oxygen levels may also have decreased, but measurement accuracy is inconsistent. Sea ice area increased from 1979 to 1998, particularly in the Ross Sea, while a decline in ice extent since the early 1970s has been led by the Amundsen-Bellingshausen sector. Fresher waters with lower oxygen isotope content on the Pacific-Antarctic continental shelf are consistent with increased melting of continental ice. Newly forming bottom water has become colder and less salty downstream from that region, but generally warmer in the Weddell Sea. Many ice shelves have retreated or thinned, but others have grown and no trend is apparent in the large iceberg calving rate. Warming and isotherm shoaling within the polar gyres may result in part from changes in the Southern Annular Mode, which could facilitate deep-water access to the continental shelves. Sea-level rise over the past half century has a strong eustatic component and has recently accelerated. Observations over longer periods and with better spatial coverage are needed to better understand the processes causing these changes and their links to the Antarctic ice sheet.

  18. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  19. SALT observations of southern post-novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski, M.; Ilkiewicz, K.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. Methods: In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 Å and in Hα+[N ii] narrow-band images. Results: The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value α = 2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12″. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).The spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A119

  20. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  1. Moving Forward: Southern States Take Action To Improve Access to Quality, Affordable Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    The Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care (established by the Southern Institute on Children and Families) is guided by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care including representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia. The initial charge from the Task Force was to develop a southern regional action plan to improve…

  2. Transient tracer applications in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (δ3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.

  3. Dynamics of the southern California current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    The dynamics of seasonal to long-term variability of the Southern California Current System (SCCS) is studied using a four dimensional space-time analysis of the 52 year (1949--2000) California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) hydrography combined with a sensitivity analysis of an eddy permitting primitive equation ocean model under various forcing scenarios. The dynamics of the seasonal cycle in the SCCS can be summarized as follows. In spring upwelling favorable winds force an upward tilt of the isopycnals along the coast (equatorward flow). Quasi-linear Rossby waves are excited by the ocean adjustment to the isopycnal displacement. In summer as these waves propagate offshore poleward flow develops at the coast and the Southern California Eddy (SCE) reaches its seasonal maxima. Positive wind stress curl in the Southern California Bight is important in maintaining poleward flow and locally reinforcing the SCE with an additional upward displacement of isopycnals through Ekman pumping. At the end of summer and throughout the fall instability processes within the SCE are a generating mechanism for mesoscale eddies, which fully develop in the offshore waters during winter. On decadal timescales a warming trend in temperature (1 C) and a deepening trend in the depth of the mean thermocline (20 m) between 1950 and 1998 are found to be primarily forced by large-scale decadal fluctuations in surface heat fluxes combined with horizontal advection by the mean currents. After 1998 the surface heat fluxes suggest the beginning of a period of cooling, which is consistent with colder observed ocean temperatures. The temporal and spatial distribution of the warming is coherent over the entire northeast Pacific Ocean. Salinity changes are decoupled from temperature and uncorrelated with indices of large-scale oceanic variability. Temporal modulation of southward horizontal advection by the California Current is the primary mechanism controlling local

  4. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  5. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  6. The southern termination of the Philippine Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Gary; Hall, Robert; Milsom, John; Masson, Doug; Parson, Lindsay; Sikumbang, Nafrizal; Dwiyanto, Bambang; Kallagher, Helen

    1990-11-01

    Recent studies of the southern end of the Philippine Trench using GLORIA sidescan sonar and single channel seismic data and geological studies on the island of Halmahera suggest that the trench is in the process of propagating south and that some of the ESE-WNW convergence is transferred via a broad NE-SW zone of dextral strike-slip across northern Halmahera into the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. NE-SW ridges and lineaments on the seafloor can be traced into major faults and structural trends on land. The bathymetric expression of the Philippine Trench is lost where it meets an oceanic plateau on the Philippine Sea Plate. This elevated and probably thickened plateau appears to have inhibited any further propagation of the trench southwards. To the north of the plateau there is a well-developed accretionary prism, but to the south deformation of sediments on the seafloor is less intense. A prominent ridge, with sediments passively banked up against it marks the southern limit of deformation associated with the Philippine Trench. To the south lies the eastern Halmahera-Waigeo Ophiolite Terrane, an area of shallow water and islands underlain by ophiolitic basement between Halmahera and the Sorong Fault Zone. There are no bathymetric or structural features to indicate any form of active link between the Philippine Trench and the Sorong Fault through or along the northern side of this ophiolite terrane. There is no earthquake evidence for any form of fault linking the Philippine Trench to either the Palau Trench or the Sorong Fault, but there are numerous earthquake epicentres reported between the southern end of the trench and the Molucca Sea. The island of Halmahera is considered to lie in a diffuse boundary zone at the margin of the Philippine Sea Plate. Continued collision of the opposing arcs in the Molucca Sea will ultimately prevent further E-W convergence between Halmahera and Sulawesi. It is predicted that either the Philippine Trench will propagate south along

  7. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 77 FR 61595 - Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Southern Illinois Power Cooperative filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  10. 77 FR 47059 - Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Southern Illinois Power Cooperative filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for...

  11. 78 FR 22869 - Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Southern California Gas Company (``SoCalGas'') filed two amendments to its November 21, 2012, petition for rate approval. SoCalGas states that the first amendment is to implement, pursuant...

  12. 75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Forest Service Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... 10 a.m. to approximately 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Tucson Interagency Fire... Coordinator, Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee, do Coronado National Forest, 300 W....

  13. ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in…

  15. The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the…

  16. LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  18. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  19. 77 FR 49776 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice...

  20. 75 FR 30772 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  1. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  2. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination...

  3. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  4. The Causes and Prospect of the Southern Philippines Secessionist Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    percent. 37 Jacques Bertrand, “Peace and Conflict in the Southern Philippines: Why the 1996 Peace...Muslim Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1987, 348. 301 Jacques Bertrand, “Peace add Conflict in the Southern Philippines,” Pacific Affairs, University of...

  5. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  6. 1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest facade, view to southeast (90mm lens). The original building is at right, addition at left. The cold joint between the original and addition is approximately at the line of color differentiation near center of the roof. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. Southern Rural Development Center Annual Progress Report, FY 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    Since 1974 the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) has provided support staff for capacity building and innovative programming for the experiment stations and extension services of 28 land-grant universities in 13 southern states and Puerto Rico. The Center exists to provide the best possible information and assistance to extension and…

  8. The Southern Manifesto as Education Policy in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Robert, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In 1956, southern Congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto, rejecting the Supreme Court's "Brown v. Board of Education" ruling. This moment, in the general American consciousness, marked the rise of White massive resistance to Black advancement, a racist foray doomed to be swept aside by civil rights forces and a determined federal…

  9. 76 FR 40721 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on... Regulatory Commission (FERC or the Commission), 18 CFR 385.207 (2011), Southern California Edison...

  10. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  11. 75 FR 77677 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Edwin I Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background The Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee) is the holder of the...

  12. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California. 

  13. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  14. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  15. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  16. Dust from southern Africa: rate of emission and biogeochemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune rea...

  17. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  18. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos

    PubMed Central

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B.; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. PMID:26149859

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  20. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings.

  1. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  2. Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    PubMed

    Charlson, A J

    1980-12-01

    Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor activity in some rodent test-systems, but the results were not confirmed. In the folk-lore, Haemanthus natalensis has been used in emetics and Urginea capitata preparations have been used to vaccinate African chiefs. Extracts of these plants showed significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell culture test-system. Infusions of Brunsvigia radulosa have been used as folk remedies for abdominal troubles. An extract of this Amaryllis plant increased the life span of P-388 leukaemic mice. Amaryllis bellandonna has also been investigated. Extracts of Amaryllis belladonna had to be fractionated in order to produce significant antitumour activity in the P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia test-system.

  3. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Schofield, C J; Dias, J C

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to avoid transfusional transmission. In line with this strategy, governments of the six Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) launched in 1991 an ambitious initiative to control Chagas disease through elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, and large-scale screening of blood donors. Now at its mid-point, the programme has achieved remarkable success, with transmission halted over vast areas of the previously endemic regions. Well over 2 million rural houses have been sprayed to eliminate T. infestans, and the programme has already shown significant economic rates of return in addition to the medical and social benefits.

  5. Ammonia gas concentrations over the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, G. P.; Gras, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    Measurements of the concentration of ammonia in the atmosphere over the Southern Ocean in the vicinity of Tasmania are reported. Air samples were collected over a period of three or more hours on oxalic acid-impregnated filters using a PTFE prefilter, and ammonia was determined colorimetrically. For air apparently free of influence by land areas for several thousand km, as indicated by low levels of Aitken nuclei and ammonia, a mean ammonia gas concentration of 0.06 microgram/cu m is obtained, which is significantly lower than those determined elsewhere. The value is used to estimate a dissolved ammonia concentration in the ocean of 0.3 micromole/l, assuming equilibrium between the surface water and the air, is in agreement with measurements by other investigators and direct ocean water ammonia determinations.

  6. Twenty southern peculiar emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, E. D.; Henize, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    Observational data for 20 southern stars having emission-line spectra that suggest a significant degree of mass ejection are given in order to present an atlas of their spectra and to give a quantitative description of their appearance during the 1961-62 epoch. Most of the stars are P Cygni stars; others include nova-like, peculiar Be, and symbiotic stars, as well as stellar planetary nebulae and emission-line binaries, all of whose spectra were obtained with the Newtonian two-prism Zeiss Spectrograph and the 74-inch reflector at Mount Stromlo Observatory. It is noted that among the P Cygni stars, there is a strong correlation between the a-e expansion velocity and the strength of Balmer emission, while in both the P Cygni and the Bep stars, there is positive dependence of Fe II and negative dependence of (Fe II) emission strengths on Balmer emission strength.

  7. Examining several Southern Ocean data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Koblinsky, Chester J.; Firestone, James; Darzi, Michael; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Beckley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    Several datasets regarding the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere are combined into a coregistered format to analyze the use of the data in multidisciplinary research. The datasets are described detailing bathymetric climatological data on surface pigment concentration, eddy-kinetic-energy measurements, surface wind-stress magnitudes, sea-surface temperatures, surface densities, and nitrate concentrations. The data are combined in a common projection which facilitates the comparison of the fields, and the combined data yield insights regarding such phenomena as bottom topography, surface heat and moisture fluxes, and divergences in flow. The number of available datasets is shown to be good, and the data can be used to develop working hypotheses on the relationships between physical and biogeochemical processes.

  8. The gradational history of southern Ismenius Lacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Two epochs of accelerated gradation affected the geomorphic evolution of southern Ismenius Lacus. These periods of enhanced gradational activity were likely related to periods of more clement climate induced by release of either recycled exogenic or juvenile endogenic atmospheric volatiles. Variations in the intensity and duration of gradation during the second epoch are indicated by the variability in the timing of cessation and degree of air fall deposit removal across the study area. Overall intensity of gradation decreased through successive epochs based on: (1) the decreasing diameter at which cumulative statistics from the respective surfaces cease to follow the expected production function; and (2) the decrease in size/increase in density of preserved valley networks incised into surfaces of differing age. A comparable decrease in valley density with time has been noted in the Isidis region.

  9. Multiwavelength studies of southern early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Perez, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from an in progress program to study early type galaxies are presented. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of the southern galaxies NGC 1326 and 1808 are presented and compared to IUE archival spectra of four galaxies of approximately similar morphological type. The targets were selected on the basis of their infrared astronomy satellite emission, peculiarities in their dust structure as revealed from charge coupled device frames and the presence of H I from 21 cm data. Preliminary results show large differences in stellar populations, and the presence of early spectral type stars are correlated with UV extinction and IR excess. Interpretation of the data is presented, discussing the correlations between extinction, gas content and stellar populations.

  10. Forward modeling of the southern Apennines foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Endignoux, L.; Moretti, I.; Roure, F.

    1988-08-01

    Thrust belts and foreland areas are characterized by a fluxural depression lying between the subducting lithospheric plate and the topographic surface. This depression is continuously filled with tectonic units (accretionary prism) and synorogenic deposits (foredeep basin). Internal geometry of this wedge evolves continuously through time in response to the progressive migration of the deformation toward the foreland, simultaneous erosion of tectonized units, and redeposition of reworked materials in piggy-back basins and foredeep. We use forward modeling to reconstruct the successive geometries of a geological section across the southern Apennines. Results are discussed in the light of regional constraints, which favor basement-involved structures at depth. Amounts of shortening are calculated using two opposite hypotheses: thin-skinned vs. basement-involved tectonics. Effects of erosion and evolution of piggy-back basins are also taken into account.

  11. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  12. Photographic surveys of the southern sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of the UK 1.2 meter Schmidt telescope are described. Plates taken with this instrument are in two categories, those for systematic sky surveys and those taken at the request of research users. A collaborative project with the European Southern Observatory was undertaken to obtain a two-color survey of the sky south of -20 deg declination to complement the Palomar survey. A near infrared survey of the Galactic Plane and the Megallanic Clouds is being done. The area south of -20 deg and the zone between 0 deg and -15 deg are also being surveyed. Pending a decision on survey parameters, all available A quality prism plates are being retained to form a basis for systematic survey. Nearly half the plates taken on a service basis for the UK astronomical community are to fulfill nonsurvey requests. Plates taken for surveys which are not of A grade quality are also made available for research purposes.

  13. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  14. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  15. Locating Microseism Sources in Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    We use the broadband stations from the S. California network to locate the apparent origin of secondary microseisms energy (5-8 Hz band). The procedure is to grid the offshore region and using each grid point as the source point, predict the response of a Rayleigh wave at each station. These predicted waveforms are then correlated with the data over a time window that is typically a 1/2 hour in length and composited at the grid point. The length of the time window controls a tradeoff between the spatial-temporal resolution of the sources and the robustness on the image. The procedure is valid for multiple sources. This results show that during periods of high microseism activity the sources are distinct at several locations in a region approximately 50-100 km offshore. For an 11/09/2002 Southern Ocean storm, for example, two zones parallel to each other and perpendicular to the coast are imaged.

  16. Public water supplies in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Rowley, J.H.

    1950-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 42 counties of southern Texas, extending from the Rio Grande northward to the northern boundaries of Kinney, Uvalde, Bandera, Kendall, and Hays Counties and eastward to the eastern boundaries of Caldwell, Gonzales, DeWitt, Victoria, and Calhoun Counties. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 114 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal; source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following information also is given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yield of the wells and records of water levels, where they are available.

  17. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  18. Sediment thickness in the southern Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.D.; Grantz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data are used, in conjunction with deep crustal seismic refraction data, to estimate the thickness of sediments in the southern Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. The sediments are interpreted to be of Hauterivian (mid-Early Cretaceous) to Holocene age. Comparison of the seismic reflection character of seismic reflections in the study area with that in other basins indicates that a base-of-sediment-top of oceanic layer 2 reflection is not present above the depth at which the water-bottom multiple obscures all deeper arrivals, which is in conflict with the conclusions drawn from aeromagnetic, refraction, and other reflection studies. Seismic velocity structure, determined from the reflection data, indicates that the reflections above the multiple are from sedimentary strata. In the absence of seismic reflection evidence for the top of layer 2 above the multiple, we estimate total sediment thickness by using the layer 3 refractions and subtracting an average assumed layer 2 thickness from the top of layer 3. Assuming that an average thickness of oceanic layer 2 (1.4 km) overlies layer 3 in the southern Canada Basin, sediment thickness in the study area is estimated to range between 6.5 km where water depth is 3.8 km to greater than 11 km where the water depth is 2 km. This is nearly double that of any previous estimates and should have a significant effect on calculations such as the age of Canada Basin, regional heat flow, and long-term sedimentation rates. ?? 1990.

  19. Cooling and eutrophication of southern Chilean lakes.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Cerda, Sergio; Briones, Daniela

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the impacts of global warming and human-disturbances on lakes is required for implementing management strategies aimed at mitigating the decline of the quality and availability of water for humans. We assessed temporal trends in water parameters, and the contribution of land use to the eutrophication of the largest lakes of central-southern Chile. The mean values of water parameters varied seasonally, with lakes Chapo and Caburgua exhibiting lower pH, temperature, and N/P ratio values. Over the assessed period (19 years), we found a temporal reduction in water conductivity and temperature of the lakes. The concentration of NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P and dissolved oxygen increased in all the lakes, but pH increased in eight out of the ten lakes. The negative temporal trend in temperature was more pronounced as the depth level increased. Lakes whose basins had a higher percentage of forest plantation and urban areas had larger values of Chlorophyll a and pH, as well as, smaller values of dissolved oxygen. Lakes whose basins included larger percentages of native forest had smaller nutrient (NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P) concentrations. Our findings suggest that decreased rainfall in central-southern Chile due to climate change may cause a decrease of particulate material that is carried by tributaries into the lakes. The observed temporal decrease in temperature, especially at the deeper levels, may be explained by the rapid melting of glaciers. Although the studied lakes are classified as oligotrophic, deforestation and expansion of urban areas around the lakes have led to increased nutrient input, thus accelerating their eutrophication.

  20. A study of the Southern Supercluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Southern Supercluster is a long chain of galaxies extending from Cetus to Dorado. The densest region of the supercluster lies between supergalactic longitudes 200 to 310{degree} and supergalactic latitudes {minus}38{degree} to {minus}45{degree}. From the contour maps of galaxies from the RC2 two regions A (180{degree} {le} L {le} 320{degree}, {minus}30{degree} {ge} B {ge} {minus}50{degree}) and B (260{degree} {le} L {le} 360{degree}, 0{degree} {ge} B {ge} {minus}30{degree}) were delineated for detailed study. Galaxies from five categories were compiled and the basic parameters were reduced to the RC2 system. Total magnitudes were measured for 105 galaxies and the magnitudes for other galaxies were obtained from the RC3. The radial velocities of 23 galaxies were measured but most of the radial velocities were culled from the literature. A self consistent distance scale was established using tertiary distance indicators, the luminosity index A{sub c} and the maximum rotation velocity logV{sub m} obtained from the HI line widths. Several maps were constructed to investigate the structure of the supercluster in 3-dimensions using the positional coordinates and a distance estimate. The extend, size and shape of the supercluster were determined. To investigate the variation of velocity, distance modulus and Hubble ratio numerical maps were generated and departures from the uniform Hubble flow within the supercluster were determined. Fifteen groups belonging to the supercluster were identified. The mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio of the groups were computed. The total luminosity of the supercluster and its total mass were then estimated. The Southern Supercluster is comparable to the Coma and Hercules Superclusters in terms of mass and luminosity.

  1. Nutrient Dynamics in the Glacial Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, J. C.; Filippelli, G. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) was likely a key contributor to glacial/interglacial climate change resulting from variability either in biogeochemical cycles or ocean stratification and CO2 degassing. Many of the hypotheses to explain the interglacial to glacial difference in atmospheric CO2 suggest that higher glacial dust fluxes led to Fe fertilization of surface waters and increased export production in the SO because the modern-day Southern Ocean is co-limited by both Fe and light availability. Documented Fe sources include upwelled Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, eolian deposition, and melting sea-ice. However, the influence of these sources is variable with latitude and position relative to major frontal zones. Presumably these same Fe sources were important during glacial times albeit at potentially different rates and magnitudes. To examine this effect, we have compared sedimentary Fe fluxes with records of dust deposition. We have found that Fe fluxes are higher than can be explained by eolian deposition, supporting an additional hemipelagic source of Fe to the deep ocean during glacial intervals. Furthermore, different proxies used to evaluate export production and nutrient utilization during glacial intervals yield different and seemingly contradictory results-for example, different studies have concluded that net productivity increased, decreased, and/or remained constant in the SO. Results from phosphorus geochemistry suggest that maxima in export production actually occur at terminations rather than either full glacial or interglacial conditions adding yet another possibility. The focus here will be to try to reconcile the nutrient, export production, and Fe data into a coherent view of nutrient utilization and export production in the glacial SO.

  2. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  3. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

    Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

    Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

    These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

  4. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  5. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%) and high-Ti types in the southern and northern part of the province, respectively, detailed analyses of lava flow sequences sampled mostly in drill cores allowed definition of six main groups of chemically distinct flow units. The chemical and possible age differences among these units were then used to define the global time-related evolution of Paranà basaltic magmatism and involvement of distinct mantle-source components. Newly sampled outcropping lava flow sequences from the southern Paranà do however only partially support this picture. Our new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data show that high- and low-Ti basaltic flows are interlayered. In particular, Pitanga type high-Ti basalts are interlayered with Gramado and Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  6. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  7. The effect of Antarctic sea ice on the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during the southern summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, M. N.; Hobbs, W.; Wainer, I.

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the influence of Antarctic sea ice distribution on the large scale circulation of the Southern Hemisphere using a fully coupled GCM where the sea ice submodel is replaced by a climatology of observed extremes in sea ice concentration. Three 150-year simulations were completed for maximum, minimum and average sea ice concentrations and the results for the austral summer (January-March) were compared using the surface temperatures forced by the sea ice distributions as a filter for creating the composite differences. The results indicate that in the austral summer the polar cell expands (contracts) under minimum (maximum) sea ice conditions with corresponding shifts in the midlatitude Ferrell cell. We suggest that this response occurs because sea ice lies in the margin between the polar and midlatitude cells. The polarity of the Southern Hemisphere Annular (SAM) mode is also influenced such that when sea ice is at a minimum (maximum) the polarity of the SAM tends to be negative (positive).

  8. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the development of externalizing psychopathology from childhood to young adulthood, the USC Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, including recruitment and participation rates, as well as attrition analyses and a summary of key findings to date. PMID:23394193

  9. 77 FR 1669 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Southern California Steelhead Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Plan for the Southern California Steelhead Distinct Population Segment AGENCY: National Marine... (ESA) recovery plan for the Southern California Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Distinct Population.... mykiss were most closely related to the more northern populations of the Southern California...

  10. 76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the translocation of southern sea otters...

  11. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  12. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... to Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C. (ABS) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between...

  13. Southern Regional Action Plan To Improve the Quality of Early Care and Education. Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This booklet presents the action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care for improving the quality of early care and education (ECE) in southern states. Also included in the booklet are tables that represent data collected from 16 participating states and the District of Columbia on state child care quality standards and…

  14. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and annual malaria incidence in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi L H; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sharp, Brian; Smith, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated the association between annual malaria incidence and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) in five countries in Southern Africa from 1988 to 1999. Below normal incidence of malaria synchronised with a negative SOI (El Niño) and above normal incidence with a positive SOI (La Niña), which lead to dry and wet weather conditions, respectively. In most countries there was a positive relationship between SOI and annual malaria incidence, especially where Anopheles arabiensis is a major vector. This mosquito breeds in temporary rain pools and is highly sensitive to fluctuations in weather conditions. South Africa and Swaziland have the most reliable data and showed the strongest associations, but the picture there may also be compounded by the moderating effect of other oscillatory systems in the Indian Ocean. The impact of ENSO also varies over time within countries, depending on existing malaria control efforts and response capacity. There remains a need for quantitative studies that at the same time consider both ENSO-driven climate anomalies and non-ENSO factors influencing epidemic risk potential to assess their relative importance in order to provide an empirical basis for malaria epidemic forecasting models.

  15. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  16. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    PubMed

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  17. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  18. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation; Notice...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Southern Montana Electric Generation &...

  19. 75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities..., Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, and the California Public...

  20. Processes controlling Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; Medeiros, B.; Hwang, Y.; Gettelman, A.

    2013-12-01

    We use a fully coupled climate model (CESM) to identify processes controlling intriguingly diverse Southern Ocean cloud feedbacks in response to increased greenhouse gas forcing. Modeled Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks range from the most positive (enhancing greenhouse warming at ~40 degrees South) to the most negative (damping greenhouse warming at ~60 degrees South) on the planet. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, Antarctic sea ice loss, warming, and a poleward stormtrack shift/sub-tropical expansion all modify Southern Ocean clouds. Our analysis shows that Southern Ocean clouds are controlled both by thermodynamics (cloud changes for a given subsidence rate) and by dynamics (changes in subsidence rates). Hinting at the importance of thermodynamics, absorbed shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean is substantially more affected by increased greenhouse gas forcing than by a poleward stormtrack shift in the absence of greenhouse forcing. While we find CESM a useful tool, CESM has substantial Southern Ocean biases (e.g., excessive Antarctic sea ice, excessive absorbed shortwave radiation). Thus, we also assess the impact that these biases have on the realism of CESM Southern Ocean cloud-climate greenhouse feedbacks.

  1. Stars and Nebulae in the Southern Crown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The R Coronae Australis complex of young stars and interstellar gas clouds is one of the nearest star-forming regions, at a distance of approx. 500 light-years from the Sun. It is seen in the southern constellation of that name (The "Southern Crown"). Images of this sky area were recently obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. Some of these exposures have been combined into a magnificent colour image, here reproduced as PR Photo 25a/00 . The field shown measures about 4.7 x 4.7 light-years 2. It displays the central part of the complex, its brightest stars, and the nebulosity that they illuminate. The interstellar clouds that are associated with the complex are visible all across this field and also beyond its borders (on other exposures), due to the obscuring effect of the dust particles that "dim" the light of stars behind these clouds. This effect is particularly noticeable in the lower left corner where very few stars are seen. R Coronae Australis , the bright star from which the entire complex is named, is located at the center of the field and illuminates the reddish nebula around it. The bright star in the lower part, illuminating a somewhat bluer nebula, is known as TY Coronae Australis . The brightness of these two stars and several others in the same field is variable. They belong to the so-called "T Tauri" class , a type that is quite common in star-forming regions. T Tauri stars are in the early stages of stellar evolution and display various observable characteristics of this phase, e.g. emission at visible and infrared wavelengths due to the accretion of matter left over from their formation, as well as X-ray emission. The nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to reflection of the stellar light by small dust particles. The stars in the R Coronae Australis complex do not emit sufficient ultraviolet light to ionize a substantial

  2. Southern Africa seismic structure and source studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    1998-09-01

    The upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern Africa is investigated using travel time and waveform data. Waveform and travel time data used in this study come mainly from a large mine tremor in South Africa (msb{b} 5.6) recorded on stations of the southern Africa and the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment. Auxiliary data along similar profiles are obtained from other moderate events within eastern and southern Africa. The waveform data from the large tremor show upper mantle triplications for both the 400 and 670-km discontinuities between 18sp° and 27sp° distance. The most notable feature of the data is a large, late P phase that propagates to at least 27sp°. This phase is striking because of its late arrival time (as much as 15 seconds after direct P at 27sp°) and high amplitude relative to the first arrival. Travel times from all available stations are used to invert for the P wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth and S wave velocity structure down to 200 km using the Wiechert-Herglotz (W-H) inversion technique. The P wave velocities from the uppermost mantle down to 300 km are as much as 3% higher than the global average and are slightly slower than the global average between 300 and 400 km depths. The velocity gradient between 300 and 400 km is 0.0015 1/s. The S wave travel time data yield fast velocities above 200-km depth. The S wave velocity structure appears inconsistent with the P wave structure model indicating varying Poisson's ratio in the upper mantle. Little evidence is found for a pronounced upper mantle low velocity zone. Both sharp and gradual-change 400-km discontinuities are favored by the waveform data. The 670-km discontinuity appears as a gradual-change zone. The source mechanism of the mb 5.6 mining tremor itself is important for seismic discrimination and insight into mining tremor sources. Source parameters for this event as well as some other large mining tremors from the South African gold mines are studied

  3. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal

  4. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  5. Properties of aftershock sequences in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Jones, Lucile M.

    1991-07-01

    The temporal behavior of 39 aftershock sequences in southern California, 1933-1988, was modeled by the modified Omori relation. Minimum magnitudes for completeness of each sequence catalog were determined, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters K, p, and c, with the standard errors on each, were determined by the Ogata algorithm. The b value of each sequence was also calculated. Many of the active faults in the region, both strike slip and thrust, were sampled. The p values were graded in terms of the size of the standard error relative to the p value itself. Most of the sequences were modeled well by the Omori relation. Many of the sequences had p values close to the mean of the whole data set, 1.11±0.25, but values significantly different from the mean, as low as 0.7 and as high as 1.8, exist. No correlation of p with either the b value of the sequence or the mainshock magnitude was found. The results suggest a direct correlation of p values is with surface heat flow, with high values in the Salton Trough (high heat flow) and one low value in the San Bernardino Mountains and on the edge of the Ventura Basin (both low heat flow). The large fraction of the sequences with p values near the mean are at locations where the heat flow is near the regional mean, 74 mW/m2. If the hypothesis that aftershock decay rate is controlled by temperature at depth is valid, the effects of other factors such as heterogeneity of the fault zone properties are superimposed on the background rate determined by temperature. Surface heat flow is taken as an indicator of crustal temperature at hypocentral depths, but the effects on heat flow of convective heat transport and variations in near-surface thermal conductivity invalidate any simple association of local variations in heat flow with details of the subsurface temperature distribution. The interpretation is that higher temperatures in the aftershock source volume caused shortened stress relaxation times in the fault

  6. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  7. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  8. The last glacial-Holocene transition in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Bennett, K D; Haberle, S G; Lumley, S H

    2000-10-13

    Warming at the last glacial termination in the North Atlantic region was interrupted by a period of renewed glacial activity during the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). The underlying mechanism of this cooling remains elusive, but hypotheses turn on whether it was a global or a North Atlantic phenomenon. Chronological, sedimentological, and palaeoecological records from sediments of small lakes in oceanic southern Chile demonstrate that there was no YDC cooling in southern Chile. It is therefore likely that there was little or no cooling in southern Pacific surface waters and hence that YDC cooling in the North Atlantic was a regional, rather than global, phenomenon.

  9. Variation of soil radon concentrations in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Ly, J; Bergman, L; Wierdsma, J; Klassen, R A

    2008-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Information on indoor radon concentrations is required to assess the lung cancer burden due to radon exposure. However, radon data in highly populated southern Ontario are very limited. Since radon in soil is believed to be the main source of radon in homes, measurements of soil gas radon concentrations can be used to estimate variations in radon potential of indoor environments. This study reports a transect survey of natural background variation in soil radon levels across southern Ontario. The results indicate that radon risk could be high in some areas of southern Ontario.

  10. Carboniferous sedimentation and tectonics in southern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.P.; Crossley, R.; Aktas, G.; Matthews, S.J.; Boudda, A.

    1988-08-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of southern Morocco record the gradual change from the extensional tectonic style of the early Paleozoic to a compressional regime. During the Tournaisian and early Visean, northwest compression formed a rising anticline in the Anti-Atlas, which provided sediments to shallow marine basins formed in the flanking synclines. During the late Visean, tectonic activity increased markedly, and northward-downthrowing normal/oblique slip faulting formed submarine fault scarps. Turbidity currents and debris flows together with giant exotic blocks were shed northward from these scarps. The turbidity currents were deflected eastward to flow down the axes of these small easterly plunging marine basins. A late Visean phase of minor folding with locally developed cleavage and quartz veining closed these basins. The folded sequences are unconformably overlain by uppermost Visean fluvial sediments deposited from northward and eastward-flowing rivers. During the Pennsylvanian, collisional tectonics recorded in the Moroccan Meseta to the north were probably responsible for thrust faulting and the formation of a high-angle cleavage. Thick (up to 4.5 km) sandstones and conglomerates with red mudstones, paleosols, and coals are preserved on the fringes of the area. These were deposited by southeast-flowing rivers and are interpreted as the eroded remnants of a syn-postorogenic molasse deposited in a major foredeep south of the main orogen.

  11. Epidemiology of Glomerular Disease in Southern Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Murugapandian, Sangeetha; Mansour, Iyad; Hudeeb, Mohammad; Hamed, Khaled; Hammode, Emad; Bijin, Babitha; Daheshpour, Sepehr; Thajudeen, Bijin; Kadambi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glomerulonephritis stands third in terms of the etiologies for end-stage kidney disease in the USA. The aim of this study was to look at the patterns of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis based on data from a single center. Kidney biopsy specimens of all patients above the age of 18 years, over a 10-year period, who had diagnosis of nondiabetic glomerular disease, were selected for the study. The most common histopathological diagnosis was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (22.25%, 158/710) followed by membranous nephropathy (20.28%, 144/710) and immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (19.71%, 140/710). There was male preponderance in all histological variants except IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. The race distribution was uneven, and all histological variants, except minimal change disease and lupus nephritis, were more commonly seen in whites. In a separate analysis of the histological pattern in Hispanics, lupus nephritis was the most common pathology (28.70%, 62/216) followed by FSGS (18.05%, 39/216). In American Indian population, the most common pathology was IgA nephropathy (33.33%, 8/24) followed by FSGS (16.67%, 4/24). This study highlights the histopathological patterns of glomerular disease in southern Arizona. The data suggest regional and ethnic variations in glomerular disease that may point towards genetic or environmental influence in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. PMID:27149502

  12. An activity catalogue of southern stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; McCarthy, C.; Marcy, G. W.; Pinfield, D. J.; Carter, B. D.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-10-01

    We have acquired high-resolution echelle spectra of 225 F6-M5 type stars in the Southern hemisphere. The stars are targets or candidates to be targets for the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. CaII H& K line cores were used to derive activity indices for all of these objects. The indices were converted to the Mt. Wilson system of measurements and logR'HK values determined. A number of these stars had no previously derived activity indices. In addition, we have also included the stars from Tinney et al. using our Mt. Wilson calibration. The radial-velocity instability (also known as jitter) level was determined for all 21 planet-host stars in our data set. We find the jitter to be at a level considerably below the radial-velocity signatures in all but one of these systems. 19 stars from our sample were found to be active (logR'HK > -4.5) and thus have high levels of jitter. Radial-velocity analysis for planetary companions to these stars should proceed with caution.

  13. Modeling background radiation in Southern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Haber, Daniel A; Burnley, Pamela C; Adcock, Christopher T; Malchow, Russell L; Marsac, Kara E; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2017-02-06

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown. Two study areas in Southern Nevada have been modeled using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas that are homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th, referred to as background radiation units, are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Lab - Nellis, allowing for the refinement of the technique. By using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide and define radiation background units within alluvium, successful models have been produced for Government Wash, north of Lake Mead, and for the western shore of Lake Mohave, east of Searchlight, NV.

  14. Hydrocarbon entrapment in Trenton of southern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Trevail, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Middle Ordovician Trenton strata in southern Ontario are represented by a generally transgressive sequence that reflects a wide spectrum of carbonate environments from tidal flat, through lagoon and shoal, into deeper shelf carbonates. Virtually all Ordovician production in Ontario is associated with structural deformation related to rejuvenation of a Precambrian fracture framework triggered by orogenic events in the nearby Appalachian orogene. The reservoirs are characterized by the replacement of original bioclastic limestone beds by more or less discontinuous lenses of fine to medium-grained, light to medium-brown crystalline dolostone. Pools generally are linear, following the trend of the associated fracture. Six of the 18 known Ordovician pools in Ontario are located in Essex County. A detailed study of the geology and reservoirs confirmed the close association of fracturing, dolomitization, and hydrocarbon entrapment. Representative samples of well cuttings from 20 wells were analyzed by XRD (x-ray defraction) to determine calcite-dolomite ratios. As expected, low ratios were present in the producing reservoirs. Partially dolomitized zones were revealed in wells in close proximity to fractures. Formation water originating in the underlying Cambrian sandstones was probably the main dolomitizing agent as it migrated up through the fracture. Dolomitization enhanced already existing porosity within the bioclastic zones.

  15. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  16. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  17. Observations of southern emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of 1929 stars showing H-alpha emission on photographic plates is presented which covers the entire southern sky south of declination -25 deg to a red limiting magnitude of about 11.0. The catalog provides previous designations of known emission-line stars equatorial (1900) and galactic coordinates, visual and photographic magnitudes, H-alpha emission parameters, spectral types, and notes on unusual spectral features. The objects listed include 16 M stars, 25 S stars, 37 carbon stars, 20 symbiotic stars, 40 confirmed or suspected T Tauri stars, 16 novae, 14 planetary nebulae, 11 P Cygni stars, 9 Bep stars, 87 confirmed or suspected Wolf-Rayet stars, and 26 'peculiar' stars. Two new T associations are discovered, one in Lupus and one in Chamaeleon. Objects with variations in continuum or H-alpha intensity are noted, and the distribution by spectral type is analyzed. It is found that the sky distribution of these emission-line stars shows significant concentrations in the region of the small Sagittarius cloud and in the Carina region.

  18. Stormwater contaminant loading following southern California wildfires.

    PubMed

    Stein, Eric D; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hogue, Terri S; Burke, Megan P; Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-11-01

    Contaminant loading associated with stormwater runoff from recently burned areas is poorly understood, despite the fact that it has the potential to affect downstream water quality. The goal of the present study is to assess regional patterns of runoff and contaminant loading from wildfires in urban fringe areas of southern California. Postfire stormwater runoff was sampled from five wildfires that each burned between 115 and 658 km(2) of natural open space between 2003 and 2009. Between two and five storm events were sampled per site over the first one to two years following the fires for basic constituents, metals, nutrients, total suspended solids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were compared to data from 16 unburned natural areas and six developed sites. Mean copper, lead, and zinc flux (kg/km(2)) were between 112- and 736-fold higher from burned catchments and total phosphorus was up to 921-fold higher compared to unburned natural areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon flux was four times greater from burned areas than from adjacent urban areas. Ash fallout on nearby unburned watersheds also resulted in a threefold increase in metals and PAHs. Attenuation of elevated concentration and flux values appears to be driven mainly by rainfall magnitude. Contaminant loading from burned landscapes has the potential to be a substantial contribution to the total annual load to downstream areas in the first several years following fires.

  19. Implementation of ecological assessment in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.S.; Ruiter, T.L. |

    1994-12-31

    Under the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program for the Navy, an ecological assessment was undertaken as part of a remedial investigation at a southern California naval facility. The work plan that was implemented was the result of negotiation and collaboration between the Navy and federal and state natural resource regulatory agencies. The facility is located on a natural lagoon connected to the Pacific Ocean and supported by a large tidal wetland system. In addition to issues related to the intrinsic values of the wetlands, the agencies were concerned about the effects of implementation of the studies on several special status species that use the facility. The ecological assessment involved sampling of vegetation, mammals, fish, benthos, sediment, and water at eight sites. In addition, a bathymetric survey and tidal study of the lagoon were undertaken to support the studies. Sampling was constrained by the anticipated and early presence of special status species. Coordination of the field program was critical to minimizing impact on the special status species and completing the sampling by the required end date. Initial sampling resulted in recommendations for the remainder of the ecological assessment and the identification of potential interim actions that would provide early restoration of habitat on the facility.

  20. THE DISTRIBUTION OF COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Biddle, Marjorie; Tucker, Harold A.; Yeaman, Antoinette

    1950-01-01

    In coccidioidin skin test surveys among persons of high school age in Saugus, Canoga Park, Banning and Palm Springs areas the average incidence of positive reaction was 15 per cent. Although considerably less than the 68 per cent incidence reported among high school students of Kern County, it is high enough to indicate pockets of relatively high endemicity in Southern California below the San Joaquin Valley. Histoplasmin tests were performed on most of the persons tested with coccidioidin in this survey. The over-all incidence of positive reaction in the group was 7.6 per cent. Most of the subjects with positive reaction to histoplasmin gave a history of having previously lived in some area in the central United States where histoplasmosis is known to be endemic. A few subjects who had positive reaction to coccidioidin tests and who had lived in areas known to be endemic for coccidioidomycosis but not for histoplasmosis, also had positive reaction to histoplasmin. However, the induration produced was always smaller than that caused by the coccidioidin reaction, and there was minimal confusion in interpreting the tests. PMID:14772654

  1. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  2. Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.

    PubMed

    Nývltová-Fisáková, M

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní Vĕstonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets.

  3. The distribution of coccidioidomycosis in Southern California.

    PubMed

    KESSEL, J F; BIDDLE, M; TUCKER, H A; YEAMAN, A

    1950-10-01

    In coccidioidin skin test surveys among persons of high school age in Saugus, Canoga Park, Banning and Palm Springs areas the average incidence of positive reaction was 15 per cent. Although considerably less than the 68 per cent incidence reported among high school students of Kern County, it is high enough to indicate pockets of relatively high endemicity in Southern California below the San Joaquin Valley. Histoplasmin tests were performed on most of the persons tested with coccidioidin in this survey. The over-all incidence of positive reaction in the group was 7.6 per cent. Most of the subjects with positive reaction to histoplasmin gave a history of having previously lived in some area in the central United States where histoplasmosis is known to be endemic.A few subjects who had positive reaction to coccidioidin tests and who had lived in areas known to be endemic for coccidioidomycosis but not for histoplasmosis, also had positive reaction to histoplasmin. However, the induration produced was always smaller than that caused by the coccidioidin reaction, and there was minimal confusion in interpreting the tests.

  4. Low frequency earthquakes below southern Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, M. G.; Royer, A. A.; Hearn, E. H.; Peacock, S. M.

    2012-11-01

    The nature and distribution of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) in subduction zones provide insight into plate boundary deformation downdip of the locked seismogenic zone. We employ network autocorrelation detection to identify LFE families beneath southern Vancouver Island and environs. An initial suite of 5775 LFEs detected in 2004 and 2005 at a select set of 7 stations is grouped into 140 families using waveform cluster analysis. These families are used as templates within an iterative network cross correlation scheme to detect LFEs across different tremor episodes, incorporate new stations, and improve LFE template signal-to-noise ratio. As in southwest Japan, representative LFE locations define a relatively tight, dipping surface several km above the locus of intraslab seismicity, within a prominent, dipping low-velocity zone (LVZ). LFE polarizations for near-vertical source-receiver geometries possess a remarkably uniform dipolar signature indicative of point-source, double-couple excitation. Focal mechanisms determined fromP-wave first motions are characterized by a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting. We suggest that LFEs and regular intraslab seismicity occur in distinct structural and stress regimes. The LVZ, inferred to represent weak, overpressured, porous and mylonitized metabasalts of oceanic crustal Layer 2, separates LFEs manifesting deformation within a plate boundary shear zone from intraslab earthquakes generated by tensional stresses and dehydration embrittlement within a more competent lower oceanic crustal Layer 3 and underlying mantle.

  5. Superoxide decay kinetics in the southern ocean.

    PubMed

    Heller, Maija I; Croot, Peter L

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of superoxide (O(2)(-)) reaction kinetics were made during a transect with the research icebreaker Polarstern (ANT24-3) in the Antarctic through the Drake Passage in austral autumn 2008. Our sampling strategy was designed to investigate the sinks of superoxide in Polar waters; principally through reactions with dissolved organic matter (DOM) or metals (copper and iron). We modified an existing chemiluminescence flow injection system using methyl Cypridina luciferin analog (MCLA) for the detection of O(2)(-) and added O(2)(-) using KO(2) as the source. Our results indicate that O(2)(-) in ambient seawater had a half-life ranging from 9.3 to 194 s. DTPA additions to seawater, to remove the effects of reactions with metals, revealed O(2)(-) decay rates consistent with a second order reaction, indicating that the dismutation reaction dominated and that reactions with DOM were not significant. Titrations of seawater by the addition of nanomolar amounts of iron or copper revealed the importance of organic chelation of Fe and/or Cu in controlling the reactivity with O(2)(-). Throughout the water column reactions with Cu appeared to be the major sink for superoxide in the Southern Ocean. This new strategy suggests an alternative approach for speciation measurements of Fe and Cu in seawater.

  6. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.

  7. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  8. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Paul T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  9. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  10. Planned Parenthood of Southern Arizona v. Lawall.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Court Decision: 180 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 1022; 1999 June 9 (date of decision). The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held that an Arizona law requiring a minor to have parental consent for abortion was unconstitutional. Planned Parenthood of Southern Arizona had brought an action challenging the validity of the law, which contained a judicial bypass provision allowing minors to obtain an abortion in the absence of parental consent if approved by the court. Because the judicial bypass provision was open-ended and did not contain specific time frames or deadlines, it did not assure an expeditious alternative to parental consent. The Ninth Circuit found that the judicial bypass provision posed a substantial obstacle to abortion in a large fraction of cases and therefore unduly burdened a woman's right to an abortion. The Arizona statute also contained a medical emergency provision which allowed minors to avoid parental consent if an attending physician deemed an abortion medically necessary to the health and bodily function of the minor. Because the medical emergency provision relied on deadlines provided by the judicial bypass provision, and because the judicial bypass provision failed to specify deadlines in a manner that could be useful to physicians in making their decision concerning whether an abortion is medically necessary, the Ninth Circuit found the medical emergency provision unconstitutionally vague. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the District Court's decision by permanently enjoining the State from implementing or enforcing the statute.

  11. Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

  12. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  14. Dioxin contamination in soils of Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Doan, Thanh Vu; Tarradellas, Joseph; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Dioxin is the common name for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and is abbreviated as PCDD/Fs. In the case of Southern Vietnam, is of high concern dioxin contamination in the areas affected by past-use chemical defoliants. Our study related to the zone considered as a "hot spot"--Bien Hoa Airbase and surrounding areas (Bien Hung Lake). Although the war ended over 30 years ago, the adverse effects on this territory still continue. Soil and sediment were selected for our research as they act as a sink for PCDD/Fs. The samples were taken and analyzed in CECOTOX laboratory following certified procedures. The total amounts of PCDD/Fs (2,3,7,8 related congeners) in the samples were converted into WHO-TEQ and compared with standard values proposed by Canadian environmental quality guidelines. The obtained data shows a relatively high risk (up to 20.4 times higher than (probable effect level) PEL value for sediment and 46 times higher than standard value for soil). The research is continuing on the assessment of dioxin transport in food chain. Moreover, considering the obtained data a complete solution should be found urgently to solve the problem of dioxin contamination in the studied areas.

  15. Snapshot of Southern Spring Dust Storm Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Southern spring on Mars began with a 'bang' in late June 2001 with a series of large dust storms that in some regions were still occurring each day well into September. By early July, the martian atmosphere was so hazy that opportunities for high resolution imaging of the planet were very limited. This wide angle camera view obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera shows a large dust-raising event that occurred on July 8, 2001, as cold, raging winds blew off the frozen south polar cap (bottom) and rushed toward the network of troughs known as Labyrinthus Noctis near the martian equator (center). A second, smaller dust storm can be seen near the top just left of center, northwest of the Ascraeus Mons volcano (uppermost dark elliptical feature). To give a sense of scale, Ascraeus Mons is large enough to nearly cover the state of Washington, home of the famous (and much smaller) Mount St. Helens volcano. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left, and north is toward the upper right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  17. Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

    1981-05-04

    Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

  18. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  19. Southern African NGOs seize the initiative.

    PubMed

    Morna, C L

    1990-11-01

    The Southern African Network of AIDS Service Organizations (SANASO) was begun at a conference in Harare, Zimbabwe in May 1990, marking the 1st local unification of Non-Governmental agencies in AIDS prevention and care. This region has about 20% of Africa's reported AIDS cases, but has seen an 8-fold increase in 2 years. The goals of the organization are to facilitate sharing of information, ideas and experiences, to promote cooperation among the NGOs, to move toward common positions on AIDS and to articulate to the rest of the world the needs of the region as regards AIDS. While the incidence ranges from 6/million in Lesotho, to 906/million in Malawi, the countries represented have varied but pressing political and economic situations making HIV infection a serious threat. Examples are economic contraction with reduced funding of health and education; rapid urbanization; wars in Angola and Mozambique, with associated sexual abuse, refugees and displaced people; and in South Africa Apartheid, unemployment, forced relocation, violence and even suspicion of the government's AIDS program. Discussions on how the NGOs in particular can help change peoples' behavior resulted in the suggestion that they involve People With AIDS (PWA), to give the disease "a face" and lessen fear and alienation. The best example of such a successful approach is the home-based care instituted by Zambia's Chikankata Salvation Army Mission Hospital.

  20. Channel Responses and Hydromodification in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, R. J.; Dust, D. W.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydromodification (changes in watershed hydrologic characteristics, and the resulting hydraulics and channel forms due to urbanization) is ubiquitous in Southern California. In this region, the effects of hydromodification are driven and compounded by the arid/semiarid climate, high relief, erodible soils, high urbanization rates, and relatively low frequency of retention/detention. We conducted a preliminary survey of over 50 stream reaches along a gradient from least disturbed to fully urbanized. All stages of the Channel Evolution Model (CEM) of Schumm et al. (1984) were observed, from stable to degrading, widening, aggrading, and quasi-equilibrium channels. Several sites have CEM stages II through V in close proximity due to headcutting, hardpoints, and infrastructure. We also observed channels in undeveloped watersheds impacted by downstream urbanization via headcutting. A range of intervention measures was observed, with the frequent evolutionary endpoint as a concrete engineered flood control channel. We also observed multiple channel evolution sequences that deviate from the CEM for single-thread, incising channels. An alternative channel response, particularly on smaller urbanized streams is a stabilized, vegetation encroached low-flow channel with regular baseflow supplied by residential irrigation runoff. The limited cases of unimpacted streams that remain tend to be high gradient, high energy systems that are naturally proximate to the transition between braided and meandering form for a given sediment size.

  1. Bedload flux in southern Brazilian basalt scarp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, G. H.; Minella, J. P. G.

    2015-03-01

    Frequently, to assess the life expectancy of Brazilian reservoirs, bedload flux has been estimated by using formulas (e.g. the Einstein equations) or by assuming that bedload represents a fixed percentage of the suspended load. This study was carried out to characterize the bedload flux on the basalt scarps of southern Brazil. The bedload was measured over the course of 12 stormflows. The results demonstrated that the bedload flux-streamflow relationship was adequately described by a potential mathematical function. Bedload flux selectively transported particles smaller than D50 surface and subsurface bedstream sediments. When considering the bedload flux-streamflow relationship, the flux ranged from a minimum of 0.24 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 0.53 m3 s-1 to a maximum of 44 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 1.3 m3 s-1. The percentage of bedload/suspended load varied between <1% up to 60%, and this variation was strongly associated with peak flow.

  2. Inherited coagulation disorders in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Yarmohammadi, Hirad; Ardeshiri, R; Yarmohammadi, Hooman

    2002-11-01

    A comprehensive survey concerning the Shiraz Hemophilia Society and the associated haemophilia treatment centre was undertaken in April 2002 to collect data on demographics, signs and symptoms in the southern Iranian population with haemophilia and allied disorders. The total number of patients with coagulation disorders was 367. Haemophilia A (factor [F] VIII deficiency) was found in 271, 39 had haemophilia B (FIX deficiency) and 24 had von Willebrand disease. The rare coagulation disorders (n = 33) included 11 patients with FX deficiency; 10 with FVII; six with FXIII; two with afibrinogenaemia; two with FXI; one with combined FVIII and FV; and one with combined FVII, FVIII and FIX deficiency. The prevalence was 6.64 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common symptoms were haemarthrosis, haematomas and epistaxis. None of the patients were human immunodeficiency virus positive but 47 (15%) were hepatitis C virus positive and two (0.7%) were hepatitis B positive, so that the rate of transfusion-transmitted infections was lower compared with other populations.

  3. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  4. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  5. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  6. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  7. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  8. Flowing wells and municipal water supplies in the southern portion of the southern peninsula of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leverett, Frank

    1906-01-01

    A large amount of data on water supplies was collected by the writer in the course of glacial investigations made under the direction of Prof. T. C. Chamberlin in the last five years in the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. These investigations resulted in a partial acquaintance with conditions in about 200 separate flowing-well districts and brought out matters of such exceptional importance that arrangements were made to extend them by examining each of the flowing-well districts in the State sufficiently to determine its essential characteristics, present state of development, and probable capacity for future development. It was arranged also that the quality of various classes of waters, both surface and underground, as well as water supplies of the cities and villages, should be given attention. As the mineral waters of the State had already been discussed in some detail by the State geologist, Dr. A. C. Lane, in Water-Supply Paper No. 31 of the United States Geological Survey, it was deemed unnecessary to prepare another report on that subject, but arrangements were made with Doctor Lane for embodying in this report the large amount of material which had accumulated at his office relative to other classes of water supply, and also for furnishing reports on certain counties in which special investigations had been carried on by the State survey. The results of all these studies, so far as they apply to the southern counties (see fig. 1), are embodied in the present report; the remainder will appear in a companion report on the middle and northern counties of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan.

  9. Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

    2002-03-01

    The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the composites of these anomalies are examined under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > 1), and negative (SOI < 1) phases of SOI. The climate dataset consists of sea level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice dataset describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables with the SOI. The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillations that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are clearly associated with the SOI include the following: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid-1988 to early 1991; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and the ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea and lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellinghausen Sea, and central Weddell Sea gyre during the period 1988-94. Four ENSO episodes over the

  10. Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Winfred L.

    1971-01-01

    Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)

  11. Southern Nevadas Club Ride Commuter Service Wins EPA Honor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    · Clean Air Partners Program - CLEAN AIR Force of Central Texas · Club Ride Commuter Services - Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada · Air Quality Partnership of the Delaware Valley - Delaware Valley Regional Planning

  12. Southern Maine Counties Included in the Federal Reformulated Gasoline Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    At the request of the State of Maine, EPA has finalized a rule requiring the sale of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in York, Cumberland, Sagadahoc, Androscoggin, Kennebec, Knox and Lincoln counties in southern Maine.

  13. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. 20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL CONNECTING WITH CENTRAL ROOM. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. 22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND WINDOWS. EARLY TENSION DEVICE VISIBLE ABOVE DOORWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  16. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  17. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2015-09-11

    Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized.

  18. 21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  19. 26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  20. Southern Nevada Food & Organics Recovery Workshop Final Report & Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary of Southern Nevada Food & Organics Recovery Workshop held in Las Vegas in September of 2015 to support improved food recovery through source reduction, donation, animal feeding, anaerobic digestion and composting.

  1. 65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, Babita

    Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini, Sneha Yadav,S.K.Vijay and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India ABSTRACT: This paper represents the geomagnetic field response at Southern Hemisphere (MAITRI) and Northern Hemisphere (TROMSO). The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210) where as TROMSO is at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210). We studied the behaviour of geomagnetic field with respect to geomagnetic storms at both the stations TROMSO and MAITRI. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magentospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.

  3. Health Care Issues in Southern Rural Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.

    1986-01-01

    High infant and maternal mortality, poverty, isolation, a shortage of health professionals, inadequate health care facilities, and difficult geographic access to care are some of the health-related problems that plague Black rural southerners. (GC)

  4. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 19. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM 56TH STREET, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 20. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM 56TH STREET, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 17. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM GROVE PARKWAY, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 18. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD ELLIOT ROAD, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, WHICH DID NOT EXIST ON DURING SHIP BUILDING DAYS. NOTE VEHICLE ELEVATOR. ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT IS SHIP BUILDING BALCONY. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  10. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  11. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  12. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  13. 23. VIEW SHOWING BROWN CONCRETE BLOCK STRUCTURES AND SOUTHERN EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING BROWN CONCRETE BLOCK STRUCTURES AND SOUTHERN EDGE OF RADAR SITE Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  16. View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill holes on face - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  17. Memorandum of Understanding with the University of Southern Mississippi

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the Memorandum of Understanding is to increase cooperation between the University of Southern Mississippi and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s Gulf of Mexico Program in areas of mutual interest.

  18. 2. View northwest, east wall and south facade Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest, east wall and south facade - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Bakery, Between Harris & Black Avenues 0.1 mile west of McClellan Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as carpentry shop - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Inert Ammunition Storehouses, Avocet and Kingfisher Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  1. CMAQ Application to the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ was used to simulate conditions during the the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in the summer of 2013. Data collected as part of this study have been used to perform diagnostic model evaluation.

  2. 30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east end of south pier taken looking southeast - Duluth Ship Canal, South Pier, North end of Minnesota Point & Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  3. VIEW OF WESTERN AND SOUTHERN SIDES OVER FENCE FROM PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN AND SOUTHERN SIDES OVER FENCE FROM PARKING LOT OF BUILDING 1589 (BANYAN CLUB). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; note collision walls, provision for two tracks; view to north-northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  5. Perspective view from southwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from southwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  6. Perspective view from northwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. Elevation of south facade with scale Southern Branch of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of south facade with scale - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. Perspective view from south Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from south - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  9. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. A theory for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Zebiak, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model is presented for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation that reproduces its major features, including its recurrence at irregular intervals. The interannual El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle is maintained by deterministic interactions in the tropical Pacific region. Ocean dynamics alter sea-surface temperature, changing the atmospheric heating; the resulting changes in surface wind alter the ocean dynamics. Annually varying mean conditions largely determine the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of El Nino events.

  11. Radial Velocities and Binarity of Southern SIM Grid Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    MNRAS 446, 2055–2058 (2015) doi:10.1093/mnras/stu2239 Radial velocities and binarity of southern SIM grid stars Valeri V. Makarov1‹ and Stephen C...ABSTRACT We present analysis of precision radial velocities (RV) of 1134 mostly red giant stars in the southern sky, selected as candidate astrometric...grid objects for the Space Interferometry Mis- sion (SIM). Only a few (typically, two or three) spectroscopic observations per star have been collected

  12. The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

  13. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  14. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  15. Late Precambrian OIB magmatism in the Kuznetsk Alatau, Siberia: Geochemical features of the Kulbyurstyug Formation volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Kotelnikov, A. D.; Krupchatnikov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Basaltoids of the Vendian-Cambrian Kulbyurstyug volcanic complex in the eastern part of Kuznetsk Alatau have a high content of titanium (TiO2 3-4 wt %). They are relatively enriched with LILE and HFSE (Ba 360-900, Zr 160-726, Nb 66-101, ΣREE up to 225-329 ppm), and demonstrate a fractionated spectrum of REEs (La/Yb ˜ 13-17), high Nb/U (44-66), and low Th/Ta and Th/Nb. These features are comparable with derivatives of OIB (Ocean Island Basalts) magmatism. The rock geochemistry suggests the possible formation of an initial mafic melt in the garnet-bearing peridotite mantle with 2-4% degree of melting and the presence of a small amount of spinel. By the age and composition, the studied volcanics are correlated with the OIB magmatism products, occurring in the adjacent Gorny Altai and also considered to be derivatives of intraplate magmatism of Riphean-Early Cambrian age. This magmatism was caused by plume activity during formation of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  16. 77 FR 59184 - Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC, filed a... committed capacity on the Southern Lights Pipeline, as set forth in Section 6.06 of the Southern...

  17. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star...). Southern Star seeks authorization to increase the Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of its Waynoka...

  18. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  19. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... City, Missouri. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to replace 3 miles of 12-inch diameter XT...

  20. 76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy... vertically at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas. Subsequent...

  1. 77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... buffer zone by 160 acres at Southern Star's existing McLouth Gas Storage Field in Jefferson...

  2. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  3. 78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... in Johnson and Pettis Counties, Missouri, under authorization issued to Southern Star in Docket...

  4. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... Oklahoma and Logan Counties, Oklahoma (Line V). Southern Star states that due to the age of Line V and...

  5. 75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application July 8, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700... certificate issued on May 20, 2010 in docket number CP10-2-000. Specifically, Southern Star proposes...

  6. 76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To... Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County...?'' was attached to the project notice Southern Star provided to landowners and owners of mineral...

  7. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star..., Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties, Kansas. Southern Star's prior notice request is more fully set forth...

  8. 76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... buffer zone at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas....

  9. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... is on file with the Commission and open for public inspection. Specifically, Southern Star...

  10. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501... application should be directed to Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural...

  11. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  12. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  13. Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar

  14. The Modal Evolution of the Southern Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassington, Gary B.

    1997-05-01

    The implementation of a progressive Fourier transform, applied to time series representative of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), provides a visual review of the frequency modes that have dominated throughout the available time series record. The modal evolution maps, constructed from the progressive Fourier transform, demonstrate that the ENSO is largely composed of a discrete number of low-frequency modes and that these dominant modes demonstrate a localized influence, in a temporal sense, persisting for periods of years before showing deviations in characteristic frequency. In support of other research, significant energy is maintained in the quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial period modes throughout the length of available Southern Oscillation index (SOI) record. Evident through the most recent record of both the SOI and Nino region sea surface temperature (SST) time series is the emergence of energy in the quasi-decadal period modes. The presence of a quasi-decadal mode has also been noted in the North Pacific over the same period and has been related to the warming SSTs near Alaska. During the period in which the quasi-decadal mode has been present, the most severe and the longest-lasting El Niños on instrument record in 1982-83 and 1991-93, respectively, have occurred. This suggests that the superposition of the quasi-decadal mode with the well-recognized quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial modes can lead to more severe and longer-lasting climate anomalies. Despite the absence of significant energy in the lower-frequency modes in the earlier instrument-recorded SOI, which corresponds to moderate ENSO activity, the existence of such a mode is suggested by an analysis of a paleoclimatic reconstruction of seasonal SOI presented in this paper and other similar analyses found in scientific literature. The last period of very strong ENSO activity occurred during the period 1870-1930. This same period corresponded to the presence of significant energy

  15. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  16. Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone, Part II: Southern Hemisphere. Part 2; Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2008-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of extratropical O-3 in the SH is characterized by four main modes, which account for 75% of the total variance. The first two leading modes are approximately zonally symmetric and relate to the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the quasi-biennial oscillation. The third and fourth modes exhibit wavenumber-1 structures. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, the third and fourth are nor related to stationary waves. Similar results obtained for the 30 100-hPa geopotential thickness.The decreasing O3 trend in the SH is captured in the first mode. The largest trend is at the South Pole, with value similar to-2 Dobson Units (DU)/yr. Both the spatial pattern and trends in the column ozone are captured by the Goddard Earth Observation System chemistry-climate model (GEOS-CCM) in the SH.

  17. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: II

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian; Fowler, James H.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register was initiated in 1984 at the University of Southern California, and continues to grow. This article provides an update of the register since it was described in the 2002 special issue of this journal. The register has expanded considerably in the past 4 years, primarily as a result of recent access to Los Angeles County birth records and voter registration databases. Currently, this register contains nearly 5000 twin pairs, the majority of whom are school age. The potential for further expansion in adult twins using voter registration records is also described. Using the Los Angeles County voter registration database, we can identify a large group of individuals with a high probability of having a twin who also resides in Los Angeles County. In addition to describing the expansion of register, this article provides an overview of an ongoing investigation of 605 twin pairs who are participating in a longitudinal study of behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, indicating baseline rates of conduct problems, depression and anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses which are comparable to nontwins in this age range. PMID:17254433

  18. Seasonally different carbon flux changes in the Southern Ocean in response to the southern annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, J.; Völker, C.; Wang, T.; Hoppema, M.; Losch, M.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion and emission of greenhouse gases lead to a trend of the southern annular mode (SAM) toward its high-index polarity. The positive phase of the SAM is characterized by stronger than usual westerly winds that induce changes in the physical carbon transport. Changes in the natural carbon budget of the upper 100 m of the Southern Ocean in response to a positive SAM phase are explored with a coupled ecosystem-general circulation model and regression analysis. Previously overlooked processes that are important for the upper ocean carbon budget during a positive SAM period are identified, namely, export production and downward transport of carbon north of the polar front (PF) as large as the upwelling in the south. The limiting micronutrient iron is brought into the surface layer by upwelling and stimulates phytoplankton growth and export production but only in summer. This leads to a drawdown of carbon and less summertime outgassing (or more uptake) of natural CO2. In winter, biological mechanisms are inactive, and the surface ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere by releasing CO2. In the annual mean, the upper ocean region south of the PF loses more carbon by additional export production than by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere, highlighting the role of the biological carbon pump in response to a positive SAM event.

  19. Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the highlands of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern highlands, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.

  20. Neogene foreland tectonics in the southern Appenines

    SciTech Connect

    Roure, F.; Casero, P.; Moretti, I.; Mueller, C.; Sage, L.; Vially, R.

    1988-08-01

    Combined structural and biostratigraphic analyses and seismic interpretation help them to balance cross sections through the southern Apennines from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian Sea and to propose an overall model for the evolution of the belt. Three lithostratigraphic units have been distinguished according to their Mesozoic facies and style of deformation: the western platform (upper unit), the Lagonegro-Molise basin, and the eastern platform. Foreland deformation migrated from west to east, and external domains were reached progressively by synorogenic flysch deposits (foredeep) and later incorporated into the thrust sheets. Presently, only the most external part of the eastern platform is still unaffected by thrusting, while internal parts are building the overthrust belt at depth, which is masked on the surface by allochthonous basinal nappes. The evolutive geometry of thrust and piggy-back basins results from the continuous understacking of new material at the bottom of the tectonic prism. The deeper basement is also progressively involved in the deformation, giving rise to large nappe anticlines. Despite the early subsidence and deformation of the western platform and basinal domains in Langhian to Tortonian time, all the deformation of the eastern platform has occurred since Messinian time. These compressive structures are thus contemporaneous with the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. To the west, the upper tectonic units of the Apennines are indeed affected by listric normal faulting, with previous thrust planes having been locally reactivated during the distension. Post-Messinian shortening in the sedimentary cover is accompanied by a crustal thickening outlined by the Moho's geometry. The authors interpret it as a result of the subduction of the Apulian continental lithosphere. Recent uplift of the Apennines is indeed directly related to this crustal root.

  1. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  2. Tulbaghia--A Southern African Phytomedicine.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Gibson, Diana; Hughes, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The phytomedicine Tulbaghia consists of the fresh or dried subterranean organs of various Tulbaghia species. The genus is endemic to Southern Africa and includes about 20 species, of which only T. alliacea and T. capensis are naturally found in the winter rainfall climate area (the Western Cape). The genus forms part of the Alliaceae family and is a geophyte (plants with an underground perennation organ and leaves that die back annually). Their habitat can range from semi-desert to wet and boggy terrain. Wild garlic is most commonly prepared as an infusion or boiled in water and taken orally. Externally, as a medicated bath, wild garlic is used to treat paralysis and rheumatism and to reduce the temperature in a feverish patient. Internally, rhizome or bulb preparations are taken orally to treat fever; as a remedy for colds and influenza, asthma, tuberculosis, and stomach problems; as an antihypertensive; or to expel intestinal worms. It is also used as a prophylactic against winter infections. Rhizome pieces are often placed in castor oil to make eardrops. For fever and high blood pressure, a tea is made from the bulbs or rhizomes and a small cup taken three times daily. The leaves of the plant are used to treat esophageal cancer and may also be eaten as a vegetable. The demand for Tulbaghia in both formal and informal markets has grown exponentially. Sustainable harvesting focuses on only harvesting enough of the plant so that it still has the capacity for self-renewal. However, because both the above-ground and underground parts of Tulbaghia are commonly used in African traditional medicine, destructive harvesting of the whole plant is inevitable, thus necessitating the large-scale organized propagation of these plants. It is therefore important to establish a new strategy for the sustainable harvesting of these plants as commercial crops.

  3. Cross folding in southern Bighorn basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery coupled with surface structural investigations of well-exposed folds in the southern Bighorn basin have revealed two northwest-trending folds that have been refolded. The eastern boundary of the Owl Creek Mountains is characterized by a well-defined alignment of folds that extend north-northwest from the Owl Creek thrust front. Bridger monocline, Wildhorse Butte anticline, and Red Hole anticline lie along this trend. Initial Laramide folding, probably during latest Cretaceous time, resulted in a single, continuous, north-northwest-trending anticline with a southwestward vergence. This anticline was progressively unfolded from south to north as the Owl Creek Range was thrust southward over the Wind River basin in earliest Eocene time; scissors-like vertical motion along this flexure rotated the axial surface of the early formed Bridger anticline, resulting in a monocline with a reversed vergence (northeastward). Formation of the Thermopolis/East Warm Springs anticline parallel to the north flank of the range accompanied thrusting and effectively refolded the northern end of the Wildhorse Butte anticline along an east-west axis. Faulting of the oversteepened south limb of the Red Hole cross fold was contemporaneous with folding. Cross-cutting fold axes in this area and the Mud Creek area to the west are best explained by a counterclockwise change in stress direction during the latest phase of the Laramide orogeny. Vertical movement along the eastern side of the Owl Creek Range results from differential motion in the hanging wall of the crystalline thrust sheet.

  4. Intense look at Virgo Southern Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Nasonova, O. G.

    2013-03-01

    We collected data on radial velocities and distances of galaxies to elucidate structure and kinematics of the filament attached to the Virgo cluster from south. In the region RA = [12{. ^{ {h}}}5{-}13{. ^{ {h}}}5], Dec. = [-20°,0°] there are 171 galaxies with radial velocities VLG < 2000 km s-1, and 98 of them have distance estimates. This galaxy cloud, called as `Virgo Southern Extension', is situated just on the edge of the Virgo `zero-velocity surface'. The mean distance to Virgo SEx, 17 ± 2 Mpc, and the average radial velocity, 1172 ± 23 km s-1, are very close to the Virgo cluster ones. In supergalactic coordinates the Virgo SEx dimensions are 15 × 7 × 2 Mpc, where the major axis is directed along the line of sight, the second major axis is directed towards the Virgo core and the minor one is perpendicular to the supergalactic plane. This flattened cloud consists of a dozen virialized groups with the total K-band luminosity of 1.7 × 1012 L⊙ and the total virial mass of 6.3 × 1013 M⊙, having a typical dark matter-to-stellar matter ratio of 37. The Hubble diagram for Virgo SEx galaxies exhibits a tendency of a Z-shaped wave with a velocity amplitude of ˜250 km s-1 that may be caused by a mass overdensity of ˜6 × 1013 M⊙, and in order of magnitude agrees with the sum of virial masses of the groups.

  5. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lynda E; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J; Crawford, Robert J M; Durant, Joel M; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Woehler, Eric J; Wolfaardt, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  6. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully.

  7. Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

  8. Predicting biological condition in southern California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason T.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Ode, Peter R.; Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    As understanding of the complex relations among environmental stressors and biological responses improves, a logical next step is predictive modeling of biological condition at unsampled sites. We developed a boosted regression tree (BRT) model of biological condition, as measured by a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (BIBI), for streams in urbanized Southern Coastal California. We also developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model as a benchmark for comparison with the BRT model. The BRT model explained 66% of the variance in B-IBI, identifying watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer as the most important predictors of B-IBI, but with watershed mean precipitation and watershed density of manmade channels also important. The MLR model explained 48% of the variance in B-IBI and included watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer. For a verification data set, the BRT model correctly classified 75% of impaired sites (B-IBI < 40) and 78% of unimpaired sites (B-IBI = 40). For the same verification data set, the MLR model correctly classified 69% of impaired sites and 87% of unimpaired sites. The BRT model should not be used to predict B-IBI for specific sites; however, the model can be useful for general applications such as identifying and prioritizing regions for monitoring, remediation or preservation, stratifying new bioassessments according to anticipated biological condition, or assessing the potential for change in stream biological condition based on anticipated changes in population density and development in stream buffers.

  9. IFU spectroscopy of southern planetary nebulae - III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Dopita, M. A.; Basurah, H. M.; Amer, M. A.; Alsulami, R.; Alruhaili, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we describe integral field spectroscopic observations of four southern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), M3-4, M3-6, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 covering the spectral range 3400-7000 Å. We derive the ionization structure, the physical conditions, the chemical compositions and the kinematical characteristics of these PNe and find good agreement with previous studies that relied upon the long-slit technique in their co-spatial area. From their chemical compositions as well as their spatial and kinematic characteristics, we determined that Hen2-29 is of the Peimbert type I (He- and N-rich), while the other three are of type II. The strength of the nebular He II line reveals that M3-3, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 are of mid to high excitation classes while M3-6 is a low-excitation PN. A series of emission-line maps extracted from the data cubes were constructed for each PN to describe its overall structure. These show remarkable morphological diversity. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of M3-6 shows that the recombination lines of C II, C III, C IV and N III are of nebular origin, rather than arising from the central star as had been previously proposed. This result increases doubts regarding the weak emission-line star (WELS) classification raised by Basurah et al. In addition, they reinforce the probability that most genuine cases of WELS arise from irradiation effects in close binary central stars.

  10. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement.

  11. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro`s efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces {approximately}130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins` blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco`s gas discoveries. Mitsubishi`s and Petronas` oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro`s acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  12. Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) (southern Turkey): Tsunami evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz

    2016-04-01

    In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern Turkey. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are

  13. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  14. Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-year of data set from 1982 through 1998. We correlate the polar climate anomalies with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and examine the composites of these anomalies under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > -1), and negative (SOI < -1) phases of SOL The climate data set consists of sea-level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice data set describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables and the SOL The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Ross sea sectors. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillating climate anomalies that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea-level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are clearly evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are apparently associated with the SOI include: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid- 1988 through early 199 1; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and, the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea, and the lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellingshausen Sea and central Weddell Sea gyre over the period 1988

  15. Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions from Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Jaegle,Lyatt; Hobbs, Peter V.; Liang, Qing

    2004-01-01

    The transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May-October) of 2000 is characterized using ground, ozonesonde, and aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in and around southern Africa, together with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry. The model shows a positive bias of approximately 20% for CO and a negative bias of approximately 10-25% for O3 at oceanic sites downwind of fire emissions. Near areas of active fire emissions the model shows a negative bias of approximately 60% and approximately 30% for CO and O3, respectively, likely due to the coarse spatial (2 deg. x 2.5 deg.) and temporal (monthly) resolution of the model compared to that of active fires. On average, from 1994 to 2000, approximately 60 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO) from biomass burning in southern Africa was transported eastward to the Indian Ocean across the latitude band 0 deg. -60 S during the 6 months of the dry season. Over the same time period, approximately 40 Tg of CO from southern African biomass burning was transported westward to the Atlantic Ocean over the latitudes 0 deg. -20 S during the 6-month dry season, but most of that amount was transported back eastward over higher latitudes to the south (21 deg. -60 S). Eastward transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa enhances CO concentrations by approximately 4- 13 ppbv per month over the southern subtropical Indian Ocean during the dry season, with peak enhancements in September. Carbon monoxide from southern African and South American biomass burning is seen in the model simulations as far away as Australia, contributing approximately 8 ppbv and approximately 12-15 ppbv CO, respectively, and thus explaining the approximately 20- 25 ppbv observed enhancement of CO over Melbourne in mid-September 2000.

  16. Neotectonics Of The Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Chen, Y.; Liu, C.; Song, K.

    2006-12-01

    The southern tip of Taiwan, the Hengchun Peninsula, has recently emerged as situated in between the collisional accretionary prism and the predecessor of the submarine forearc rise. The east-dipping Hengchun Fault (HCF), located in the middle part of the Hengchun Peninsula and oriented in the direction of NNW, can be clearly identified by the landform contrast between the mountain and the valley in the east and west respectively. This contrast confirms the thrust component of the HCF. In the hanging wall of the HCF, the raised marine terraces are widely distributed in the Hikou area, whose linear scarps coincidentally strike in the NNW, identical to the HCF. The ages of the terraces has been previously presented as 6 ka implying that the marine terraces have been uplifted by the activity of HCF during the past 6 kyr. To the south, we also discover a series of continuous and discrete scarps in the Maanshan area, which are also distributed sub-parallel or parallel to the HCF. We suggest that the scarps are formed by a series of faults, which are ramified from the northern segment of the HCF. Based on the recent GPS measurements, we divide the displacement vector field into parallel and normal to the HCF and suppose that the HCF has recently acted as a left-lateral strike- slip fault. It is obvious that there is a fault bend (from NNW to WNW) located in the immediate south of the Maanshan, which may be the cause to explain the wider fault zone composed a series of faults mentioned above. An active anticline is discovered in the offshore area of Western Hengchun Tableland (WHT) to the west, which is tentatively named as Western Hengchun Tablelend Anticline (WHTA). Within and around the WHT, marine terraces are also widely distributed according to the previous studies. The eastward (range-ward) tilting surface of the tableland itself implies its tectonic origin. Since the WHT is located on the eastern limb of the anticline, the eastward tilting of the WHT may be

  17. Measurement of Wetland Evapotranspiration in Southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, T.; Lopez, C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is defined as a composite flux of surface water directly evaporated by solar energy, and ground water transpired by plants. Factors limiting ET include the available energy, available water, and the vapor transport resistance offered by the atmosphere and vegetation. ET is surprisingly understudied considering its dominance in the hydrologic cycle transporting as much as 80% to over 100% of rainfall back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Uncertainties in spatial and temporal ET estimates limit the reliability of hydrologic water budgets and therefore can complicate development of sustainable water-use strategies and resolution of conflicts over water. In response to ET uncertainties, a monitoring station was constructed over a wet-prairie wetland in Big Cypress National Preserve in southern Florida to measure latent heat flux (the energy equivalent of ET), rainfall, air and water temperature, wind speed and direction, wind gusts, solar radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, relative humidity, and depth-of-water above or below land surface. The monitoring station was located on a 12' tower for atmospheric sampling at distances roughly 6' to 8' above the wet prairie canopy. Data are presented for a full year; specifically, June 16th, 2007 to June 16th, 2008. The eddy covariance method was applied to measure ET. The mean daily ET total was about 2.8 millimeters per day. Maximum values of about 3.5 to 5 millimeters per day were measured during the summer months (April to September) when solar radiation was greatest. Minimum values of 0 to about 2.5 millimeters per day were measured during the winter months (October to March) when solar radiation was relatively small. Sub-daily ET variations were explained mostly by available energy; formulated as the difference between net radiation, the soil-heat flux, and changes in heat-energy stored in the soil and surface-water. The annual ET total was about 1050 millimeters per year (41 inches per

  18. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  19. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  20. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  1. Mesozoic mafic alkaline magmatism of southern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappe, Sebastian

    2004-11-01

    More than 100 volcanic necks in central Scania (southern Sweden) are the product of Jurassic continental rift-related mafic alkaline magmatism at the southwest margin of the Baltic Shield. They are mainly basanites, with rarer melanephelinites. Both rock groups display overlapping primitive Mg-numbers, Cr and Ni contents, steep chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns (LaN /YbN = 17 27) and an overall enrichment in incompatible elements. However, the melanephelinites are more alkaline and have stronger high field strength element enrichment than the basanites. The existence of distinct primary magmas is also indicated by heterogeneity in highly incompatible element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb, La/Nb). Trace element modelling indicates that the magmas were generated by comparably low degrees of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source. Such a source can best be explained by a metasomatic overprint of the mantle lithosphere by percolating evolved melts. The former existence of such alkaline trace element-enriched melts can be demonstrated by inversion of the trace element content of green-core clinopyroxenes and anorthoclase which occur as xenocrysts in the melanephelinites and are interpreted as being derived from crystallization of evolved mantle melts. Jurassic magmatic activity in Scania was coeval with the generation of nephelinites in the nearby Egersund Basin (Norwegian North Sea). Both Scanian and North Sea alkaline magmas share similar trace element characteristics. Mantle enrichment processes at the southwest margin of the Baltic Shield and the North Sea Basin generated trace element signatures similar to those of ocean island basalts (e.g. low Zr/Nb and La/Nb) but there are no indications of plume activity during the Mesozoic in this area. On the contrary, the short duration of rifting, absence of extensive lithospheric thinning, and low magma volumes argue against a Mesozoic mantle plume. It seems likely that the metasomatic imprint resulted from the

  2. Sea Ice on the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Stanley S.

    1998-01-01

    Year-round satellite records of sea ice distribution now extend over more than two decades, providing a valuable tool to investigate related characteristics and circulations in the Southern Ocean. We have studied a variety of features indicative of oceanic and atmospheric interactions with Antarctic sea ice. In the Amundsen & Bellingshausen Seas, sea ice extent was found to have decreased by approximately 20% from 1973 through the early 1990's. This change coincided with and probably contributed to recently warmer surface conditions on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where air temperatures have increased by approximately 0.5 C/decade since the mid-1940's. The sea ice decline included multiyear cycles of several years in length superimposed on high interannual variability. The retreat was strongest in summer, and would have lowered the regional mean ice thickness, with attendant impacts upon vertical heat flux and the formation of snow ice and brine. The cause of the regional warming and loss of sea ice is believed to be linked to large-scale circulation changes in the atmosphere and ocean. At the eastern end of the Weddell Gyre, the Cosmonaut Polyna revealed greater activity since 1986, a recurrence pattern during recent winters and two possible modes of formation. Persistence in polynya location was noted off Cape Ann, where the coastal current can interact more strongly with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As a result of vorticity conservation, locally enhanced upwelling brings warmer deep water into the mixed layer, causing divergence and melting. In the Ross Sea, ice extent fluctuates over periods of several years, with summer minima and winter maxima roughly in phase. This leads to large interannual cycles of sea ice range, which correlate positively with meridinal winds, regional air temperatures and subsequent shelf water salinities. Deep shelf waters display considerable interannual variability, but have freshened by approximately 0.03/decade

  3. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of

  4. Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Rumpker, G.; Heit, B.; Rambolamana, G.; Rindraharisaona, E.; Priestley, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data and cannot resolve the difference between eastern and western Madagascar. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the

  5. Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

    For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image

  6. An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake.

    PubMed

    Majkut, Joseph D; Carter, Brendan R; Frölicher, Thomas L; Dufour, Carolina O; Rodgers, Keith B; Sarmiento, Jorge L

    2014-07-13

    The Southern Ocean is critically important to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Up to half of the excess CO2 currently in the ocean entered through the Southern Ocean. That uptake helps to maintain the global carbon balance and buffers transient climate change from fossil fuel emissions. However, the future evolution of the uptake is uncertain, because our understanding of the dynamics that govern the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake is incomplete. Sparse observations and incomplete model formulations limit our ability to constrain the monthly and annual uptake, interannual variability and long-term trends. Float-based sampling of ocean biogeochemistry provides an opportunity for transforming our understanding of the Southern Ocean CO2 flux. In this work, we review current estimates of the CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean and projections of its response to climate change. We then show, via an observational system simulation experiment, that float-based sampling provides a significant opportunity for measuring the mean fluxes and monitoring the mean uptake over decadal scales.

  7. [Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J J

    2007-08-01

    Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere.

  8. Plio-Pleistocene Biogenic Opal Deposition in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, G.; Gersonde, R.

    2002-12-01

    About 2/3 of the annual supply of silicic acid to the World Ocean is buried in the Southern Ocean as biogenic silica (BSi), formed by diatoms and radiolaria in surface waters and exported to the seafloor. Main BSi accumulation occurs in an area between the sea ice edge and the Polar Front Zone and seems to be steered by a complex interaction of biological and physical parameters governing the modern Southern Ocean ecosystem. Sediment cores recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 177 and expeditions with RV POLARSTERN reveal the history of the opal deposition in the Atlantic and Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. This period is characterized by distinct changes and variability in global climate and ocean circulation that can be related to the spatial-temporal distribution of BSi deposition on long and short time scales. Changes in ocean circulation, water mass structure, sea ice and climatic variability that impact the distribution of silicic acid and the development of coarsly silicified diatoms (e.g. Actinocyclus ingens, Thalassiosira antarctica, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis), presenting the major carriers of biogenic opal, control past BSi deposition in the Southern Ocean. Major deposition in the area of the modern Southern Ocean opal belt starts at the Plio/Pleistocene transition. Such strong export of BSi and related organic carbon might have reinforced the trend of global cooling observed since the Mid-Pliocene climate optimum.

  9. Microphysics and Southern Ocean Cloud Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Daniel T.

    Global climate models (GCMs) change their cloud properties in the Southern Ocean (SO) with warming in a qualitatively consistent fashion. Cloud albedo increases in the mid-latitudes and cloud fraction decreases in the subtropics. This creates a distinctive 'dipole' structure in the SW cloud feedback. However, the shape of the dipole varies from model to model. In this thesis we discuss the microphysical mechanisms underlying the SW cloud feedback over the mid-latitude SO. We will focus on the negative lobe of the dipole. The negative SW cloud feedback in the mid-latitudes is created by transitions from ice to liquid in models. If ice transitions to liquid in mixed-phase clouds the cloud albedo increases because ice crystals are larger than liquid droplets and therefore more reflective for a constant mass of water. Decreases in precipitation efficiency further enhance this effect by decreasing sinks of cloud water. This transition is dependent on the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. Parameterizations vary wildly between models and GCMs disagree by up to 35 K on the temperature where ice and liquid are equally prevalent. This results in a wide spread in the model predictions of the increase in liquid water path (LWP, where the path is the vertically integrated mass of water) with warming that drives the negative optical depth cloud feedback. It is found that this disagreement also results in a wide array of climate mean-states as models that create liquid at lower temperatures have a higher mean-state LWP, lower ice water path (IWP), and higher condensed (ice and liquid) water path (CWP). This presents a problem in climate models. GCMs need to have a reasonable planetary albedo in their climate mean-state. We show evidence that GCMs have tuned cloud fraction to compensate for the variation in mid-latitude cloud albedo driven by the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. This tuning results in mid-latitude clouds that are both too few and too bright as well as a

  10. Microbiome of Yermic Regosol in southern Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is of utmost importance for the genesis of extremely arid desert soils. The soil surface in arid regions is often covered by biofilms representing a complex biocenosis of algae, bacteria, micromycetes, and, sometimes, mosses or lichens. Biofilms of extremely arid soils form a significant part of the living matter in the desert ecosystems and play the central role in their dynamics. Study of the genetic material recovered directly from the soil samples is the main approach in soil metagenomics. Modern sequencing methods were used to describe the diversity of the microorganisms in soil samples. For the first time, such data were obtained for the extremely arid desert soil (Yermic Regosol) in southern Kazakhstan (flat alluvial plain; 43° 42'53.2" N; 79°25'29.1" E; 615 m asl). Taxonomic identification of nucleotide sequences and comparative analysis of microbial communities were performed using VAMPS. The classification of the sequences was performed using RDP. As the primers used were based on the sequences of 16S-rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea, we could analyze the prokaryotic community. Along with bacteria and archaea with established systematic position, all soil samples contained unidentified sequences (5.2-5.3%). Bacteria predominated at the domain level (65.9-74.9%), although their portion was much lower in comparison with that in less arid soils, where it reached 94-100%. Archaea were present as minor components (0.3-0.5%). Dominant groups of bacteria were represented by Proteobacteria (43.9-50.8%), Actinobacteria (9.5-10%), Firmicutes (0.8-2.4%), Verrucomicrobia (1.1-3%), Acidobacteria (1.1-2%), Bacteroidetes (1.2-1.4%). The portion of other phyla was less than 1%. Thus, bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria constitute the core component of the microbiome. Archaea are represented by phylum Crenarchaeota. A key feature of the extremely arid soils is the presence of large numbers (24.7-33.6%) of cyanobacteria

  11. Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Rümpker, Georg; Gerard, Rambolamana; Elisa, Rindraharisaona; Priestley, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly, although this interpretation has recently been questioned. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the

  12. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This stereo, 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    The view combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    Spirit took the first of the images that are combined into this view during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the

  13. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the horizon, the

  14. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm

  15. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Traoré, Sékou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2016-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali.

  16. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali

    PubMed Central

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F.; Branco, Luis M.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d’Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali. PMID:26981786

  17. Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

  18. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  19. Recent Changes in the Ventilation of the Southern Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, Darryn W.; Primeau, Francois; DeVries, Tim; Holzer, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Surface westerly winds in the Southern Hemisphere have intensified over the past few decades, primarily in response to the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, and there is intense debate on the impact of this on the ocean's circulation and uptake and redistribution of atmospheric gases. We used measurements of chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) made in the southern oceans in the early 1990s and mid- to late 2000s to examine changes in ocean ventilation. Our analysis of the CFC-12 data reveals a decrease in the age of subtropical subantarctic mode waters and an increase in the age of circumpolar deep waters, suggesting that the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole has caused large-scale coherent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans.

  20. Decreased calcification in the Southern Ocean over the satellite record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Natalie M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.

    2015-03-01

    Widespread ocean acidification is occurring as the ocean absorbs anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, threatening marine ecosystems, particularly the calcifying plankton that provide the base of the marine food chain and play a key role within the global carbon cycle. We use satellite estimates of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), surface chlorophyll, and sea surface temperature to provide a first estimate of changing calcification rates throughout the Southern Ocean. From 1998 to 2014 we observe a 4% basin-wide reduction in summer calcification, with ˜9% reductions in large regions (˜1 × 106 km2) of the Pacific and Indian sectors. Southern Ocean trends are spatially heterogeneous and primarily driven by changes in PIC concentration (suspended calcite), which has declined by ˜24% in these regions. The observed decline in Southern Ocean calcification and PIC is suggestive of large-scale changes in the carbon cycle and provides insight into organism vulnerability in a changing environment.