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Sample records for gorny altai southern

  1. [The prospects for the development of therapeutic and health-promoting tourism in Gorny Altai].

    PubMed

    Dzhabarova, N K; Iakovenko, É S; Sidorina, N G; Firsova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The present balneological survey made it possible to identify the promising areas with a high potential for the health resort, recreational and touristic activities including the foothill, low-mountain, mid-mountain valleys and hollows of Northern, Northwestern, Central and Eastern bioclimatic provinces of Mountainous Altai. Recommendations have been proposed for the development of therapeutic and health-improving tourism in the Shebalinsk, Ust'-Kansk and Ulagansk districts of the Altai Republic.

  2. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  3. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  4. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a

  5. Contrasting styles of mineralization in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar, NW China: implications for the accretionary history of the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese Altai-East Junggar collage in the southern Altaids hosts three metallogenic belts, which are, from north to south: (1) a volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) Cu-Pb-Zn belt; (2) a belt of shear zone-related gold deposits; (3) a porphyry Cu-Au-Mo belt. The VMS deposits formed in two pulses (c. 405 Ma and c. 375 Ma) in the Chinese Altai arc. The porphyry deposits developed in three pulses in the East Junggar arc, the first two synchronous with the VMS mineralization, and the third at c. 330 Ma. The shear zone-related gold deposits developed in the late Carboniferous to Permian at the contact between the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs. Time-space distributions of diverse ore deposits across the Altai-East Junggar collage indicate that the collage developed from two independent arcs, the Chinese Altai and the East Junggar. The VMS and porphyry deposits developed in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs, respectively. The Chinese Altai arc is interpreted to be a Japanese-type arc, and the East Junggar arc a Mariana-type arc. During the latest Palaeozoic, the two arcs were juxtaposed by the Erqis Fault, when many shear zone-related lode gold deposits were emplaced. These metallogenic distributions were a likely response to spatially localized mechanisms of crust growth and to the tectonic evolution of the Altai-East Junggar collage, and they are consistent with interpretation of the Altaids as a multiple subduction-accretion collage.

  6. Transpressional deformation, strain partitioning and fold superimposition in the southern Chinese Altai, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Cai, Keda; Chen, Ming; He, Yulin

    2016-06-01

    Transpressional deformation has played an important role in the late Paleozoic evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and understanding the structural evolution of such transpressional zones is crucial for tectonic reconstructions. Here we focus on the transpressional Irtysh Shear Zone with an aim at understanding amalgamation processes between the Chinese Altai and the West/East Junggar. We mapped macroscopic fold structures in the southern Chinese Altai and analyzed their relationships with the development of the adjacent Irtysh Shear Zone. Structural observations from these macroscopic folds show evidence for four generations of folding and associated fabrics. The earlier fabric (S1), is locally recognized in low strain areas, and is commonly isoclinally folded by F2 folds that have an axial plane orientation parallel to the dominant fabric (S2). S2 is associated with a shallowly plunging stretching lineation (L2), and defines ∼NW-SE tight-close upright macroscopic folds (F3) with the doubly plunging geometry. F3 folds are superimposed by ∼NNW-SSE gentle F4 folds. The F3 and F4 folds are kinematically compatible with sinistral transpressional deformation along the Irtysh Shear Zone and may represent strain partitioning during deformation. The sub-parallelism of F3 fold axis with the Irtysh Shear Zone may have resulted from strain partitioning associated with simple shear deformation along narrow mylonite zones and pure shear-dominant deformation (F3) in fold zones. The strain partitioning may have become less efficient in the later stage of transpressional deformation, so that a fraction of transcurrent components was partitioned into F4 folds.

  7. Influence of altitude on tick-borne encephalitis infection risk in the natural foci of the Altai Republic, Southern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Shchuchinova, L D; Kozlova, I V; Zlobin, V I

    2015-04-01

    The Altai Republic is a highly endemic area as far as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is concerned. The aim of the research was to study the effect of altitude on the risk of tick-borne encephalitis infection in the Altai Republic. The paper analyzes the following data: the study of ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation in 116 sites at the 200-2383m elevation above sea level in 2012-2014, TBE virus prevalence of these vectors, tick-bite incidence rate, and TBE incidence rate of the population. Species identification of 4503 specimens has shown that the most common species are Dermacentor nuttalli (45.3%), Ixodes persulcatus (33.1%), Dermacentor silvarum (9.4%), Dermacentor reticulatus (8.9%), and Haemaphysalis concinna (5.0%). A total of 2997 adult ixodid ticks were studied for the presence of the TBE virus; 2163 samples were examined by ELISA, while 834 specimens were tested by PCR. The TBE virus prevalence of Dermacentor spp. ticks in both reactions was significantly higher than of Ixodes persulcatus ticks (p<0.001). The work shows that the altitude is an important factor in the development of the epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis: the higher the elevation of the area above sea level, the smaller the range of vectors. There is also a change of a leading species: in middle altitude (800-1700m above sea level) the virus is transmitted by ticks of D. nuttalli along with I. persulcatus, and in high mountains (above 1700m above sea level) D. nuttalli becomes an absolute dominant species. However, these species of ticks are less effective vectors than I. persulcatus. With the increase of altitude the tick-bite incidence rate decreases (r=-0.78, p<0.05), and TBE incidence also reduces (r=-0.67, p<0.05).

  8. Paleomagnetic and geochronological study of the Halaqiaola basalts, southern margin of the Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang: Constraints on neotectonic convergent patterns north of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.; He, Huaiyu; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhu, Rixiang

    2006-01-01

    A combined geochronological and paleomagnetic study is reported from Miocene basalts from Halaqiaola and Paleocene to Eocene red beds from Fuyun at the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang. Three new 40Ar/39Ar ages determined by fresh matrix from the Halaqiaola basalts collectively confirm the presence of Cenozoic magmatic activity in the northern Xinjiang. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization identify stable characteristic remanences with single reversed polarity in the basalts and red beds. Rock magnetic analysis identifies pseudosingle-domain titanomagnetites as carriers of remanence in the basalts. Paleomagnetic results from the Fuyun red beds indicate that inclination shallowing is present in this rock facies as also found in previous red bed studies from central Asia. In contrast, the time-averaged paleomagnetic direction from the basalts shows that no paleomagnetically discernible northward convergence has occurred north of Junggar since early Miocene times. Analysis of available Cretaceous and Cenozoic paleomagnetic data from volcanic rocks in central Asia shows that Neogene and Quaternary paleolatitudes are statistically concordant with predicted values from Eurasian references, suggesting that no significant northward convergence has occurred north of Tibet during the last 20 Myr. Cretaceous and Paleogene paleolatitudes lie ˜5-6 ± 7° south of predicted values from the Eurasian path and suggest that neotectonic convergence of the order of several hundred kilometers has occurred north of the southwest Tian Shan. It is possible that neotectonic northward convergence north of Tibet will prove to be paleomagnetically undetectable, but more data are required to confirm this.

  9. Estimating gold-ore mineralization potential within Topolninsk ore field (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkin, T.; Voroshilov, V.; Askanakova, O.; Cherkasova, T.; Chernyshov, A.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the results of ore and near-ore metasomatite composition analysis, the factors and indicators of gold-ore mineralization potential were proposed. Integration of the obtained data made it possible to outline magmatic, structural, and lithological factors, as well as direct and indirect indicators of gold-ore mineralization. Applying multidimensional analysis inherent to geochemical data, the spatial structure was investigated, as well as the potential mineralization was identified. Based on the developed and newly-identified mineralization, small (up to medium-sized) mineable gold-ore deposits in skarns characterized by complex geological setting was identified.

  10. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian

  11. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ɛHf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ɛHf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition

  12. Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…

  13. Oceanic Basalts of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Geochemistry and Structural Setting in Folded Zones of Altai and East Kazakhstan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I. Y.; Buslov, M. M.; Kokh, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Four periods of basaltic volcanism of the Paleo-Asian Ocean have been studied: 1) Vendian-Early Cambrian (Kurai zone); 2) Early-Middle Cambrian (Katun zone); 3) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (Zasurin Formation) and 4) Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous (Chara belt) ages. The studied entities are oceanic basalts incorporated in four Caledonian accretion-collision zones.The Early Cambrian collision of the Siberian continent and Gondwana-derived terranes formed the Kurai and Katun accretionary zones in Gorny Altai. The Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician collision of the Siberian continent and Gondwana-derived terranes formed shear zones comprising oceanic sediments and basalts (Zasurin Formation). The Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents formed the Chara shear belt including basaltic terranes (Buslov et al., 2001). Geochemical features of tholeiites, subalkaline and alkaline basalts incorporated in accretionary terranes illustrate the history of oceanic volcanism with OIB, OPB and MORB affinities. According to REE there are LREE-enriched, transitional and MORB/OPB-like samples. LREE vary and are considerably enriched (LaN (ppm) 25-65 for Kurai, 35-55 for Katun, 100-160 for Zasurin, and 35-105 for Chara OIB) relative to chondrites. HREE have much smaller ranges: 6 to 13 times that of chondrites for Kurai and Katun and 10 to 20 times for Zasurin and Chara. There is also a positive correlation between La/Yb and SiO2. In the multi-element diagrams Kurai samples display Sr enrichment relative to K, whereas Zasurin and Chara samples show negative Sr peaks. Except for the Katun wedge, most display moderate to strong Nb-Ta depletion suggesting fractionation of ilmenite and magnetite at the base of the crust or a previous melting episode in the source. For all groups of basalts, transitions between end members of basalts: from N-MORB, through E-MORB and T-MORB (OPB?) to OIB were found. Zr/Y and Sm/Nb ratios show two distinct linear

  14. Mountain building processes in intraplate, intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Palaeozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Palaeozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region are locally thrust reactivated in the NE Gobi Altai, but elsewhere appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The diffuse historical seismicity in the region coupled with a complex system of interacting faults showing evidence for Quaternary movements, suggests that faults may be dormant for long periods and then reactivate. Large earthquakes may be episodic and spatially

  15. Aktashite Cu6Hg3As4S12 from the Aktash deposit, Altai, Russia: Refinement and crystal chemical analysis of the structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Ev, V. I.; Pervukhina, N. V.; Borisov, S. V.; Magarill, S. A.; Naumov, D. Yu.; Kurat'eva, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    The composition and structure of aktashite from the Aktash deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia, have been studied by electron microprobe and X-ray structural analysis. On the basis of close compositions and crystal structures, the identity of aktashite from the Gal-Khaya and Aktash deposits has been demonstrated. Crystals of aktashite are of trigonal symmetry; the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 13.7500(4), c = 9.3600(3) Å, V = 532.54(8) Å3, space group R3, Z = 3 for the composition of Cu6Hg3As4S12, R = 0.043. The structure of aktashite as a framework of vertex-shared HgS4- and CuS4- tetrahedrons of the same orientation is intimately related to the sphalerite-type structure. The earlier identified uncommon cluster group [As4] has been verified and its parameters have been refined. It is shown that the structure may be represented as construction blocks (As4S12)12- packed according to the law of the distorted cubic I-cell.

  16. Aspiring Geopark "Altai" as a Way of Sustainable Development of Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoeva, Shuralai; Kocheewa, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Mountainous Altai is the centre of biological and cultural diversity where indigenous people still maintain their traditional way of life. Collapse of the Soviet Union led to withdrawal of many industrial companies and dramatic increase in unemployment. Nowadays Altai is working on a formidable task trying to develop economy while preserving and perpetuating traditions of indigenous people. Recently tourism is becoming economic priority. The Altai Republic has a great potential for the development of the tourism industry, due to climatic conditions of the region, rich cultural and historical heritage and unique landscapes. Currently a concept of formation of Geopark in this region of Russia is being developed. It is expected that this new direction for the Russian tourism is most suitable for the traditions of the indigenous peoples and will expand the number of tourists, attracting more intelligent people to visit our territory. The indigenous people of the Altai worship nature and take care of many objects which have spiritual significance and carry out important cultural functions throughout centuries.

  17. Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The

  18. The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W.D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust

  19. Geometry and style of partitioned deformation within a late Cenozoic transpressional zone in the eastern Gobi Altai Mountains, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. Dickson; Windley, Brian F.; Owen, Lewis A.; Barry, Tiffany; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarav, J.

    1997-08-01

    The Gobi Altai is the easternmost extension of the Mongolian Altai and consists of topographically discontinuous E-W-trending ranges with peaks averaging 2000-3000 m in elevation. The region is seismically active and characterized by prominent E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults that localize transpressional deformation and uplift along their lengths and at stepover zones. This report summarizes structural field investigations made in the easternmost Gobi Altai to document the structural geometry and style of late Cenozoic transpressional deformation in the region in order to better understand processes of intracontinental mountain building and the distant intracontinental strain response to the Indo-Eurasian collision. The Artsa Bogd range marks the northeastern terminus of the Gobi Altai and is topographically asymmetric with a high northern margin marked by N-vergent thrust faults and left-lateral oblique-slip faults. The northern side of the range is also bounded by a foreland basin that contains N-vergent thrust faults and folds that deform Quaternary sediments. The southern margin of Artsa Bogd appears tectonically inactive but contains S-vergent thrust faults and left-lateral wrench zones. The range appears to have a flower structure cross-sectional geometry that may reflect transpressional inversion of a Mesozoic basin. The isolated, high and narrow Tsost Uul range south of Artsa Bogd occupies a restraining bend position along the left-lateral Tsost Uul strike-slip fault system. Major faults within the range define a half-flower structure cross-sectional geometry. To the south of the Tsost Uul range, the Gobi Bulag left-lateral strike-slip fault system is marked by small push-up ridges and one major restraining bend mountain where the fault steps to the right near its western end. Throughout the region, Late Cretaceous-Tertiary basalts and Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are deformed by the major fault systems indicating late Cenozoic fault activity

  20. Uplift History of the Altai and Hangay in Mongolia and Impact on Central Asian Aridification: Evidence from Paleosol Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Sjostrom, D.; Mix, H.; Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Cenozoic, Central Asia has become increasingly arid, though the mechanisms behind this aridification remain unresolved. Much attention has focused on the influence and uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau; however, the role of ranges linked to India-Asia convergence but well north of the Plateau--including the Altai, Sayan, and Hangay--in creating the arid climate of Central Asia remains poorly understood. Today, these ranges create a prominent rain-shadow, effectively separating the boreal forest to the north from the deserts of Central Asia. To explore the role of these mountains in modifying climate over the past 35 My, we measured oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in paleosol carbonates collected from three sections located along the northern edge of the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and in the lee of the Altai and Hangay mountains. We combined this with HYSPLIT air-parcel back-trajectory modeling to understand regional moisture transport pathways at each section. Our HYSPLIT modeling demonstrates that, in the modern, the Altai block westerly moisture from reaching western Mongolia and the Valley of Lakes. In contrast, the Hangay block southward-flowing moisture from Siberia, creating a rain-shadow on its southern, leeward flank. Our paleosol carbonate data show increasing δ13C at all 3 sections, with the largest increase in western Mongolia. The first δ13C increase occurs in central and southwestern Mongolia in the Oligocene. δ13C again increases from the upper Miocene to the present in western and southwestern Mongolia. Given the lack of C4 vegetation in modern Mongolia, these δ13C increases are likely linked to declines in soil respiration driven by decreases in precipitation. We attribute these changes to differential uplift of the Hangay and Altai. Uplift in the Hangay began by the early Oligocene, blocking Siberian moisture and aridifying central and southwestern Mongolia. Subsequently, uplift of the Altai began in the late Miocene, blocking

  1. Late Cenozoic transpression in southwestern Mongolia and the Gobi Altai-Tien Shan connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. Dickson; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, J.; Saandar, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southwestern Mongolia is a natural laboratory for studying processes of active, transpressional, intracontinental mountain building at different stages of development. The region is structurally dominated by several major E—W left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. The North Gobi Altai fault system is a seismically active, right-stepping, left-lateral, strike-slip fault system that can be traced along the surface for over 350 km. The eastern two-thirds of the fault system ruptured during a major earthquake (M = 8.3) in 1957, whereas degraded fault scarps cutting alluvial deposits along the western third of the system indicate that this segment did not rupture during the 1957 event but has been active during the Quaternary. The highest mountains in the Gobi Altai are restraining bend uplifts along the length of the fault system. Detailed transects across two of the restraining bends indicate that they have asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometries, with thrust faults rooting into oblique-slip and strike-slip master faults. Continued NE-directed convergence across the fault system, coupled with left-lateral strike-slip displacements, will lead to growth and coalescence of the restraining bends into a continuous sublinear range, possibly obscuring the original strike-slip fault system; this may be a common mountain building process. The largely unknown Gobi-Tien Shan fault system is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault system (1200 km + long) that links the southern ranges of the Gobi Altai with the Barkol Tagh and Bogda Shan of the easternmost Tien Shan in China. Active scarps cutting alluvial deposits are visible on satellite imagery along much of its central section, indicating Quaternary activity. The total displacement is unknown, but small parallel splays have apparent offsets of 20 + km, suggesting that the main fault zone has experienced significantly more displacement. Field investigations conducted at two locations

  2. Late Cenozoic transpression in southwestern Mongolia and the Gobi Altai-Tien Shan connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson Cunningham, W.; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, J.; Saandar, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southwestern Mongolia is a natural laboratory for studying processes of active, transpressional, intracontinental mountain building at different stages of development. The region is structurally dominated by several major E-W left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. The North Gobi Altai fault system is a seismically active, right-stepping, left-lateral, strike-slip fault system that can be traced along the surface for over 350 km. The eastern two-thirds of the fault system ruptured during a major earthquake (M = 8.3) in 1957, whereas degraded fault scarps cutting alluvial deposits along the western third of the system indicate that this segment did not rupture during the 1957 event but has been active during the Quaternary. The highest mountains in the Gobi Altai are restraining bend uplifts along the length of the fault system. Detailed transects across two of the restraining bends indicate that they have asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometries, with thrust faults rooting into oblique-slip and strike-slip master faults. Continued NE-directed convergence across the fault system, coupled with left-lateral strike-slip displacements, will lead to growth and coalescence of the restraining bends into a continuous sublinear range, possibly obscuring the original strike-slip fault system; this may be a common mountain building process. The largely unknown Gobi-Tien Shan fault system is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault system (1200 km + long) that links the southern ranges of the Gobi Altai with the Barkol Tagh and Bogda Shan of the easternmost Tien Shan in China. Active scarps cutting alluvial deposits are visible on satellite imagery along much of its central section, indicating Quaternary activity. The total displacement is unknown, but small parallel splays have apparent offsets of 20 + km, suggesting that the main fault zone has experienced significantly more displacement. Field investigations conducted at two locations in

  3. Complex patterns of glacier advances during the late glacial in the Chagan Uzun Valley, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Jansson, Krister N.; Lukas, Sven; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Blomdin, Robin; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Heyman, Jakob; Petrakov, Dmitry A.; Rudoy, Alexei; Clifton, Tom; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-10-01

    The Southern part of the Russian Altai Mountains is recognized for its evidence of catastrophic glacial lake outbursts. However, little is known about the late Pleistocene paleoglacial history, despite the interest in such reconstructions for constraining paleoclimate. In this study, we present a detailed paleoglaciological reconstruction of the Chagan Uzun Valley, in the Russian Altai Mountains, combining for the first time detailed geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially-transported boulders. The Chagan Uzun Valley exhibits the most impressive glacial landforms of this sector of the Altai, with extensive lobate moraine belts deposited in the intramontane Chuja Basin, reflecting a series of pronounced former glacial advances. Observations of "hillside-scale" folding and extensive faulting of pre-existing soft sediments within the outer moraine belts, together with the geomorphology, strongly indicate that these moraine belts were formed during surge-like events. Identification of surge-related features is essential for paleoclimate inference because these features correspond to a glacier system that is not in equilibrium with the contemporary climate, but instead largely influenced by various internal and external factors. Therefore, no strict relationship can be established between climatic variables and the pronounced distal glacial extent observed in the Chagan Uzun Valley/Chuja basin. In contrast, the inner (up-valley) glacial landforms of the Chagan Uzun valley were likely deposited during retreat of temperate valley glaciers, close to equilibrium with climate, and so most probably triggered by a general warming. Cosmogenic ages associated with the outermost, innermost, and intermediate moraines all indicate deposition times clustered around 19 ka. However, the actual deposition time of the outermost moraine may slightly predate the 10Be ages due to shielding caused by

  4. [Toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai. Geoinformation mapping simulation].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Kurepina, N Iu; Dovgalev, A S

    2012-01-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important zooanthroponotic natural-focal parasitic diseases in the Republic of Altai. The prevalence of their invasion among the inhabitants of the Republic has increased by more than 7 times. The data of the authors' observations ofToxocara infection in animals (cats, dogs), soil contamination with helminth eggs, and prevalence of human toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai, by considering the results of tests for antibodies against its pathogen in the inhabitants of the region, were automatically processed using geoinformation mapping simulation, which yielded a mapping model to rank the region's area by morbidity rates. The use of up-to-date computers and geo information systems makes it possible to systematize information on this invasion and to see major foci of the disease to reveal the reasons for their assignment to the specific type of the region's landscape. PMID:23437715

  5. Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue [1962], topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.

  6. Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

  7. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a

  8. Provenance of Early Paleozoic metasediments in the central Chinese Altai: Implications for tectonic affinity of the Altai-Mongolia terrane in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial εNd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons

  9. Analysis of Climate Trends in the Altai Mountains Between 1988 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitabata, H.; Sugiura, K.; Kadota, T.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate climatic change trends in a region of the Altai Mountains located on the western edge of Mongolia using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This region, which lies on the southern border of the Eurasian cryosphere, includes glaciers and discontinuous permafrost areas. Therefore, the region is especially useful for understanding the influence of arctic warming on the mid-latitudes. In addition, the preservation of snow and ice on the mountains is crucial to neighboring communities, especially in Mongolia. Analyses of data for the 25-year period between September 1987 and August 2012 revealed that a decrease in precipitation began to accelerate around the year 2000 regardless of the season. The rate of precipitation decline reached more than 40 mm per year near the mountain ridge where the average annual precipitation was about 500 mm. Moreover, the projected winter temperature has been decreasing annually despite warming in other seasons. Further analysis that focused on winter temperature variation found that the hemispheric atmospheric circulation was fluctuating. This slows the zonal wind speed, decreases the temperature by permitting southing of cold air, and decreases precipitation by restraining the inflow of water vapor. Water vapor reduction also contributes to temperature decline through the radiation cooling effect. Extreme cold winter weather events in Eurasia have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. In this region, winter temperatures are declining continuously while desiccation is spreading simultaneously.

  10. Arsenic in the soil-natural water-plant system of the Altai region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzanov, A. V.; Baboshkina, S. V.

    2009-09-01

    The high natural content of total arsenic in the soil cover of the Altai region has been revealed. Natural waters and plants are distinguished by low arsenic concentrations. The intensity of the biogenic and water migration of arsenic does not depend on its total content in the soil. The accumulative distribution of arsenic in the mountainous forest soils of Altai is mainly due to biogenic processes, while in the steppe soils, it is specified by the evaporative concentration. Favorable conditions for arsenic migration are observed in the southeastern Altai during the periods of seasonal moistening. The arsenic content in the soils and plants of technogenic landscapes in the Altai region considerably exceeds the provisional permissible concentrations and the background concentrations of this element.

  11. Hybrid dysgenesis determinants in a natural Drosophila population from Altai

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhemyakina, T.A.; Furman, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    Localization of mobile elements P and hobo in the genomes of isofemale Drosophila lines obtained from a natural population from Biisk (Altai) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The average copy number per genome was 27.1 for P and 22.0 for hobo. The highest number of P and hobo copies was recorded in the 3R and 21 chromosomes, respectively. The X chromosome contained the lowest number of hobo copies. For P, this relationship was not shown. Both transposons had preferential localization sites, or {open_quotes}hot spots,{close_quotes} which partly coincided with intercalary heterochromatin regions. Correlation analysis of P and hobo copy number showed independent distribution of these hybrid dysgenesis determinants. The 1A site, which is thought to be associated with the P cytotype expression, was not labelled in any line. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July

  13. Paleoglaciology of the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomdin, Robin

    Central Asia is home to some of the highest and most spectacular mountain ranges in the world, including the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains, and plays a major role in global and regional climate and hydrology. Understanding the glacial history of this vast region is important for several reasons, but in particular there is a general lack of paleoclimatic data from this highly continental region, at the confluence of major climate systems, and glaciers are sensitive monitors of climate change. This thesis examines the pattern and history of glacial deposition and erosion in the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains using a combined approach including 1) geomorphological mapping, 2) spatial analysis of glacial geomorphology, 3) hypsometry, 4) Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA), and 5) 10Be exposure dating of erratic boulders on glacial landforms. Preliminary mapping of the Altai Mountains suggests the area mainly experienced alpine style glaciations, with glacial centers as ice caps and ice fields located around the higher mountainous areas. This is consistent with previous work on the Tian Shan. For the Tian Shan we have new apparent minimum 10Be exposure ages from ~0.2 ka to ~ 180 ka, with large site-specific scatter. Most of our apparent exposure ages come from boulders with an age range between 30 ka to 0.2 ka. Although we recognize that more studies combining mapping, dating and modeling are needed to understand the full history of past glaciation in this region, our conclusions to date include: 1) The oldest recorded glacial event occurred in the Taragay Basin in the Tian Shan, dated to 92.1+/-11.4 ka, and two MIS 2 glacial advances have been recorded on opposite sides of the Ak-Shyrak Range, dated to 16.0+/-3.4 and 17.3+/-4.7 ka respectively. 2) Remote-sensing-based mapping and cosmogenic nuclide dating indicate that Pleistocene glaciations were restricted to the mountains and plateau areas of the Tian Shan. 3) Glaciation ages indicate that glacial events occurred during

  14. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai. PMID:27029141

  15. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  16. Prime Astroarchaeological Researches near Mountain Monastyri in the Western Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsadolov, L.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2009-08-01

    On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically represents human figures with joined hands. One kilometer to the west from the complex there is a sharp-pointed mountain Zhangiztas. In its bottom part a ``zoomorphic'' ledge is visible; it reminds a sideview of a ``head with the opened mouth and tongue''. Observing the sunset on the days of equinox, one can watch the Sun ``setting down'' on the top of Mt. Zhangistas, then ``sliding'' along the right-side slope and finally ``rolling into the mouth''; in other words, it is ``swallowed by a monster''. The ``zoomorphic'' peculiarity of the mountain outliers (monad nocks) of the Monastyri complex as a whole and of their separate rocky juts was comprehended in the antiquity; the evidence for it is the presence of manmade holes near them; these holes might have an astronomical meaning.

  17. Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better

  18. Projections of glacier change in the Altai Mountains under twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    We project glacier surface mass balances of the Altai Mountains over the period 2006-2100 for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using daily near-surface air temperature and precipitation from 12 global climate models in combination with a surface mass balance model. The results indicate that the Altai glaciers will undergo sustained mass loss throughout the 21st for both RCPs and reveal the future fate of glaciers of different sizes. By 2100, glacier area in the region will shrink by 26 ± 10 % for RCP4.5, while it will shrink by 60 ± 15 % for RCP8.5. According to our simulations, most disappearing glaciers are located in the western part of the Altai Mountains. For RCP4.5, all glaciers disappearing in the twenty-first century have a present-day size smaller than 5.0 km2, while for RCP8.5, an additional ~7 % of glaciers in the initial size class of 5.0-10.0 km2 also vanish. We project different trends in the total meltwater discharge of the region for the two RCPs, which does not peak before 2100, with important consequences for regional water availability, particular for the semi-arid and arid regions. This further highlights the potential implications of change in the Altai glaciers on regional hydrology and environment.

  19. The Role of Environmental Knowledge in Altai Peoples' Adaptation to the Conditions of Ecological

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shishin, Michail; Engoyan, Oksana; Zhukova, Elena; Surazakova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the experience of traditional nature conservation when it needs to adapt social and natural systems to global climate change. The study provides a brief overview of the regulatory and legal aspects of decision issues concerning land management in Altai region in the context of the problems involved. We also studied…

  20. Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.

    2010-05-01

    The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up

  1. Change in biochemical and morphological characteristics of Lonicera caerulea in tectonically active zone of the Dzhazator River Valley (Altai Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarskikh, I. G.; Khudyaev, S. A.; Platonova, S. G.; Kolotukhin, S. P.; Shitov, A. V.; Kukushkina, T. A.; Chankina, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Local geophysical and geochemical anomalies affect the polymorphism of taste variations, berry shape, and content of some biologically active substances in Lonicera caerulea leaves in the tectonically active Altai Mountains (Dzhazator River basin).

  2. Current state of the Altai glaciers (Russia) and trends over the period of instrumental observations 1952-2008.

    PubMed

    Narozhniy, Yuriy; Zemtsov, Valeriy

    2011-09-01

    Results of research into climate and glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (Russia) over the period of instrumental observations (1952-2008) are presented in this article. About 1030 glaciers with a total area of 805 km2 and volume of 42.5 km3 have been recorded in the Altai Region. The average summer air temperature in different regions of the Altai has increased during the study period from about 0.2 degrees C (Aktru) to 1.1 degrees C (Akkem). The annual atmospheric precipitation rate has also increased, by 8-10%. Since 1952, the glacier area in different regions of the Altai has decreased by 9-27%, and volume by 12-24%. By 2008, as a result of degradation, the total number of glaciers was 953 with an area of 724 km2 and volume of 38 km3.

  3. Climate changes and human dynamics in the SE Altai (Russia) during the past 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of

  4. Climate Change in the Russian Altai Mountains and its Influence on Tree Line and Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.

    2011-12-01

    The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to

  5. Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog

    PubMed Central

    Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  6. Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.

    PubMed

    Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  7. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the

  8. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  9. Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-03-07

    In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

  10. A new species of wolf-spider (Alopecosa ogorodica sp.n.) from the Russian Mountain Altai with remarks on Arctosa meitanensis Yin et al., 1993 (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Trilikauskas, Laimonas A; Azarkina, Galina N

    2014-08-25

    Alopecosa ogorodica sp.n. (♂♀), a new wolf-spider species (Lycosidae) from the Russian Mountain Altai is described. New data, diagnosis, description and drawings on Arctosa meitanensis Yin et al., 1993 are provided. 

  11. [Extreme Climatic Events in the Altai Republic According to Dendrochronological Data].

    PubMed

    Barinov, V V; Myglan, V S; Nazarov, A N; Vaganov, E A; Agatova, A R; Nepop, R K

    2016-01-01

    The results of dating of extreme climatic events by damage to the anatomical structure and missing tree rings of the Siberian larch in the upper forest boundary of the Altai Republic are given. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the revealed dates over seven plots (Kokcy, Chind, Ak-ha, Jelo, Tute, Tara, and Sukor) allowed us to distinguish the extreme events on interregional (1700, 1783, 1788, 1812, 1814, 1884), regional (1724, 1775, 1784, 1835, 1840, 1847, 1850, 1852, 1854, 1869, 1871, 1910, 1917, 1927, 1938, 1958, 1961), and local (1702, 1736, 1751, 1785, 1842, 1843,1874, 1885, 1886, 1919, 2007, and 2009) scales. It was shown that the events of an interregional scale correspond with the dates of major volcanic eruptions (Grimsvotn, Lakagigar, Etna, Awu, Tambora, Soufriere St. Vinsent, Mayon, and Krakatau volcanos) and extreme climatic events, crop failures, lean years, etc., registered in historical sources. PMID:27396180

  12. [Extreme Climatic Events in the Altai Republic According to Dendrochronological Data].

    PubMed

    Barinov, V V; Myglan, V S; Nazarov, A N; Vaganov, E A; Agatova, A R; Nepop, R K

    2016-01-01

    The results of dating of extreme climatic events by damage to the anatomical structure and missing tree rings of the Siberian larch in the upper forest boundary of the Altai Republic are given. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the revealed dates over seven plots (Kokcy, Chind, Ak-ha, Jelo, Tute, Tara, and Sukor) allowed us to distinguish the extreme events on interregional (1700, 1783, 1788, 1812, 1814, 1884), regional (1724, 1775, 1784, 1835, 1840, 1847, 1850, 1852, 1854, 1869, 1871, 1910, 1917, 1927, 1938, 1958, 1961), and local (1702, 1736, 1751, 1785, 1842, 1843,1874, 1885, 1886, 1919, 2007, and 2009) scales. It was shown that the events of an interregional scale correspond with the dates of major volcanic eruptions (Grimsvotn, Lakagigar, Etna, Awu, Tambora, Soufriere St. Vinsent, Mayon, and Krakatau volcanos) and extreme climatic events, crop failures, lean years, etc., registered in historical sources.

  13. Debatable aspects of initial human colonization of Siberia and age of the Karama site in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Smolyaninova, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    Debatable aspects of age, stratigraphic position, and natural conditions of the oldest stratified Early Paleolithic Karama site in the Altai Mountains are critically revised. The extensive geological, stratigraphic, and paleontological data allow the sufficiently well-substantiated assumption that accumulation of the Karama Formation and existence of the Early Paleolithic Karama site correspond to a long period of climate warming in the Early Pleistocene correlated with the Tiglian of northwestern Europe lasting from 2.23 to 1.59 Ma. The age model proposed for the formation of the Quaternary sequence in the Anui River valley, which includes the artifact-containing deposits of the Karama site, seems to be the most probable one proceeding from interpretation of available data on the geological structure, stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and paleontological and lithological properties of Upper Cenozoic sequences observable both in the Anui River valley and in Siberian areas adjacent to the Altai mountainous region.

  14. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  15. Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium

    PubMed Central

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

  16. Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.

    PubMed

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts.

  17. Holocene glacier fluctuations and climate changes in the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (South Siberia) based on a radiocarbon chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, A. R.; Nazarov, A. N.; Nepop, R. K.; Rodnight, H.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates glacier dynamic and climatic variations in the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) during the last 7000 years. Recent glacier retreats and ice melting in moraines has led to exhumation of organic material allowing the possibility of radiocarbon dating. We report here 57 new radiocarbon dates from wood remains buried by moraines and from proglacial forefields, from peat layers and lacustrine sediments that cover moraines, from dead trees at the upper tree limit, and from rock glaciers on trough slopes from six glacial valleys in the North Chuya Range, SE Altai. Such a numerous dataset for the vast but unified in neotectonic and climatic conditions area is presented for the first time the history of research in the Altai. Together with 62 previously published radiocarbon ages, mainly of fossil soils and peat layers in the foot of the ranges in SE Altai, they form the basis for understanding the relative magnitudes and timing of the most important glacial and climatic events of SE Altai. New data refute the traditional concept of the Russian Altai Holocene glaciations as a consecutive retreat of the late Würm glaciers and argue their complete degradation at the head of trough valleys at least 7000 cal. years BP. Moraine complexes of three Holocene glacial stages are morphologically expressed in trough valleys of the North Chuya range. They correlate with three identified periods of glacial advances: from 4900 to 4200 cal. years BP (Akkem stage), from 2300 to 1700 cal. years BP (Historical stage) and in the 13th-19th centuries (Little Ice Age (LIA) or Aktru stage). The coincident extremes of lowering temperature and increasing precipitation during the Akkem stage led to abrupt glacier advances and forming of the most remote moraine complexes downstream in the valleys. Following glacier advances had distinctly smaller magnitudes. In addition to the radiocarbon data, the time limits of the Historical stage were defined more

  18. Complex patterns of glacier advances during the Lateglacial in the Chagan-Uzun Valley, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Lukas, Sven; Jansson, Krister N.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Preusser, Frank; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Blomdin, Robin; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Heyman, Jakob; Petrakov, Dmitry; Rudoy, Alexei; Clifton, Tom; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, numerous paleoglacial reconstructions have been carried out in Central Asian mountain ranges because glaciers in this region are sensitive to climate change, and thus their associated glacial deposits can be used as proxies for paleoclimate inference. However, non-climatic factors can complicate the relationship between glacier fluctuation and climate change. Careful investigations of the geomorphological and sedimentological context are therefore required to understand the mechanisms behind glacier retreat and expansion. In this study we present the first detailed paleoglacial reconstruction of the Chagan Uzun valley, located in the Russian Altai. This reconstruction is based on detailed geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially transported boulders, and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. The Chagan Uzun valley includes extensive lobate moraine belts (>100 km2) deposited in the intramontane Chuja basin, reflecting a series of pronounced former glacial advances. Observation of "hillside-scale" folding and extensive faulting of pre-existing soft sediments within the outer moraine belts, together with the geomorphology, indicate that these moraine belts were formed during glacier-surge like events. In contrast, the inner (up-valley) glacial landforms of the Chagan Uzun valley indicate that they were deposited by retreat of temperate valley glaciers and do not include features indicative of surging. Cosmogenic ages associated with the outermost, innermost and intermediary stages, all indicate deposition times clustered around 19.5 ka, although the 10Be ages of the outermost margin are likely slightly underestimated due to brief episode of glacial lake water coverage. Such close deposition timings are consistent with periods of fast or surge advances, followed by active glacier retreat. OSL dating yields significantly older ages of thick lacustrine

  19. Global warming stops in Altai and Northern Mongolia in 2010-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.

    2010-03-01

    We studied the cores of bottom sediments of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [1] and Lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [2]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with spatial resolution 0.1 mm using synchrotron radiation [3]. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change.We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: annual T = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2750, 1500, 1015, 825, 615, 500, 375, 325, 290, 230, 215, 203, 190, 157, 135, 109, 88, 65, 48, 37, 24 and 10 years. The sum of 22 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature with the coefficient +0.87 (for more than 3000 points). 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 09-05-13505 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 92 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [2] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the

  20. A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as

  1. A multi-proxy approach for revealing recent climatic changes in the Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Olga V.; Saurer, Matthias; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Kirdyanov, Aleksander V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Gerasimova, Oksana V.; Kalugin, Ivan A.; Daryin, Andrey V.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time we present a multi-proxy data set for the Russian Altai, consisting of Siberian larch tree-ring width (TRW), latewood density (MXD), δ13C and δ18O in cellulose chronologies obtained for the period 1779-2007 and cell wall thickness (CWT) for 1900-2008. All of these parameters agree well between each other in the high-frequency variability, while the low-frequency climate information shows systematic differences. The correlation analysis with temperature and precipitation data from the closest weather station and gridded data revealed that annual TRW, MXD, CWT, and δ13C data contain a strong summer temperature signal, while δ18O in cellulose represents a mixed summer and winter temperature and precipitation signal. The temperature and precipitation reconstructions from the Belukha ice core and Teletskoe lake sediments were used to investigate the correspondence of different independent proxies. Low frequency patterns in TRW and δ13C chronologies are consistent with temperature reconstructions from nearby Belukha ice core and Teletskoe lake sediments showing a pronounced warming trend in the last century. Their combination could be used for the regional temperature reconstruction. The long-term δ18O trend agrees with the precipitation reconstruction from the Teletskoe lake sediment indicating more humid conditions during the twentieth century. Therefore, these two proxies could be combined for the precipitation reconstruction.

  2. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  3. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region.

  4. Methanogenesis at extremely haloalkaline conditions in the soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-04-01

    Microbial methanogenesis at extreme conditions of saline alkaline soda lakes has, so far, been poorly investigated. Despite the obvious domination of sulfidogenesis as the therminal anaerobic process in the hypersaline soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, southwestern Siberia), high concentrations of methane were detected in the anaerobic sediments. Potential activity measurements with different substrates gave results significantly deviating from what is commonly found in hypersaline habitats with neutral pH. In particular, not only a non-competitive methylotrophic pathway was active, but also lithotrophic and, in some cases, even acetate-dependent methanogenesis was found to be present in hypersaline soda lake sediments. All three pathways were functioning exclusively within the alkaline pH range between 8 and 10.5, while the salt concentration was the key factor influencing the activity. Methylotrophic and, to a lesser extent, lithotrophic methanogenesis were active up to soda-saturating conditions (4 M total Na(+)). Acetate-dependent methanogenesis was observed at salinities below 3 M total Na(+). Detection of methanogens in sediments using the mcrA gene as a functional marker demonstrated domination of methylotrophic genera Methanolobus and Methanosalsum and lithotrophic Methanocalculus. In a few cases, acetoclastic Methanosaeta was detected, as well as two deep lineage methanogens. Cultivation results corresponded well to the mcrA-based observations. Enrichments for natronophilic methylotrophic methanogens resulted in isolation of Methanolobus strains at moderate salinity, while at salt concentrations above 2 M Na(+) a novel member of the genus Methanosalsum was dominating. Enrichments with H2 or formate invariably resulted in domination of close relatives of Methanocalculus natronophilus. Enrichments with acetate at low salt concentration yielded two acetoclastic alkaliphilic Methanosaeta cultures, while at salinity above 1 M Na(+) syntrophic associations

  5. Methanogenesis at extremely haloalkaline conditions in the soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-04-01

    Microbial methanogenesis at extreme conditions of saline alkaline soda lakes has, so far, been poorly investigated. Despite the obvious domination of sulfidogenesis as the therminal anaerobic process in the hypersaline soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, southwestern Siberia), high concentrations of methane were detected in the anaerobic sediments. Potential activity measurements with different substrates gave results significantly deviating from what is commonly found in hypersaline habitats with neutral pH. In particular, not only a non-competitive methylotrophic pathway was active, but also lithotrophic and, in some cases, even acetate-dependent methanogenesis was found to be present in hypersaline soda lake sediments. All three pathways were functioning exclusively within the alkaline pH range between 8 and 10.5, while the salt concentration was the key factor influencing the activity. Methylotrophic and, to a lesser extent, lithotrophic methanogenesis were active up to soda-saturating conditions (4 M total Na(+)). Acetate-dependent methanogenesis was observed at salinities below 3 M total Na(+). Detection of methanogens in sediments using the mcrA gene as a functional marker demonstrated domination of methylotrophic genera Methanolobus and Methanosalsum and lithotrophic Methanocalculus. In a few cases, acetoclastic Methanosaeta was detected, as well as two deep lineage methanogens. Cultivation results corresponded well to the mcrA-based observations. Enrichments for natronophilic methylotrophic methanogens resulted in isolation of Methanolobus strains at moderate salinity, while at salt concentrations above 2 M Na(+) a novel member of the genus Methanosalsum was dominating. Enrichments with H2 or formate invariably resulted in domination of close relatives of Methanocalculus natronophilus. Enrichments with acetate at low salt concentration yielded two acetoclastic alkaliphilic Methanosaeta cultures, while at salinity above 1 M Na(+) syntrophic associations

  6. Concentrations and source variations of n-alkanes in a 21 m ice core and snow samples at Belukha glacier, Russian Altai mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Fumio; Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Ohta, Keiichi; Nakawo, Masayoshi

    Ice-core and snow samples collected on Belukha glacier, Russian Altai mountains, were analyzed for n-alkanes by gas chromatography. On the basis of the total concentrations (T-HCs), carbon preference index (CPI) values and the plant wax contributions (WaxCn), it is suggested that mountain glaciers on the Asian continent received higher loading of n-alkanes from natural and anthropogenic sources than the Greenland ice sheet. It appears that the loading and variation of n-alkanes on glaciers in the Altai are approximately the same as those of the mountain in general, because the concentrations, CPI values and WaxCn percentages of n-alkanes in Sofiyskiy glacier, also in the Russian Altai, are at the same levels as or slightly greater than those in ice-core and snow samples from Belukha glacier. It seems that the n-alkanes on Belukha glacier are derived mainly from higher plant wax and petroleum exhaust other than from diesel engines. Vertical profiles of T-HCs and CPI values of n-alkanes show that the non-WaxCn portions and T-HCs have recently increased with a decrease in CPI values on Belukha glacier. A similar trend of n-alkanes was reported for Sofiyskiy glacier, indicating that the influence of human activities has gradually increased around the Altai.

  7. [Sociological analysis of healthcare delivery in Russia regions with inclement natural conditions (in case of the Republic of Altai)].

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a sociological study of delivery of healthcare in the Republic of Altai to search for ways to improve its quality and to provide access to the local population. Analysis was made with regard to an interdisciplinary, comprehensive approach to considering the range of problems associated with not only the health of local residents and identifying risk factors leading to diseases, but also by determining the possibilities that could promote the minimization of causes that have a considerable impact on the occurrence of diseases and also hamper healthcare delivery in the human settlements of Gornyi Altai, which are difficult of access. The investigation has used sociological and statistical methods. It has been ascertained that the available healthcare forces and means should be today employed at the regional level, by applying the principles of necessary sufficiency in conjunction with the local population's social motivation to be involved in the activity associated with the rendering of medical services. In addition, it is necessary to systemically use mobile medical units as a significant factor for the optimization of medical care to the population living in Russia's regions which are difficult of access.

  8. Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west

  9. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of

  10. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July

  11. Structural control on the shape of intrusions in the Koktokay ore district, Chinese Altai, north western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Qin, Ke Zhang; Zhou, Qi Feng; Paterson, Greig

    2016-02-01

    The Koktokay pegmatite-type rare-metal-bearing ore district in the Altai orogen is famous for both its large scale and its diversity of rare metals. However, the emplacement mechanisms of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions in the Koktokay ore district are still unclear. Based on field observations, the emplacement of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions falls into two types. The first type is typical of the formation of dykes and sills, whereby they intruded into fan shaped, moderate dipping, joints within plutonic rocks. The second type involves the formation of a punched laccolith that was fed by a pegmatite sill. Magmatic stoping is the main mechanism of the laccolith emplacement. The peripheral faults played an important role in helping the emplacement of the laccolith. The trend of dykes and sills indicate two potential prospecting areas, which are located in the western and northern regions of the Koktokay ore district.

  12. Distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mts, Russia (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nefedieva, Julia S.; Nefediev, Pavel S.; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B.; Dyachkov, Yuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinus sibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinus sibirica ones. PMID:26257540

  13. Distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mts, Russia (Diplopoda).

    PubMed

    Nefedieva, Julia S; Nefediev, Pavel S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinussibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinussibirica ones. PMID:26257540

  14. Teleseismic Body Wave Analysis for the 27 September 2003 Altai, Earthquake (Mw7.4) and Large Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.

  15. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    PubMed

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

  16. Distinct deformational history of two contrasting tectonic domains in the Chinese Altai: Their significance in understanding accretionary orogenic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Min; Schulmann, Karel; Zhao, Guochun; Wu, Qihang; Jiang, Yingde; Guy, Alexandra; Wang, Yuejun

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Altai, a key component of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, is considered to be formed through multiple accretions of different terranes. However, the deformational histories of each terrane (tectonic domain), i.e. structural records before and after the accretion, are rarely studied, which has hindered our understanding of the accretionary processes. To fill the gap, a systematic macro- and microscopic structural analysis was carried out on two contrasting litho-tectonic units, i.e. the early Paleozoic low-grade Alegedayi Ophiolitic Complex (AOC) juxtaposed to the high grade Tarlang Granitic Massif (TGM). Selected rock samples were analyzed using zircon U-Pb isotopic dating to constrain the timing of polyphase deformation. Our structural and geochronological data suggest that the two litho-tectonic units were initially detached and located in different crustal levels and experienced distinct phases of deformation under contrasting P-T conditions. They were mutually accreted with each other in the early Devonian and jointly underwent a WNW-ESE-directed shortening deformational event (D1) at ∼390 Ma. The change of tectonic regime was further enhanced by a subsequent NNE-SSW-directed shortening deformation (D2) after ∼ 380 Ma. The shortening process ended before the crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip shearing deformation along the Erqis fault zone at 290 - 240 Ma. Results of this study provide solid field-based evidence for a model that the Chinese Altai initially underwent a nearly E-W-oriented subduction-accretional event in the middle Paleozoic, before it was reoriented to a nearly N-S-oriented convergence.

  17. [THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF TOXOCARIASIS FOCI AS AN ELEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IN CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALTAI)].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Astanina, S Yu; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological and epizootiological features of toxocariasis foci were investigated in the Republic of Altai. The results of coproovoscopic examinations of dogs, those of serological screening for toxocariasis among different age and occupational groups and coniingents at risk for HIV infection, hepatitis B and C, patients with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, toxocariasis mortality rates in the Republic of Altai, and the materials of sanitary and parasitological studies of soil and other environmental constituents for Toxocara canis eggs provide support for the poor situation of toxocariasis in the region. Relying on the current standards and the findings of this study, the Republic of Altai may be referred to as a moderately dangerous area at medium risk for contamination in terms of epidemic, epizootic, and environmental hazards. The results of assessing the quality of laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic helminthisms call for further improvement of the professional knowledge, abilities, and skills of the employees from health care and veterinary facilities, as well as economic objects within production laboratory control, basing on the principles and requirements of the environmental management system and the food quality and safety management system. PMID:26720968

  18. Fragments of the Vendian-Paleozoic oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in foldbelts (Altai-Sayan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I.; Buslov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Four main accretion-collision stages of the evolution of the Paleo-Asian ocean have been recognized in Altai-Sayan: 1) Early-Middle Cambrian, 2) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, 3) Devonian-Early Carboniferous and 4) Late Paleozoic. The 1st and 2nd stages characterize evolution of the Kuznetsk-Altai island-arc system, which was accreted to the Siberian continent. The third stage refers to two collisional events during the closing of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane collided with the Siberian continent (D3), and the latter collided with the Kazakhstan continent (C2). Each stage was recorded in folded rock units. Paleooceanic crust fragments occur within accretionary wedges and suture zone. Their geological identification was supported by geochemical data. The better studied areas are Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges, Charysh-Terekta shear zone, and Chara ophiolitic suture zone. Identification of the Vendian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust extended our knowledge about the Paleo-Asian Ocean evolution. The Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges recorded the Vendian-Cambrian stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta zone resulted from the Late Devonian collision of the Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent. The Chara ophiolitic suture was formed after the Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. The Kurai accretionary wedge is composed of the tectonic sheets of the Baratal paleoisland and Chagan-Uzun ophiolites. The Katun accretionary wedge involves paleo-oceanic island rock units: limestones, dolomites, siliceous shales, and basaltic flows. The Charysh-Terekta zone is composed of several tectonic lenses (e.g. Zasurin Formation) comprising sandstones, cherts, pillow-basalts, volcanoclastics, and gabbro-diabase sills and dikes. The Chara ophiolitic belt consists of several melange zones with high-pressure metamorphic rocks (metabasaltic rocks) metamorphosed

  19. New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology

  20. Cryogenesis study of a pingo-like mound in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahana, G.; Fukui, K.; Fujii, Y.; Ostanin, O.; Mikhailov, N.

    2008-12-01

    Vertical outcrop of a pingo-like mound found in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains is described. Several pingo-like mounds were found on the valley floor at about 2300 m ASL. They are 5 - 10 m high and up to 50 m in diameter. Part of a 5 m mound had collapsed into adjacent pond with continuous water supply from streams on the mountain ridge nearby and top 4 m section had been revealed. Highly complex combinations of segregated ice lenses were observed in the outcrop. Ice veins, which are consisted by a number of thick ice lenses, develop radially from the core of the mound. The areas in-between the ice veins had fine parallel lenticular cryostructure. Surface soil layer (about one meter) and patchy soil parts between ice lenses were made of fine till of lacustrine sediments. delta O18 values of water from these ice lenses range from -15 to -18. Spatial distribution of the isotope values was well correlated with the spatial pattern of the ice lenses"f distribution. In addition to segregation of ice lenses perpendicular to the temperature gradient, contribution of relatively rapid formation of ice in radial direction from the core of the mound can be large in this three dimensional frost heave phenomenon.

  1. Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2014-12-01

    counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.

  2. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from multiple arc-basin systems in Altai-Junggar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to understand the Late Paleozoic continental growth of the Junggar area and its amalgamation history with the Altai terrane, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on seismic and borehole data, the Wulungu Depression can be divided into two NW-trending tectonic units by southward thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag is composed of gray basaltic andesite, andesite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava gushes and marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance, compared to the andesite in the Hongyan High. The SIMS Zircon U-Pb ages for andesites from Late Paleozoic strata indicate that these volcanics in Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3Ma and 313.4Ma, respectively. Most of the intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks exhibit calc-alkaline affinity, low initial 87Sr/86Sr and positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values. Furthermore, these rocks have high Th/Yb and low Ce/Pb and La/Yb ratios as well as variable Ba/Th and Ba/La ratios. These features imply that the rocks were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by subduction-related components in an island arc setting. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of island arc-type volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. The gravity and magnetic anomaly data suggest that Altai-Junggar area incorporates three arc-basin belts from north to south: the Karamaili-Luliang-Darbut, Yemaquan-Wulungu, and Dulate-Fuhai-Saur. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the northern Junggar area is built by amalgamation of multiple Paleozoic linear arcs and accretionary

  3. Microclimate affects soil chemical and mineralogical properties of cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Markus; Lessovaia, Sofia; Chistyakov, Kirill; Inozemzev, Svyatoslav

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation and temperature particularly influence soil properties by affecting the type and rates of chemical, biological, and physical processes. To a great extent, element leaching and weathering rates are governed by these processes. Vegetation growth and decomposition, that depend on temperature and the other environmental factors, influence weathering reactions through the production of acidity and organic ligands that may promote chemical weathering and subsequent elemental leaching. The present work focuses on cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). The investigated field site (2380 m asl) is characterised by cold winters (with absolute minimum temperatures of -50°C; a mean temperature in January is -21°C) and cool summers (+8°C mean temperature in July). The mean annual temperature is -5.4°C. Annual precipitations are relatively low (500 mm with 20% of precipitation in July). Permafrost is widespread and occurs sometimes at a depth of 30 to 50 cm. Several studies have shown the influence of slope aspect and the resulting microclimate on soil weathering and development. There is however no unanimous agreement whether weathering is more intense on north- or south-facing slopes and whether small differences in thermal conditions may lead to detectable differences. Higher temperatures do not necessarily lead to higher weathering rates in cold alpine regions as shown by previous investigations in the European Alps. Water fluxes through the soils seemed to be more important. We consequently investigated soils in the cold-alpine environment of the Central Altai Mountains on a very small area close to a local glacier tongue. Half of the investigated soil profiles were south-facing (5) and the other half north-facing (5). The soils have the same parent material (mica-rich till), altitude, topography, and soil age. The vegetation is alpine grassland that is partially intersected with some juniper and mosses, which portion in the soil

  4. Mineralogical and geochemical features of promising types of gold mineralization in the western Altai-Sayany folded region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, Alexandr

    2013-04-01

    The western Altai-Sayany folded region is one of the oldest mining regions of Russia. Typical gold deposits are quartz-viens and skarns, which formation is associated with intrusion of island-arc and collision granitoids. Due to the fact that the traditional gold ore base of the region has already been largely worked out, the necessity of prospecting for new gold deposits has arisen. On the basis of available data, one may state that the outlook for the development of gold-mining industry of the Altai-Sayany region is concerned with gold mineralization in weathering crusts, epithermal gold-silver, gold-porhyry and gold-sulfide formations. The total gold resource potential of these object types is estimated by us at the level of 2000 t. The gold mineralization of epithermal gold-silver formation is confined to Early-Middle Devonian volcanic-plutonic belt. Here, gold-bearing zones of beresitization, argillization, sulfidization and silicification are discovered among volcanites. Maximum contents of noble metals are found in quartz-sulfide veins among sulfidized (arsenic pyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite and fahlore, etc.) and silicified volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Ore zones are marked by anomalously high content of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Hg not only in bedrocks, but also in haloes of dispersion in loose deposits. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous carbonaceous strata is confined to Late Riphean, Early Cambrian and Devonian metamorphosed complexes. This rocks were formed in the marginal sea basins. Metamorphism and repeated tectono-magmatic activation in the region resulted in redistribution and accumulation of gold. Gold-ore zones are marked by intensive silicification and sulfidization and are characterized mostly by occurrences of multiple generations of pyrite and arsenic pyrite. Gold occurs both in free state and in sulphides. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg. Gold

  5. Magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Chinese Altai, NW China: insights from the Paleozoic mafic and felsic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Zhao, Guochun; Long, Xiaoping

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese Altai, as a key segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is dominated by variably deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and plutonic rocks. The plutonic rocks include extensive granites and relatively subordinate mafic intrusions. For instance, mafic dykes in the northwestern region (Habahe area) have an emplacement age of 375.5±4.8Ma and include gabbroic and doleritic dykes. The gabbroic dykes have chondrite-normalized REE patterns similar to N-MORB (La/YbN=0.86~1.1), together with their high ɛNd(t) values (+7.6~+8.1), indicating deriviation from a N-MORB-type depleted asthenospheric mantle. While the doleritic dykes resemble E-MORB (La/YbN= 1.12~2.28) with relatively low ɛNd(t) values (+3.4-+5.4) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7057-0.7060), suggesting derivation from a mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and/or melts. In contrast, mafic intrusions in the southeastern region (Keketuohai area) occur as a zoned intrusion with an emplacement age of 409±5 Ma, consisting of dunite, olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro and pyroxene diorite. Their ɛNd(t) values (0 to +2.7) suggest that the parental magma was produced by partial melting of the lithospheric mantle under a high geothermal regime. Zircon U-Pb ages demonstrate that voluminous granitoids were continuously emplaced over more than 30 % area of the Chinese Altai during the period from 447 Ma to 368 Ma with a climax at ca. 400 Ma. Positive ɛHf(t) values (0 to +9) of normal magmatic zircons suggest that the granitoid magmas were derived from juvenile sources. The extensive magmatism at ca. 400 Ma significantly changed the Hf isotopic composition of the magma source by substantial input of juvenile material in a relatively short period. Four representative large S-type granitic intrusions were emplaced from 419 to 393 Ma, consistent with a period of intensive magmatic activities. The S-type granitic magmas were generated by dehydration melting of

  6. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  7. Quantitative reconstructions of mid- to late holocene climate and vegetation in the north-eastern altai mountains recorded in lake teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Andreev, Andrei; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei; Babich, Valery; Li, Hong-Chun; Shilov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We report the first high-resolution (20-50 years) mid- to late Holocene pollen records from Lake Teletskoye, the largest lake in the Altai Mountains, in south-eastern West Siberia. Generally, the mid- to late Holocene (the last 4250 years) vegetation of the north-eastern Altai, as recorded in two studied sediment cores, is characterised by Siberian pine-spruce-fir forests that are similar to those of the present day. A relatively cool and dry interval with July temperatures lower than those of today occurred between 3.9 and 3.6 ka BP. The widespread distribution of open, steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae reflects maximum deforestation during this interval. After ca. 3.5 ka BP, the coniferous mountain taiga spread significantly, with maximum woody coverage and taiga biome scores between ca. 2.7 and 1.6 ka BP. This coincides well with the highest July temperature (approximately 1 °C higher than today) intervals. A short period of cooling about 1.3-1.4 ka BP could have been triggered by the increased volcanic activity recorded across the Northern Hemisphere. A new period of cooling started around 1100-1150 CE, with the minimum July temperatures occurring between 1450 and 1800 CE.

  8. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single

  9. Assessing the geomorphological sensitivity of cold climate mountains to climate-driven permafrost degradation: the case of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan; Sannel, Britta; Goossens, Rudi; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Babin, Valery; Bourgeois, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Frankl, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, climate change related permafrost thawing is causing geomorphic processes to intensify. This is especially the case in mountain regions, where several studies indicate increased geomorphic activity with the recent thawing of permafrost bodies. In addition to the effect on geomorphic processes, permafrost degradation also results in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. This causes a positive feedback mechanism on climate change processes. For both the intensity of geomorphic processes and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little information exists for mountain areas in the permafrost belt worldwide. The Russian Altai Mountains are marginally glaciated and house sporadic and discontinuous permafrost. Due to global warming, temperature and precipitation are changing rapidly in the area, at rates higher than the global average. This result in highly dynamic environmental processes, making the Altai Mountains a potential area to understand the interrelations between geomorphology and permafrost, as influenced by climate change. Due to its marginal nature, permafrost degradation is rapid in the Russian Altai Mountains, and related geomorphological processes (e.g. landslides) are therefore accelerating. Therefore, a geomorphological time-depth analysis will be done focusing on geomorphic permafrost indicators such as rock glaciers, solifluction, permafrost creep, polygon patterned ground, palsas and thermokarst. Mapping the present day situation will be based on fieldwork, existing maps, satellite imagery and ASTER Digital Elevation Models. A specific geomorphological map representing the (peri)glacial geomorphology of the 1960s based on CORONA images will be prepared. In addition, 3D-photomodelling of rock glaciers and solifluction lobes will reveal short-term geomorphic dynamics. To understand the permafrost dynamics (1960s-2100) of the area, a statistical-empirical permafrost model will be used, using topo-climatic factors and temperature data from

  10. [The involvement of some flea species in the epizootic process in the Gorno-Altai natural plague focus: spatial and temporary characteristics].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Iarygina, M B; Fomina, L A; Rozhdestvenskiĭ, E N; Denisov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The relative number of plague pathogen strains isolated from some flea species in different Gorno-Altai natural plague foci substantially varies; this indicator also varies with time. These patterns are due to the difference in the structure of multispecies communities of ectoparasites in these areas and their long-term transformation. As of now, the three species Paradoxopsyllus scorodumovi, Ctenophyllus hirticrus, and Amphalius runatus are widely involved in pathogen transmission in all three foci. These ectoparasites should be referred to as main plague vectors. In each focus, they are joined by other flea species, such as Rhadinopsylla dahurica and Amphipsylla primaris in the Ulandryk focus, Frontopsylla hetera, R. dahurica, Paradoxopsyllus kalabukhovi, and Paramonopsyllus scalodae in the Tarkhatin focus, and P. scalonae and P. kalabukhovi in the Kurai focus, which should be classified as an additional vector.

  11. Identification sources of pollen spectra in dry and wet atmospheric deposition in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples

  12. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

  13. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  14. Geochemical and detrital zircon studies of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks, Russian Altai: Implications on their tectonic affinity and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2015-04-01

    . The similarities in geochemical compositions and detrital zircon patterns with those for the Altai-Mongolian terrane suggest that the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks possibly represented the northern margin of this terrane with different crustal levels. Our study places further constraints that the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represented a large subduction-accretion complex built upon the active margin in the western Mongolia during the early Paleozoic.

  15. Petrogenesis of the Devonian High-Mg rock association and its tectonic implication for the Chinese Altai orogenic belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is a key region to decipher the accretionary history of the gigantic CAOB, one of the largest accretionary orogenic belts on the earth. However, its Paleozoic tectonothermal events and tectonic implications remain debated. In this study, a suite of igneous rocks, including high Mg dacite of the Kangbutiebao Formation and the associated gneissic granite, have been studied for their petrogenesis and tectonic implication. The high Mg dacite is dated at 400±2Ma, which broadly resembles the emplacement age of the high Mg gneissic granite of 406±9Ma, possibly suggesting that they were generated in a common tectono-magmatic event. Both rocks have zircon inheritances of ~500 Ma, which is consistent with the age of predominant zircon population for in the widespread Habahe sequence, indicating that their precursor magmas were probably mainly derived from the Habahe sediments. The high-Mg rock association has similar REE and trace element patterns to those of the Habahe sediments and they plot close to the field of the Habahe sediments in Th/Ta versus La/Ta diagram. They have high A/CNK ratios (1.33-2.05), supporting their source was sedimentary rocks. In Ba/Th versus (La/Sm)N diagram, these rocks are characterized by high La/Sm ratios which suggests a greater contribution of sediments rather than altered oceanic crust in the magma generation. However, the high Mg# values (~51) of the studied rocks argue against derivation purely from remelting of Habahe sediments. In order to explain the high Mg# values (~51) of these rocks, the participation of mantle-derived melt into the precursor magma is considered. Zircons from this rock association mostly have ɛHf(t) values from +0.85 to +9.71, supporting the involvement of juvenile materials in the magma generation. Samples from the high Mg rock association fall in the same field as the sanukitoids in TiO2 versus Mg# and Sr/Y versus Y diagrams, plot in the fractional crystallization trend of differentiated

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Microfabrics of Surface Horizons and Desert Varnish in Extremely Arid Soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Shishkov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of coarse fraction and characteristic features of the micro- and submicrofabrics and chemical composition of desert varnish on gravels of desert pavements and the underlying vesicular crust soil horizons were studied in the extremely arid soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) deserts. A set of common diagnostic features of elementary pedogenetic processes was identified in the automorphic desert soils developed on ancient (70-90 ka) piedmont plains composed of alluvial deposits with the high content of red-earth clay. The results of this study attest to the long and complicated history of the extremely arid soils with alternation of the humid and arid phases of pedogenesis reflected in a specific combination of textural (clay-illuvial) and carbonate pedofeatures and in the distribution patterns of iron, manganese, titanium, and barium in different layers of the desert varnish. The chemical composition of the latter did not depend on the mineralogical composition of the underlying substrates and was formed with active participation of soil microorganisms. This allowed us to conclude about the polygenetic (accretionary-microbiological) nature of desert varnish.

  17. A new approach for reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mongolian Altai: The high-resolution δ13C records of TOC and pollen complexes in Hoton-Nur Lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun

    2013-06-01

    δ13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and δ15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The δ13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen δ13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter δ13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen δ13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and δ13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.

  18. Anticlockwise P-T evolution at ∼280 Ma recorded from ultrahigh-temperature metapelitic granulite in the Chinese Altai orogenic belt, a possible link with the Tarim mantle plume?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Laixi; Xu, Yi-Gang; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yibing; Liu, Zhao

    2014-11-01

    An ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic granulite assemblage consisting of garnet(g)-spinel(sp)-orthopyroxene(opx)-sillimanite(sil)-cordierite(cd)-ilmenite(ilm)-biotite(bi)-plagioclase(pl)-quartz(q) occurs within migmatitic paragneiss near Kalasu in the Chinese Altai, NW China. Textural relations, mineral compositions and P-T estimates, indicate three stages of mineral assemblages: (1) pre-peak prograde stage (M1) consisting of a sp-sil-bearing or sp-opx-bearing inclusion assemblage, with low-Al2O3 contents (4-5 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of ∼7 kbar and ∼890 °C, (2) peak UHT stage (M2) comprising a g-opx-cd-bearing coarse-grained assemblage, with high-Al2O3 contents (8-9 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and peak conditions of ∼8 kbar and ∼970 °C, and (3) post-peak HT stage (M3) containing an oriented opx-bi-sil-bearing assemblage in matrix, with moderate amounts of Al2O3 (6-7 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of 8-9 kbar and ∼870 °C. The three discrete stages define an anticlockwise P-T path involving initial prograde heating and post-peak near isobaric cooling. Such a near isobaric cooling anticlockwise P-T path suggests that UHT metamorphism likely occurred in an overall extensional tectonic setting with associated underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 278 ± 2 Ma obtained from the metapelitic granulite indicates UHT metamorphism in the Altai orogen occurred during the Permian, coeval with spacially associated mantle-derived mafic intrusions (∼280 Ma) and the Tarim mantle plume (∼275 Ma). Thus, the Permian UHT metamorphism of the Chinese Altai is likely associated with underplating and heating of mantle-derived mafic magma as a result of the Tarim mantle plume.

  19. Multi-Decadal Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Loading Based on Major Ion and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Glacial Ice From the Siberian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, D.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V.

    2006-12-01

    Analysis of a deep alpine ice core from the mid-latitude Siberian Altai is presented. The 170m core in storage and processing at the University of Idaho is examined to 50m on the basis of annual layer identification and dating, visual stratigraphy, major ion concentration, stable (δ18O,δ2H) and radiogenic (δ3H) isotope variability using multivariate and time series statistical methods. The core depth has recorded atmospheric precipitation since the recent industrial (post-1940) time period and into the intermediate transition of the early 20^{th}Century based on multi-parameter dating techniques. The time series is evaluated as a proxy for high-resolution examination of aerosol loading through the ion chemistry and mineral dust records preserved in the glacial ice. Aerosol loading estimations are achieved through major element analysis (to 20m depth) for dust particles ranging in size from 0.52-5.04μm. Average ion concentrations corroborate well with another ice core from the Altai Mts. for the industrialized (post-1940) time in this geographic region, with slightly elevated concentrations of all species analyzed and localized differences in peak variability. The ion chemistry is characterized by a significant increase in sulfate concentrations (0-33m mean SO4=10.54μEq/L, 33-50m mean SO4=2.91μEq/L) and a slight increase in nitrate concentrations in the upper portion of core corresponding to the recent (<50yrs) past. This level of increased aerosol loading is typically associated with anthropogenic activities, including industrialization, biomass burning, and agricultural activity that may accompany increasing temperature trends. However, oxygen isotopes ratios do not show a statistically significant difference in mean oxygen isotope ratios expected for the associated (0-33m, 33-50m) time periods of increased sulfate and nitrate concentrations. Other central Asian aeolian dust species (magnesium, calcium, chloride and sodium) do not show significant increasing

  20. Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, Arzhan

    This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in Tien Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain

  1. A New Comprehensive Dataset on Glacier Area Changes From 1960s to 2008 in Altai-Sayan, Tien Shan And Pamir Mountain Systems of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.; Nikitin, S.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain glaciers are a vital source of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. To quantify glacier loss due to climate change during the last 42 years and use this information in water resources estimation, we have completed a comprehensive database of the glacier area changes in Altai-Sayan (AS), Tien Shan (TS) and Pamir (PA) mountains. A new wall-to-wall glacier inventory was completed based on ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral imagery (circa 2000). Counting only the glaciers that are larger than 0.1 sq. km, in Central Asia there were: 1,428 glaciers with area of 1,285 sq. km in AS; 11,671 glaciers with area of 13,424 sq. km in PA; 10,925 glaciers with area of 13,196 sq. km in TS. Glacier changes since 1960s and after 2000, were estimated using historical snapshots of glacier areas that were manually digitized from declassified 2 m Corona (1960s) and 6-9 m Hexagon (1970s) satellite photographs and 2.5 m ALOS/PRISM imagery (2008). The high-resolution Corona and Hexagon images were co-registered to the modern imagery using novel rigorous orthorectification approaches. The developed multitemporal orthophotography allowed, for the first time, direct image to image analysis of glacier area changes at unprecedented level of detail, while retaining regional scope of the study. Overall, historical snapshots were created for about 61% of the total glacier area in Central Asia. Preliminary analysis suggested large variability of glacier area losses in these three mountains systems. The largest massifs of glaciations in PA and TS lost only 2-4% during the last half a century, whereas regions of dispersed glaciations located at low elevation of the periphery of mountains systems lost up to 25% of their area.

  2. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697

  3. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  4. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia. PMID:27183799

  5. Whole-rock Nd-Hf isotopic study of I-type and peraluminous granitic rocks from the Chinese Altai: constraints on the nature of basement and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Min; Long, Xiaoping; Li, Pengfei; Zhao, Guochun; Kröner, Alfred; Broussolle, Arnaud; Yang, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    Previously published whole-rock Nd isotopic data are often inconsistent with zircon Hf isotopic data for the early Paleozoic granitic rocks (380-478 Ma) in the Chinese Altai, which led to contradictory interpretations for their magma sources and tectonic setting. Nd and Hf isotopic analyses were conducted in this study on the same whole-rock samples of representative early to middle Paleozoic granitic rocks, and the data are used to reconcile the controversies and to discuss the complicated curst-mantle interaction in the accretionary orogenesis. Our samples include I-type granites (Hanasi batholith, Kurmutu pluton, Altay batholith and Kezgar pluton), strongly peraluminous granites (Hemu batholith, Kuwei batholith), and rhyolites (Jiadengyu). The I-type granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and have ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values ranging from -2.6 to 0.7 and from 4.0 to 13.0, respectively. The strongly peraluminous granites and rhyolites have similar ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values ranging from -3.2 to 1.7 and from 2.1 to 15.7, respectively. All samples plot above the Terrestrial Array in a Nd-Hf isotopic diagram, indicating significant Nd-Hf isotopic decoupling in the magma sources. Our sample locations nearly cover the entire Chinese Altai, and their ages range from 445 Ma to 368 Ma, illustrating that the Nd-Hf isotopic decoupling prevailed in the region throughout the early and middle Paleozoic. All samples show flat HREE pattern and have Lu/Hf ratios similar to the average crust, suggesting that isotopic decoupling was not originated from an ancient basement with elevated Lu/Hf ratios. The high ɛHf(t) values and poor correlation between ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) values suggest that these rocks represent an early Paleozoic magmatic arc built on a late Neoproterozoic crustal block such as the Lake Zone in western Mongolia. The observed isotopic decoupling is similar to that for those modern island arcs, such as the Lesser Antilles and Sunda, where Nd selectively

  6. Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after

  7. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. Poor, Rural, and Southern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert E., Jr.

    Despite political gains and the lowering of social barriers, most Southern blacks still face formidable economic obstacles. More than half of rural Southern black families are living at or below poverty level. Efforts to improve their lot have included a number of cooperative and self-help community programs. The Southern Cooperative Development…

  9. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  10. Uranium in saline lakes of Northwestern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, V. P.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Lyakhov, N. Z.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Ariunbileg, S.; Kolpakova, M. N.; Shatskaya, S. S.; Chupakhina, L. E.; Kuibida, L. V.; Moroz, E. N.

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of major- and trace-element compositions of water in hypersaline soda closed basin lakes of Northwestern Mongolia and Chuya basin (Gorny Altai) shows high enrichment in 238U (up to 1 mg/l). Proceeding from new data, uranium accumulation in water has been attributed to (i) location of the lakes and their watersheds in potential provinces of U-bearing rocks and (ii) uranium complexing with carbonate in presence of carbonate (bicarbonate) anions. Among the explored hypersaline soda lakes of the area, the greatest uranium resources are stored in Lake Hyargas Nuur (about 6000 ton).

  11. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  12. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  13. Pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the Mongolian Altai in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: evidence from mineral equilibrium modeling and fluid inclusion studies on amphibolite-facies rocks from western Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorigtkhuu, O.-E.

    2012-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), also known as Altaids, located between the Archean Siberian Craton to the north and the Tarim and North China Cratons to the south, is regarded as one of the largest accretionary and collisional orogen in the world. Detailed petrological studies on the CAOB therefore provide useful information of pressure-temperature (P-T) history of the orogeny as well as the tectonic evolution of East Asia. This study reports detailed petrological data, particularly the results of phase equilibrium modeling and fluid inclusion analysis, of pelitic schists and amphibolites from Bodonch area, southwestern Mongolia, which occupies a significant part of the Paleozoic history of the Altai Orogen in the southwestern margin of the CAOB, and discuss pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the area. The dominant mineral assemblages of pelitic schist in Bodonch area are garnet + kyanite + staurolite + biotite + plagioclase, garnet + biotite + staurolite + cordierite, and garnet + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase with quartz and ilmenite, while amphibolite contains calcic amphibole + quartz + plagioclase + garnet + ilmenite assemblage. Application of conventional garnet-biotite and garnet-cordierite geothermometers as well as GASP geobarometer gave metamorphic conditions of 615-635°C/8.2-8.9 kbar from kyanite-bearing pelitic schist samples. Slightly higher P-T condition of 640-690°C/6.3-10.7 kbar was obtained by mineral equilibrium modeling of garnet-kyanite-staurolite and garnet-staurolite-cordierite assemblages using Theriak-Domino software. The calculation was made in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCKFMASH). We constructed a clockwise P-T path staring from high-pressure amphibolite facies condition within the stability field of kyanite (approximately 650°C/9 kbar) possibly through the stability field of sillimanite by post-peak decompressional cooling. Our petrographical observations of fluid inclusions in pelitic schists

  14. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  15. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  16. Southern (In)hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  17. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  18. Settlement Institutions in Southern Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Loren W.

    The survey catalogs 45 Southern Appalachia settlement institutions representing 257 counties in parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. "A Settlement Institution of the Southern Appalachians is a private, non-profit, rural organization in the Southern Appalachians…

  19. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  20. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  1. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  3. Trichinosis in southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Blondheim, D S; Klein, R; Ben-Dror, G; Schick, G

    1984-02-01

    An outbreak of trichinosis in two villages in southern Lebanon affected over 100 patients, aged 3 to 70 years, who celebrated Christmas and New Year's of 1981 by feasting on rare pork. Six were hospitalized in Israel. The diagnosis was made on clinical and histological grounds. The clinical picture included the classical features, but was unusual in that rarely reported pedal or pretibial edema, pruritus and vertigo, were prominent. There was one case with suspected myocarditis. Two women in the first trimester of pregnancy had miscarriages. All patients recovered. With the unstable political situation in Lebanon in recent years, veterinary and sanitary supervision has deteriorated, and most pigpens are infected with trichinosis.

  4. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  5. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  6. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  7. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  8. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  9. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  10. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  11. Rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, R; Barnard, B J; Meredith, C D; Bishop, G C; Brückner, G K; Foggin, C M; Hübschle, O J

    1993-12-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of rabies in Africa, believed to have followed the importation of an infected dog from England in 1892, occurred in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was brought under control in 1894. An unconfirmed epidemic of rabies in dogs occurred in western Zambia in 1901. By the following year the disease had apparently spread along a major trade route, to cause an outbreak in Zimbabwe which engulfed most of the country before being eradicated in 1913. The existence of endemic rabies of viverrids (mongooses and genets) was confirmed in South Africa in 1928, and since then the viverrid disease has continued to occur widely on the interior plateau of the country with spill-over of infection to cattle and a variety of other animals. From about 1947 onwards, an invasive form of dog rabies spread from southern Zambia and/or Angola into Namibia, across northern and eastern Botswana into Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal by 1950, entered Mozambique in 1952, and spread from there to Swaziland in 1954. Dog rabies extended from southern Mozambique into Natal in 1961 to cause a major epidemic which was brought under control in 1968. The disease re-entered northern Natal from Mozambique in 1976 and since then dog rabies has proved difficult to control in the peri-urban settlements of Natal-KwaZulu. The disease spread from Natal to Lesotho in 1982, and into the Transkei region of the eastern Cape Province in 1987, to reach the Ciskei by 1990. The spread of the disease in dogs was followed by the emergence of rabies of jackals and cattle in central Namibia, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal. A unique outbreak of rabies in kudu antelope occurred in central Namibia from 1977 to 1985, apparently involving oral spread of infection between individuals. A few cases of rabies in the bat-eared fox were recognized each year in Namibia from 1967 onwards, and from the 1970s the occurrence of the disease in the fox has emerged as a

  12. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  13. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  14. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  15. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  16. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  17. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  18. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  19. The Southern Ocean silica cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguer, Paul J.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.

  20. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  1. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  2. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  3. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  4. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  5. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  6. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  7. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  8. Tropical sprue in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mathan, V I

    1988-01-01

    Tropical sprue, a primary malabsorption syndrome affecting residents and visitors to several tropical regions, occurs in southern India in endemic and epidemic forms. The stomach, the small intestine and colon are affected and malabsorption results in nutrient deficiency. Enterocyte damage, the primary lesion in southern Indian tropical sprue, is the result of a persistent lesion of the stem cell compartment. This lesion occurs on a background of tropical enteropathy and the available evidence suggests that an immunity conferring agent may be responsible for initiating the damage.

  9. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern

  10. Southern states` routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states` routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  11. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  12. Southern states' routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  13. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  14. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  15. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  16. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, I.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2006-06-01

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO2 and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO2 balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO2 and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  17. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    PubMed

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  18. The Southern California Dense GPS Geodetic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center is coordinating a effort by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the U.S. Geological Survey, and various academic institutions to establish a dense 250 station, continuously recording GPS geodetic array in southern California for measuring crustal deformation associated with slip on the numerous faults that underlie the major metropolitan areas of southern california.

  19. Mutation detection by Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Mellars, Gillian; Gomez, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, it became clear that scientists needed to be able to distinguish different DNA sequences. In 1975, Edward Southern published details of a new method for detecting DNA fragments based upon their specific sequence [corrected]. An indication of the importance of his work is that the technique was eponymously named after him and that subsequent methods based loosely on similar principles were named using a play on his surname (western and northern blot). The simplicity and effectiveness of the technique led to its universal acceptance as a standard method for identification of DNA sequences. In the modern laboratory where turn-around times assume ever greater importance, the process can seem relatively time-consuming. In some cases, this has led to its replacement by more rapid techniques such as long-range PCR. Nevertheless, more than 30 years after its invention, the Southern blot remains a cornerstone of molecular biology. PMID:20938846

  20. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  1. Astrometry of southern radio sources.

    PubMed

    White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  2. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  3. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  4. Dusty Skies over Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

    This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

    This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of < 5-10 km. We address this issue by recording seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  6. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  8. Southern rim of Pacific Ocean basin: southern Andes to southern Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D.; Garrett, S.W.; Grunow, A.M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Storey, B.C.; Vennum, W.R.

    1986-07-01

    Between the southern Andes of Tierra del Fuego and the southern Alps of New Zealand lies the least accessible and geologically least explored part of the Pacific Ocean basin. A joint United Kingdom-United States project was initiated in 1983 to elucidate the geologic history and structure of the Pacific margin of Antarctica from the Antarctic Peninsula to Pine Island Bay at approximately lone. 105/sup 0/W. The first season (1983-1984) of this West Antarctic Tectonics Project was spent in the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block, and the second (1984-1985) in the Thurston Island crustal block. The project involves structural and general field geology, petrology, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and airborne geophysics (magnetics and radar ice echo sounding). A final geologic season will be spent in the Pensacola Mountains of the Transantarctic Range in 1987-1988.

  9. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  10. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  11. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  13. Southern Women's Literature: A Process of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Elizabeth A.

    Teachers and students worked together at the University of Alabama to evolve a literature course that dealt with the Southern regional character and culture as manifested in the writings of women. The course began with an orientation to the region, with emphasis on the images and stereotypes of Southern women. Literary material included in the…

  14. Aseismic uplift in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Church, J.P.; Elliott, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

  15. SOUTHERN MASSANUTTEN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Southern Massanutten Roadless Area is in the George Washington National Forest in the Shenandoah Valley of Page and Rockingham Counties, Virginia. According to mineral surveys of the area, inferred resources of low-grade iron occur at two mines in folded Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The iron resources consist of 120,000 long tons of clayey and sandy limonite. Other mineral resources occur in the area including extensive areas of high-silica sandstone, shale suitable for making brick, and limestone suitable for crushed stone and agricultural lime. The potential for the occurrence of oil or natural gas resources cannot be evaluated from the available data. The nonmetallic mineral resources are of limited importance because of relative inaccessibility as compared to large accessible resources outside the roadless area.

  16. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  17. Cystic echinococcosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de la Rue, Mario L

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is very common in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul State where sheep and cattle raising is the most important economical activity. Prevalence in intermediate hosts is well known due to reports in slaughterhouses while human reports are of discussed value. This is due to underreporting of cases and few epidemiological studies make it difficult to assess the situation of echinococcosis in the population. Whereas cattle infection rate is more or less stable around 12% of the slaughter animals, in sheep there has been an increasing number in the last five years. Some efforts have been done to control the zoonosis but no effective results were obtained so far. Probably educational efforts to change human practices (feeding dogs with raw viscera), periodic treatment of dogs with praziquantel and joined actions with slaughterhouses could bring more attention to improve some control measures.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  19. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-01

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized.

  20. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. Variability in heavy precipitation over southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Southern Florida is home to the unique Everglades ecosystem that feeds into the Florida Bay. Heavy precipitation events, either over the Everglades or the Bay can introduce pollutants and excessive fresh water into the bay, while prolonged drought reduces water levels in the wetlands and can contribute to hypersalinity events in the bay. Systematic changes in precipitation frequency and intensity can result in long-term negative impacts to these southern Florida ecosystems. This paper examines the historical in situ record of precipitation over southern Florida, with special emphasis on evaluating the behavior of heavy precipitation events and periods of deficit.

  7. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  8. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  9. Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

  10. The Southern Kansas Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically aseismic Harper and Sumner counties in Southern Kansas experienced a dramatic increase in seismicity beginning in early 2014, coincident with the development of new oil production in the Mississippi Lime Play. In order to better understand the potential relationships between seismicity and oil development, the USGS installed a real-time telemetered seismic network in cooperation with the Kansas Geological Survey, the Kansas Corporation Commission, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Harper County, and the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The network began operation in March 2014 with an initial deployment of 5 NetQuakes accelerometers and by July 2014 had expanded to include 10 broadband sites. The network currently has 14 stations, all with accelerometers and 12 with broadband seismometers. The network has interstation spacing of 15 - 25 km and typical azimuthal gap of 80 for well-located events. Data are continuously streamed to IRIS at 200 samples per second from most sites. Earthquake locations are augmented with additional stations from the USGS National Network, Oklahoma Geological Survey Seismic Network, Kansas Seismic Monitoring Network and the Enid Oklahoma Network. Since the spring of 2014 over 7500 earthquakes have been identified with data from this network, 1400 of which have been manually timed and cataloged. Focal depths for earthquakes typically range between 2 and 7 km. The catalog is available at earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ under network code 'Ismpkansas'. The network recorded the largest known earthquake in Harper County, Mw 4.3, on October 2, 2014 and in Sumner County, Mw 4.9, on November 12, 2014. Recorded ground motions at the epicenter of the October earthquake were 0.70 g (PGA) and 12 cm/s (PGV). These high ground motion values agree with near-source recordings made by other USGS temporary deployments in the U. S. midcontinent, indicating a significant shaking hazard from such shallow, moderate

  11. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  12. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  13. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  14. Emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2004-12-01

    Airborne measurements are presented of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa during the dry season. Measurements were obtained aboard the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft during the SAFARI 2000 field project in August and September 2000. Savanna fires in southern Africa emit a wide range of gaseous and particulate species including carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, halogen, and oxygenated compounds. Emission factors, emission ratios, and regional emissions of fifty trace gas and particulate species were derived, including eight species not previously reported in the literature (dimethyl sulfide, methyl nitrate, five species of hydrocarbons, and particles with diameters from 0.1--3 mum diameter). The physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the plume from a large savanna fire in South Africa are characterized, including plume dimensions, secondary formation of ozone and organic acids, oxidation of hydrocarbons, coagulation of particles, and gas-to-particle conversion in aged smoke. Numerous fires, thermodynamically stable layers aloft, and large-scale anticylonic flow result in high concentrations of air pollution distributed throughout the lower troposphere over southern Africa during the dry season. Average regional concentrations of CO (261 +/- 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 +/- 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 +/- 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 +/- 1.9 mug m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 +/- 5.2 mug m-3), total particle mass (26.0 +/- 4.7 mug m-3) are comparable to those found in polluted urban environments. The GEOS-CHEM model of tropospheric chemistry is used to characterize the transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May--October) of 2000. A large quantity of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa is transported westward over the latitudes 0--20°S to the southern Atlantic Ocean (˜40 Tg CO from May--October), contributing to a pollution anomaly

  15. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  16. Moho depth and age in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower

  17. A new fault lineament in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

  18. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  19. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  20. Infrared observations of southern RV Tauri stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Ney, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric measurements from 2.2 to 18 microns are reported for six southern RV Tauri stars. Four of the six have anomalous infrared excess radiation similar to that observed in other RV Tauri stars. The infrared spectra of IW Car, AR Pup, and SX Cen resemble that of oxygen-rich RV Tau. RU Cen is similar to AC Her.

  1. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  2. El Nino --- Southern Oscillation Impact Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, N.

    1988-02-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such direct'' prediction of impacts are considered.

  3. Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

  4. Epidemiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Southern Albania

    PubMed Central

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skenderaj, Skender

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Southern Albania. Material and Methods: This is an epidemiologic observational study with cross-sectional analyses of all patients with RA who lived in Southern Albania during the 1995-2011 years. The RA prevalence, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were assessed. Results: During the 1995-2011 years, 194 patients (154 females and 40 males) with RA living in Southern Albania were identified. The prevalence of RA in 2011 was 0.25% in general population and 0.34% in adult (>14 years) population. The incidence of RA in 2011 was 0.012% (12 new cases per 100000 inhabitants) and 0.016% (16 new cases per 100000 adults). The prevalence increased (from 0.036% in 1996 to 0.25% in 2011) and the incidence did not change over the study period. The mortality was 3.2% (n=7 deaths). The DALY due to RA was 823 years per 100000 inhabitants during 1995-2011 years. Conclusion: RA in Southern Albania has a prevalence of 0.25 % and an annual incidence of 0.012% in the general population in 2011. RA was responsible for a considerable burden on the health of population during the 1995-2011 years. PMID:26236163

  5. Educational Excellence Study, Texas Southern University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Southern Univ., Houston.

    A proposed plan for review of the mission and goals of Texas Southern University (TSU) is presented that deals with improvements and resources needed to strengthen the university, unnecessary program duplication with other universities, new programs, institutional goals and timetables, improved planning at TSU, and sound human relations practices.…

  6. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  7. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  8. Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mary

    This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

  9. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  10. Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Caren

    1992-01-01

    The Southern Ute and Ute Mountain tribes have developed a joint vocational rehabilitation program that incorporates cultural values and traditions and uses traditional healers and elders as job coaches. Eleven reasons explain why the new program is succeeding where the previous state program did not. (SV)

  11. Naturalization of Dalechampia scandens in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dalechampia scandens, a native to the American and African tropics, was recently found naturalized in two Broward County parks in southern Florida. This is the first occurrence of the plant in the continental United States. One of the populations may be an escape from a butterfly attraction where th...

  12. Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Southern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This catalog of uncommon facilities in southern universities was developed in an effort to bring about more effective use of existing facilities, to reduce the need for duplicating certain facilities, and to increase learning and research opportunities. All of the facilities listed are available, under certain conditions, for use by students and…

  13. Development of Southern Cross University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  14. Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

  15. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  16. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  17. Southern Colorado State College Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Antonio A.

    Occurring in six elementary schools in Pueblo, the Teacher Corps Program at Southern Colorado State College features the following components: a) a cross-cultural component for all participants; b) a community-based component designed to assist the community to participate in educational decision making; c) a 2-year undergraduate, field- and…

  18. Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

  19. Southern Agrarian Heritage Learning Package. Teachers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Cooperative Educational Service Agency, Atlanta, GA.

    This teacher's manual is a guide to a learning package of materials dealing with the cultural and ethnic heritage of black and white rural Southern agrarians. Specific teaching strategies are detailed in a step-by-step fashion and revolve around three models of instruction, which involve teacher directed in class activities as well as self…

  20. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  3. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs of 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Before Construction of Long Wharf - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Used by First Central Pacific Train to Enter Oakland -- November 8, 1869 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After 1919 Oakland Mole -- Aerial View Looking West by South - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  9. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. Dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere medium-scale waves during the southern summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Nune, Durga P.

    1987-01-01

    The role of medium-scale waves on three dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere general circulation is examined using data generated by the FGGE analyses of the ECMWF. The momentum and sensible heat transports by the medium-scale waves are discussed. The effects of medium-scale waves on atmospheric circulation of the Southern Hemisphere during the summer, in particular the vacillation of atmospheric energetics, are investigated. The horizontal and vertical structures and the transport properties of this wave regime and their relation to downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere are analyzed. It is observed that medium-scale waves supply about a half of the total eddy transport of sensible heat and momentum; the wave regime contributes to the time average of various energy contents and energetic components of atmospheric motion during the southern summer; and the wave regime is amplified during the developing stages of downstream development.

  16. Development of the southern reaches of Laurentia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C. Jr. . Federal Center)

    1993-02-01

    Laurentia, the Late Proterozoic continental fragment that now forms the core of North America, has a long and complex history, much of which involves development along its southern margin. The southernmost parts of the Archean continental core are the Wyoming and Superior cratons, both of which contain gneisses that record crust-forming events in the interval 3.8--3.1 Ga as well as greenstone belts that reflect continental growth in the interval 2.8--2.6 Ga. Each of these cratonic elements was assembled and stabilized prior to deposition of passive margin sequences along their southern flanks during the interval [approximately]2.5--1.9 Ga. Between [approximately]1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga arc-related sedimentary and volcanic rocks were accreted to the southern margin of the Laurentian core during a complex series of tectonic episodes that included events locally referred to as the Penokean, Ivanpah, Yavapai, and Mazatzal orogenies, resulting in the addition of a belt of continental crust at least 1,000 km wide. Voluminous highly evolved granite and rhyolite were emplaced along this southern marginal belt between [approximately] 1.45 and 1.35 Ga under conditions of general tectonic stability, or perhaps dispersed regional extension. This same interval was also marked by onset of deposition of thick Middle Proterozoic sedimentary sequences along the western and southern margins of Laurentia. The eastern margin of Laurentia contains the complexly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the 1.25 to 1.1 Ga Grenville orogen which, according to recent reconstructions, may record a collision with cratonic elements in western South America. The 2,000 km-long Midcontinent rift system in central Laurentia opened and filled with basalt and sediments at about the same time as the end of Grenville activity.

  17. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  18. Roses in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already

  19. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…

  20. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  2. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  3. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  4. 50 CFR 223.212 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.212... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... the Southern Distinct Population Segment of spotted seal listed in § 223.102....

  5. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  6. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  7. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  8. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dana L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K.; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gaul, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  9. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  10. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  11. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  12. HIV-1 infection in Juba, southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Khalid, I O; El Tigani, A

    1995-05-01

    Thirty years of civil war in the Sudan have resulted in the isolation of the southern provinces which border Central and East Africa. Consequently, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in this region. To estimate the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in southern Sudan and the risk factors associated with disease transmission, a seroepidemiologic survey was conducted in the township of Juba. Study subjects invited to participate in this study included medical outpatients, inpatients hospitalized for active tuberculosis, and female prostitutes. A total of 401 subjects participated in the study. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in 25 subjects. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 19% (8/42) among tuberculosis patients, 16% (8/50) among prostitutes, and 3% (9/309) among outpatients. A significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was found among female prostitutes when compared to female outpatients: 16% (8/50) vs. 2% (4/178), P < 0.001. Correspondingly, the prevalence of seropositives was significantly higher among male outpatients reporting a history of sexual relations with prostitutes during the prior 10 years compared to male outpatients denying relations with prostitutes: 14% (5/37) vs. 0% (0/94), P = 0.0011. A history of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) was also associated with HIV-1 infection among male outpatients. The findings of this study indicate that HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in southern Sudan and that prostitutes and their sexual partners represent a major reservoir of HIV infection in this population. This epidemiologic pattern resembles that seen in the African nations neighboring southern Sudan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. New southern galaxies with active nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

    1987-03-01

    A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

  14. Walter Baade and the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1993-12-01

    The inception of the European Southern Observatory is generally traced to Walter Baade's discussions with Jan Oort during his visit to Leiden in the spring of 1953. However, these discussions had certainly been underway between them previously, during Oort's visit to Pasadena in early 1952. Furthermore, Baade's great interest in southern-hemisphere astronomy and his strong desire to observe there can be traced far back in his career. In 1927, after his return to Germany from a year in the U.S. under a Rockefeller fellowship, Baade reported that his country had no chance to catch up with American astronomy in the northern hemisphere. He advocated moving the Hamburg 1-meter reflector to the southern hemisphere to get in ahead of the U.S. with an effective telescope there. Baade emphasized the research that could be done on high-luminosity and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Later, after he had joined the Mount Wilson staff, his early attempts to locate the center of our Galaxy and globular clusters near it (in 1937) and his observational study (with Edwin Hubble) of the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies (in 1939) re-emphasized to him the need for a southern observatory. During and soon after World War II he made many suggestions on a search for ``cluster-type variables'' in the Magellanic Clouds to Enrique Gaviola, director of the new 1.5-meter Bosque Alegre reflector in Argentina. Baade wanted to go there to observe with it himself, but his German citizenship prevented him from leaving the U.S.. Finally, in the last year of his life, he was able to observe NGC 6522 (the globular cluster in ``his'' window), with the Mount Stromlo 1.9-meter reflector.

  15. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  16. Primary production in Southern Ocean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Worthen, Denise; Schnell, Anthony; Lizotte, Michael P.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Ocean forms a link between major ocean basins, is the site of deep and intermediate water ventilation, and is one of the few areas where macronutrients are underutilized by phytoplankton. Paradoxically, prior estimates of annual primary production are insufficient to support the Antarctic food web. Here we present results from a primary production algorithm based upon monthly climatological phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). Phytoplankton production was forced using monthly temperature profiles and a radiative transfer model that computed changes in photosynthetically usable radiation at each CZCS pixel location. Average daily productivity (g C m-2 d-1) and total monthly production (Tg C month-1) were calculated for each of five geographic sectors (defined by longitude) and three ecological provinces (defined by sea ice coverage and bathymetry as the pelagic province, the marginal ice zone, and the shelf). Annual primary production in the Southern Ocean (south of 50°S) was calculated to be 4414 Tg C yr-1, 4-5 times higher than previous estimates made from in situ data. Primary production was greatest in the month of December (816 Tg C month-1) and in the pelagic province (contributing 88.6% of the annual primary production). Because of their small size the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the shelf contributed only 9.5% and 1.8%, respectively, despite exhibiting higher daily production rates. The Ross Sea was the most productive region, accounting for 28% of annual production. The fourfold increase in the estimate of primary production for the Southern Ocean likely makes the notion of an "Antarctic paradox" (primary production insufficient to support the populations of Southern Ocean grazers, including krill, copepods, microzooplankton, etc.) obsolete.

  17. Dengue epidemic in southern Vietnam, 1998.

    PubMed

    Ha, D Q; Tien, N T; Huong, V T; Loan, H T; Thang, C M

    2000-01-01

    A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8%, respectively, over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted.

  18. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  20. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  1. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  2. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zichen; Rehkämper, Mark; Horner, Tristan J.; Abouchami, Wafa; Middag, Rob; van de Flierd, Tina; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage. The Southern Ocean mixed layer samples from this study and Abouchami et al. (2011) define a clear but broad ‘HNLC trend’ in a plot of εCd114/110 versus [Cd], which is primarily a consequence of isotopic fractionation associated with biological uptake (εCd114/110 is the deviation of the 114Cd/110Cd ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 3108 Cd in parts per 10,000). The trend is especially apparent in comparison to the large range of values shown by a global set of seawater Cd data for shallow depths. The Southern Ocean samples are also distinguished by their relatively high Cd concentrations (typically 0.2 to 0.6 nmol/kg) and moderately fractionated εCd114/110 (generally between +4 and +8) that reflect the limited biological productivity of this region. Detailed assessment reveals fine structure within the ‘HNLC trend’, which may record differences in the biological fractionation factor, different scenarios of closed and open system isotope fractionation, and/or distinct source water compositions. Southern Ocean seawater from depths ⩾1000 m has an average εCd114/110 of +2.5±0.2 (2se, n=16), and together with previous results this establishes a relatively constant εCd114/110 value of +3.0±0.3 (2se, n=27) for global deep waters. Significant isotopic variability was observed at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean. Seawater from 200 m to 400 m in Weddell Sea has high Cd concentrations and εCd114/110 as low as +1, presumably due to remineralization of Cd from biomass that records incomplete nutrient utilization. Antarctic Intermediate Water, which was sampled at 150 to 750 m depth in the Drake Passage, features a distinct Cd isotope

  3. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  4. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  5. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  6. Petrology of greenstones in southern Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Archean greenstones occur in South Pass area and southern Wind River Canyon area in central Wyoming State, U.S.A. These two areas are near about 100 km away from each other and belong to the same sub- province named Wyoming greenstone province (WGP, composed of meta-mafic rocks and meta- sedimentary rocks) (Mueller et al., 1998). The South Pass area is one of the greenstone belts in the southern Wyoming Province and is located in the northwestern part of the WGP. The greenstones (15 km long) occur along the later Archean granitic batholith (Louis Lake batholith, 2.63 Ga) and are composed of meta-pillow lavas, meta diabasic rocks, meta-gabbroic rocks, meta basaltic tuffs, and other meta sediments. The meta diabasic rocks occur as dykes. Banded iron formation lies along the contact between these greenstones and the batholith. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist (Harper et al., 1985; Wilks and Harper, 1997; Frost et al., 2000). However we found evidence indicating limited distribution of the amphibolite facies zone which is restricted along the batholith. Greenstones in this area were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade and the amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by the thermal effects by the batholith. Many characteristics of the protolith are well preserved. The following textures are preserved; pillow lava structure, relic igneous augite grains in meta basaltic rocks, relic igneous brown hornblende grains in meta diabasic rocks, gabbroic textures, and some sedimentary textures. The pillow lavas (5-10 cm x 15-30 cm) are composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (about 0.5 cm wide) and the core domain is rich in carbonate. The southern Wind River Canyon area is located in the northern part of the WGP. Archean greenstones in this area are composed of meta pillow lavas, meta gabbroic rocks, and meta pelites. From south toward north, mafic rocks

  7. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  8. El Niño–Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation events of 1950–2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December–March 1950–2010 over the African Continent south of 15∘S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  9. El Niño-Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Greg

    2015-09-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation events of 1950-2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December-March 1950-2010 over the African Continent south of 15S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  10. Late Pliocene deglaciation of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Carlson, A. E.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Mathias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the response of the remaining Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is an important goal of climate science. The late Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma; formerly the middle Pliocene) may offer a natural quasi-analogue to climate in the upcoming centuries: CO2 levels were ~400 PPM, global surface temperatures were 2-3 degrees higher, and sea level was likely at least 6 m higher than today. Yet little is currently known about the history of the pre-Quaternary Greenland ice sheet. IODP Expedition 303 site U1307 at 2575 m depth on the Eirik Ridge extends back to 3.4 Ma, capturing the late-Pliocene warm period adjacent to the southern Greenland ice sheet. Ice-rafted debris records, interpreted on a paleomagnetic reversal age model, suggest roughly 40 ka cyclicity of between ~5% and ~40% sand. Between ~3.3 and 3.2 Ma there is a significant change in lithology characterized by an abrupt reduction in magnetic susceptibility, during which time the sand fraction remains below 10%. Assuming a magnetite mineralogy, hysteresis ratios support a much finer magnetic assemblage of unique provenance in this interval; Mrs/Ms values of the silt fraction range from ~0.2-0.25, compared to ~0.1 in the sediments above and below. The origin this material will be discussed, although this observation is unambiguously consistent with the disappearance of silt transported from the southern Greenland ice sheet. The lack of Greenlandic source material observed in this interval is unique in the last 3.4 Ma at this location, and may indicate full deglaciation of southern Greenland in the late Pliocene.

  11. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  12. Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  13. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  14. Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of

  15. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  16. South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

    2012-05-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

  17. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  18. Southern California landslides-an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Southern California lies astride a major tectonic plate boundary defined by the San Andreas Fault and numerous related faults that are spread across a broad region. This dynamic tectonic environment has created a spectacular landscape of rugged mountains and steep-walled valleys that compose much of the region’s scenic beauty. Unfortunately, this extraordinary landscape also presents serious geologic hazards. Just as tectonic forces are steadily pushing the landscape upward, gravity is relentlessly tugging it downward. When gravity prevails, landslides can occur.

  19. Ecology of rabies in Southern Rhodesia

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, J. S.

    1954-01-01

    The spread of rabies since 1950 in Southern Rhodesia is described, and its probable causes analysed; the outbreak is attributed chiefly to the vast domestic-dog population, but cases have been noted among many other species of animal. The difficulties encountered in enforcing general control measures are discussed; however, the advent of Flury-strain avianized vaccine has allowed of a successful inoculation campaign which, in spite of some failure in immunization, is satisfactorily controlling the disease in most of the areas involved. PMID:13182596

  20. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  1. River Knick Points of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, R.; Markwick, P.

    2005-12-01

    Successful interpretation of the longitudinal profiles of rivers in southern Africa requires identification of the relative roles of bedrock geology, tectonics, river capture history, climatic change and eustasy. Knick points, expressed as waterfalls or as changes in gradient, are examined for the Kunene, Orange, Zambezi and Shire Rivers utilising Shuttle Imaging Radar topographic data, Gtopo 30 topographic data, Hydro 1K drainage data, satellite imagery, zoogeography and fieldwork. The results provide insights into what can, and cannot, be inferred about the uplift history of Africa.

  2. Laser ablation studies in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Edric; Forbes, A.; Turner, G. R.; Michaelis, Max M.

    2000-08-01

    With the launch of the South African National Laser Centre, new programs will need to be defined. Medical, environmental and industrial laser applications must obviously take top priority -- as opposed to the uranium isotope separation and military applications of the past. We argue however, that a small effort in laser ablation for space propulsion is justifiable, since a few very large CO2 lasers are available and since two tentative propulsion experiments have already been conducted in South Africa. We attempt to give LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) an equatorial and a Southern dimension.

  3. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Southern Africa winter temperature shifts and their link to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo

    2015-11-01

    The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.

  5. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  6. Higher Education In Agriculture: Students at Southern Land-Grant Universities. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkelberger, John E.; And Others

    Students from 24 southern 1862 and 1890 land-grant universities were mailed questionnaires focusing on 5 topics of concern to persons in agricultural education administration, teaching, and counseling--family and personal backgrounds, high school and college experiences, work and employment experiences, personal goals (aspirations), and attitudes…

  7. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  8. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Geomorphical and Geochronological Constrains of the Last Glacial Period in Southern Patagonia, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S. A.; Hein, A.; Gómez, G. N.; Ferrada, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the outer limits of the former Patagonian ice sheet (PIS, ~38-55S) having been extensively mapped, it remains unknown if the Patagonian glaciers fluctuated synchronously or asynchronously during the last glacial period. Previous work has revealed asynchronous spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice-margins at the end of the last glaciation but it is not well understood if the northern and southern parts of the PIS reached concurrent maximum glaciation during the last glacial cycle. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass involving the southern westerly wind belt latitudinal range, which is thought to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the cause of glaciations in Patagonia and the role of the westerlies in climate change. Here, we discuss paleoglaciological and paleoclimatological implications of new 10Be and 14C data obtained from moraines and strategically selected mires in two contiguous glacially molded basins of south Patagonia (48-55S): Torres del Paine (51S) and Última Esperanza (52S). In this region, we focused our 10Be cosmogenic-dating efforts in the previously undated outer moraines deposited (supposedly) during the last glacial cycle. In order to crosscheck cosmogenic data we collected boulders embedded in moraines and cobbles from the main glaciofluvial plains grading from the outermost moraines. Geomorphic and cosmogenic dating affords evidence for glacial maximum conditions occurring between 40-50 ka (ka = thousand of years before present) in southern Patagonia, which is different from other chronologies within southern South America. We obtained 14C basal ages from sites located within moraine depressions and on former paleolake shorelines and thus these may provide key data on deglaciation and debated regional paleolake history.

  10. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  11. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Richards, Kelvin J.

    2011-09-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on timescales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  12. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being β-endosulfan>α-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles.

  13. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  14. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  15. SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Findlay E.

    1960-01-01

    The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

  16. SALT observations of southern post-novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski, M.; Ilkiewicz, K.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. Methods: In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 Å and in Hα+[N ii] narrow-band images. Results: The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value α = 2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12″. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).The spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A119

  17. A CO Survey of the Southern Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronfman, L.; May, J.; Luna, A.

    On December 12th 1982 the 1.2 mSouthern Millimeter Wave Telescope, an instrument specifically designed for CO surveys of molecular clouds in the Southern Galaxy, arrived Cerro Tololo after being constructed and tested atop the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies by Columbia University staff and students, and by Universidad de Chile and NASA personnel. The telescope saw first light on December 22nd 1982, and has been operational ever since. During these years we have completed deep CO surveys of the Carina arm (Grabelsky et al. 1987), the IV galactic quadrant (Bronfman et al. 1988), the III galactic quadrant (May et al. 1993), and the galactic center (Bitran et al. 1997), contributing with a major fraction of the presently available galactic CO data. When combined with CO surveys of the I and II galactic quadrants obtained with its twin instrument, the Northern 1.2m Millimeter Wave Telescope now at the Center for Astrophysics, these data provided for the first time a complete, well sampled, and homogeneous picture of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way.

  18. Wood energy in eastern and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P. ); Soussan, J. ); Munslow, B. ); Spence, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.

  19. Observations of change in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stan

    2006-07-15

    The Southern Ocean has been in a state of disequilibrium with its atmosphere and cryosphere during recent decades. Ocean station and drifting float observations have revealed rising temperatures in the upper 3000m. Salinity has declined in intermediate waters and more rapidly in the sparsely sampled high latitudes. Dissolved oxygen levels may also have decreased, but measurement accuracy is inconsistent. Sea ice area increased from 1979 to 1998, particularly in the Ross Sea, while a decline in ice extent since the early 1970s has been led by the Amundsen-Bellingshausen sector. Fresher waters with lower oxygen isotope content on the Pacific-Antarctic continental shelf are consistent with increased melting of continental ice. Newly forming bottom water has become colder and less salty downstream from that region, but generally warmer in the Weddell Sea. Many ice shelves have retreated or thinned, but others have grown and no trend is apparent in the large iceberg calving rate. Warming and isotherm shoaling within the polar gyres may result in part from changes in the Southern Annular Mode, which could facilitate deep-water access to the continental shelves. Sea-level rise over the past half century has a strong eustatic component and has recently accelerated. Observations over longer periods and with better spatial coverage are needed to better understand the processes causing these changes and their links to the Antarctic ice sheet. PMID:16782605

  20. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  1. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  2. 76 FR 34859 - Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race... during the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will..., 2011 Augusta Southern Nationals, Inc. is hosting the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race,...

  3. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  4. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  5. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  6. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  7. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

  9. Southern Rural Development Center Annual Progress Report, FY 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    Twenty major activities in fiscal year (FY) 1984 fulfilled the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) obligation to focus specifically on the rural problems of the region and to support the community development efforts of 29 land-grant universities in 13 southern states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. During FY84 SRDC had an active role…

  10. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  12. 77 FR 61595 - Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Southern Illinois Power Cooperative filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  13. 77 FR 47059 - Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Southern Illinois Power Cooperative filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for...

  14. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  15. ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 78 FR 22869 - Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Southern California Gas Company (``SoCalGas'') filed two amendments to its November 21, 2012, petition for rate approval. SoCalGas states that the first amendment is to implement, pursuant...

  17. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  18. 15. Interior oblique view, original Office, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior oblique view, original Office, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90m lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling and wainscot. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  19. Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

  20. 77 FR 15994 - Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Forest Service Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting via teleconference. SUMMARY: The Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory... other items of interest related to the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act of 2004. A final...

  1. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  2. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California. 

  3. 19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For Renewal of Br. 210-C Near Tehama, Sac. Division, Scale 1' = 40' & 1/4' = 1'-0', Sept. 1927, M.W.D., Drawing 5935, Sheet 2.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  4. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination...

  5. 77 FR 49776 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice...

  6. 75 FR 30772 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  7. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  8. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  9. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  10. 6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (135mm lens). The tall freestanding smokestack from the Boiler Room originally stood adjacent to this end of the building. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (90mm lens). The silver stacks suspended from the ceiling in the background mark the former location of the boilers, and served as steam vents. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 33 CFR 167.403 - Off San Francisco: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Southern approach. 167.403 Section 167.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.403 Off San Francisco: Southern...

  13. 33 CFR 167.403 - Off San Francisco: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Southern approach. 167.403 Section 167.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.403 Off San Francisco: Southern...

  14. Dust from southern Africa: rate of emission and biogeochemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune rea...

  15. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  16. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  17. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Franco, José G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  18. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ≤ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

  19. South: in the mild southern tradition

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trends in the development of current and future energy resources in the southern states of the U.S. are reviewed. The south has the advantages of a mild climate and abundant sources of natural gas, coal, and hydro power, however, the supply and distribution of energy are primarily controlled by private and federal monopolies. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a program for funding 100,000 solar domestic hot water systems plus low interest loans for wood heaters, zero interest conservation loans, and financing of passive solar homes. TVA will also construct a large passive solar complex. Other applications of solar technology discussed include installation in a brewery, apartment buildings, abandoned city housing, a duplex, an environmental center, a planned community, and a kiln company.

  20. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  1. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  2. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  3. Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    The effect of ocean biological productivity on marine clouds is explored over a large phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean with the use of remotely sensed data. Cloud droplet number concentration over the bloom was twice what it was away from the bloom, and cloud effective radius was reduced by 30%. The resulting change in the short-wave radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere was -15 watts per square meter, comparable to the aerosol indirect effect over highly polluted regions. This observed impact of phytoplankton on clouds is attributed to changes in the size distribution and chemical composition of cloud condensation nuclei. We propose that secondary organic aerosol, formed from the oxidation of phytoplankton-produced isoprene, can affect chemical composition of marine cloud condensation nuclei and influence cloud droplet number. Model simulations support this hypothesis, indicating that 100% of the observed changes in cloud properties can be attributed to the isoprene secondary organic aerosol.

  4. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  6. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  7. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings.

  8. Public water supplies in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Rowley, J.H.

    1950-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 42 counties of southern Texas, extending from the Rio Grande northward to the northern boundaries of Kinney, Uvalde, Bandera, Kendall, and Hays Counties and eastward to the eastern boundaries of Caldwell, Gonzales, DeWitt, Victoria, and Calhoun Counties. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 114 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal; source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following information also is given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yield of the wells and records of water levels, where they are available.

  9. Photographic surveys of the southern sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of the UK 1.2 meter Schmidt telescope are described. Plates taken with this instrument are in two categories, those for systematic sky surveys and those taken at the request of research users. A collaborative project with the European Southern Observatory was undertaken to obtain a two-color survey of the sky south of -20 deg declination to complement the Palomar survey. A near infrared survey of the Galactic Plane and the Megallanic Clouds is being done. The area south of -20 deg and the zone between 0 deg and -15 deg are also being surveyed. Pending a decision on survey parameters, all available A quality prism plates are being retained to form a basis for systematic survey. Nearly half the plates taken on a service basis for the UK astronomical community are to fulfill nonsurvey requests. Plates taken for surveys which are not of A grade quality are also made available for research purposes.

  10. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  11. Sediment thickness in the southern Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.D.; Grantz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data are used, in conjunction with deep crustal seismic refraction data, to estimate the thickness of sediments in the southern Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. The sediments are interpreted to be of Hauterivian (mid-Early Cretaceous) to Holocene age. Comparison of the seismic reflection character of seismic reflections in the study area with that in other basins indicates that a base-of-sediment-top of oceanic layer 2 reflection is not present above the depth at which the water-bottom multiple obscures all deeper arrivals, which is in conflict with the conclusions drawn from aeromagnetic, refraction, and other reflection studies. Seismic velocity structure, determined from the reflection data, indicates that the reflections above the multiple are from sedimentary strata. In the absence of seismic reflection evidence for the top of layer 2 above the multiple, we estimate total sediment thickness by using the layer 3 refractions and subtracting an average assumed layer 2 thickness from the top of layer 3. Assuming that an average thickness of oceanic layer 2 (1.4 km) overlies layer 3 in the southern Canada Basin, sediment thickness in the study area is estimated to range between 6.5 km where water depth is 3.8 km to greater than 11 km where the water depth is 2 km. This is nearly double that of any previous estimates and should have a significant effect on calculations such as the age of Canada Basin, regional heat flow, and long-term sedimentation rates. ?? 1990.

  12. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  13. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

    Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

    Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

    These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

  14. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  15. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%) and high-Ti types in the southern and northern part of the province, respectively, detailed analyses of lava flow sequences sampled mostly in drill cores allowed definition of six main groups of chemically distinct flow units. The chemical and possible age differences among these units were then used to define the global time-related evolution of Paranà basaltic magmatism and involvement of distinct mantle-source components. Newly sampled outcropping lava flow sequences from the southern Paranà do however only partially support this picture. Our new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data show that high- and low-Ti basaltic flows are interlayered. In particular, Pitanga type high-Ti basalts are interlayered with Gramado and Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  16. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  17. Southern P indices, water quality data, and modeling (APEX, APLE, and TBET) results: a comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) indices in the southern United States frequently produce different recommendations for similar conditions. After assembling data from benchmark southern sites (Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas), land treatment information was used in the 12 southern...

  18. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  19. 76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the translocation of southern sea otters...

  20. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  1. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    PubMed

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  2. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  3. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  4. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... to Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C. (ABS) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between...

  5. Potential Dust Emissions from Sources in the Southern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere currently exhibits low levels of atmospheric dust concentrations relative to the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research suggests that dust concentrations could, however, increase as a result of loss of vegetation cover in the Southern Kalahari and the Mallee. Disturbances resulting from grazing and agriculture are identified as such drivers of land use change in these regions. While studies on the importance of atmospheric dust in global-scale processes are abundant, little has been done to locate the potential dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere because potential new sources are by definition inactive and are undetected in satellite images. To this end, using a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, we assess that the sediments collected from the dunefields in the Southern Kalahari and Mallee can emit substantial amount of dust, are rich in soluble iron and dust from these sources would reach the Southern Ocean. It is suggested that the supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. Thus intensification of land use can potentially make these regions an important source of iron given their proximity to the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts.

  6. Southern Africa seismic structure and source studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    1998-09-01

    The upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern Africa is investigated using travel time and waveform data. Waveform and travel time data used in this study come mainly from a large mine tremor in South Africa (msb{b} 5.6) recorded on stations of the southern Africa and the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment. Auxiliary data along similar profiles are obtained from other moderate events within eastern and southern Africa. The waveform data from the large tremor show upper mantle triplications for both the 400 and 670-km discontinuities between 18sp° and 27sp° distance. The most notable feature of the data is a large, late P phase that propagates to at least 27sp°. This phase is striking because of its late arrival time (as much as 15 seconds after direct P at 27sp°) and high amplitude relative to the first arrival. Travel times from all available stations are used to invert for the P wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth and S wave velocity structure down to 200 km using the Wiechert-Herglotz (W-H) inversion technique. The P wave velocities from the uppermost mantle down to 300 km are as much as 3% higher than the global average and are slightly slower than the global average between 300 and 400 km depths. The velocity gradient between 300 and 400 km is 0.0015 1/s. The S wave travel time data yield fast velocities above 200-km depth. The S wave velocity structure appears inconsistent with the P wave structure model indicating varying Poisson's ratio in the upper mantle. Little evidence is found for a pronounced upper mantle low velocity zone. Both sharp and gradual-change 400-km discontinuities are favored by the waveform data. The 670-km discontinuity appears as a gradual-change zone. The source mechanism of the mb 5.6 mining tremor itself is important for seismic discrimination and insight into mining tremor sources. Source parameters for this event as well as some other large mining tremors from the South African gold mines are studied

  7. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  8. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Southern Puna Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto Mory, F. J.; Sandvol, E. A.; Kay, S. M.; Comte, D.; Alvarado, P. M.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The central Andean plateau offers an excellent natural laboratory to study mantle flow along an active continental margin as well as the link between plateau uplift and lithospheric delamination. The region between 25°S to 28°S, known as the southern Puna plateau, is characterized by a number of anomalous features possibly indicative of delamination. A total of 43 US and 30 German broadband three component seismic stations were deployed across the southern Puna plateau for approximately two years. The region of study has the advantage of deep and intermediate depth seismicity beneath the array that can be used to constrain the depth distribution of seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Teleseismic shear wave splitting results show a transition from east-west fast directions in the east of the array to east-west and north-south in the middle of the array, beneath Galan, and to predominantly north-south in the west part of the array. Azimuthal analysis of local events shows that the events coming from the North of the array split predominantely in the west-south north-east direction. The events coming from the south show splitting into the south-east north-west. Events coming from the West and East show predominant slab parallel splitting. Furthermore, a comparison of the teleseismic and local splitting lag times would suggest the presence of a significant amount of inter- or sub-slab anisotropy. Surface wave measurements indicate the presence of a high velocity block beneath Galan, a very large ignimbrite volcanic center, at depths between 190km (0.007 Hz) and 150 km (0.009 Hz). This can be interpreted as a delaminated block that has resulted in widespread crustal melting. At those same depths there are two high velocity zones, south east and north west of vicuña pampa. At 105 km (0.0125 Hz) we start to see the slab which seems to be deeping to the south. A low velocity zone further east could be responsible for the flatness of the slab at 26°S. At shallower

  9. Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in

  10. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal

  11. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  12. Properties of aftershock sequences in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Jones, Lucile M.

    1991-07-01

    The temporal behavior of 39 aftershock sequences in southern California, 1933-1988, was modeled by the modified Omori relation. Minimum magnitudes for completeness of each sequence catalog were determined, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters K, p, and c, with the standard errors on each, were determined by the Ogata algorithm. The b value of each sequence was also calculated. Many of the active faults in the region, both strike slip and thrust, were sampled. The p values were graded in terms of the size of the standard error relative to the p value itself. Most of the sequences were modeled well by the Omori relation. Many of the sequences had p values close to the mean of the whole data set, 1.11±0.25, but values significantly different from the mean, as low as 0.7 and as high as 1.8, exist. No correlation of p with either the b value of the sequence or the mainshock magnitude was found. The results suggest a direct correlation of p values is with surface heat flow, with high values in the Salton Trough (high heat flow) and one low value in the San Bernardino Mountains and on the edge of the Ventura Basin (both low heat flow). The large fraction of the sequences with p values near the mean are at locations where the heat flow is near the regional mean, 74 mW/m2. If the hypothesis that aftershock decay rate is controlled by temperature at depth is valid, the effects of other factors such as heterogeneity of the fault zone properties are superimposed on the background rate determined by temperature. Surface heat flow is taken as an indicator of crustal temperature at hypocentral depths, but the effects on heat flow of convective heat transport and variations in near-surface thermal conductivity invalidate any simple association of local variations in heat flow with details of the subsurface temperature distribution. The interpretation is that higher temperatures in the aftershock source volume caused shortened stress relaxation times in the fault

  13. Distribution of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, P.S.; Da Costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Huchra, J.P.; Latham, D.W. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-03-01

    Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies. 29 refs.

  14. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  15. Hydrocarbon prospects offshore southern West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Bate, K.J.; Whittaker, R.C. )

    1996-01-01

    Interpretation of regional seismic data acquired in the 1990s together with a re-appraisal of the wells drilled in the 1970s has lead to an appreciation that the southern West Greenland Basin is underexplored and may contain large quantities of hydrocarbons. The regional structure and stratigraphy of the basin has been worked out. An early phase of extension, probably in the Early Cretaceous, was followed by a thermal subsidence phase in the Late Cretaceous during which thick mudstones were deposited. Renewed extension and strike-slip faulting associated with the onset of sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea in the Early Tertiary lead to the formation of large structures capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons. Flat spots have been identified in several prospects in the Fylla Structural Complex, which is presently open for licensing, and other large structural traps exist on the Kang[cflx a]miut Ridge and in the Ikermiut area. Stratigraphic traps exist in a large syn-rift fan of mid-Cretaceous age and in Lower Tertiary basin-floor fans. All of these after structures are found in an area with an [open quotes]open-door[close quotes] licensing policy.

  16. Hydrocarbon prospects offshore southern West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Bate, K.J.; Whittaker, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Interpretation of regional seismic data acquired in the 1990s together with a re-appraisal of the wells drilled in the 1970s has lead to an appreciation that the southern West Greenland Basin is underexplored and may contain large quantities of hydrocarbons. The regional structure and stratigraphy of the basin has been worked out. An early phase of extension, probably in the Early Cretaceous, was followed by a thermal subsidence phase in the Late Cretaceous during which thick mudstones were deposited. Renewed extension and strike-slip faulting associated with the onset of sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea in the Early Tertiary lead to the formation of large structures capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons. Flat spots have been identified in several prospects in the Fylla Structural Complex, which is presently open for licensing, and other large structural traps exist on the Kang{cflx a}miut Ridge and in the Ikermiut area. Stratigraphic traps exist in a large syn-rift fan of mid-Cretaceous age and in Lower Tertiary basin-floor fans. All of these after structures are found in an area with an {open_quotes}open-door{close_quotes} licensing policy.

  17. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  18. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  19. A Southern Ocean mode of multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bars, D.; Viebahn, J. P.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    A 250 year simulation of a strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model reveals a new mode of intrinsic multidecadal variability, the Southern Ocean Mode (SOM), with a period of 40-50 year. The peak-to-peak difference in the global ocean heat content within a multidecadal cycle is up to 60 ZJ. This change results from surface heat flux variations in the South Atlantic and propagation of temperature anomalies along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and into the Weddell gyre around 30°E. The temperature anomalies propagate as deep as 5000 m along the isopycnals between 50°S and 30°S and induce multidecadal changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. A positive feedback loop between the generation of eddies through baroclinic instability and the dynamics of the mean circulation is essential for the existence of the SOM. The dominant physics appears similar to that responsible for variability found in a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving model. This combined with the fact that the SOM is not found in a noneddying version of the same global POP model further suggests that eddy processes are crucial for its existence and/or excitation.

  20. Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

  1. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  2. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  3. Carboniferous sedimentation and tectonics in southern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.P.; Crossley, R.; Aktas, G.; Matthews, S.J.; Boudda, A.

    1988-08-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of southern Morocco record the gradual change from the extensional tectonic style of the early Paleozoic to a compressional regime. During the Tournaisian and early Visean, northwest compression formed a rising anticline in the Anti-Atlas, which provided sediments to shallow marine basins formed in the flanking synclines. During the late Visean, tectonic activity increased markedly, and northward-downthrowing normal/oblique slip faulting formed submarine fault scarps. Turbidity currents and debris flows together with giant exotic blocks were shed northward from these scarps. The turbidity currents were deflected eastward to flow down the axes of these small easterly plunging marine basins. A late Visean phase of minor folding with locally developed cleavage and quartz veining closed these basins. The folded sequences are unconformably overlain by uppermost Visean fluvial sediments deposited from northward and eastward-flowing rivers. During the Pennsylvanian, collisional tectonics recorded in the Moroccan Meseta to the north were probably responsible for thrust faulting and the formation of a high-angle cleavage. Thick (up to 4.5 km) sandstones and conglomerates with red mudstones, paleosols, and coals are preserved on the fringes of the area. These were deposited by southeast-flowing rivers and are interpreted as the eroded remnants of a syn-postorogenic molasse deposited in a major foredeep south of the main orogen.

  4. Reconnaissance study of stream sedimentation, southern Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study uses limited available data to estimate sediment yields for three basins in southern Guam. The flow-duration sediment-rating curve method, reservoir survey data, and Pacific southwest Inter-Agency Committee (PSIAC) formula were used. Daily suspended-sediment samples were collected at USGS gaging stations on the Ylig and Ugum Rivers for one year. Intermittent samples were collected from the Talofofo River for six months. Although limited, these data are used in the flow-duration sediment-rating-curve method to estimate mean suspended-sediment yields. Fena Reservoir sedimentation data are used to test the applicability of the PSIAC formula in the three basins. Estimates of suspended-sediment yields are 467 to 845, 678 to 977, and 634 to 855 tons per year per square mile for the Talofofo, Ylig, and Ugum basins, respectively. PSIAC estimates of total sediment yield are 1,200 tons/yr/mi2 for the Talofofo, 1,385 tons/yr/mi2 for the Ylig, and 1,210 tons/yr/mi2 for the Ugum basins. These values are comparable to estimates of sediment yields from several similar basins on Oahu, Hawaii. It appears that the PSIAC method can be a useful tool in estimating sediment yields in some tropical areas. (USGS)

  5. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  6. Observations of southern emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of 1929 stars showing H-alpha emission on photographic plates is presented which covers the entire southern sky south of declination -25 deg to a red limiting magnitude of about 11.0. The catalog provides previous designations of known emission-line stars equatorial (1900) and galactic coordinates, visual and photographic magnitudes, H-alpha emission parameters, spectral types, and notes on unusual spectral features. The objects listed include 16 M stars, 25 S stars, 37 carbon stars, 20 symbiotic stars, 40 confirmed or suspected T Tauri stars, 16 novae, 14 planetary nebulae, 11 P Cygni stars, 9 Bep stars, 87 confirmed or suspected Wolf-Rayet stars, and 26 'peculiar' stars. Two new T associations are discovered, one in Lupus and one in Chamaeleon. Objects with variations in continuum or H-alpha intensity are noted, and the distribution by spectral type is analyzed. It is found that the sky distribution of these emission-line stars shows significant concentrations in the region of the small Sagittarius cloud and in the Carina region.

  7. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  8. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  9. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Paul T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  10. Hydrocarbon entrapment in Trenton of southern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Trevail, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Middle Ordovician Trenton strata in southern Ontario are represented by a generally transgressive sequence that reflects a wide spectrum of carbonate environments from tidal flat, through lagoon and shoal, into deeper shelf carbonates. Virtually all Ordovician production in Ontario is associated with structural deformation related to rejuvenation of a Precambrian fracture framework triggered by orogenic events in the nearby Appalachian orogene. The reservoirs are characterized by the replacement of original bioclastic limestone beds by more or less discontinuous lenses of fine to medium-grained, light to medium-brown crystalline dolostone. Pools generally are linear, following the trend of the associated fracture. Six of the 18 known Ordovician pools in Ontario are located in Essex County. A detailed study of the geology and reservoirs confirmed the close association of fracturing, dolomitization, and hydrocarbon entrapment. Representative samples of well cuttings from 20 wells were analyzed by XRD (x-ray defraction) to determine calcite-dolomite ratios. As expected, low ratios were present in the producing reservoirs. Partially dolomitized zones were revealed in wells in close proximity to fractures. Formation water originating in the underlying Cambrian sandstones was probably the main dolomitizing agent as it migrated up through the fracture. Dolomitization enhanced already existing porosity within the bioclastic zones.

  11. Intensifying groundwater acidification at Birkenes, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice

    1995-08-01

    Groundwater chemical data from Birkenes, southern Norway, collected during the period October 1980 to November 1993, reveal intensifying acidification in the 1990s, as evidenced by decreases in pH, acid-neutralising capacity and alkalinity, and increases in hardness/alkalinity ratio, 'acidification', nitrate, non-marine sulphate (SO 4∗), non-marine hardness (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) and dissolved aluminium. The whole monitoring period is characterised by slopes of four or more on a plot of (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) vs. alkalinity. Owing to its proximity to the sea, the Birkenes catchment receives seasalt-influenced precipitation, which results in episodic, natural acidification of the groundwater via cation exchange of marine Na + with soil-bound H + and/or Al 3+. However, it is uncertain whether all of the recent groundwater acidification can be attributed to intensifying seasalt deposition alone: the steep slopes on the (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) vs. alkalinity plot and the increase in groundwater SO 4∗ suggest that strong acids, of possible anthropogenic origin, may be involved. Additionally, seasalt deposition appears not to have increased during the 1990s: Cl - content in precipitation has not increased significantly and river water pH has not decreased significantly over the period 1990-1993. The suggestion is made that the observed intensification in groundwater acidification at Birkenes partly results from the exhaustion or weakening of an acid buffering system caused by soil acidification, under persisting, even if abating, anthropogenic acid loading.

  12. Southern African NGOs seize the initiative.

    PubMed

    Morna, C L

    1990-11-01

    The Southern African Network of AIDS Service Organizations (SANASO) was begun at a conference in Harare, Zimbabwe in May 1990, marking the 1st local unification of Non-Governmental agencies in AIDS prevention and care. This region has about 20% of Africa's reported AIDS cases, but has seen an 8-fold increase in 2 years. The goals of the organization are to facilitate sharing of information, ideas and experiences, to promote cooperation among the NGOs, to move toward common positions on AIDS and to articulate to the rest of the world the needs of the region as regards AIDS. While the incidence ranges from 6/million in Lesotho, to 906/million in Malawi, the countries represented have varied but pressing political and economic situations making HIV infection a serious threat. Examples are economic contraction with reduced funding of health and education; rapid urbanization; wars in Angola and Mozambique, with associated sexual abuse, refugees and displaced people; and in South Africa Apartheid, unemployment, forced relocation, violence and even suspicion of the government's AIDS program. Discussions on how the NGOs in particular can help change peoples' behavior resulted in the suggestion that they involve People With AIDS (PWA), to give the disease "a face" and lessen fear and alienation. The best example of such a successful approach is the home-based care instituted by Zambia's Chikankata Salvation Army Mission Hospital. PMID:12343148

  13. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  15. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  16. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  17. Stormwater contaminant loading following southern California wildfires.

    PubMed

    Stein, Eric D; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hogue, Terri S; Burke, Megan P; Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-11-01

    Contaminant loading associated with stormwater runoff from recently burned areas is poorly understood, despite the fact that it has the potential to affect downstream water quality. The goal of the present study is to assess regional patterns of runoff and contaminant loading from wildfires in urban fringe areas of southern California. Postfire stormwater runoff was sampled from five wildfires that each burned between 115 and 658 km(2) of natural open space between 2003 and 2009. Between two and five storm events were sampled per site over the first one to two years following the fires for basic constituents, metals, nutrients, total suspended solids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were compared to data from 16 unburned natural areas and six developed sites. Mean copper, lead, and zinc flux (kg/km(2)) were between 112- and 736-fold higher from burned catchments and total phosphorus was up to 921-fold higher compared to unburned natural areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon flux was four times greater from burned areas than from adjacent urban areas. Ash fallout on nearby unburned watersheds also resulted in a threefold increase in metals and PAHs. Attenuation of elevated concentration and flux values appears to be driven mainly by rainfall magnitude. Contaminant loading from burned landscapes has the potential to be a substantial contribution to the total annual load to downstream areas in the first several years following fires.

  18. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  19. BRCA1 mutations in southern England.

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, D. M.; Englefield, P.; Soulby, M. A.; Campbell, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    If genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition is to become available within a public health care system there needs to be a rational and cost-effective approach to mutation analysis. We have screened for BRCA1 mutations in 230 women with breast cancer, all from the Wessex region of southern England, in order to establish the parameters on which to base a cost-effective regional mutation analysis strategy. Truncating mutations were detected in 10/155 (6.5%) consecutive cases selected only for diagnosis under the age of 40 (nine of these ten women had a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer), 3/61 (4.9%) bilateral-breast cancer cases (all three mutations occurring among women for whom the first cancer was diagnosed under 40 years) and 8/30 (26.6%) breast cancer cases presenting to the genetics clinic (for whom a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer was present). Ten different mutations were detected in 17 families, but three of these accounted for 10/17 (59%) of the families. The cost of screening the population for mutations in the entire BRCA1 gene is unacceptably high. However, the cost of screening a carefully selected patient cohort is low, the risk of misinterpretation much less and the potential clinical benefits clearer. PMID:9649133

  20. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  1. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  2. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  3. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  4. Epidemiology of Glomerular Disease in Southern Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Murugapandian, Sangeetha; Mansour, Iyad; Hudeeb, Mohammad; Hamed, Khaled; Hammode, Emad; Bijin, Babitha; Daheshpour, Sepehr; Thajudeen, Bijin; Kadambi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glomerulonephritis stands third in terms of the etiologies for end-stage kidney disease in the USA. The aim of this study was to look at the patterns of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis based on data from a single center. Kidney biopsy specimens of all patients above the age of 18 years, over a 10-year period, who had diagnosis of nondiabetic glomerular disease, were selected for the study. The most common histopathological diagnosis was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (22.25%, 158/710) followed by membranous nephropathy (20.28%, 144/710) and immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (19.71%, 140/710). There was male preponderance in all histological variants except IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. The race distribution was uneven, and all histological variants, except minimal change disease and lupus nephritis, were more commonly seen in whites. In a separate analysis of the histological pattern in Hispanics, lupus nephritis was the most common pathology (28.70%, 62/216) followed by FSGS (18.05%, 39/216). In American Indian population, the most common pathology was IgA nephropathy (33.33%, 8/24) followed by FSGS (16.67%, 4/24). This study highlights the histopathological patterns of glomerular disease in southern Arizona. The data suggest regional and ethnic variations in glomerular disease that may point towards genetic or environmental influence in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. PMID:27149502

  5. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  6. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

  7. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  8. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Charles, Roxanne A; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E; Dubey, J P; Shock, Barbara C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    From 2008 to 2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence = 80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in seven of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p = 0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p = 0.0068 and p =0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance.

  9. Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year

  10. 11. Southern bridge abutment and arches, taken from old bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Southern bridge abutment and arches, taken from old bridge abutment looking south. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  11. Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159529.html Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says Only 6 in 10 Americans covered by state or local laws banning smoking in public places To use the sharing features ...

  12. TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  13. 65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. [Experience with amalgams manufactured by Southern Dental Industries (Australia)].

    PubMed

    Tarján, I; Gábris, K; Balaton, P; Dénes, J

    1990-09-01

    The gamma 2 phaseless amalgam of the firm Southern Dental Industries (SDI) was tested. None of the 205 fillings showed level deviations, unevenness, secondary caries and breakage. A minimum size gap was found in 2 cases.

  15. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  16. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  17. 45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK TRUSSES AND CORRUGATED METAL SHEETING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE PORTAL OF COVERTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE PORTAL OF COVERTS CROSSING BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  19. 2. WIDEANGLE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WIDE-ANGLE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS CROSSING BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  20. 5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  1. Jim Tramel: radical Southerner for social justice, rip.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig; Bruskin, Gene

    2003-01-01

    Jim Tramel, who died in December 2002, spent his life working for social justice. Here, friends and colleagues remember him as a Southern radical who organized on behalf of battles against classism, racism, and sexism.

  2. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PARKWAY (GWMP), LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  3. 14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK FROM THE CENTRAL BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE SHOWN IN PA-474-13. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  4. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2015-09-11

    Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized.

  5. General view, showing detail atop hemi circle at southern end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, showing detail atop hemi circle at southern end of Memorial Avenue. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; Altamont Creek at left between railroad and bridge; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  8. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; note collision walls, provision for two tracks; view to north-northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  9. 2. View northwest, east wall and south facade Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest, east wall and south facade - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Bakery, Between Harris & Black Avenues 0.1 mile west of McClellan Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  10. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  11. 22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND WINDOWS. EARLY TENSION DEVICE VISIBLE ABOVE DOORWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  12. 31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR OF BUILDING 1. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. Health Care Issues in Southern Rural Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.

    1986-01-01

    High infant and maternal mortality, poverty, isolation, a shortage of health professionals, inadequate health care facilities, and difficult geographic access to care are some of the health-related problems that plague Black rural southerners. (GC)

  14. 36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. Perspective view from northwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. Perspective view from south Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from south - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  17. Perspective view from southwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from southwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. Perspective view from east Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from east - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. Elevation of south facade with scale Southern Branch of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of south facade with scale - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  20. Perspective view from south Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from south - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 16, Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  1. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. View along Colorado and southern railroad, showing warehouse building 253 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along Colorado and southern railroad, showing warehouse building 253 in left foreground and building 262 in background. View to east. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  3. 26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  4. 21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  5. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  6. View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill holes on face - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  7. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  9. BOILER HOUSE AND STEAM TURBINE STATION (SOUTHERN DIVISION). PHOTOCOPY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILER HOUSE AND STEAM TURBINE STATION (SOUTHERN DIVISION). PHOTOCOPY FROM c. 1910 VIEW LOOKING EAST. From the collection of the Manchester Historic Association, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  10. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK, LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING. FACING WEST. - Mercer County Bridge No. 2631, Spanning Pine Run at Cribbs Road, Mercer, Mercer County, PA

  11. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING STEEL CROSSBEAMS, TORSIONAL DIAGONAL STRUTS, AND WOODEN STRINGERS. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  12. 3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN FACE OF THE WATER TOWER STRUCTURE - Town of Lake Water Tower & Municipal Building, 4001 South Sixth Street, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  13. 17. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the south. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. 20. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park near Indiana encampment, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  15. 23. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. 18. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Sixth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the east. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. 26. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, looking to the SW back to eighth bridge. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  18. 19. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Seventh Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park near Indiana encampment, deck view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  19. 24. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the north. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  20. 22. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Eighth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, elevation view to the NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  1. 25. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Ninth Melan Bridge on tour route, in southern area of park, deck view to the east. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  2. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  3. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. 20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL CONNECTING WITH CENTRAL ROOM. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. 60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  8. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  9. The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D. . Inst. for Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

  10. North Atlantic Deep Water cools the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1992-08-01

    A standard explanation for coupling climate variations in the northern and southern hemispheres involves fluctuations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production. However, I suggest that the "NADW-Antarctic" connection may work opposite to that conjectured by many investigators; that is, when NADW production rates are high, southern hemisphere temperatures decrease rather than increase. The revised interpretation is consistent with observations and ocean modeling studies which demonstrate that, although upwelling of relatively warm NADW water around Antarctica promotes sea ice meltback, a second and more important negative feedback is also operating. In order to conserve volume, southward export of NADW across the equator is accompanied by import of an equivalent volume of considerably warmer water from shallower oceanic layers in the South Atlantic. The southern hemisphere loses heat as a result of this exchange. The hemispherically averaged net heat loss may be as high as 4 W/m², an amount comparable to a CO2 doubling. It is suggested that this more comprehensive view of the role of NADW may explain both decadal-scale variations in South Atlantic sea surface temperatures in this century and two significant problems in Pleistocene climatology: why southern hemisphere temperatures decreased before CO2 levels decreased at the end of the last interglacial and why southern hemisphere temperature changes precede changes in northern hemisphere ice volume. It is shown that when NADW production was reinitiated during the last interglacial (120,000 B.P.), high-latitude southern hemisphere temperatures decreased. The estimated magnitude of altered southern hemisphere heat export is comparable to the ice-age CO2 signal and may be able to account for the observed cooling even when CO2 levels were high. When cast into a frequency domain framework, this interpretation may also help explain why southern hemisphere temperatures lead global ice volume changes.

  11. Southern Hemisphere rainfall variability over the past 200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergis, Joëlle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an analysis of three palaeoclimate rainfall reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere regions of south-eastern Australia (SEA), southern South Africa (SAF) and southern South America (SSA). We provide a first comparison of rainfall variations in these three regions over the past two centuries, with a focus on identifying synchronous wet and dry periods. Despite the uncertainties associated with the spatial and temporal limitations of the rainfall reconstructions, we find evidence of dynamically-forced climate influences. An investigation of the twentieth century relationship between regional rainfall and the large-scale climate circulation features of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean regions revealed that Indo-Pacific variations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole dominate rainfall variability in SEA and SAF, while the higher latitude Southern Annular Mode (SAM) exerts a greater influence in SSA. An assessment of the stability of the regional rainfall-climate circulation modes over the past two centuries revealed a number of non-stationarities, the most notable of which occurs during the early nineteenth century around 1820. This corresponds to a time when the influence of ENSO on SEA, SAF and SSA rainfall weakens and there is a strengthening of the influence of SAM. We conclude by advocating the use of long-term palaeoclimate data to estimate decadal rainfall variability for future water resource management.

  12. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  13. 77 FR 59184 - Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC, filed a... committed capacity on the Southern Lights Pipeline, as set forth in Section 6.06 of the Southern...

  14. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... City, Missouri. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to replace 3 miles of 12-inch diameter XT...

  15. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... is on file with the Commission and open for public inspection. Specifically, Southern Star...

  16. 76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... buffer zone at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas....

  17. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... Oklahoma and Logan Counties, Oklahoma (Line V). Southern Star states that due to the age of Line V and...

  18. 75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application July 8, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700... certificate issued on May 20, 2010 in docket number CP10-2-000. Specifically, Southern Star proposes...

  19. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  20. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star...). Southern Star seeks authorization to increase the Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of its Waynoka...

  1. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  2. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star..., Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties, Kansas. Southern Star's prior notice request is more fully set forth...

  3. 78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... in Johnson and Pettis Counties, Missouri, under authorization issued to Southern Star in Docket...

  4. 77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... buffer zone by 160 acres at Southern Star's existing McLouth Gas Storage Field in Jefferson...

  5. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209 at...

  6. Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 μm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_⊙ (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_⊙ (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration

  7. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  8. Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone, Part II: Southern Hemisphere. Part 2; Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2008-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of extratropical O-3 in the SH is characterized by four main modes, which account for 75% of the total variance. The first two leading modes are approximately zonally symmetric and relate to the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the quasi-biennial oscillation. The third and fourth modes exhibit wavenumber-1 structures. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, the third and fourth are nor related to stationary waves. Similar results obtained for the 30 100-hPa geopotential thickness.The decreasing O3 trend in the SH is captured in the first mode. The largest trend is at the South Pole, with value similar to-2 Dobson Units (DU)/yr. Both the spatial pattern and trends in the column ozone are captured by the Goddard Earth Observation System chemistry-climate model (GEOS-CCM) in the SH.

  9. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  10. Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the highlands of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern highlands, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.

  11. Tulbaghia--A Southern African Phytomedicine.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Gibson, Diana; Hughes, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The phytomedicine Tulbaghia consists of the fresh or dried subterranean organs of various Tulbaghia species. The genus is endemic to Southern Africa and includes about 20 species, of which only T. alliacea and T. capensis are naturally found in the winter rainfall climate area (the Western Cape). The genus forms part of the Alliaceae family and is a geophyte (plants with an underground perennation organ and leaves that die back annually). Their habitat can range from semi-desert to wet and boggy terrain. Wild garlic is most commonly prepared as an infusion or boiled in water and taken orally. Externally, as a medicated bath, wild garlic is used to treat paralysis and rheumatism and to reduce the temperature in a feverish patient. Internally, rhizome or bulb preparations are taken orally to treat fever; as a remedy for colds and influenza, asthma, tuberculosis, and stomach problems; as an antihypertensive; or to expel intestinal worms. It is also used as a prophylactic against winter infections. Rhizome pieces are often placed in castor oil to make eardrops. For fever and high blood pressure, a tea is made from the bulbs or rhizomes and a small cup taken three times daily. The leaves of the plant are used to treat esophageal cancer and may also be eaten as a vegetable. The demand for Tulbaghia in both formal and informal markets has grown exponentially. Sustainable harvesting focuses on only harvesting enough of the plant so that it still has the capacity for self-renewal. However, because both the above-ground and underground parts of Tulbaghia are commonly used in African traditional medicine, destructive harvesting of the whole plant is inevitable, thus necessitating the large-scale organized propagation of these plants. It is therefore important to establish a new strategy for the sustainable harvesting of these plants as commercial crops. PMID:27008423

  12. Cross folding in southern Bighorn basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery coupled with surface structural investigations of well-exposed folds in the southern Bighorn basin have revealed two northwest-trending folds that have been refolded. The eastern boundary of the Owl Creek Mountains is characterized by a well-defined alignment of folds that extend north-northwest from the Owl Creek thrust front. Bridger monocline, Wildhorse Butte anticline, and Red Hole anticline lie along this trend. Initial Laramide folding, probably during latest Cretaceous time, resulted in a single, continuous, north-northwest-trending anticline with a southwestward vergence. This anticline was progressively unfolded from south to north as the Owl Creek Range was thrust southward over the Wind River basin in earliest Eocene time; scissors-like vertical motion along this flexure rotated the axial surface of the early formed Bridger anticline, resulting in a monocline with a reversed vergence (northeastward). Formation of the Thermopolis/East Warm Springs anticline parallel to the north flank of the range accompanied thrusting and effectively refolded the northern end of the Wildhorse Butte anticline along an east-west axis. Faulting of the oversteepened south limb of the Red Hole cross fold was contemporaneous with folding. Cross-cutting fold axes in this area and the Mud Creek area to the west are best explained by a counterclockwise change in stress direction during the latest phase of the Laramide orogeny. Vertical movement along the eastern side of the Owl Creek Range results from differential motion in the hanging wall of the crystalline thrust sheet.

  13. Neogene foreland tectonics in the southern Appenines

    SciTech Connect

    Roure, F.; Casero, P.; Moretti, I.; Mueller, C.; Sage, L.; Vially, R.

    1988-08-01

    Combined structural and biostratigraphic analyses and seismic interpretation help them to balance cross sections through the southern Apennines from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian Sea and to propose an overall model for the evolution of the belt. Three lithostratigraphic units have been distinguished according to their Mesozoic facies and style of deformation: the western platform (upper unit), the Lagonegro-Molise basin, and the eastern platform. Foreland deformation migrated from west to east, and external domains were reached progressively by synorogenic flysch deposits (foredeep) and later incorporated into the thrust sheets. Presently, only the most external part of the eastern platform is still unaffected by thrusting, while internal parts are building the overthrust belt at depth, which is masked on the surface by allochthonous basinal nappes. The evolutive geometry of thrust and piggy-back basins results from the continuous understacking of new material at the bottom of the tectonic prism. The deeper basement is also progressively involved in the deformation, giving rise to large nappe anticlines. Despite the early subsidence and deformation of the western platform and basinal domains in Langhian to Tortonian time, all the deformation of the eastern platform has occurred since Messinian time. These compressive structures are thus contemporaneous with the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. To the west, the upper tectonic units of the Apennines are indeed affected by listric normal faulting, with previous thrust planes having been locally reactivated during the distension. Post-Messinian shortening in the sedimentary cover is accompanied by a crustal thickening outlined by the Moho's geometry. The authors interpret it as a result of the subduction of the Apulian continental lithosphere. Recent uplift of the Apennines is indeed directly related to this crustal root.

  14. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes.

  15. Completion of the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Charles, P. A.; O'Donoghue, D.; Nordsieck, K. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a low cost (19.7M), innovative, 10-m class optical telescope, which was inaugurated on 10 November 2005, just 5 years after ground-breaking. SALT and its first-light instruments are currently being commissioned, and full science operations are expected to begin later this year. This paper describes the design and construction of SALT, including the first-light instruments, SALTICAM and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). A rigorous Systems Engineering approach was adopted to ensure that SALT was built to specification, on budget, close to the original schedule and using a relatively small project team. The design trade-offs, which include an active spherical primary mirror array in a fixed altitude telescope with a prime focus tracker, although restrictive in comparison to conventional telescopes, have resulted in an affordable and capable 10-m class telescope for South Africa and its ten partners. Coupled with an initial set of two seeing-limited instruments that concentrate on the UV-visible region (320 - 900nm) and featuring some unique observational capabilities, SALT will have an ability to conduct a wide range of science programs. These will include high time resolution studies, for which some initial results have already been obtained and are presented here. Many of the versatile modes available with the RSS will provide unparalleled opportunities for imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry. Likewise, Multi-Object Spectroscopy (using laser cut graphite slit masks) and imaging spectroscopy with the RSS, the latter using Fabry-Perot etalons and interference filters, will extend the multiplex advantage over resolutions from R = 300 to 9000 over fields of view of 2 to 8 arcminutes. Future instrumentation plans include an extremely stable, fibre-fed, high resolution échelle spectrograph and a near-IR (possibly to 1.7 μm) extension to the RSS. Future development possibilities include phasing the primary mirror

  16. The Southern African Large Telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Charles, Philip A.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh

    The recently completed Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a low cost, innovative, 10 m class optical telescope, which began limited scientific operations in August 2005, just 5 years after ground-breaking. This paper describes the design and construction of SALT, including the first-light instruments, SALTICAM and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). A rigorous systems engineering approach has ensured that SALT was built to specification, on budget, close to the original schedule and using a relatively small project team. The design trade-offs, which include an active spherical primary mirror array and a fixed altitude telescope with a prime focus tracker, although restrictive in comparison to conventional telescopes, have resulted in an affordable 10 m class telescope for South Africa and its ten partners. Coupled with an initial set of two seeing-limited instruments that concentrate on the UV-visible region (320 - 900 nm) and featuring some niche observational capabilities, SALT will have an ability to conduct some unique science. This includes high time resolution studies, for which some initial results have already been obtained. Many of the versatile modes available with the RSS - which is currently being commissioned - are unique and provide unparallelled opportunities for imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry. Likewise, Multi-Object Spectroscopy (with slit masks) and imaging spectroscopy with the RSS, the latter using Fabry-Perot étalons and interference filters, will extend the multiplex advantage over resolutions from 300 to 9000 and fields of view of 2 to 8 arcminutes. Future instrumentation plans include an extremely stable, fibre-fed, high resolution échelle spectrograph and a near-IR (to between 1.5 to 1.7 μm) extension to the RSS. Future development possibilities include phasing the primary mirror and AO. Finally, extrapolations of the SALT/HET designs to ELT proportions remain viable and are surely more affordable than conventional

  17. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  18. Methane emissions inventory verification in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ying-Kuang; VanCuren, Tony; Park, Seong; Jakober, Chris; Herner, Jorn; FitzGibbon, Michael; Blake, Donald R.; Parrish, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Methane (CH 4) and carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured at an air quality monitoring station near the Mt. Wilson (MW) Observatory in southern California starting in the spring of 2007. Diurnal variation and mixing ratio correlation ( R2 = 0.81) were observed. The correlation results observed agree with previous aircraft measurements collected over the greater Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area. The consistent agreement between CH 4 and CO indicates these gases are well-mixed before reaching the sampling site and the emission source contributions of both compounds are reasonably constant. Since CH 4 and CO are considered non-reactive on the time scale of dispersion within the LA urban area and their emission sources are likely to be similarly distributed (e.g., associated with human activities) they are subject to similar scales of atmospheric transport and dilution. This behavior allows the relationship of CH 4 and CO to be applied for estimation of CH 4 emissions using well-documented CO emissions. Applying this relationship a "top-down" CH 4 inventory was calculated for LA County based on the measurements observed at MW and compared with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) "bottom-up" CH 4 emissions inventory based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recommended methodologies. The "top-down" CH 4 emissions inventory is approximately one-third greater than CARB's "bottom-up" inventory for LA County. Considering the uncertainties in both methodologies, the different CH 4 emissions inventory approaches are in good agreement, although some under and/or uninventoried CH 4 sources may exist.

  19. Hydrological model uncertainty assessment in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Sawunyama, T.

    2010-06-01

    The importance of hydrological uncertainty analysis has been emphasized in recent years and there is an urgent need to incorporate uncertainty estimation into water resources assessment procedures used in the southern Africa region. The region is characterized by a paucity of accurate data and limited human resources, but the need for informed development decisions is critical to social and economic development. One of the main sources of uncertainty is related to the estimation of the parameters of hydrological models. This paper proposes a framework for establishing parameter values, exploring parameter inter-dependencies and setting parameter uncertainty bounds for a monthly time-step rainfall-runoff model (Pitman model) that is widely used in the region. The method is based on well-documented principles of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, but recognizes the limitations that exist within the region (data scarcity and accuracy, model user attitudes, etc.). Four example applications taken from different climate and physiographic regions of South Africa illustrate that the methods are appropriate for generating behavioural stream flow simulations which include parameter uncertainty. The parameters that dominate the model response and their degree of uncertainty vary between regions. Some of the results suggest that the uncertainty bounds will be too wide for effective water resources decision making. Further work is required to reduce some of the subjectivity in the methods and to investigate other approaches for constraining the uncertainty. The paper recognizes that probability estimates of uncertainty and methods to include input climate data uncertainties need to be incorporated into the framework in the future.

  20. Predicting biological condition in southern California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason T.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Ode, Peter R.; Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    As understanding of the complex relations among environmental stressors and biological responses improves, a logical next step is predictive modeling of biological condition at unsampled sites. We developed a boosted regression tree (BRT) model of biological condition, as measured by a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (BIBI), for streams in urbanized Southern Coastal California. We also developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model as a benchmark for comparison with the BRT model. The BRT model explained 66% of the variance in B-IBI, identifying watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer as the most important predictors of B-IBI, but with watershed mean precipitation and watershed density of manmade channels also important. The MLR model explained 48% of the variance in B-IBI and included watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer. For a verification data set, the BRT model correctly classified 75% of impaired sites (B-IBI < 40) and 78% of unimpaired sites (B-IBI = 40). For the same verification data set, the MLR model correctly classified 69% of impaired sites and 87% of unimpaired sites. The BRT model should not be used to predict B-IBI for specific sites; however, the model can be useful for general applications such as identifying and prioritizing regions for monitoring, remediation or preservation, stratifying new bioassessments according to anticipated biological condition, or assessing the potential for change in stream biological condition based on anticipated changes in population density and development in stream buffers.