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Sample records for gps wo mochiita

  1. GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    Geodetic networks support the TRF requirements of NASA ESE missions. Each of SLR, VLBI, GPS substantially and uniquely contributes to TRF determination. NASA's SLR, VLBI, and GPS groups collaborate toward wide-ranging improvements in the next 5 years. NASA leverages considerable resources through its significant activity in international services. NASA faces certain challenges in continuing and advancing these activities. The Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) is an accurate, stable set of positions and velocities. The TRF provides the stable coordinate system that allows us to link measurements over space and time. The geodetic networks provide data for determination of the TRF as well as direct science observations.

  2. GPS Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangrass, Frank

    1992-01-01

    This semi-annual progress report provides an overview of the work performed during the first six months of Grant NAG 1 1423, titled 'GPS Interferometry'. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based positioning and timing system. Through the use of interferometric processing techniques, it is feasible to obtain sub-decimeter position accuracies for an aircraft in flight. The proposed duration of this Grant is three years. During the first year of the Grant, the efforts are focussed on two topics: (1) continued development of GPS Interferometry core technology; and (2) rapid technology demonstration of GPS interferometry through the design and implementation of a flight reference/autoland system. Multipath error has been the emphasis of the continued development of GPS Interferometry core technology. The results have been documented in a Doctoral Dissertation and a conference paper. The design and implementation of the flight reference/autoland system is nearing completion. The remainder of this progress report summarizes the architecture of this system.

  3. GPS Status and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    11 GPS IIA • 12 GPS IIR • 7 GPS IIR-M • 4 additional satellites in residual status • 1 additional IIR-M waiting to be set healthy • Global GPS ...AEP) Next Generation Control Segment (OCX) Legacy Control System 7 GPS Modernization – Ground • Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) • Transitioned in 2007...Modern distributed system replaced 1970’s mainframes • Increased capacity for monitoring of GPS signals • Increased worldwide commanding

  4. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of WO3 through CuWO4 for phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haihang; Xiong, Xianqiang; Hao, Linlin; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Yiming

    2016-12-01

    Development of a visible light photocatalyst is challenging. Herein, we report a significant activity enhancement of WO3 upon addition of CuWO4. Reaction was carried out under visible light for phenol degradation in aqueous suspension in the presence of H2O2. A maximum reaction rate was observed at 1.0 wt% CuWO4, which was 2.1 and 4.3 times those measured with WO3 and CuWO4, respectively. Similar results were also obtained from the photocatalytic formation of OH radicals, and from the electrochemical reduction of O2. A possible mechanism responsible for the improved activity of WO3 is proposed, involving the electron transfer from CuWO4 to WO3, followed by the reduction of H2O2 over WO3.

  5. GPS Control Segment Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Systems Center GPS Control Segment Improvements Mr. Tim McIntyre GPS Product Support Manager GPS Ops Support and Sustainment Division Peterson...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...DATE 29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Control Segment Improvements 5a. CONTRACT

  6. GPS Scintillation Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE...Depletions from 1 October 1994 2 3. GPS data from Agua Verde, Chile on the night of 1 October 1994 3 4. PL-SCINDA display of GPS ionospheric...comparison of GPS measurements with GOES8 L-band scintillation data, are discussed. 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE, CHILE As

  7. On "GPS weeknumber rollover".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongqing

    1998-12-01

    The relation between GPS system time and weeknumber is introduced, and it is explained that the limited number of (10 bits) used in the GPS navigation message causes the problem of GPS weeknumber rollover which is similar to that the millennium problem will occur when the year number becomes 00 from 99. The GPS weeknumber has the maximum of 1023 so that it will rollover from 1023 to 0 at the midnight of August 21 - 22, 1999. The GPS users should check if the receivers can work correctly once the "rollover" occurs. If the equipments or softwares for the GPS receiver are not perfect. The receiver will interpret the new week 0 as January 6, 1980, and some receivers may display wrong information or wrong locating results, even stop tracking any satellite. The GPS users should contact the manufacturer of the GPS receiver to determine if the GPS receiver will be affected by the GPS weeknumber rollover. It should be noted that the problem of time rollover often occurs for timing service.

  8. Environmental applications of GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, S.A.; Zueck, D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized air travel, ocean navigation, land navigation, and the collection of environmental data. Although a basic civilian GPS receiver can be purchased for as little as $100, the receiver is only the tip of a 12 billion dollar iceberg. This paper will discuss the history and basic operation of the Global Positioning System, a satellite-based precision positioning and timing service developed and operated by the Department of Defense. It will also describe the accuracy limitations of the civil GPS service and how accuracy can be enhanced by the use of differential GPS (DGPS), using either the free National Differential GPS system, or commercial differential monitor stations. Finally, the paper will discuss the future accuracy upgrades of civil GPS as a result of recent federal policy decisions.

  9. PH Sensitive WO3-Based Microelectrochemical Transistors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-22

    a WO3 target. The cyclic voltammetry of these microelectrodes indicates that WO3 connects individual microelectrodes, since the voltammogram of a...transistor that is sensitive to pH. The cyclic voltammetry is pH-dependent and consistent with pH-dependent transistor characteristics, which indicate that the

  10. GPS Measurement Of Attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinardo, S. J.; Hushbeck, E. L.; Meehan, T. K.; Munson, T. N.; Purcell, G. H.; Srinivasan, J. M.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    Signals transmitted by satellites of Global Positioning System (GPS) measure orientation of baseline on ship, aircraft, or other vehicle with accuracy. Two GPS antennas and receivers placed at well separated points on platform. Receivers measure positions of ends of baseline as functions of time. Output processor computes vector difference between two positions and determines orientation of baseline. Combined with conventional GPS data, orientation data allows more precise navigation and mapping and enhances calculations related to performance and control of vehicle.

  11. GPS Decision Analysis Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    712 A/B: GPS Decision Analysis Process Revised title:___________________________________________________________________ Presented in (input and Bold...JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Decision Analysis Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 GPS Decision Analysis Process Nisha Shah The Boeing Company 73rd MORS Symposium US Military Academy – West Point 21-23

  12. Integrated Inertial/gps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Paul; Vangraas, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The presence of failures in navigation sensors can cause the determination of an erroneous aircraft state estimate, which includes position, attitude, and their derivatives. Aircraft flight control systems rely on sensor inputs to determine the aircraft state. In the case of integrated Inertial/NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), sensor failures could occur in the on-board inertial sensors or in the GPS measurements. The synergistic use of both GPS and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) allows for highly reliable fault detection and isolation of sensor failures. Integrated Inertial/GPS is a promising technology for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and the return and landing of a manned space vehicle.

  13. USNO GPS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1981-01-01

    Initial test results indicated that the Global Positioning System/Time Transfer Unit (GPS/TTU) performed well within the + or - 100 nanosecond range required by the original system specification. Subsequent testing involved the verification of GPS time at the master control site via portable clocks and the acquisition and tracking of as many passes of the space vehicles currently in operation as possible. A description and discussion of the testing, system modifications, test results obtained, and an evaluation of both GPS and the GPS/TTU are presented.

  14. GPS Modernization Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS ) performance Spectrum Allocation and Sharing Initiatives Fully support the allocation and sharing of spectrum through...reallocation or sharing with IMT • Various US agencies and international GNSS providers share this interest to help protect GPS International Spectrum...domestically, internationally and with Industry to simultaneously protect GNSS services and release spectrum for mobile services GPS Summary

  15. Crop Dusting Using GPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of WO3 nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pandey, N K; Tiwari, Karunesh; Roy, Akash

    2011-02-01

    This work reports a simple, quick and economical method to prepare WO3 nanomaterials. Prepared tungsten trioxide materials have been sintered at 700 degrees C for three hours. The material has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Crystallite size of the WO3 nanostructures obtained by Shearer's formula are between 12 and 72 nm and their grain size by SEM are from 20 to 105 nm. The humidity-sensitive electrical properties of the WO3 nanomaterial have been studied using d.c. measurements.

  17. How GPs learn.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Sheona

    2009-07-01

    As the requirements for the revalidation of general practitioners (GPs) unfold, there is an increasing emphasis on demonstrating effective continued medical education (CME) based on identified learning needs. This qualitative study aimed to promote understanding of how GPs currently approach their learning. The behaviour of one group of GPs was studied to explore how they assessed and met individual learning needs. The GPs studied showed a pragmatic approach, valuing learning that gave them practical advice and instant access to information for patient-specific problems. The main driver for the GPs' learning was discomfort during their daily work if a possible lack of knowledge or skills was perceived. However, some learning benchmarked current good practice or ensured continued expertise. Learning purely for interest was also described. The GPs in this study all demonstrated a commitment to personal learning, although they were not yet thinking about demonstrating the effectiveness of this for revalidation. The GPs prioritised their learning needs and were beginning to use some objective assessment methods to do this and the GP appraisal process was found to have a mainly positive effect on learning.

  18. Progress on GPS standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been clear for some time that a desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of GPS time comparisons is to establish GPS standards which may be adopted by receiver designers and users. For this reason, a formal body, the CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards (CGGTTS), was created in 1991. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI, with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by the GPS common-view method. It works in close cooperation with the Subcommittee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee. The members of the CGGTTS have met in December 1991 and in June 1992. Following these two formal meetings, a number of decisions were taken for unifying the treatment of GPS short-term data and for standardizing the format of GPS data files. A formal CGGTTS Recommendation is now being written concerning these points. This paper relates on the work carried out by the CGGTTS.

  19. GPS Activities at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Behrend, Dirk

    2002-11-19

    The Alignment Engineering Group of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) started to use RTK (real-time kinematic) GPS equipment in order to perform structure mapping and GIS-related tasks on the SLAC campus. In a first step a continuously observing GPS station (SLAC M40) was set up. This station serves as master control station for all differential GPS activities on site and its coordinates have been determined in the well-defined global geodetic datum ITRF2000 at a given reference epoch. Some trials have been performed to test the RTK method. The tests have proven RTK to be very fast and efficient.

  20. Advanced GPS Technologies (AGT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory,Space Vehicles Directorate,3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE , Kirtland AFB,NM,87117 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Inform Partnership Council about AFRL technology investments to improve affordability and performance of the GPS Space Segment Summary • Working in...development Exploring/opening paths to the future! Distribution A 2 \\.J ••• • AFRL Investments Supporting GPS Space Segment • AFRL is investigating

  1. GPS Control Segment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER • Provides GPS Ill SV command and control • NAV capability equivalent to GPS IIF (legacy and modern signals) - No L 1 ...Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number 1 . REPORT DATE 29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00

  2. Metastable superconductivity of W/WO3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Zver`kova, I. I.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    Metastable W/WO3 interface has been formed at the surface of a tungsten metal bar using a solid state redox reaction of W with powdered WO3. Superconductivity at 35 ≤ T ≤ 75 K in the W/WO3 interfacial layer has been observed by means of the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparative analysis of the experimental results infers that the W/WO3 interfacial layer consists of weakly linked superconducting regions.

  3. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  4. Networked differential GPS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, K. Tysen (Inventor); Loomis, Peter V. W. (Inventor); Kalafus, Rudolph M. (Inventor); Sheynblat, Leonid (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention relates to a worldwide network of differential GPS reference stations (NDGPS) that continually track the entire GPS satellite constellation and provide interpolations of reference station corrections tailored for particular user locations between the reference stations Each reference station takes real-time ionospheric measurements with codeless cross-correlating dual-frequency carrier GPS receivers and computes real-time orbit ephemerides independently. An absolute pseudorange correction (PRC) is defined for each satellite as a function of a particular user's location. A map of the function is constructed, with iso-PRC contours. The network measures the PRCs at a few points, so-called reference stations and constructs an iso-PRC map for each satellite. Corrections are interpolated for each user's site on a subscription basis. The data bandwidths are kept to a minimum by transmitting information that cannot be obtained directly by the user and by updating information by classes and according to how quickly each class of data goes stale given the realities of the GPS system. Sub-decimeter-level kinematic accuracy over a given area is accomplished by establishing a mini-fiducial network.

  5. GPS & Galileo. Friendly Foes?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    and defense companies are: Astrium , the satellite unit of European Aeronautic Defense & Space Co.; Inmarsat PLC; Thales SA; TeleOp; Finmeccanica SpA...contractor in the development of GPS-III satellites, and Astrium , one of Europe’s leading satellite systems specialists and a subsidiary of the

  6. Positioning With GPS: 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Benjamin W.; Hothem, Larry D.

    The First International Symposium on Precise Positioning With the Global Positioning System (GPS) was held in Rockville, Maryland from April 15 to April 19, 1985; 600 participants from 31 countries attended. Sponsors included the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Association of Geodesy, the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in cooperation with the American Society of Civil Engineers. GPS uses the NAVSTAR (an acronym for Navigation and Satellite Timing and Ranging) satellite system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD).Although this symposium was limited to precise positioning with GPS, the scope of precise positioning was left open. Without a doubt, precise relative positioning with L band carrier phase measurements was the most important topic. Also included were certain high-accuracy applications of pseudorange measurements, such as orbit determination, time transfer, and navigation. Administration, policy, hardware, software, processing, and applications in these areas were also covered. Intentionally left out were areas in which high positional accuracy was not important (e.g., commercial aviation). Attendees presented 89 papers, which were organized into 15 sessions covering nine subject areas: overview, status, and policy; GPS time and orbits; user equipment; user equipment testing; modeling and processing; applications; survey positioning results; practical aspects of geodesy; and dynamic positioning.

  7. Growth of BaWO4 fishbone-like nanostructures in w/o microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xie, Yi; Xu, Fen; Tian, Xiaobo

    2004-06-01

    BaWO(4) fishbone-like nanostructures with fourfold structural symmetry have been successfully grown in w/o microemulsion. The BaWO(4) fishbone-like nanostructures have four rows of nanorods, epitaxially grown on the stem and perpendicular to the stem. The obtained samples are characterized by means of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, and SEM. It is found that the water content has a large influence on the size of the product and the molar ratio between cations and anions plays an important role in the morphology of the product. It is assumed that site-selective surfactant adsorption may be responsible for the formation of the BaWO(4) fishbone-like nanostructures.

  8. The GPS Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Moreau, M. C.; Dahle-Melsaether, M. E.; Petrofski, W. P.; Stanton, B. J.; Thomason, S.; Harris, G. A.; Sena, R. P.; Temple, L. Parker, III

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the advent of artificial satellites, the concept of navigating in space and the desire to understand and validate the laws of planetary and satellite motion dates back centuries. At the initiation of orbital flight in 1957, space navigation was dominated by inertial and groundbased tracking methods, underpinned by the laws of planetary motion. It was early in the 1980s that GPS was first explored as a system useful for refining the position, velocity, and timing (PVT) of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers. As a result, an entirely new GPS utility was developed beyond its original purpose of providing PVT services for land, maritime, and air applications. Spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation now receive the GPS signals, including the signals that spill over the limb of the Earth. The use of radionavigation satellite services for space navigation in High Earth Orbits is in fact a capability unique to GPS. Support to GPS space applications is being studied and planned as an important improvement to GPS. This paper discusses the formalization of PVT services in space as part of an overall GPS improvement effort. It describes the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and compares it to the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). It also discusses SSV coverage with the current GPS constellation, coverage characteristics as a function of altitude, expected power levels, and coverage figures of merit.

  9. GPS Timing Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) [1]. Interoperability with Galileo, and perhaps someday with other Global Navigation Satellite Systems ( GNSS ), is to...be established through transmission of the differences between the GNSS system times. This paper describes the performance of the GPS system, which...interoperable GNSS systems will benefit from the additional satellites, and in certain situations markedly so. 2. Current Performance Under Optimal

  10. High Precision GPS Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    troposphere delays with cm-level accuracy [15]. For example, the modified Hopfield model (MHM) has been shown to accurately calculate both the...differences between two locations near Rayleigh, North Carolina; RALR and NCRD which are part of the network of Continuously Operating Reference...Fritsche, M., R. Dietrich, A. Rulke, M. Rothacher, R. Steigenberger, “Impact of higher-order ionosphere terms on GPS-derived global network solutions

  11. Reactivity of Hydrogen and Methanol on (001) Surfaces of WO3, ReO3, WO3/ReO3 and ReO3/WO3

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Sanliang; Mei, Donghai; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2011-05-16

    Bulk tungsten trioxide (WO3) and rhenium trioxide (ReO3) share very similar structures but display different electronic properties. WO3 is a wide bandgap semiconductor while ReO3 is an electronic conductor. With the advanced molecular beam epitaxy techniques, it is possible to make heterostructures comprised of layers of WO3 and ReO3. These heterostructures might display reactivity different than pure WO3 and ReO3. The interactions of two probe molecules (hydrogen and methanol) with the (001) surfaces of WO3, ReO3, and two heterostructures ReO3/WO3 and WO3/ReO3 were investigated at the density functional theory level. Atomic hydrogen prefers to adsorb at the terminal O1C sites forming a surface hydroxyl on four surfaces. Dissociative adsorption of a hydrogen molecule at the O1C site leads to formation of a water molecule adsorbed at the surface M5C site. This is thermodynamically the most stable state. A thermodynamically less stable dissociative state involves two surface hydroxyl groups O1CH and O2CH. The interaction of molecular hydrogen and methanol with pure ReO3 is stronger than with pure WO3 and the strength of the interaction substantially changes on the WO3/ReO3 and ReO3/WO3 heterostructures. The reaction barriers for decomposition and recombination reactions are sensitive to the nature of heterostructure. The calculated adsorption energy of methanol on WO3(001) of -65.6 kJ/mol is consistent with the previous experimental estimation of -67 kJ/mol. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. Interference to GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Walter

    I read Captain Gyldeń's account of failure of his GPS set (Vol. 50, 328, May 1997) withsome interest. A few days earlier we had had a few thunderstorms while I had my personal hand-held GPS running, using its own built-in antenna and a 12 volt battery. It was lying on a bench inside a wooden hut where I keep some of my amateur radio equipment. After one particularly close flash and bang, which produced a one-inch spark from my transceiver antenna, the transceiver locked up and stopped responding to keyboard commands. Then I noticed the GPS set had also stopped working, showing only random symbols on its readout. I feared the worst but, after switching them both off, leaving them for a few minutes, and then back on again, they worked perfectly.Microprocessors locking up in strong local electrostatic fields, perhaps? Maybe if I had simply left them alone they would have started working again after the charge had leaked away. Next time I nearly get hit by lightning I'll try it.

  13. GPS lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Global geodesy has improved dramatically over the past decade starting with the GPS for IERS and Geodynamics demonstration campaign in 1991 (GIG 91). At the time it took over a week of CPU time to process a network solution based on 21 global receivers and orbit overlaps were in the 40 cm range. Today it is possible to process a network solution based on 80 global receivers in less then one day of CPU time and orbit overlaps are in the 4 cm range. Special methods are under development for efficient processing of increasingly large regional networks which may contain hundreds or thousands of GPS receivers. Along the way there have been many lessons learned about GPS satellites, receivers, monuments, antennas, radomes, analysis, reference frames, error sources, and interpretation. A wide range of scientific disciplines have been impacted including studies of plate motion, post-glacial rebound, seasonal loading, deformation in plate boundary zones, coseismic displacements due to major earthquakes, postseiemic relaxation, and interseismic strain accumulation related to assessment of seismic hazards. Lessons learned will be presented in the context of new dense networks such as the Plate Boundary Observation (PBO).

  14. GPS navigation experiment using high precision GPS timing receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buisson, J. A.; Oaks, O. J.; Lister, M. J.; Wardrip, S. C.; Leschiutta, S.; Galliano, P. G.; Cordara, D.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.; Dachel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) Time Transfer receivers were developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to provide synchronization for the NASA Global Laser Tracking Network (GLTN). The capabilities of the receiver are being expanded mainly through software modification to: Demonstrate the position location capabilities of a single channel receiver unsign the GPS C/A code; and Demonstrate the time/navigation capability of the receiver onboard a moving platform, by sequential tracking of GPS satellites.

  15. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. PMID:22574061

  16. Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) MODERNIZATION Lt. Col. C. McGinn, Capt. S...CA 90501, USA Abstract The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) signal is now the primary means of obtaining precise time to an internationally accepted...number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System ( GPS

  17. Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO 4) 2 and KY(WO 4) 2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macalik, L.; Hanuza, J.; Kaminskii, A. A.

    2000-11-01

    Polarized Raman scattering spectra of the NaY(WO 4) 2 (NYW) single crystal have been measured. Its structure is described in the tetragonal space group isomorphic to CaWO 4 scheelite. The A g, B g and E g spectra were made and discussed in terms of factor group analysis. These spectra are compared to those of monoclinic KY(WO 4) 2 (KYW) single crystals whose structure differs from the other crystal. The NYW unit cell comprises of the isolated WO 4 tetrahedra whereas the KYW structure is built from the WO 6 octahedra joined by WO 2W double bonds and WOW single bridges. The vibrational characteristics of the bridge bond systems are proposed. On this basis, the role of the vibronic transitions for the KYW crystal doped with Eu 3+ ions is discussed.

  18. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  19. Ionospheric Profiling using GPS/MET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George; Romans, Larry

    1996-01-01

    A report on ionospheric profiling using GPS and MET data is presented. A description of the GPS occultation technique, some examples of GPS/MET data products, the data processing system and a preliminary validation of ionospheric profiles is discussed.

  20. Position, Navigation, and Timing: GPS Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and deployment of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This presentation also includes measuring space and time, GPS as a tool for science, development of high precision JPL GPS receivers, and technology and applications developments.

  1. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  2. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  3. GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, O. J.; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper.

  4. Optimal Preprocessing Of GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sien-Chong; Melbourne, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for preprocessing data from Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver reduces processing time and number of data to be stored. Technique optimal in sense it maintains strength of data. Also sometimes increases ability to resolve ambiguities in numbers of cycles of received GPS carrier signals.

  5. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  6. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  7. Fabrication and characterization of WO3/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer is suitable for a transparent electrode because of its high-optical and high-electrical properties; however, it is fabricated by an expensive and inefficient multistep vacuum process. We present a WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). This WAW multilayer not only has high transmittance and low resistance but also can be easily and rapidly fabricated. We devised a novel method to deposit a thin WO3 layer by a solution process in an air environment. A tungstic acid solution was prepared from an aqueous solution of Na2WO4 and then converted to WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a thermal treatment. Thin WO3 NP layers form WAW multilayer with a thermal-evaporated Ag layer, and they improve the transmittance of the WAW multilayer because of its high transmittance and refractive index. Moreover, the surface of the WO3 layer is homogeneous and flat with low roughness because of the WO3 NP generation from the tungstic acid solution without aggregation. We performed optical simulation and experiments, and the optimized WAW multilayer had a high transmittance of 85% with a sheet resistance of 4 Ω/sq. Finally, PLEDs based on the WAW multilayer anode achieved a maximum luminance of 35,550 cd/m2 at 8 V, and this result implies that the solution-processed WAW multilayer is appropriate for use as a transparent anode in PLEDs. PMID:22587669

  8. Nd:SrWO 4 and Nd:BaWO 4 Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, J.; Jelínková, H.; Basiev, T. T.; Doroschenko, M. E.; Ivleva, L. I.; Osiko, V. V.; Zverev, P. G.

    2007-09-01

    Properties of the laser operation and simultaneously stimulated Raman scattering in the SRS-active neodymium doped SrWO4 and BaWO4 crystals coherently end-pumped at wavelength 752 nm by pulsed free-running alexandrite laser radiation were investigated. The Nd3+ ion emission at wavelength λNd ˜ 1.06 μm was corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition. To reach the SRS-self-conversion threshold inside Raman crystal the Nd3+ lasers were operating in a Q-switching regime. For Q-switching LiF:F2- crystal as a saturable absorber was used. Raman self-conversion at wavelength ˜1.17 μm was successfully reached with both tungstate crystals. The shortest generated pulse (1.3 ns FWHM) and highest peak power (615 kW) was obtained with Nd:BaWO4 Raman laser Q-switched by LiF:F2- crystal with initial transmission T0 = 60%. Up to 0.8 mJ was registered at the first Stokes wavelength 1169 nm. Using Q-switched Nd:SrWO4 laser higher energy in Raman emission was obtained (1.23 mJ) but generated pulse was longer (2.9 ns FWHM) resulting in lower peak power (430 kW).

  9. Nd:SrWO4 Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Sulc, Jan; Doroschenko, Maxim E.; Skornyakov, Vadim V.; Kravtsov, Sergey B.; Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Zverev, Peter G.

    2004-09-01

    Properties of the laser operation and simultaneously stimulated Raman scattering in the new SRS-active neodymium doped SrWO4 crystal coherently end-pumped by alexandrite 752 nm laser radiation were investigated. The maximum generated energy 90 mJ from the free-running Nd3+:SrWO4 laser at 1057 nm wavelength was obtained with the output coupler reflectivity 52%. The slope efficiency reached s = 0.52, the beam characteristic parameters M2 and divergence q were 2.5 +/- 0.1, and 1.5 +/- 0.1 mrad, respectively. Maximal output energy of 1.46 mJ for the fundamental wavelength was obtained for Q-switched Nd3+:SrWO4 oscillator with a double Fabry-Perrot as the output coupler (R = 48%), and with the 5% initial transmission of LiF:F2- saturable absorber. Up to 0.74 mJ energy was registered at the first Stokes frequency. The pulse duration was 5 ns and 2.4 ns for the fundamental and Stokes radiation, respectively. The energy of 1.25 mJ at 1170 nm was obtained for closed Raman resonator with special mirrors. For the case of mode-locking, two dye saturable absorbers (ML51 dye in dichlorethan and 3955 dye in ethanol) were used and SRS radiation in the form of pulse train was observed. The influence of the various Raman laser output couplers reflectivity as well as the initial transmissions of passive absorbers were investigated with the goal of the output energy maximization at the Stokes wavelength. In the output, the total measured energy was 1.8 mJ (for ML51 dye) and 2.4 mJ (for 3955 dye). The SRS output at 1170 nm was approximately 20% of total energy.

  10. The need for GPS standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Petit, Gerard; Thomas, Claudine

    1992-01-01

    A desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS) time comparisons is the establishment of common GPS standards. For this reason, the CCDS proposed the creation of a special group of experts with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by GPS common-view method. Since the announcement of the implementation of Selective Availability at the end of last spring, action has become much more urgent and this CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards has now been set up. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI and works in close cooperation with the Sub-Committee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC). Taking as an example the implementation of SA during the first week of July 1991, this paper illustrates the need to develop urgently at least two standardized procedures in GPS receiver software: monitoring GPS tracks with a common time scale and retaining broadcast ephemeris parameters throughout the duration of a track. Other matters requiring action are the adoption of common models for atmospheric delay, a common approach to hardware design and agreement about short-term data processing. Several examples of such deficiencies in standardization are presented.

  11. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  12. Compensating For GPS Ephemeris Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong

    1992-01-01

    Method of computing position of user station receiving signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) of navigational satellites compensates for most of GPS ephemeris error. Present method enables user station to reduce error in its computed position substantially. User station must have access to two or more reference stations at precisely known positions several hundred kilometers apart and must be in neighborhood of reference stations. Based on fact that when GPS data used to compute baseline between reference station and user station, vector error in computed baseline is proportional ephemeris error and length of baseline.

  13. Orbital problems in GPS interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Janusz B.

    The GPS orbits and the influence of the orbital errors on the geodetic determination were investigated during the last few years. In the paper, the summary of some analyses is presented concerning the nature of the interferometric observations, the propagation of the orbital errors, and the correlations and covariances in geodetic GPS solutions. One of the results was a proof that, in relative determinations by GPS, the error propagation factor is close to b/10 h, that is almost one order smaller than previously supposed.

  14. Remote Clock Calibration Via GPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    cesium clocks and a Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver. The f i rs t purpose was t o ca l ibra te t h e propagation delays and timing... positions in t h e vicinity of each t r ansmi t t e r could be obtained f rom survey markers in the a r e a or determined by t h e GPS receiver a...t any desired location. While t h e GPS receiver was used to obtain positions f o r t h e LORAN par t of t h e experiment, i t was also

  15. GPS (Global Positioning System) Range Applications Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) as a source of Time i. Space Position ...THE ANALYTIC SCIENCES CORPORATION 2. GPS OVERVIEW This chapter provides a short, general introduction to the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) and...chapters. 2.1 SYSTEM OPERATION The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is a space- based radio navigation system designed to provide users with

  16. The green emission and local structure of the scintillator PbWO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zeming; Shi, Chaoshu; Zhou, Dongfang; Tang, Honggao; Liu, Tao; Hu, Tiandou

    2001-12-01

    The green emission of lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) is closely related to structure defects. For studying the mechanism of the green emission, the local structure of PbWO 4 has been first investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure using synchrotron radiation. The results indicate that the excess oxygen in air-annealed PbWO 4 exists and forms “WO 4+O i” centers. The green emission of PbWO 4 is not caused by (WO 3+F) centers, but probably originates from the centers of “WO 4+O i”.

  17. Synthesis of S-doped WO3 nanowires with enhanced photocatalytic performance towards dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fugui; Li, Heping; Fu, Li; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, S-doped WO3 nanowires (S-WO3) were prepared using a hydrothermal method followed by a low-temperature solid-state annealing treatment. The synthesized S-WO3 was characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis DRS and photocurrent responses. The results indicated that S could enhance the light harvesting capacity of WO3 nanowires. The photocatalytic performance of the S-WO3 was investigated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. Results demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of the S-WO3 nanowires is much higher than that of pure WO3 nanowires.

  18. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  19. High Rate GPS on Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.

    2005-12-01

    The high rate GPS data processing can be considered as the "new deal" in geodetic monitoring of active volcanoes. Before an eruption, infact, transient episodes of ground displacements related to the dynamics of magmatic fluids can be revealed through a careful analysis of high rate GPS data. In the very first phases of an eruption the real time processing of high rate GPS data can be used by the authorities of Civil Protection to follow the opening of fractures field on the slopes of the volcanoes. During an eruption large explosions, opening of vents, migration of fractures fields, landslides and other dangerous phenomena can be followed and their potential of damage estimated by authorities. Examples from the recent eruption of Stromboli volcano and from the current activities of high rate GPS monitoring on Mt. Etna are reported, with the aim to show the great potential and the perspectives of this technique.

  20. Locating The Geocenter From GPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements taken during 3-week geodetic experiment in early 1991. Involved constellation of 15 GPS satellites operational at that time, plus 21 GPS receiving stations at widely distributed sites, all but 4 of which in Northern Hemisphere. Analysis consisted principally of estimation of location of center of mass of Earth relative to GPS receiving stations. As part of analysis, GPS estimates of geocenter compared with estimates obtained by satellite laser ranging (SLR).

  1. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The novel differential GPS algorithm for a network of users that has been developed in this research uses a...performance is achieved, even under high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The second part of this research investigates a...respect to the receiver produces high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ), which can adversely affect GPS position solutions [1]. Four

  2. GPS Modernization and Program Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-02

    2 March 2011 Colonel Bernie Gruber Director Global Positioning Systems Directorate 2011 03 03 Munich Summit v8 GPS Modernization and Program Update...Munich Summit v8 Global Positioning Systems Directorate Mission: Deliver sustained, reliable GPS capabilities to America’s warfighters, our allies...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space & Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning

  3. Alternative Timing Networks with GPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    receiving stations has been investigated. The xnethods of llsirlg tht: Global P~s i t~ iun- ing System ( GPS ) for transferring time in previolis work has...planes established by the positions of the other stations used to range to six SV’s. Tn this coordinate system the number of observations (24) will...ALTERNATIVE TIMING NETWORKS WITH GPS G.P. Landis, S. Stebbins, and ILL. Heard Naval ltesearch Laboratory Washington, D.C. and H.F. Pliegel The

  4. WO3 nanopaticles and PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films studied for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov Boyadjiev, Stefan; Manduca, Bruno; Szűcs, Júlia; Miklós Szilágyi, Imre

    2016-03-01

    WO3 is a widely studied material for electrochromic and photocatalytic applications. In the present study, WO3 nanoparticles with a controlled structure (monoclinic or hexagonal) were obtained by controlled thermal decomposition of hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze in air at 500 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The formation, morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared nanoparticles were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The photocatalytic activity of the monoclinic and hexagonal WO3 nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. In order to study the electrochromic properties of the WO3 nanoparticles, as well to introduce them for self-cleaning photocatalytic surface applications, thin films were prepared from the WO3 particles together with a conductive polymer. For this, PEDOT:PSS was used, which gives excellent opportunities for obtaining transparent and conductive thin films, suitable for both electrochromic and photocatalytic applications. By spin-coating, transparent PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films were prepared, on which cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied. Our initial results for the PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films are promising, suggesting that such composites, after further development, might be successfully used in electrochromic devices and photocatalysis.

  5. Wakeshield WSF-02 GPS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Schroeder, Christine; Tapley, Byron; Exner, Michael; Mccloskey, rick; Carpenter, Russell; Cooke, Michael; Mcdonald, samantha; Combs, Nick; Duncan, Courtney; Dunn, Charles; Meehan, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Shuttle mission STS-69 was launched on September 7, 1995, 10:09 CDT, carrying the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-02). The WSF-02 spacecraft included a set of payloads provided by the Texas Space Grant Consortium, known as TexasSat. One of the TexasSat payloads was a GPS TurboRogue receiver loaned by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. On September 11, the WSF-02 was unberthed from the Endeavour payload bay using the remote manipulator system. The GPS receiver was powered on prior to release and the WSF-02 remained in free-flight for three days before being retrieved on September 14. All WSF-02 GPS data, which includes dual frequency pseudorange and carrier phase, were stored in an on-board recorder for post-flight analysis, but "snap- shots" of data were transmitted for 2-3 minutes at intervals of several hours, when permitted by the telemetry band- widdl The GPS experiment goals were: (1) an evaluation of precision orbit determination in a low altitude environment (400 km) where perturbations due to atmospheric drag and the Earth's gravity field are more pronounced than for higher altitude satellites with high precision orbit requirements, such as TOPEX/POSEIDON; (2) an assessment of relative positioning using the WSF GPS receiver and the Endeavour Collins receiver; and (3) determination of atmospheric temperature profiles using GPS signals passing through the atmosphere. Analysis of snap-shot telemetry data indicate that 24 hours of continuous data were stored on board, which includes high rate (50 Hz) data for atmosphere temperature profiles. Examination of the limited number of real-time navigation solutions show that at least 7 GPS satellites were tracked simultaneously and the on-board clock corrections were at the microsec level, as expected. Furthermore, a dynamical consistency test provided a further validation of the on-board navigation solutions. Complete analysis will be conducted in post-flight using the data recorded on-board.

  6. 75 FR 8928 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS-800 Interface Control Working Group (ICWG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for document/s IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces), IS-GPS-705A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L5 Interfaces), and IS-GPS-800A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L1C Interfaces). The main focus of...

  7. GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Using GPS Wind up Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Walton R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of stabilizing an inertial navigation system (INS), includes the steps of: receiving data from an inertial navigation system; and receiving a finite number of carrier phase observables using at least one GPS receiver from a plurality of GPS satellites; calculating a phase wind up correction; correcting at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables using the phase wind up correction; and calculating a corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position using the corrected at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables; and performing a step selected from the steps consisting of recording, reporting, or providing the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position to another process that uses the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position. A GPS stabilized inertial navigation system apparatus is also described.

  8. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The required knowledge of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite position accuracy can vary depending on a particular application. Application to relative positioning of receiver locations on the ground to infer Earth's tectonic plate motion requires the most accurate knowledge of the GPS satellite orbits. Research directed towards improving and evaluating the accuracy of GPS satellite orbits was conducted at the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR). Understanding and modeling the forces acting on the satellites was a major focus of the research. Other aspects of orbit determination, such as the reference frame, time system, measurement modeling, and parameterization, were also investigated. Gravitational forces were modeled by truncated versions of extant gravity fields such as, Goddard Earth Model (GEM-L2), GEM-T1, TEG-2, and third body perturbations due to the Sun and Moon. Nongravitational forces considered were the solar radiation pressure, and perturbations due to thermal venting and thermal imbalance. At the GPS satellite orbit accuracy level required for crustal dynamic applications, models for the nongravitational perturbation play a critical role, since the gravitational forces are well understood and are modeled adequately for GPS satellite orbits.

  9. Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Space and Missile Systems Center Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) Lt Col James “Mutt” Wilson Program Manager 29 Apr 15 Information contained in...SUBTITLE Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a REPORT unclassified b ABSTRACT unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

  10. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  11. Photoluminescence in solid solutions and thin films of tungstates CaWO{sub 4}-CdWO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Taoufyq, A.; Mauroy, V.; Guinneton, F.; Valmalette, J-C.; Fiorido, T.; Benlhachemi, A.; Lyoussi, A.; Nolibe, G.; Gavarri, J-R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we present two types of studies on the luminescence properties under UV and X-ray excitations of solid solutions Ca{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} and of thin layers of CaWO{sub 4} and CdWO{sub 4}. These tungstate based solid solutions are susceptible to be integrated into new radiation sensors, in order to be used in different fields of applications such as reactor measurements, safeguards, homeland security, nuclear nondestructive assays, LINAC emission radiation measurement. However these complex materials were rarely investigated in the literature. One first objective of our studies was to establish correlations between luminescence efficiency, chemical substitution and the degree of crystallization resulting from elaboration conditions. A second objective will be to determine the efficiency of luminescence properties of thin layers of these materials. In the present work, we focus our attention on the role of chemical substitution on photon emissions under UV and X-ray irradiations. The luminescence spectra of Ca{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} polycrystalline materials have been investigated at room temperature as a function of composition (0≤x≤1). In addition, we present a preliminary study of the luminescence of CaWO{sub 4} and CdWO{sub 4} thin layers: oscillations observed in the case of X-ray excitations in the luminescence spectra are discussed. (authors)

  12. Photocatalytic properties of h-WO3 nanoparticles obtained by annealing and h-WO3 nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I.; Nagy-Kovács, Teodóra; Lukács, István; Szilágyi, Imre M.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, two different methods for preparing hexagonal WO3 (h-WO3) photocatalysts were used - controlled thermal decomposition and hydrothermal synthesis. WO3 nanoparticles with hexagonal structure were obtained by annealing (NH4)xWO3-y at 500 °C in air. WO3 nanorods were prepared by a hydrothermal method using sodium tungstate Na2WO4, HCl, (COOH)2 and NaSO4 precursors at 200 °C. The formation, morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared nanoparticles and nanorods were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The photocatalytic activity of the h-WO3 nanoparticles and nanorods was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation.

  13. Detection of VHF lightning from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite-based VHF' lightning detection is characterized at GPS orbit by using a VHF receiver system recently launched on the GPS SVN 54 satellite. Collected lightning triggers consist of Narrow Bipolar Events (80%) and strong negative return strokes (20%). The results are used to evaluate the performance of a future GPS-satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor.

  14. GPS Block IIF Atomic Frequency Standard Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Frequency stability of GPS constellation for October 2010 (NGA products). REFERENCES [1] “ Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS) GPS...Block IIR Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Life Test,” in Proceedings of the 30 th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and...42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 181 GPS BLOCK IIF ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARD ANALYSIS

  15. Aiding GPS With Additional Satellite Navigation Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    10 FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 GBCC Ground Based Control Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11...Precision Service (HPS), which is like PPS in GPS. GLONASS uses Frequency Division Multiple Access ( FDMA ) unlike the CDMA used in GPS. Every GLONASS...GLONASS uses FDMA , its receiver design is more costly compared to GPS. The GLONASS user segment is small and located primarily in Russia. There are

  16. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  17. The application of NAVSTAR Differential GPS to civil helicopter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beser, J.; Parkinson, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Principles concerning the operation of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are discussed. Selective availability issues concerning NAVSTAR GPS and differential GPS concepts are analyzed. Civil support and market potential for differential GPS are outlined. It is concluded that differential GPS provides a variation on the baseline GPS system, and gives an assured, uninterrupted level of accuracy for the civilian community.

  18. Integrated navigation of aerial robot for GPS and GPS-denied environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Min, Hongkyu; Wada, Tetsuya; Nonami, Kenzo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, novel robust navigation system for aerial robot in GPS and GPS- denied environments is proposed. Generally, the aerial robot uses position and velocity information from Global Positioning System (GPS) for guidance and control. However, GPS could not be used in several environments, for example, GPS has huge error near buildings and trees, indoor, and so on. In such GPS-denied environment, Laser Detection and Ranging (LIDER) sensor based navigation system have generally been used. However, LIDER sensor also has an weakness, and it could not be used in the open outdoor environment where GPS could be used. Therefore, it is desired to develop the integrated navigation system which is seamlessly applied to GPS and GPS-denied environments. In this paper, the integrated navigation system for aerial robot using GPS and LIDER is developed. The navigation system is designed based on Extended Kalman Filter, and the effectiveness of the developed system is verified by numerical simulation and experiment.

  19. Recent GPS Results at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Behrend, Dirk; Imfeld, Hans L.; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    The Alignment Engineering Group (AEG) makes use of GPS technology for fulfilling part of its above ground surveying tasks at SLAC since early 2002. A base station (SLAC M40) has been set up at a central location of the SLAC campus serving both as master station for real-time kinematic (RTK) operations and as datum point for local GPS campaigns. The Leica RS500 system is running continuously and the GPS data are collected both externally (logging PC) and internally (receiver flashcard). The external logging is facilitated by a serial to Ethernet converter and an Ethernet connection at the station. Internal logging (ring buffer) is done for data security purposes. The weatherproof boxes for the instrumentation are excellent shelters against rain and wind, but do heat up considerably in sun light. Whereas the GPS receiver showed no problems, the Pacific Crest PDL 35 radio shut down several times due to overheating disrupting the RTK operations. In order to prevent heat-induced shutdowns, a protection against direct sun exposure (shading) and a constant air circulation system (ventilation) were installed. As no further shutdowns have occurred so far, it appears that the two measures successfully mended the heat problem.

  20. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-11

    GPS = Global Positioning System, GSSAP = Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program, JSpOC = Joint Space Operations Center, ORS = Operationally...Surveillance Telescope, VAFB =Vandenberg Air Force Base. WGS = Wideband Global Satellite Communications Global Positioning Systems Directorate SPACE...International Committee On Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Department of Transportation • Federal Aviation Administration Satellite Block

  1. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-02

    optical Deep Space Surveillance System, GPS = Global Positioning System, GSSAP = Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program, JSpOC = Joint...Space Situational Awareness. SST= Space Surveillance Telescope, VAFB =Vandenberg Air Force Base. WGS = Wideband Global Satellite Communications Global ...Bilateral Agreements • Adjacent Band Interference • International Committee On Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Department of

  2. Optimal Preprocessing Of GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sien-Chong; Melbourne, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for preprocessing data from Global Positioning System receiver reduces processing time and number of data to be stored. Optimal in sense that it maintains strength of data. Also increases ability to resolve ambiguities in numbers of cycles of received GPS carrier signals.

  3. Animal Tracking ARGOS vs GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Costa, D.; Arnould, J.; Weise, M.; Kuhn, C.; Simmons, S. E.; Villegas, S.; Tremblay, Y.

    2006-12-01

    ARGOS satellite tracking technology has enabled a tremendous increase in our understanding of the movement patterns of a diverse array of marine vertebrates from Sharks to marine mammals. Our current understanding has moved from simple descriptions of large scale migratory patterns to much more sophisticated comparisons of animal movements and behavior relative to oceanic features. Further, animals are increasingly used to carry sensors that can acquire water column temperature and salinity profiles. However, a major limitation of this work is the spatial precision of ARGOS locations. ARGOS provides 7 location qualities that range from 3,2,1,0,A,B,Z and correspond to locations with a precision of 150m to tens of kilometers. Until recently, GPS technology could not be effectively used with marine mammals because they did not spend sufficient time at the surface to allow complete acquisition of satellite information. The recent development of Fastloc technology has allowed the development of GPS tags that can be deployed on marine mammals. Here we compare the location quality and frequency derived from standard ARGOS PTTs to Fastloc GPS locations acquired from 11 northern elephant seals, 5 California and 5 Galapagos sea lions and 1 Cape and 3 Australian fur seals. Our results indicate that GPS technology will greatly enhance our ability to understand the movement patterns of marine vertebrates and the in-situ oceanographic data they collect.

  4. Contents of GPS Data Files

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, John P.; Carver, Matthew Robert; Norman, Benjamin

    2016-12-09

    There are no very detailed descriptions of most of these instruments in the literature – we will attempt to fix that problem in the future. The BDD instruments are described in [1]. One of the dosimeter instruments on CXD boxes is described in [2]. These documents (or web links to them) and a few others are in this directory tree. The cross calibration of the CXD electron data with RBSP is described in [3]. Each row in the data file contains the data from one time bin from a CXD or BDD instrument along with a variety of parameters derived from the data. Time steps are commandable but 4 minutes is a typical setting. These instruments are on many (but not all) GPS satellites which are currently in operation. The data come from either BDD instruments on GPS Block IIR satellites (SVN41 and 48), or else CXD-IIR instruments on GPS Block IIR and IIR-M satellites (SVN53-61) or CXD-IIF instruments on GPS block IIF satellites (SVN62-73). The CXD-IIR instruments on block IIR and IIR(M) satellites use the same design.

  5. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The emphasis of this grant was focused on precision ephemerides for the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for geodynamics applications. During the period of this grant, major activities were in the areas of thermal force modeling, numerical integration accuracy improvement for eclipsing satellites, analysis of GIG '91 campaign data, and the Southwest Pacific campaign data analysis.

  6. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  7. Large single crystal growth of MnWO4-type materials from high-temperature solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattermann, U.; Röska, B.; Paulmann, C.; Park, S.-H.

    2016-11-01

    A simple high-temperature growth apparatus was constructed to obtain large crystals of chemically gradient (In, Na)-doped MnWO4solid-solutions. This paper presents the crystal growth and characterisation of both MnWO4and epitaxially grown (In, Na): MnWO4crystals on MnWO4. These large monolithic crystals were made in two steps: A MnWO4 crystal was grown in the crystallographic main direction [001] applying the Czochralski method, followed by the top seeded growth of (In, Na): MnWO4 solid-solutions with an oriented seed crystal of MnWO4. Such a monolithic crystal will serve to fundamental investigation of coupling properties at boundaries between various multiferroic MnWO4-typesolid-solutions.

  8. Improved red emission by codoping Li+ in ZnWO4:Eu3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guiqiang; Wang, Fengli; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Haisheng; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    ZnWO4:Eu3+ and ZnWO4:Eu3+/Li+ phosphors have been synthesized successfully by a microwave-assist hydrothermal process. The phase, morphology and luminescent properties are investigated carefully. The XRD and FTIR results indicate that ZnWO4:Eu3+ and ZnWO4:Eu3+/Li+ phosphors have the monoclinic phase. The SEM images indicate that ZnWO4:Eu3+ and ZnWO4:Eu3+/Li+ phosphors are cubes with average particle size about 1 μm. Under the excitation at 395 nm, ZnWO4:Eu3+ and ZnWO4:Eu3+/Li+ phosphors show emission bands originating from the 5D0 → 7Fj (j = 0, 1, 2 and 3) transitions of Eu3+ ions. The Li+ ion acts as charge compensator and results in the enhancement of emission intensity.

  9. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  10. Preparation and physical properties of CuxWO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koriche, N.; Bessekhouad, Y.; Bouguelia, A.; Trari, M.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the study of WO3 doped with Cu using sol-gel (CuxWO3d) and impregnation (CuxWO3i) methods. All materials are well crystallized and exhibit single phases whose crystallite size ranges from 17 to 100 nm depending on Cu amount and the preparation technique. The conductivity dependence on temperature demonstrates semiconductor behavior and follows the Arrhenius model, with activation energies, Eσ, commonly in the range 0.4-0.6 eV. Moreover, the thermopower study shows that CuxWO3d is mainly of p-type conductivity, whereas CuxWO3i is n-type. The mechanism of conduction is attributed to a small polaron hopping. The doping process is found to decrease the interband transition down to 520 nm depending on the preparation conditions. The photoelectrochemical characterization confirms the conductivity type and demonstrates that the photocurrent Jph increases with Cu-doping. Taking into consideration the activation energy, the flat band potential and the band gap energy, the band positions of each material are proposed according to the preparation method and Cu amount.

  11. Synthesis of high aspect ratio WO2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Selim; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO2) nanorods and nanowires were prepared by the heat treatment of WO2 nanocrystalline powders in the presence of Ar. Nanocrystalline powders produced by a simple water-assisted route at the room temperature were annealed at different temperatures for different durations, which yielded orthorhombic and monoclinic WO2 crystals. Annealing the powders at 700 °C and above resulted in orthorhombic WO2 nanorods/nanowires with an average diameter of 60-70 nm beside the monoclinic WO2 nanocrystalline powders with a diameter of 5 nm. The lengths of the nanorods increased from several 100 nm up to several 10 µm with increasing temperature while their diameters did not change. With increased length, nanowires became more elastic in nature having a cotton-like fabric. The prepared nanostructures have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. An oriented attachment mechanism leading to root growth from a parent structure was proposed.

  12. Optimization of the effective GPS data rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Ohio University's Avionics Engineering Center is performing research directed towards the integration of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) for attitude and heading determination. The integration of GPS/INS offers synergistic benefits. INS gyro drift error can be compensated by the long-term stability of GPS by means of an in-flight data monitoring algorithm. Using GPS data as a reference is more advantageous than implementing an additional INS since GPS offers a dissimilar redundancy to the attitude and heading determination configuration. In converse, the short-term stability of the INS can be used to correct or substitute for faulty GPS data due to tracking loop phase lag or data gaps because of satellite shielding. The optimization of the effective GPS data rate is essential for the proper execution of an integrated GPS/INS in-flight algorithm. GPS attitude and heading information must be consistently available during INS outages. Present research efforts involve the development of an in-flight algorithm that maximizes the potential of integrated GPS/INS. This algorithm determines the acceptable limits of phase lag that the GPS tracking loop introduces to the flight control system (FCS) during the transmission of information. Once these calculated limits are exceeded, INS data are used to insure the continuous availability of attitude and heading information to the flight control system.

  13. Integrated Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Dewayne Randolph

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a user-friendly Integrated GPS lab manual. This manual will help range engineers at NASA to integrate the use of GPS Simulators, GPS receivers, computers, MATLAB software, FUGAWI software and SATELLITE TOOL KIT software. The lab manual will be used in an effort to help NASA engineers predict GPS Coverage of planned operations and analyze GPS coverage of operation post mission. The Integrated GPS Laboratory was used to do GPS Coverage for two extensive case studies. The first scenario was an airplane trajectory in which an aircraft flew from Cape Canaveral to Los Angeles, California. In the second scenario, a rocket trajectory was done whereas a rocket was launched from Cape Canaveral to one thousand kilometers due east in the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Spaceborne GPS: Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting GPS technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor--it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on-board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-2000 GPS flight experiments, and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  15. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  16. Photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/Bi2S3 heterojunctions: the facilitation of exposed facets of Bi2WO6 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Long; Wang, Yufei; Shen, Huidong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian; Wang, Danjun

    2017-01-01

    Bi2S3/Bi2WO6 hybrid architectures with exposed (020) Bi2WO6 facets have been synthesized via a controlled anion exchange approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that a small amount of Bi2S3 was formed on the surface of Bi2WO6 during the anion exchange process, thus leading to the transformation from the Bi2WO6 to Bi2S3/Bi2WO6. A rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution was chosen as model organic pollutants to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the Bi2S3/Bi2WO6 catalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the Bi2S3/Bi2WO6-TAA displayed the excellent visible light photoactivities compared with pure Bi2S3, Bi2WO6 and other composite photocatalysts. The efficient photocatalytic activity of the Bi2S3/Bi2WO6-TAA composite microspheres was ascribed to the constructed heterojunctions and the inner electric field caused by the exposed (020) Bi2WO6 facets. Active species trapping experiments revealed that h+ and O2rad - are the main active species in the photocatalytic process. Furthermore, the as-obtained photocatalysts showed good photocatalytic activity after four recycles. The results presented in this study provide a new concept for the rational design and development of highly efficient photocatalysts.

  17. Pre-Flight Testing of Spaceborne GPS Receivers using a GPS Constellation Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Davis, Edward; Alonso, R.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Global Positioning System (GPS) applications test facility has been established within the GSFC Guidance Navigation and Control Center. The GPS test facility is currently housing the Global Simulation Systems Inc. (GSSI) STR2760 GPS satellite 40-channel attitude simulator and a STR4760 12-channel navigation simulator. The facility also contains a few other resources such as an atomic time standard test bed, a rooftop antenna platform and a radome. It provides a new capability for high dynamics GPS simulations of space flight that is unique within the aerospace community. The GPS facility provides a critical element for the development and testing of GPS based technologies i.e. position, attitude and precise time determination used on-board a spacecraft, suborbital rocket balloon. The GPS simulation system is configured in a transportable rack and is available for GPS component development as well as for component, spacecraft subsystem and system level testing at spacecraft integration and tests sites. The GPS facility has been operational since early 1996 and has utilized by space flight projects carrying GPS experiments, such as the OrbView-2 and the Argentine SAC-A spacecrafts. The SAC-A pre-flight test data obtained by using the STR2760 simulator and the comparison with preliminary analysis of the GPS data from SAC-A telemetry are summarized. This paper describes pre-flight tests and simulations used to support a unique spaceborne GPS experiment. The GPS experiment mission objectives and the test program are described, as well as the GPS test facility configuration needed to verify experiment feasibility. Some operational and critical issues inherent in GPS receiver pre-flight tests and simulations using this GPS simulation, and test methodology are described. Simulation and flight data are presented. A complete program of pre-flight testing of spaceborne GPS receivers using a GPS constellation simulator is detailed.

  18. Pre-Flight Testing of Spaceborne GPS Receivers Using a GPS Constellation Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Davis, Edward; Alonso, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Global Positioning System (GPS) applications test facility has been established within the GSFC Guidance Navigation and Control Center. The GPS test facility is currently housing the Global Simulation Systems Inc. (GSSI) STR2760 GPS satellite 40-channel attitude simulator and a STR4760 12-channel navigation simulator. The facility also contains a few other resources such as an atomic time standard test bed, a rooftop antenna platform and a radome. It provides a new capability for high dynamics GPS simulations of space flight that is unique within the aerospace community. The GPS facility provides a critical element for the development and testing of GPS based technologies i.e. position, attitude and precise time determination used on-board a spacecraft, suborbital rocket or balloon. The GPS simulator system is configured in a transportable rack and is available for GPS component development as well as for component, spacecraft subsystem and system level testing at spacecraft integration and test sites. The GPS facility has been operational since early 1996 and has been utilized by space flight projects carrying GPS experiments, such as the OrbView-2 and the Argentine SAC-A spacecrafts. The SAC-A pre-flight test data obtained by using the STR2760 simulator and the comparison with preliminary analysis of the GPS data from SAC-A telemetry are summarized. This paper describes pre-flight tests and simulations used to support a unique spaceborne GPS experiment. The GPS experiment mission objectives and the test program are described, as well as the GPS test facility configuration needed to verify experiment feasibility. Some operational and critical issues inherent in GPS receiver pre-flight tests and simulations using this GPS simulator, and test methodology are described. Simulation and flight data are presented. A complete program of pre-flight testing of spaceborne GPS receivers using a GPS constellation simulator is

  19. International GPS Service for Geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. F. (Editor); Urban, M. P. (Editor); Liu, R. (Editor); Neilan, R. E. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This 1995 annual report of the IGS International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics - describes the second operational year of the service. It provides the many IGS contributing agencies and the rapidly growing user community with essential information on current organizational and technical matters promoting the IGS standards and products (including organizational framework, data processing strategies, and statistics showing the remarkable expansion of the GPS monitoring network, the improvement of IGS performance, and product quality). It also introduces important practical concepts for network densification by integration of regional stations and the combination of station coordinate solutions. There are groups of articles describing general aspects of the IGS, the Associate Analysis Centers (AACs), Data Centers, and IGS stations.

  20. Degradation of methylene blue using porous WO3, SiO2-WO3, and their Au-loaded analogs: adsorption and photocatalytic studies.

    PubMed

    DePuccio, Daniel P; Botella, Pablo; O'Rourke, Bruce; Landry, Christopher C

    2015-01-28

    A facile sonochemical approach was used to deposit 3-5 nm monodisperse gold nanoparticles on porous SiO2-WO3 composite spheres, as confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). High-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) further characterized the supported Au nanoparticles within the Au-SiO2-WO3 composite. These analyses showed isolated Au nanoparticles within both SiO2- and WO3-containing regions. Selective etching of the SiO2 matrix from Au-SiO2-WO3 yielded a pure Au-WO3 material with well-dispersed 10 nm Au nanoparticles and moderate porosity. This combined sonochemical-nanocasting technique has not been previously used to synthesize Au-WO3 photocatalysts. Methylene blue (MB) served as a probe for the adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity of these WO3-containing catalysts. Extensive MB demethylation (azures A, B, C, and thionine) and polymerization of these products occurred over WO3 under dark conditions, as confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Photoirradiation of these suspensions led to further degradation primarily through demethylation and polymerization pathways, regardless of the presence of Au nanoparticles. Ring-opening sulfur oxidation to the sulfone was a secondary photocatalytic pathway. According to UV-vis spectroscopy, pure WO3 materials showed superior MB adsorption compared to SiO2-WO3 composites. Compared to their respective nonloaded catalysts, Au-SiO2-WO3 and Au-WO3 catalysts exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of MB. Specifically, the rates of MB degradation over Au-WO3 and Au-SiO2-WO3 during 300 min of irradiation were faster than those over their nonloaded counterparts (WO3 and SiO2-WO3). These studies highlight the ability of Au-WO3 to serve as an excellent adsorbant and photodegradation catalyst toward MB.

  1. A GPS Disciplined Rubidium Clock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    A GPS DISCIPLINED RUBIDIUM CLOCK .Wayne Dewey. Kincmctrics/TrueTime 3243 Sarita Rosa Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95407 Abstract Sub-microsecond timing ...accuracy during periods when no satellites are visible, a highly sta1,lc local time base is required. For those cases which require Cesililll oscillat...tcrxxr stability. INTRODUCTION In recerlt years, time syr~chronization requirements between rer-note sites has becorrie rrlora clr:rriiir~tilr

  2. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Based on the research, the area of precise ephemerides for GPS satellites, the following observations can be made pertaining to the status and future work needed regarding orbit accuracy. There are several aspects which need to be addressed in discussing determination of precise orbits, such as force models, kinematic models, measurement models, data reduction/estimation methods, etc. Although each one of these aspects was studied at CSR in research efforts, only points pertaining to the force modeling aspect are addressed.

  3. GPS Multipath in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, A.; Sella, G.

    2008-12-01

    Multipath, where a GNSS signal arrives by more than one path, is considered one of the last unmodeled errors remaining in GNSS. Multipath is of great concern because the additional path length traveled by the incoming signal biases the satellite-receiver range and therefore determination of position. Siting a GNSS station in an urban area, in the immediate vicinity of large reflecting objects such as rooftops, buildings, asphalt and concrete parking lots, grassy fields, and chainlink fences, is both a multipath nightmare and a necessary evil. We note that continuously-operating GNSS stations are becoming increasingly common in urban areas, which makes sense as these stations are often installed in support of civil infrastructure (e.g. departments of transportation, strong motion monitoring of buildings in earthquake-prone areas, surveying networks). Urban stations are well represented in geodetic networks such as the CORS (United States) and GeoNet (Japan) networks, with more stations likely to be installed in the coming years. What sources and types of urban multipath are the most detrimental to geodetic GPS positioning? Which reflecting objects are assumed to be a major source of multipath error, but the GPS data show otherwise? Are certain reflecting environments worse for specific applications, i.e. kinematic vs. static positioning? If forced to install a GNSS station in a highly reflective environment, is it possible to rank objects for their multipath severity? To answer these questions, we provide multipath examples taken from continuously- operating GNSS stations sited in urban environments. We concentrate on some of the most common obstacles and reflecting objects for urban sites - rooftops, parking lots, and fences. We analyze the multipath signature of these objects as manifested in the GPS phase, pseudorange, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) observables, and also examine multipath impacts on the precision and accuracy of GPS-derived positions.

  4. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:28098210

  5. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Facile Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on WO3Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanorods have been generated by the thermal decomposition (450 °C) of tetrabutylammonium decatungstate. The synthesized tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods have been characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and cyclic voltammetry. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the synthesized WO3nanorods are crystalline in nature with monoclinic structure. The electrochemical experiments showed that they constitute a better electrocatalytic system for hydrogen evolution reaction in acid medium compared to their bulk counterpart.

  7. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  8. Reactive Sputter Deposition of WO3/Ag/WO3 Film for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yi; Lan, Changyong; Guo, Huayang; Li, Chun

    2016-02-17

    Functioning both as electrochromic (EC) and transparent-conductive (TC) coatings, WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) trilayer film shows promising potential application for ITO-free electrochromic devices. Reports on thermal-evaporated WAW films revealed that these bifunctional WAW films have distinct EC characteristics; however, their poor adhesive property leads to rapid degradation of coloring-bleaching cycling. Here, we show that WAW film with improved EC durability can be prepared by reactive sputtering using metal targets. We find that, by introducing an ultrathin tungsten (W) sacrificial layer before the deposition of external WO3, the oxidation of silver, which leads to film insulation and apparent optical haze, can be effectively avoided. We also find that the luminous transmittance and sheet resistance were sensitive to the thicknesses of tungsten and silver layers. The optimized structure for TC coating was obtained to be WO3 (45 nm)/Ag (10 nm)/W (2 nm)/WO3 (45 nm) with a sheet resistance of 16.3 Ω/□ and a luminous transmittance of 73.7%. Such film exhibits compelling EC performance with decent luminous transmittance modulation ΔTlum of 29.5%, fast switching time (6.6 s for coloring and 15.9 s for bleaching time), and long-term cycling stability (2000 cycles) with an applied potential of ±1.2 V. Thicker external WO3 layer (45/10/2/100 nm) leads to larger modulation with maximum ΔTlum of 46.4%, but at the cost of significantly increasing the sheet resistance. The strategy of introducing ultrathin metal sacrificial layer to avoid silver oxidation could be extended to fabricating other oxide-Ag-oxide transparent electrodes via low-cost reactive sputtering.

  9. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future. PMID:26913026

  10. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  11. Tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and host affected by temperature and age in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-11-01

    A phage density model of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which means lytic phages reduce bacterial density associated with CI, significantly enhances our understanding of the tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia and host. However, WO may alternate between lytic and lysogenic life cycles or change phage production under certain conditions including temperature, host age and host species background. Here, extreme temperatures can induce an alteration in the life cycle of WO and change the tripartite associations among WO, Wolbachia and CI. Based on the accumulation of the WO load, WO can transform into the lytic life cycle with increasing age. These findings confirmed that the environment plays an important role in the associations among WO, Wolbachia and host.

  12. Tunable luminescence and enhanced photocatalytic activity for Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haidong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Juan; Ni, Min; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-15

    A series of Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The obtained Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, luminescence spectrophotometer and DRS. The XRD and TEM results indicate that the Eu(III) doping concentration has no influence on the phase and morphology. However, the Eu(III) doping can tune the luminescence and enhance the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6. With the increases of Eu(3+) doping concentrations, the emission intensity of WO6(6-) group decreases nut the photocatalytic activity increases. The tunable luminescence of Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles results from the energy transfer from WO6(6-) group to Eu(III) ion. The enhanced performance can be ascribed to efficient separation of electron and hole pairs after doping Eu(III) into the Bi2WO6 lattice.

  13. Tunable luminescence and enhanced photocatalytic activity for Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haidong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Juan; Ni, Min; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A series of Eu(III) doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The obtained Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, luminescence spectrophotometer and DRS. The XRD and TEM results indicate that the Eu(III) doping concentration has no influence on the phase and morphology. However, the Eu(III) doping can tune the luminescence and enhance the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6. With the increases of Eu3 + doping concentrations, the emission intensity of WO66 - group decreases nut the photocatalytic activity increases. The tunable luminescence of Bi2WO6:Eu(III) nanoparticles results from the energy transfer from WO66 - group to Eu(III) ion. The enhanced performance can be ascribed to efficient separation of electron and hole pairs after doping Eu(III) into the Bi2WO6 lattice.

  14. Synthesis of a highly reactive form of WO2Cl2, its conversion into nanocrystalline mono-hydrated WO3 and coordination compounds with tetramethylurea.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marco; Evangelisti, Claudio; Marchetti, Fabio; Pampaloni, Guido; Piccinelli, Fabio; Zacchini, Stefano

    2016-10-21

    A new form of WO2Cl2 was obtained by modification of a literature procedure. Both the newly prepared WO2Cl2 and the commercial yellow WO2Cl2 exhibited an orthorhombic structure (powder X-ray diffraction, P-XRD), and their air exposure at room temperature afforded light green and lemon yellow WO3·H2O (orthorhombic phase), respectively. These materials were characterized by P-XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S-TEM). The analyses revealed the nanocrystalline nature of light green WO3·H2O, and the prevalent amorphism of lemon yellow WO3·H2O. The reactions of grey WO2Cl2 with one and two equivalents of tetramethylurea (tmu), in CH2Cl2 at room temperature, led to the isolation of the trinuclear complex [WO2Cl2(tmu)]3, 1 (45% yield), and the mononuclear one WO2Cl2(tmu)2, 2 (64%), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were fully characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods, single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) and DFT calculations.

  15. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  16. Global Positioning System (GPS) Geodetic Receivers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-08

    Subti.) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERFo COVERED Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Geodetic N/A Receivers S. PERFORMING OrG. REPORT NUMBER I N/A AUTNORf*) S...i N meueaed idautfy b block nmAr) The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) when fully developed will pro- vide world-wide, all weather, continuous... Global Positioning System ( GPS ) when fully developed will provide world-wide, all weather, continuous, highly accurate radio navigation support to

  17. GPS Synchronized Disciplined Rubidium Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    GPS SYNCHRONIZED DISCIPLINED RUBIDIUM FREQUENCY STANDARD D. Earl Fossler TRAK Systems Div. of TRAK Microwave Tampa, Florida Abstract A...disciplined rubidium freqllency standard steered by the corrected 1 PPS output from a GPS timing receiver or other stable 1 PPS source can provide a low...used for many timing applications, disciplined rubidium frcqucncy standards arc rtot, in wide use. GPS timing receivers have bcen used for several

  18. Current and voltage noise in WO3 nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, A.; Vandamme, L. K. J.; Kish, L. B.; Olsson, E.

    2002-04-01

    Current and voltage noise measurements have been carried out on nanoparticle WO3 films. The fluctuation dissipation theorem holds, which indicates that the observed noise is an equilibrium phenomenon. Results on the thinnest films show that noise measurements can be used for quality assessment of nanocrystalline insulating films.

  19. Morphologically different WO3 nanocrystals in photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Soumya Kanti; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kong, Ki-jeong; So, Won-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of WO3 nanocrystals such as nanorods and nanoplates have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions using ammonium metatungstate as the precursor in presence of different organic acids such as citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid in the reaction medium. Detailed characterization of the crystal structure, particle morphology, and optical band gap of the synthesized powders have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state UV-visible spectroscopy study. The as-synthesized materials are WO3 hydrates with orthorhombic phase which transform to the hexagonal WO3 through dehydration upon heating at 350 °C. The resultant products are crystalline with nanoscale dimensions. Finally, the photoactivity of the synthesized materials annealed at 500 °C has been compared employing in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under the illumination of AM 1.5G simulated solar light (100 mWcm-2). The photocurrent measurements upon irradiation of light exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent of about 0.77, 0.61, and 0.65 mAcm-2 for the WO3 film derived with the oxalic acid, tartaric, and citric acid assisting agents, respectively, at 1.8 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode.

  20. The GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic co-location in space through the precision orbit determination of GPS satellites via satellite laser ranging will contribute significantly towards improving the accuracy and stability of the international terrestrial reference frame. NASA recently formed the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project to develop and deliver retroreflectors for integration on the next generation of GPS satellites. These retroreflectors will be an important contributor to achieving a global accuracy of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm/year stability in the international terrestrial reference frame. We report here the current status of the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project.

  1. GPS data exploration for seismologists and geodesists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, F.; Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Dong, D.; Jamason, P.; Chang, R.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; MacLeod, I.; Wadsworth, G.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past decade, GPS and seismic networks spanning the western US plate boundaries have produced vast amounts of data that need to be made accessible to both the geodesy and seismology communities. Unlike seismic data, raw geodetic data requires significant processing before geophysical interpretations can be made. This requires the generation of data-products (time series, velocities and strain maps) and dissemination strategies to bridge these differences and assure efficient use of data across traditionally separate communities. "GPS DATA PRODUCTS FOR SOLID EARTH SCIENCE" (GDPSES) is a multi-year NASA funded project, designed to produce and deliver high quality GPS time series, velocities, and strain fields, derived from multiple GPS networks along the western US plate boundary, and to make these products easily accessible to geophysicists. Our GPS product dissemination is through modern web-based IT methodology. Product browsing is facilitated through a web tool known as GPS Explorer and continuous streams of GPS time series are provided using web services to the seismic archive, where it can be accessed by seismologists using traditional seismic data viewing and manipulation tools. GPS-Explorer enables users to efficiently browse several layers of data products from raw data through time series, velocities and strain by providing the user with a web interface, which seamlessly interacts with a continuously updated database of these data products through the use of web-services. The current archive contains GDPSES data products beginning in 1995, and includes observations from GPS stations in EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), as well as from real-time real-time CGPS stations. The generic, standards-based approach used in this project enables GDPSES to seamlessly expand indefinitely to include other space-time-dependent data products from additional GPS networks. The prototype GPS-Explorer provides users with a personalized working environment

  2. Determination of GPS orbits to submeter accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Katsigris, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were determined with submeter accuracy. Tests used to assess orbital accuracy include orbit comparisons from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. One satellite tracked 8 hours each day shows rms error below 1 m even when predicted more than 3 days outside of a 1-week data arc. Differential tracking of the GPS satellites in high Earth orbit provides a powerful relative positioning capability, even when a relatively small continental U.S. fiducial tracking network is used with less than one-third of the full GPS constellation. To demonstrate this capability, baselines of up to 2000 km in North America were also determined with the GPS orbits. The 2000 km baselines show rms daily repeatability of 0.3 to 2 parts in 10 to the 8th power and agree with very long base interferometry (VLBI) solutions at the level of 1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th power. This GPS demonstration provides an opportunity to test different techniques for high-accuracy orbit determination for high Earth orbiters. The best GPS orbit strategies included data arcs of at least 1 week, process noise models for tropospheric fluctuations, estimation of GPS solar pressure coefficients, and combine processing of GPS carrier phase and pseudorange data. For data arc of 2 weeks, constrained process noise models for GPS dynamic parameters significantly improved the situation.

  3. The International GPS Service: A Global Resource for GPS Applications and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth E.; Zumberge, James F.; Beutler, Gerhard; Kouba, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Since June, 1992, the International GPS service has been coordinating a global civilian GPS infrastructure in order to support numerous GPS applications and research activities. A key aspect of the IGS is the reliability and quality of the analysis products that have been made available over the past five years through the IGS Analysis Centers and the Analysis Center Coordinator.

  4. Tungsten-based nanomaterials (WO3 & Bi2WO6): Modifications related to charge carrier transfer mechanisms and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish Kumar, S.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2015-11-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an ideal green energy technology for the purification of wastewater. Although titania dominates as the reference photocatalyst, its wide band gap is a bottleneck for extended utility. Thus, search for non-TiO2 based nanomaterials has become an active area of research in recent years. In this regard, visible light absorbing polycrystalline WO3 (2.4-2.8 eV) and Bi2WO6 (2.8 eV) with versatile structure-electronic properties has gained considerable interest to promote the photocatalytic reactions. These materials are also explored in selective functional group transformation in organic reactions, because of low reduction and oxidation potential of WO3 CB and Bi2WO6 VB, respectively. In this focused review, various strategies such as foreign ion doping, noble metal deposition and heterostructuring with other semiconductors designed for efficient photocatalysis is discussed. These modifications not only extend the optical response to longer wavelengths, but also prolong the life-time of the charge carriers and strengthen the photocatalyst stability. The changes in the surface-bulk properties and the charge carrier transfer dynamics associated with each modification correlating to the high activity are emphasized. The presence of oxidizing agents, surface modification with Cu2+ ions and synthesis of exposed facets to promote the degradation rate is highlighted. In depth study on these nanomaterials is likely to sustain interest in wastewater remediation and envisaged to signify in various green energy applications.

  5. WO{sub 3} nanoplates, hierarchical flower-like assemblies and their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jianhua Xiao, Liang; Yang, Xiaolong

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoplates, hierarchical flower-like assemblies and their visible light-driven photocatalytic properties for degradation of rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Preparation of monoclinic WO{sub 3} by a hydrothermal reaction of PbWO{sub 4} in the presence of HNO{sub 3}. • Single-crystalline WO{sub 3} nanoplates were formed when 4 M HNO{sub 3} solution was used. • WO{sub 3} flowers were assembled by nanoplates when 15 M HNO{sub 3} solution was used. • The products showed excellent visible light-driven photodegradation of rhodamine B. - Abstract: Monoclinic WO{sub 3} was prepared by a hydrothermal reaction of PbWO{sub 4} in the presence of HNO{sub 3}. WO{sub 3} rectangular nanoplates with a side length of 50–150 nm and a thickness of about 25 nm were obtained at 4 M HNO{sub 3} solution. And the single crystal nature was confirmed by the selected area electron diffraction. Whereas WO{sub 3} hierarchical flower-like assemblies with 3–5 μm in diameter were self-organized by nanoplates in the presence of 15 M HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared with commercial WO{sub 3} particles, our products showed an enhancement of photocatalytic properties for the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation.

  6. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  7. Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals.

    PubMed

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  8. External Review of GPS LifePlan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS LifePlan is an interactive resource that helps students succeed in reaching their career, education and personal goals. GPS stands for "GOALS + PLANS = SUCCESS". http://gpslifeplan.org This holistic academic and student development program provides a structure for students to define their goals and helps them establish plans to…

  9. Ideas for Future GPS Timing Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsell, Steven T.

    1996-01-01

    Having recently met stringent criteria for full operational capability (FOC) certification, the Global Positioning System (GPS) now has higher customer expectations than ever before. In order to maintain customer satisfaction, and the meet the even high customer demands of the future, the GPS Master Control Station (MCS) must play a critical role in the process of carefully refining the performance and integrity of the GPS constellation, particularly in the area of timing. This paper will present an operational perspective on several ideas for improving timing in GPS. These ideas include the desire for improving MCS - US Naval Observatory (USNO) data connectivity, an improved GPS-Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) prediction algorithm, a more robust Kalman Filter, and more features in the GPS reference time algorithm (the GPS composite clock), including frequency step resolution, a more explicit use of the basic time scale equation, and dynamic clock weighting. Current MCS software meets the exceptional challenge of managing an extremely complex constellation of 24 navigation satellites. The GPS community will, however, always seek to improve upon this performance and integrity.

  10. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  11. Doppler Test Results of Experimental GPS Receiver.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) which is intended to supplant the Navy system for navigation. (An...Bossler, John D., Clyde C. Good and Peter L. Bender, "Using the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) for Geodetic Positioning ", Bulletin Geodesique, 54 (4), 553...necessary and identify by block number) Geodesy Satellite Positioning Global Positioning System Surveying 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ,eovoera~ldo

  12. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  13. Fault tolerant GPS/Inertial System design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alison K.; Sturza, Mark A.; Deangelis, Franco; Lukaszewski, David A.

    The use of a GPS/Inertial integrated system in future launch vehicles motivates the described design of the present fault-tolerant system. The robustness of the navigation system is enhanced by integrating the GPS with an inertial fault-tolerant system. Three layers of failure detection and isolation are incorporated to determine the nature of flaws in the inertial instruments, the GPS receivers, or the integrated navigation solution. The layers are based on: (1) a high-rate parity algorithm for instrument failures; (2) a similar parity algorithm for GPS satellite or receiver failures; and (3) a GPS navigation solution to monitor inertial navigation failures. Dual failures of any system component can occur in any system component without affecting the performance of launch-vehicle navigation or guidance.

  14. GPS studies during the ENIGMA era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torniainen, I.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Mingaliev, M. G.

    2006-10-01

    We have studied two samples of gigahertz-peaked spectrum sources, one consisting of mostly quasars and the other consisting of galaxy-type objects. Among both samples most of the GPS sources lost their GPS status because with competent data sets the shape of the spectrum was not in compliance with a GPS spectrum. Instead a remarkable share of the quasars were actually flat-spectrum sources caught in a flare of which the spectrum is inverted. Also many of the galaxies did not have enough data for solid classifications so, with more observations at different frequencies, they can turn out to be anything from genuine GPS sources to flaring blazars with more observations at different frequencies. This implicates a complicated situation for ESA's Planck mission. In order to study the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, the contribution of the foreground emission must be known. The different possibilities instead of classical invariable GPS sources will make predictions complex.

  15. Preparation and characterization of WO3 nanoparticles, WO3/TiO2 core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I.; Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szżcs, Júlia; Szilágyi, Imre M.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, monoclinic WO3 nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH4)xWO3 in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO2 films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO3 nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO3 and core/shell WO3/TiO2 nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO3 thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  16. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity and electrochemical property of graphene-SrWO4 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Nie, Yu; Yang, Hongxun; Sun, Shengnan; Chen, Yingying; Yang, Tongyi; Lin, Shengling

    2016-05-01

    SrWO4 is a promising candidate as not only photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water, but also electrode material for energy storage devices. However, the drawbacks of its poor adsorptive performance, low electrical conductivity, and high recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pair impede its practical applications. In this work, we have developed a new graphene/SrWO4 nanocomposite synthesized via a facile chemical precipitation method. Characterizations show that SrWO4 nanoparticles with 80 nm or so deposited on the surface of graphene nanosheets. Graphene nanosheets in the graphene-SrWO4 hybrid could increase adsorptive property, improve the electrical conductivity of hybrid, and reduce the recombination of electron-hole pairs. As a kind of photocatalyst or electrode material for supercapacitor, the binary graphene-SrWO4 hybrid presents enhanced photocatalytic activity and electrochemical property compared to pure SrWO4.

  17. Facile synthesis of hierarchical double-shell WO3 microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenfeng; Chu, Deqing; Wang, Limin; Wang, Lipeng; Hu, Wenhui; Chen, Xiangyu; Yang, Huifang; Sun, Jingjing

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical double-shell WO3 microspheres (HDS-WO3) have been successfully obtained through the thermal decomposition of WO3·H2O formed by metal salts as the templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the HDS-WO3 microspheres were analyzed by the Thermogravimetric (TG) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The synthetic mechanism of the products with hierarchical structures was proposed. The obtained HDS-WO3 exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency (84.9%), which is much higher than other WO3 sample under visible light illumination.

  18. NixWO2.72 nanorods as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Zheng; Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Zhu, Huiyuan; ...

    2017-01-13

    NixWO2.72 nanorods (NRs) are synthesized by a one-pot reaction of Ni(acac)2 and WCl4. In the rod structure, Ni(II) intercalates in the defective perovskite-type WO2.72 and is stabilized. The NixWO2.72 NRs show the x-dependent electrocatalysis for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 0.1M KOH with Ni0.78WO2.72 being the most efficient, even outperforming the commercial Ir-catalyst. Lastly, the synthesis is not limited to NixWO2.72 but can be extended to MxWO2.72 (M = Co, Fe) as well, providing a new class of oxide-based catalysts for efficient OER and other energy conversion reactions.

  19. Photocatalytic Removal of Microcystin-LR by Advanced WO3-Based Nanoparticles under Simulated Solar Light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Yang, Yingnan

    2015-01-01

    A series of advanced WO3-based photocatalysts including CuO/WO3, Pd/WO3, and Pt/WO3 were synthesized for the photocatalytic removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under simulated solar light. In the present study, Pt/WO3 exhibited the best performance for the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. The MC-LR degradation can be described by pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Chloride ion (Cl−) with proper concentration could enhance the MC-LR degradation. The presence of metal cations (Cu2+ and Fe3+) improved the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. This study suggests that Pt/WO3 photocatalytic oxidation under solar light is a promising option for the purification of water containing MC-LR. PMID:25884038

  20. GPS Radio Occultation as Part of the Global Observing System for Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Ao, C. O.; Iijima, B. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Yunck, T. P.; Kursinski, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: The Measurement (Physical retrievals based on time standards), GPS Retrieval Products, Retrievals and Radiances: CLARREO Mission, GPS RO and AIRS, GPS RO and Microwave, GPS RO and Radiosondes, GPS/GNSS Science, and Conclusions.

  1. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  2. Invasion noise in nanoparticle WO3/Au thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, Anders; Ederth, Jesper; Heszler, Peter; Kish, Laszlo B.; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Goeran

    2001-11-01

    Conduction noise measurements were carried out in the 0.3 to 45 Hz frequency range on Au films covered by a thin layer of tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles. Exposing the films to alcohol vapor resulted in a gradually increased noise intensity which went through a maximum after an exposure time of the order of 15 min. The maximum noise intensity could increase by several orders of magnitude above the initial level. Longer exposure times made the noise decrease and approach its original value. This effect was not observed in the absence of WO3 nanoparticles. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of a new invasion noise model in which the noise is related to the insertion and extraction of mobile chemical species.

  3. Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.

  4. PiVoT GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennersten, Miriam Dvorak; Banes, Anthony Vince; Boegner, Gregory J.; Dougherty, Lamar; Edwards, Bernard L.; Roman, Joseph; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has built an open architecture, 24 channel space flight GPS receiver. The CompactPCI PiVoT GPS receiver card is based on the Mitel/GEC Plessey Builder-2 board. PiVoT uses two Plessey 2021 correlators to allow tracking of up to 24 separate GPS SV's on unique channels. Its four front ends can support four independent antennas, making it a useful card for hosting GPS attitude determination algorithms. It has been built using space quality, radiation tolerant parts. The PiVoT card will track a weaker signal than the original Builder 2 board. It also hosts an improved clock oscillator. The PiVoT software is based on the original Plessey Builder 2 software ported to the Linux operating system. The software is POSIX complaint and can easily be converted to other POSIX operating systems. The software is open source to anyone with a licensing agreement with Plessey. Additional tasks can be added to the software to support GPS science experiments or attitude determination algorithms. The next generation PiVoT receiver will be a single radiation hardened CompactPCI card containing the microprocessor and the GPS receiver optimized for use above the GPS constellation. PiVoT was flown successfully on a balloon in July, 2001, for its first non-simulated flight.

  5. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  6. NASA's GPS tracking system for Aristoteles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. S.; Hajj, G.; Kursinski, E. R.; Kyriacou, C.; Meehan, T. K.; Melbourne, William G.; Neilan, R. E.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, Thomas P.

    1991-12-01

    NASA 's Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking system for Artistoteles receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles is described. It will include a global network of GPS ground receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles. The flight receiver will operate autonomously; it will provide real time navigation solutions for Aristoteles and tracking data needed by ESOC for operational control of the satellite. The GPS flight and ground receivers will currently and continuously track all visible GPS satellites. These observations will yield high accuracy differential positions and velocities of Aristoteles in a terrestrial frame defined by the locations of the globally distributed ground work. The precise orbits and tracking data will be made available to science investigators as part of the geophysical data record. The characteristics of the GPS receivers, both flight and ground based, that NASA will be using to support Aristoteles are described. The operational aspects of the overall tracking system, including the data functions and the resulting data products are summarized. The expected performance of the tracking system is compared to Aristoteles requirements and the need to control key error sources such as multipath is identified.

  7. Think GPS offers high security? Think again.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Warner, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is being increasingly used for a variety of important applications. These include public safety services (police, fire, rescue, and ambulance), marine and aircraft navigation, vehicle theft monitoring, cargo tracking, and critical time synchronization for utility, telecommunications, banking, and computer industries. Civilian GPS signals-the only ones available to business and to most of the federal government-are high-tech, but not high-security. They were never meant for critical or security applications. Unlike the military GPS signals, civilian GPS satellite signals are unencrypted and unauthenticated. This makes it easy for even relatively unsophisticated adversaries to jam or counterfeit them. Counterfeiting ('spoofing') of civilian GPS signals is particularly troublesome because it is totally surreptitious, and (as we have demonstrated) surprisingly simple. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has warned of vulnerabilities and looming problems associated with over-reliance and over-confidence in civilian GPS. Few GPS users appear to be paying attention.

  8. Light-controlled resistive switching of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. X.; Sun, B.; Liu, Y. H.; Wei, L. J.; Li, H. W.; Chen, P.

    2014-07-15

    ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array was prepared on the titanium substrate by a facile hydrothermal synthesis, in which the average length of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires is about 2um and the diameter of individual ZnWO{sub 4} nanowire ranges from 50 to 70 nm. The bipolar resistive switching effect of ZnWO{sub 4} nanowires array was observed. Moreover, the performance of the resistive switching device is greatly improved under white light irradiation compared with that in the dark.

  9. Ag Nanoparticle-Sensitized WO3 Hollow Nanosphere for Localized Surface Plasmon Enhanced Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Ji, Fangxu; Yin, Mingli; Ren, Xianpei; Ma, Qiang; Yan, Junqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-07-20

    Ag nanoparticle (NP)-sensitized WO3 hollow nanospheres (Ag-WO3-HNSs) are fabricated via a simple sonochemical synthesis route. It is found that the Ag-WO3-HNS shows remarkable performance in gas sensors. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that the Agx-WO3 adopts the HNS structure in which WO3 forms the outer shell framework and the Ag NPs are grown on the inner wall of the WO3 hollow sphere. The size of the Ag NPs can be controlled by adjusting the addition amount of WCl6 during the reaction. The sensor Agx-WO3 exhibits extremely high sensitivity and selectivity toward alcohol vapor. In particular, the Ag(15nm)-WO3 sensor shows significantly lower operating temperature (230 °C), superior detection limits as low as 0.09 ppb, and faster response (7 s). Light illumination was found to boost the sensor performance effectively, especially at 405 and 900 nm, where the light wavelength resonates with the absorption of Ag NPs and the surface oxygen vacancies of WO3, respectively. The improved sensor performance is attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect.

  10. Metastable Tetragonal CdWO4 Nanoparticles Synthesized with a Solvothermal Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinone, Adam Justin; Travaglini, Dustin H; Pawel, Michelle D; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    CdWO{sub 4} has only previously been reported in the monoclinic, or wolframite, phase. Here we report the first metastable, tetragonal or scheelite, CdWO4 nanopowder. The tetragonal CdWO{sub 4} was synthesized by a propylene glycol solvothermal method. The scheelite phase is stabilized by a combination of high surface area and surface complexation by the propylene glycol. The CdWO{sub 4} is stable at 1 bar to 300 C, and converts back to the monoclinic wolframite phase between 300 and 500 C. The nanopowder exhibits cubic morphology and the average particle size of the nanopowder is around 50 nm.

  11. Surface oxygen vacancies on WO3 contributed to enhanced photothermo-synergistic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Changhua; Zheng, Han; Wan, Fangxu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Photothermooxidation has demonstrated a high efficiency in the removal of volatile organic compounds in air. Among photothermocatalysts, attention is presently focused on composites of noble metal/metal oxide or metal oxide/metal oxide. Instead, in this work, we present a case of single oxide WO3 subjected to hydrogen treatment as photothermocatalyst. With the increase of hydrogen treatment temperature, the color of WO3 changes from yellow to blue to dark blue and a phase transition from WO3 to WO2.72 to WO2 is accompanied, suggesting an increase of concentration of oxygen vacancy. Photothermocatalytic test against degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde at 60 °C under UV light shows that WO3-x sample with low concentration of oxygen vacancy displays the most significant synergetic effect between photocatalysis and thermocatalysis. Its photothermocatalytic activity in terms of CO2 evolution rate is 5.2 times higher than that of photocatalytic activity. However, WO3-WO2.72 and WO2 with high degree of oxygen deficiency show insignificant synergetic effect between photocatalysis and thermocatalysis. The reason for the different synergistic effect over above samples is believed to lie in balance between decreased activation energy of lattice oxygen and recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes induced by oxygen deficiency.

  12. Synthesis and ionic liquid gating of hexagonal WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Phillip M. E-mail: beasley@stanford.edu; Munakata, Ko; Hammond, R. H.; Geballe, T. H.; Beasley, M. R. E-mail: beasley@stanford.edu; Ishii, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu

    2015-01-26

    Via thin film deposition techniques, the meta-stable in bulk crystal hexagonal phase of tungsten oxide (hex-WO{sub 3}) is stabilized as a thin film. The hex-WO{sub 3} structure is potentially promising for numerous applications and is related to the structure for superconducting compounds found in WO{sub 3}. Utilizing ionic liquid gating, carriers were electrostatically induced in the films and an insulator-to-metal transition is observed. These results show that ionic liquid gating is a viable technique to alter the electrical transport properties of WO{sub 3}.

  13. First-principles reinvestigation of bulk WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Hanen; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Ghosez, Philippe; Bousquet, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which provides very good agreement with experimental data. We show that the hypothetical high-symmetry cubic reference structure combines several ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive (antipolar cation motions, rotations, and tilts of oxygen octahedra) structural instabilities. Although the ferroelectric instability is the largest, the instability related to antipolar W motions combines with those associated to oxygen rotations and tilts to produce the biggest energy reduction, yielding a P 21/c ground state. This nonpolar P 21/c phase is only different from the experimentally reported P c ground state by the absence of a very tiny additional ferroelectric distortion. The calculations performed on a stoichiometric compound so suggest that the low-temperature phase of WO3 is not intrinsically ferroelectric and that the experimentally observed ferroelectric character might arise from extrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies. Independently, we also identify never observed R 3 m and R 3 c ferroelectric metastable phases with large polarizations and low energies close to the P 21/c ground state, which makes WO3 a potential antiferroelectric material. The relative stability of various phases is discussed in terms of the anharmonic couplings between different structural distortions, highlighting a very complex interplay.

  14. Eukaryotic association module in phage WO genomes from Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bordenstein, Sarah R.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are trifurcated into eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial categories. This domain-specific ecology underscores why eukaryotic viruses typically co-opt eukaryotic genes and bacteriophages commonly harbour bacterial genes. However, the presence of bacteriophages in obligate intracellular bacteria of eukaryotes may promote DNA transfers between eukaryotes and bacteriophages. Here we report a metagenomic analysis of purified bacteriophage WO particles of Wolbachia and uncover a eukaryotic association module in the complete WO genome. It harbours predicted domains, such as the black widow latrotoxin C-terminal domain, that are uninterrupted in bacteriophage genomes, enriched with eukaryotic protease cleavage sites and combined with additional domains to forge one of the largest bacteriophage genes to date (14,256 bp). To the best of our knowledge, these eukaryotic-like domains have never before been reported in packaged bacteriophages and their phylogeny, distribution and sequence diversity imply lateral transfers between bacteriophage/prophage and animal genomes. Finally, the WO genome sequences and identification of attachment sites will potentially advance genetic manipulation of Wolbachia. PMID:27727237

  15. Disciplined rubidium oscillator with GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Wayne P.

    1993-01-01

    A U.S. Department of Defense decision for continuous implementation of GPS Selective Availability (S/A) has made it necessary to modify Rubidium oscillator disciplining methods. One such method for reducing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process was developed which achieves results approaching pre-S/A GPS. The Satellite Hopping algorithm used in minimizing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process is described, and the results of using this process to those obtained prior to the implementation of S/A are compared. Test results are from a TrueTime Rubidium based Model GPS-DC timing receiver.

  16. Robust GPS autonomous signal quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndili, Awele Nnaemeka

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), introduced by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973, provides unprecedented world-wide navigation capabilities through a constellation of 24 satellites in global orbit, each emitting a low-power radio-frequency signal for ranging. GPS receivers track these transmitted signals, computing position to within 30 meters from range measurements made to four satellites. GPS has a wide range of applications, including aircraft, marine and land vehicle navigation. Each application places demands on GPS for various levels of accuracy, integrity, system availability and continuity of service. Radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from natural sources such as TV/FM harmonics, radar or Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS), presents a challenge in the use of GPS, by posing a threat to the accuracy, integrity and availability of the GPS navigation solution. In order to use GPS for integrity-sensitive applications, it is therefore necessary to monitor the quality of the received signal, with the objective of promptly detecting the presence of RFI, and thus provide a timely warning of degradation of system accuracy. This presents a challenge, since the myriad kinds of RFI affect the GPS receiver in different ways. What is required then, is a robust method of detecting GPS accuracy degradation, which is effective regardless of the origin of the threat. This dissertation presents a new method of robust signal quality monitoring for GPS. Algorithms for receiver autonomous interference detection and integrity monitoring are demonstrated. Candidate test statistics are derived from fundamental receiver measurements of in-phase and quadrature correlation outputs, and the gain of the Active Gain Controller (AGC). Performance of selected test statistics are evaluated in the presence of RFI: broadband interference, pulsed and non-pulsed interference, coherent CW at different frequencies; and non-RFI: GPS signal fading due to physical blockage and

  17. Space Station GPS Multipath Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the multipath effects on the International Space Station (ISS) Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement accuracy, experimental and computational investigations were performed to estimate the carrier phase errors due to multipath. A new modeling approach is used to reduce the required computing time by separating the dynamic structure elements from the static structure elements in the multipath computations. This study confirmed that the multipath is a major error source to the ISS GPS performance and can possibly degrade the attitude determination solution. It is demonstrated that the GPS antenna carrier phase errors due to multipath can be analyzed using the electromagnetic modeling technique such as the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD).

  18. The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Chiswell, Steven R.; Bevis, Michael; Duan, Jingping; Anthes, Richard A.; Rocken, Christian; Ware, Randolph H.; Exner, Michael; Vanhove, T.; Solheim, Fredrick S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they propagate to Earth-based GPS receivers or GPS receivers carried on low Earth orbit satellites.The delay in GPS signals reaching Earth-based receivers due to the presence of water vapor is nearly proportional to the quantity of water vapor integrated along the signal path. Measurement of atmospheric water vapor by Earth-based GPS receivers was demonstrated during the GPS/STORM field project to be comparable and in some respects superior to measurements by ground-based water vapor radiometers. Increased spatial and temporal resolution of the water vapor distribution provided by the GPS/STORM network proved useful in monitoring the moisture-flux convergence along a dryline and the decrease in integrated water vapor associated with the passage of a midtropospheric cold front, both of which triggered severe weather over the area during the course of the experiment.Given the rapid growth in regional networks of continuously operating Earth-based GPS receivers currently being implemented, an opportunity exists to observe the distribution of water vapor with increased spatial and temporal coverage, which could prove valuable in a range of operational and research applications in the atmospheric sciences.The first space-based GPS receiver designed for sensing the Earth's atmosphere was launched in April 1995. Phase measurements of GPS signals as they are occluded by the atmosphere provide refractivity profiles (see the companion article by Ware et al. on page 19 of this issue). Water vapor limits the accuracy of temperature recovery below the tropopause because of uncertainty in the water vapor distribution. The sensitivity of atmospheric refractivity to water vapor pressure, however, means that refractivity profiles can in principle

  19. Improvement of radiopurity level of enriched 116CdWO4 and ZnWO4 crystal scintillators by recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Borovlev, Yu. A.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Polischuk, O. G.; Safonova, O. E.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.; Umatov, V. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    As low as possible radioactive contamination of a detector plays a crucial role to improve sensitivity of a double beta decay experiment. The radioactive contamination of a sample of 116CdWO4 crystal scintillator by thorium was reduced by a factor ≈10, down to the level 0.01 mBq/kg (228Th), by exploiting the recrystallization procedure. The total alpha activity of uranium and thorium daughters was reduced by a factor ≈3, down to 1.6 mBq/kg. No change in the specific activity (the total α activity and 228Th) was observed in a sample of ZnWO4 crystal produced by recrystallization after removing ≈0.4 mm surface layer of the crystal.

  20. Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) clock program: Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) program status are discussed and plans for ensuring the long term continuation of the program are presented. Performance of GPS clocks is presented in terms of on orbit data as portrayed by GPS master control station kalman filter processing. The GPS Clock reliability program is reviewed in depth and future plans fo the overall clock program are published.

  1. Temperature and acidity effects on WO{sub 3} nanostructures and gas-sensing properties of WO{sub 3} nanoplates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huili; Liu, Zhifang; Yang, Jiaqin; Guo, Wei; Zhu, Lianjie; Zheng, Wenjun

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Generally, large acid quantity and high temperature are beneficial to the formation of anhydrous WO3, but the acidity effect on the crystal phase is weaker than that of temperature. Large acid quantity is found helpful to the oriented growth of tungsten oxides, forming a nanoplate-like product. - Highlights: • Large acid quantity is propitious to the oriented growth of a WO{sub 3} nanoplate. • Effect of acid quantity on crystal phases of products is weaker than that of temperature. • One step hydrothermal synthesis of WO{sub 3} is facile and can be easily scaled up. • A WO{sub 3} nanoplate shows a fast response and distinct sensing selectivity to acetone gas. - Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} as raw materials. They are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The specific surface area was obtained from N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm. The effects of the amount of HNO{sub 3}, hydrothermal temperature and reaction time on the crystal phases and morphologies of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures were investigated in detail, and the reaction mechanism was discussed. Large amount of acid is found for the first time to be helpful to the oriented growth of tungsten oxides, forming nanoplate-like products, while hydrothermal temperature has more influence on the crystal phase of the product. Gas-sensing properties of the series of as-prepared WO{sub 3} nanoplates were tested by means of acetone, ethanol, formaldehyde and ammonia. One of the WO{sub 3} nanoplates with high specific surface area and high crystallinity displays high sensitivity, fast response and distinct sensing selectivity to acetone gas.

  2. Soil Moisture Sensing Using Reflected GPS Signals: Description of the GPS Soil Moisture Product.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine; Small, Eric; Chew, Clara

    2015-04-01

    As first demonstrated by the GPS reflections group in 2008, data from GPS networks can be used to monitor multiple parameters of the terrestrial water cycle. The GPS L-band signals take two paths: (1) the "direct" signal travels from the satellite to the antenna, which is typically located 2-3 meters above the ground; (2) the reflected signal interacts with the Earth's surface before traveling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists and surveyors to measure the position of the antenna, while the effects of reflected signals are a source of error. If one focuses on the reflected signal rather than the positioning observables, one has a method that is sensitive to surface soil moisture (top 5 cm), vegetation water content, and snow depth. This method - known as GPS Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR) - has a footprint of ~1000 m2 for most GPS sites. This is intermediate in scale to most in situ and satellite observations. A significant advantage of GPS-IR is that data from existing GPS networks can be used without any changes to the instrumentation. This means that there is a new source of cost-effective instrumentation for satellite validation and climate studies. This presentation will provide an overview of the GPS-IR methodology with an emphasis on the soil moisture product. GPS water cycle products are currently produced on a daily basis for a network of ~500 sites in the western United States; results are freely available at http://xenon.colorado.edu/portal. Plans to expand the GPS-IR method to the network of international GPS sites will also be discussed.

  3. Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The various integration problems in the Shuttle GPS system were investigated. The analysis of the Shuttle GPS link was studied. A preamplifier was designed since the Shuttle GPS antennas must be located remotely from the receiver. Several GPS receiver architecture trade-offs were discussed. The Shuttle RF harmonics and intermode that fall within the GPS receiver bandwidth were analyzed. The GPS PN code acquisition was examined. Since the receiver clock strongly affects both GPS carrier and code acquisition performance, a clock model was developed.

  4. Absolute Time Error Calibration of GPS Receivers Using Advanced GPS Simulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    29th Annual Precise Time a d Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting ABSOLUTE TIME ERROR CALIBRATION OF GPS RECEIVERS USING ADVANCED GPS SIMULATORS E.D...DC 20375 USA Abstract Preche time transfer eq)er&nen& using GPS with t h e stabd?v’s under ten nanoseconh are common& being reported willrbr the... time transfer communily. Relarive calibrations are done by naeasurhg the time error of one GPS receiver versus a “known master refmence receiver.” Z?t

  5. CASA Central and South America GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, James; Dixon, Timothy; Neilan, Ruth

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign in the world to date (Table 1) [Neilan et al., 1988]. From January 18 to February 5, 1988, 43 GPS receivers collected about 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA UNO, an acronym for Central and South America—and “uno” is Spanish for “one,” designating first-epoch measurements. The CASA UNO experiment was the first civilian effort at implementing an extended GPS satellite-tracking network and established the first major GPS network in the northern Andean margin and the western Caribbean.

  6. Qualification of TAOS satellite GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weninger, Roger M.; Sfeir, Richard; Forgette, Tom T.; Kelton, Phil T.; Najarian, Richard J.

    1992-03-01

    A light-weight, compact GPS receiver developed for a Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) satellite planned for launch in 1993 is described. The receiver is capable of continuously tracking four primary GPS satellites and sequentially acquiring and tracking other visible satellites with its six channels. Using an eight-state extended Kalman filter it performs pseudo-range and continuous-carrier, delta-range measurements and estimates time-tagged, 3D user position and velocity. Results of qualification testing obtained from a multichannel GPS spaceborne simulation and evaluation system show that with a GPS constellation of 18 satellites and over a period where GDOP is less than 6, the receiver's rms spherical position and per axis velocity errors are less than 14.5 meters and 0.05 m/sec, respectively.

  7. Using Evolutionary Computation on GPS Position Correction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    More and more devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS). However, those handheld devices with consumer-grade GPS receivers usually have low accuracy in positioning. A position correction algorithm is therefore useful in this case. In this paper, we proposed an evolutionary computation based technique to generate a correction function by two GPS receivers and a known reference location. Locating one GPS receiver on the known location and combining its longitude and latitude information and exact poisoning information, the proposed technique is capable of evolving a correction function by such. The proposed technique can be implemented and executed on handheld devices without hardware reconfiguration. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate performance of the proposed technique. Positioning error could be significantly reduced from the order of 10 m to the order of 1 m. PMID:24578657

  8. Annealing dynamics of WO{sub 3} by in situ XRD

    SciTech Connect

    Righettoni, Marco; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Flame-made WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with closely controlled crystal and grain size. • Dynamic phase transition of annealing of pure and Si-doped WO{sub 3} by in situ XRD. • Irreversible evolution of WO{sub 3} crystallinity by heating/cooling during its annealing. • Si-doping alters the WO{sub 3} crystallinity dynamics and stabilizes nanosized WO{sub 3}. • Flame-made nano-WO{sub 3} can sense NO at the ppb level. - Abstract: Tungsten trioxide is a semiconductor with distinct applications in gas sensors, catalysis, batteries and pigments. As such the transition between its different crystal structures during its annealing are of interest, especially for sensor applications. Here, WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with closely controlled crystal and grain size (9–15 nm) and phase composition are made by flame spray pyrolysis and the formation of different WO{sub 3} phases during annealing is investigated. Most notably, the dynamic phase transition and crystal size evolution of WO{sub 3} during heating and cooling is monitored by in situ X-ray diffraction revealing how metastable WO{sub 3} phases can be captured stably. The effect of Si-doping is studied since it is used in practise to control crystal growth and phase transition during metal oxide synthesis and processing. Finally the influence of annealing on the WO{sub 3} sensing performance of NO, a lung inflammation tracer in the human breath, is explored at the ppb-level.

  9. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  10. Offset detection in GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeaux, J.; King, M. A.; Williams, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are commonly affected by offsets of unknown magnitude and the large volume of data globally warrants investigation of automated detection approaches. The Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment (DOGEx) showed that accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS) time series can be significantly improved by applying statistical offset detection methods (see Gazeaux et al. (2013)). However, the best of these approaches did not perform as well as manual detection by expert analysts. Many of the features of GPS coordinates time series have not yet been fully taken into account in existing methods. Here, we apply Bayesian theory in order to make use of prior knowledge of the site noise characteristics and metadata in an attempt to make the offset detection more accurate. In the past decades, Bayesian theory has shown relevant results for a widespread range of applications, but has not yet been applied to GPS coordinates time series. Such methods incorporate different inputs such as a dynamic model (linear trend, periodic signal..) and a-priori information in a process that provides the best estimate of parameters (velocity, phase and amplitude of periodic signals...) based on all the available information. We test the new method on the DOGEx simulated dataset and compare it to previous solutions, and to Monte-Carlo method to test the accuracy of the procedure. We make a preliminary extension of the DOGEx dataset to introduce metadata information, allowing us to test the value of this data type in detecting offsets. The flexibility, robustness and limitations of the new approach are discussed. Gazeaux, J. Williams, S., King, M., Bos, M., Dach, R., Deo, M.,Moore, A.W., Ostini, L., Petrie, E., Roggero, M., Teferle, F.N., Olivares, G.,Webb, F.H. 2013. Detecting offsets in GPS time series: First results from the detection of offsets in GPS experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118. 5. pp:2169-9356. Keywords : GPS

  11. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    from the SV Bus, specifically the Scalable Power Regulation Unit and is being amplified by the solar arrays which act as highly efficient antennas. To...Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...Service: The GPS III program will provide O&S for on- orbit support through the Launch and On- Orbit Support contract. For Space Vehicle (SV)01 and

  12. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  13. Jammers in the commercial world of GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wollschlager, B.

    1994-12-31

    The military world of electronic countermeasures is an enviromnent where receivers are designed to perform in a high level of interference or jamming. The electronic battlefield is full of radio frequency interference, both intentional and unintentional, which disrupts communications, fools radar, overloads guidance systems, and in general causes havoc with sensitive electronic systems such as GPS receivers. The commercial radio world is also becoming more electronically hazardous. The FCC has adopted certain emission standards which attempt to control how much ``noise`` electronic devices give off; however, these standards are much less stringent than their military counterparts. For GPS signals with typical power levels of {minus}125 dBm the interfering signals can pose a large in-band or near-band problem. Because the spread spectrum signal exists below thermal noise, any in-band noise also poses a large challenge to GPS reception. Harmonics from a cellular phone, a UHF radio, or a personal computer can cause a GPS receiver to be unable to navigate. Recognition of this problem is causing filter performance profiles such as ARINC 743A and others to become popular for GPS receiver interference rejection. This paper is based on Rockwell`s experience on Navstar GPS programs such as PLGR.

  14. GPS as an orbit determination subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennessey, Richard; Roberts, Pat; Knight, Robin; Vanvolkinburg, Bart

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers as a primary source of tracking data for low-Earth orbit satellites. GPS data is an alternative to using range, azimuth, elevation, and range-rate (RAER) data from the Air Force Satellite Control Network antennas, the Space Ground Link System (SGLS). This evaluation is applicable to missions such as Skipper, a joint U.S. and Russian atmosphere research mission, that will rely on a GPS receiver as a primary tracking data source. The Detachment 2, Space and Missile Systems Center's Test Support Complex (TSC) conducted the evaluation based on receiver data from the Space Test Experiment Platform Mission O (STEP-O) and Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellites. The TSC performed orbit reconstruction and prediction on the STEP-0 and APEX vehicles using GPS receiver navigation solution data, SGLS RAER data, and SGLS anglesonly (azimuth and elevation) data. For the STEP-O case, the navigation solution based orbits proved to be more accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits. For the APEX case, navigation solution based orbits proved to be less accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits for orbit prediction, and results for orbit reconstruction were inconclusive due to the lack of a precise truth orbit. After evaluating several different GPS data processing methods, the TSC concluded that using GPS navigation solution data is a viable alternative to using SGLS RAER data.

  15. GPS antenna multipath rejection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinius, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    A GPS antenna multipath rejection performance evaluation was conducted. Ground reference station antennas and aviation patches were tested for their ability to reject a multipath signal. Different types of ground plane structures were used such as choke rings, ground planes, and mock sections of fuselage. Frequencies transmitted were L1 (1575 MHz), L2 (1227 MHz), and the median GLONASS frequency (1609 MHz). Receive amplitude and phase were measured on each antenna. Subsequently, these data were converted to absolute gain for a right hand and left hand circularly polarized signal as a function of satellite elevation angle. Two types of multipath signals were considered: ground bounce multipath and building or structure bounce multipath. Ground bounce multipath typically occurs at low satellite elevation angles while structure bounce multipath can occur at any satellite elevation angle. Separate analysis methods were used to assess an antenna's ability to reject either type of multipath. This report describes the data collection methods, data reduction and analysis, and the results.

  16. Combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning with fixed GPS ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-09-18

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  17. Evaluation of solar radio bursts' effect on GPS receiver signal tracking within International GPS Service network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Gao, Yang; Liu, Zhizhao

    2005-06-01

    The direct interference from solar radio bursts (SRB) has not usually been considered as a potential threat to global positioning system (GPS) signal tracking, since the flux densities of most bursts are below 40,000 solar flux units (sfu), a threat threshold to GPS L1 frequency proposed by Klobuchar et al. (1999). Recent analysis indicated that a much lower threshold should be adopted for codeless or semicodeless dual-frequency GPS receivers. In this investigation, severe signal corruptions were found at dayside International GPS Service GPS receiver stations during a large solar radio burst that accompanied the super flare of 28 October 2003. Almost no GPS L2 signals were tracked during the solar flux peak time for areas near the subsolar point. Correlation analysis was performed between the rate of loss of lock on GPS L2 frequency and solar radio flux density at different bands, and a correlation index as high as 0.75 is revealed in the 1415 MHz solar radiation band, which is located between the two GPS operating frequencies L2 (1227.60 MHz) and L1 (1575.42 MHz). The correlation analysis indicates that GPS signal losses of lock were primarily caused by microwave in-band interference and that the threat threshold of SRB effects on the GPS system should be re-evaluated, since the flux density of the burst at 1415 MHz was just 4,000-12,000 sfu, which is far below the previously proposed threat threshold. The signal-tracking performance of different types of GPS receivers during such a super flare event is also presented.

  18. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  19. Effect of crystallization water on the structural and electrical properties of CuWO{sub 4} under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Yan, Jiejuan; Liu, Cailong; Liu, Xizhe; Han, Yonghao E-mail: cc060109@qq.com; Gao, Chunxiao E-mail: cc060109@qq.com; Ke, Feng; Wang, Qinglin; Li, Yanchun; Ma, Yanzhang

    2015-11-16

    The effect of crystallization water on the structural and electrical properties of CuWO{sub 4} under high pressure has been investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction and alternating current impedance spectra measurements. The crystallization water was found to be a key role in modulating the structural stability of CuWO{sub 4} at high pressures. The anhydrous CuWO{sub 4} undergoes two pressure-induced structural transitions at 8.8 and 18.5 GPa, respectively, while CuWO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O keeps its original structure up to 40.5 GPa. Besides, the crystallization water makes the electrical transport behavior of anhydrous CuWO{sub 4} and CuWO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O quite different. The charge carrier transportation is always isotropic in CuWO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, but anisotropic in the triclinic and the third phase of anhydrous CuWO{sub 4}. The grain resistance of CuWO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O is always larger than that of anhydrous CuWO{sub 4} in the entire pressure range. By analyzing the relaxation response, we found that the large number of hydrogen bonds can soften the grain characteristic frequency of CuWO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O over CuWO{sub 4} by one order of magnitude.

  20. Congruence of Behavioral Symptomatology in Children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Lisa D.; Hynd, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared parent and teacher behavioral ratings for 77 children (ages 5-16) diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H), attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), or learning disabilities (LD). ADD/WO and LD children were rated similarly on symptoms of withdrawal and impulsivity but differed…

  1. Optical properties of WO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in; Tomar, Monika

    2014-01-28

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films. WO{sub 3} thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO{sub 3}/Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO{sub 3} thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO{sub 3} film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light.

  2. Correlation between surface chemistry, density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramana, C.V.

    2012-03-01

    Nanocrystalline WO3 thin films were produced by sputter-deposition by varying the ratio of argon to oxygen in the reactive gas mixture during deposition. The surface chemistry, physical characteristics, and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of ultra-microstructure was significant on the optical properties of WO3 films. The XPS analyses indicate the formation of stoichiometric WO3 with tungsten existing in fully oxidized valence state (W6+). However, WO3 films grown at high oxygen concentration (>60%) in the sputtering gas mixture were over stoichiometric with excess oxygen. XRR simulations, which are based on isotropic WO3 film - SiO2 interface - Si substrate model, indicate that the density of WO3 films is sensitive to the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The spectral transmission of the films increased with the increasing oxygen. The band gap of these films increases from 2.78 eV to 3.25 eV with increasing oxygen. A direct correlation between the film-density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 films is established based on the observed results.

  3. Detecting hydrogen using graphene quantum dots/WO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardindoost, Somayeh; Iraji zad, Azam; Sadat Hosseini, Zahra; Hatamie, Shadie

    2016-11-01

    In the present work we report an approach to resistive hydrogen sensing based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs)/WO3 thin films that work reproducibly at low temperatures. GQDs were chemically synthesized and evenly dispersed in WO3 solution with 1:1 molar ratio. The structural evaluation and crystallization of the prepared films was studied by x-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM images showed uniform distribution of the GQDs in WO3 films with sizes around 50 nm. Raman experiment showed the GQDs are partially reduced with high edge defects as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups which involve both in bridging between WO3 grains via bindings as well as interacting with target gas molecules. GQDs can develop an electron conductive network and shorten the current transport paths inside the sensitive films. As a result, they improved the poor electrical properties and charge transfer of pure WO3. Resistive hydrogen sensing showed significant decrease in the working temperature for GQDs/WO3 films compared to pure WO3 films. The working temperature of about 150 °C with 15 and 40 s response and recovery times are significant characteristics of the introduced sensing structure. Then palladium (Pd) was added as a catalyst in GQDs/WO3 film to make the sensing materials selective to hydrogen. Pd doped film worked at temperature of 120 °C with high selectivity and improved response magnitude to hydrogen gas.

  4. Strain Accommodation By Facile WO6 Octahedral Distortion and Tilting During WO3 Heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yingge; Gu, Meng; Varga, Tamas; Wang, Chong M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, we show that compared to other BO6 octahedra in ABO3 structured perovskite oxides, the WO6 octahedra in tungsten trioxide (WO3) can withstand a much larger degree of distortion and tilting to accommodate interfacial strain, which in turn strongly impact the nucleation, structure, and defect formation during the epitaxial growth of WO3 on SrTiO3(001). A meta-stable tetragonal phase can be stabilized by epitaxy and a thickness dependent phase transition (tetragonal to monoclinic) is observed. In contrast to misfit dislocations to accommodate the interfacial stain, the facial WO6 octahedral distortion and tilting give rise to three types of planar defects that affect more than 15 monolayers from the interface. These atomically resolved, unusual interfacial defects may significantly alter the electronic, electrochromic, and mechanical properties of the epitaxial films.

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis and photocatalytic properties of flower-like Bi2WO6 and Bi2O3-Bi2WO6 composite.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2013-03-15

    Flower-like Bi(2)WO(6) and Bi(2)O(3)-Bi(2)WO(6) composite microstructures have been synthesized via a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal method through controlling the experimental parameters. The phases and morphologies of the products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Bi(2)O(3)-Bi(2)WO(6) composite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under visible-light irradiation in comparison with pure Bi(2)O(3) and Bi(2)WO(6). On the basis of the calculated energy band positions, the enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs between the two semiconductors. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  6. High photocatalytic capability of self-assembled nanoporous WO3 with preferential orientation of (002) planes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yafeng; Quan, Xie; Lu, Na; Zhao, Huimin; Chen, Shuo

    2007-06-15

    Self-assembled nanoporous tungsten oxide (WO3) with preferential orientation (002) planes was successfully synthesized on the tungsten sheet by anodization in a 0.2 wt % NaF and 0.3% (V/V) HF mixture solution in a 1:1 ratio. The pores, of a highly ordered self-assembled structure, had an average size of approximately 70 nm. X-ray diffraction identified a monoclinic WO3 structure and fine preferential orientation of (002) planes. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 17.2% was obtained for the self-assembled nanoporous WO3 under high-pressure mercury lamp illumination. The photocatalytic (PC) degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution using the self-assembled nanoporous WO3 photocatalyst, performed under both high-pressure mercury lamp and Xe lamp illumination, showed more excellent PC capability than WO3 film and TiO2 nanotube arrays.

  7. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  8. Gamma-ray irradiation induced bulk photochromism in WO3-P2O5 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; Xu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guorong

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, photochromism of WO3-P2O5 glass under gamma-ray irradiation was reported. As-prepared glass samples with different WO3 content are all optically transparent in the visible wavelength range thanks to the addition of a small amount of oxidizing couple Sb2O3-NaNO3. The photochromic properties are identified by transmission spectra of the glasses before and after irradiation. The results show that the irradiation induced darkening results from the reduction of W6+ to W5+ or W4+. The existence of WO6 clusters in glasses of high WO3 content is proved by XPS, which is the main reason for the obvious photochromic effects. The WO3-P2O5 glass is a promising candidate in gamma-ray sensitive detector.

  9. Photoelectron spectromicroscopy study of metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Ghosh, Anirudha; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; Chakraborty, Anirban; Ray, Sugata; Sarma, D. D.; Oishi, Shuji; Raj, Satyabrata

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3 by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of NaxWO3 reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3. The possible origin of insulating phase in NaxWO3 is due to the Anderson localization of all the states near EF. The localization occurs because of the strong disorder arising from random distribution of Na+ ions in the WO3 lattice.

  10. Photoactivity and stability of Ag2WO4 for organic degradation in aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haihang; Xu, Yiming

    2014-11-01

    Silver tungstate as photocatalyst for water splitting and dye degradation has been reported, but the catalyst stability is not known. In this work, we find that both α- and β-Ag2WO4 are not stable under UV light for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol and azo-dye X3B in aqueous solutions. Comparatively, β-Ag2WO4 was more photoactive, but less stable than α-Ag2WO4. Solid characterization with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope showed that metallic silver particles were produced with the two catalysts, consequently resulting into decrease in the activity for organic degradation. Measurement of photoluminescence revealed that β-Ag2WO4 had a weaker band gap emission and higher portion of structural defects than α-Ag2WO4. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed difference in photoactivity and stability between the two tungstates is proposed.

  11. The International GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous Reference System for Precise GPS Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James

    1996-01-01

    The International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.

  12. US Coast Guard GPS Information Center (GPSIC) and its function within the Civil GPS Service (CGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) formally requested that the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) take responsibility for providing an office that would respond to nonmilitary user needs for GPS information, data, and assistance. DOT accepted this responsibility and in February 1989, named the Coast Guard as their lead agency for the project. Since that time, the U.S. Coast Guard has worked with the U.S. Space Command to develop requirements and implement a plan for providing the requested interface with the civil GPS community. The Civil GPS Service (CGS) consists of four main elements: GPS Information Center (GPSIC) - provides GPS status information to civilian users of the system: Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC) - established to identify civil GPS user technical information needs in support of the CGS program; Differential GPS (DGPS) - Coast Guard Research and Development Project; and PPS Program Office (PPSPO) - (Under development) will administer the program allowing qualified civil users to have access to the PPS signal. Details about the services these organizations provide are described.

  13. MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Reyhani, Ali; Naseri, Naimeh; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2013-08-15

    The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNT’s weight percentages were prepared by sol–gel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO{sub 3} thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO{sub 3}. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO{sub 3} photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO{sub 3}. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ∼4.5 A/m{sup 2} and electron life time of about 57 s. - Graphical abstract: Photocurrent density versus time at constant potential (0.7 V) for the WO{sub 3} films containing different MWCNT weight percentages annealed at 400 °C under 1000 Wm{sup −2} visible photo-illumination. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MWCNT/ WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films were synthesized using sol–gel derived method. • TGA/DSC confirmed the weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films. • XPS analysis revealed that WO{sub 3} was attached on the oxygenated group of MWCNT surface. • The Highest Photoelectrochemical activity is achieved for (1 wt%)MWCNT/WO{sub 3} thin film.

  14. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; ...

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. Furthermore, the dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  15. Small polaron formation in porous WO3-x nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Hoel, A.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2004-11-01

    Porous tungsten oxide nanoparticle films were prepared by reactive gas evaporation. The structure was studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the oxygen nonstoichiometry was inferred by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and neutron scattering. Specifically, the films consisted of WO3-x with 0.25

  16. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen

    2015-01-01

    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  17. Photoinduced (WO4)3--La3+ center in PbWO4: Electron spin resonance and thermally stimulated luminescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Martini, M.; Meinardi, F.; Vedda, A.; Hofstaetter, A.; Meyer, B. K.; Nikl, M.; Mihóková, E.; Rosa, J.; Usuki, Y.

    2000-10-01

    The localization of electrons at W6+ sites perturbed by lanthanum in PbWO4 is studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) measurements. The (WO4)3--La3+ centers are created at the W6+ sites close to La3+ in two different ways: (i) direct trapping of electrons from the conduction band under ultraviolet or x-ray irradiation at T=60 K (ii) retrapping of electrons freed from unperturbed (WO4)3- centers after irradiation at T<40 K followed by heating up to T around 60 K. Electron transfer from La3+-perturbed to unperturbed W6+ sites stimulated by red light illumination is also observed. The proposed mechanism of electron localization at one of four equivalent tungstate ions close to La3+ is based on the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect, which gives rise to a rhombic distortion of (WO4)3- complex. At T~95-98 K the (WO4)3--La3+ centers are thermally ionized giving rise to a TSL glow peak due to the recombination of detrapped electrons with localized holes. The emission spectrum of the TSL features one band peaking at 2.8 eV. The temperature dependence of both TSL and ESR intensity is analyzed in the frame of a general order recombination model. The thermal ionization energy of (WO4)3--La3+ centers has been calculated to be approximately 0.27 eV.

  18. Very long-period GPS waveforms. What can GPS bring to Earth seismic velocity models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelevitz, K.; Houlie, N.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Boschi, L.; Giardini, D.; Rothacher, M.

    2014-12-01

    It is now admitted that high rate GPS observations can provide reliable surface displacement waveforms. For long-period (T > 5s) transients, it was shown that GPS and seismometer (STS-1) displacements are in agreement at least for vertical component [Houlié et al., 2011]. We propose here to supplement existing long-period seismic networks with high rate (>= 1Hz) GPS data in order to improve the resolution of global seismic velocity models. We aim at extending the use of GPS measurements beyond the range of STS-1 in the low frequency end (T>1000s). We present the results of the processing of 1Hz GPS records of the Hokkaido, Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (25th of September, 2003, Mw = 8.3; 26th of December, 2004, Mw = 8.9; 11th of March, 2011, Mw = 9.1, respectively). 3D waveforms phase time-series have been used to recover the ground motion histories at the GPS sites. Through the better resolution of inversion of the GPS phase observations, we determine displacement waveforms of periods ranging from 30 seconds to 1300 seconds for a selection of sites. We compare inverted GPS waveforms with STS-1 waveforms, superconducting gravity waveforms and synthetic waveforms computed using 3D global wave propagation with SPECFEM. We find that the GPS waveforms are in agreement with the SPECFEM synthetic data and are able to fill the period-gap between the broadband seismometer STS-1 data and the normal mode period range detected by the superconducting gravimeters. References: Houlié, N., G. Occhipinti, T. Blanchard, N. Shapiro, P. Lognonne, and M. Murakami (2011), New approach to detect seismic surface waves in 1Hz-sampled GPS time series, Scientific reports, 1, 44.

  19. Synthesis of chemically bonded BiOCl@Bi2WO6 microspheres with exposed (0 2 0) Bi2WO6 facets and their enhanced photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongchao; Chen, Zhiwei; Qu, Dan; Shi, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Bi2WO6 photocatalysts has been extensively studied for its photocatalytic activity. However, few works have been conducted on hierarchical Bi2WO6 composite photocatalysts with specifically exposed facets. In this work, we report a facile method to synthesize BiOCl@Bi2WO6 hierarchical composite microspheres. Bi2WO6 nanosheets with specifically exposed (0 2 0) facet were directly formed on the surface of BiOCl precursor microspheres via a controlled anion exchange route between BiOCl and Na2WO4. The visible-light photocatalytic activity of the BiOCl@Bi2WO6 heterojunction with exposed (0 2 0) facets (denoted as BiOCl@Bi2WO6) was investigated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the BiOCl@Bi2WO6 composite microsphere with intimate interfacial contacts exhibited improved efficiency for RhB photodegradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and Bi2WO6. The BiOCl@Bi2WO6 composite microsphere also shows high photocatalytic activity for degradation of CIP under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiOCl@Bi2WO6-020 hierarchical microspheres can be ascribed to the improved visible light harvesting ability, high charge separation and transfer. This work will make significant contributions toward the exploration of novel heterostructures with high potential in photocatalytic applications.

  20. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first-principles study of SnWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Anspoks, A.; Kalinko, A.; Timoshenko, J.; Kalendarev, R.

    2014-04-01

    The local atomic structure in α- and β-SnWO4 was studied by synchrotron radiation W L3-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy at 10 and 300 K. Strongly distorted WO6 octahedra were found in α-SnWO4, whereas nearly regular WO4 tetrahedra were observed in β-SnWO4, confirming previous results. The structural results obtained were supported by the first-principles calculations, suggesting that the second-order Jahn-Teller effect is responsible for octahedral distortion.

  1. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  2. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  3. Countering GPS jamming and EW threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-09-01

    Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

  4. Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi2WO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Gong, Ming; Liu, Wangping; Mao, Yulin; Le, Shukun; Ju, Shang; Long, Fei; Liu, Xiufang; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Tingshun

    2015-03-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was prepared by hard template method using SBA-15 as template, sucrose as carbon source. Flower/sphere-like Bi2WO6 and CMK-3/Bi2WO6 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and then Ag/Bi2WO6 and Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 composite photocatalysts were prepared via a photoreduction process. The samples were characterized by XRD, UV-vis, TEM (HR-TEM), SEM, N2 physical adsorption and PL and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that both incorporating of CMK-3 and Ag loading greatly improved the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6, and the content of CMK-3 and silver have an impact on the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 photocatalyst is superior to the activities of CMK-3/Bi2WO6 and Ag/Bi2WO6 under comparable conditions, and Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 photocatalyst has high stability and is easy to be recycled. Also, the mechanism for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of CMK-3 and Ag co-modified Bi2WO6 was also investigated.

  5. Ag loaded WO3 nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyu; Liu, Jincheng; Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-11-15

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO3 nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO3 nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO3/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO3 and WO3/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO3, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2h under visible light irradiation for all three WO3/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO3/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  6. Pickering w/o emulsions: drug release and topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Frelichowska, Justyna; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Mouaziz, Hanna; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Chevalier, Yves

    2009-02-23

    The skin absorption from Pickering emulsions as a new dosage form was investigated for the first time. Pickering emulsions are stabilized by adsorbed solid particles instead of emulsifier molecules. They are promising dosage forms that significantly differ from classical emulsions within several features. The skin permeation of a hydrophilic model penetrant (caffeine) was investigated from a w/o Pickering emulsion and compared to a w/o classical emulsion stabilized with an emulsifier. Both emulsions had the same composition and physicochemical properties in order to focus on the effect of the interfacial layer on the drug release and skin absorption processes. The highest permeation rates were obtained from the Pickering emulsion with a pseudo-steady state flux of 25 microg cm(-2)h(-1), threefold higher than from a classical emulsion (9.7 microg cm(-2)h(-1)). After 24h exposure, caffeine was mostly in the receptor fluid and in the dermis; cumulated amounts of caffeine were higher for the Pickering emulsion. Several physicochemical phenomena were investigated for clearing up the mechanisms of enhanced permeation from the Pickering emulsion. Among them, higher adhesion of Pickering emulsion droplets to skin surface was disclosed. The transport of caffeine adsorbed on silica particles was also considered relevant since skin stripping showed that aggregates of silica particles entered deeply the stratum corneum.

  7. Luminescence in trilanthanumtrichlorotungstate (La 3WO 6Cl 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasse, G.; Dirksen, G. J.; Brixner, L. H.

    1983-03-01

    The luminescence properties of La 3WO 6Cl 3 are reported and discussed. The tungstate group occurs as a trigonal prismatic WO 6-6 complex. The blue luminescence is, for the greater part, quenched at room temperature. No energy migration occurs in this lattice. The decay times are discussed in terms of a simple molecular-orbital (MO) scheme. The luminescence of the following activating ions was studied: Mo 6+, Bi 3+, Eu 3+, Sm 3+, Ce 3+, and Tb 3+. The molybdate group produces a red emission with low efficiency. The Bi 3+ ion induces a narrow band emission with small Stokes shift. This is interpreted using a Bi 3+O 2-W 6+ charge-transfer state. Except for Ce 3+, the rare earth activators show luminescence, but the total transfer efficiency from tungstate to the rare-earth ions is low. This is not due to the one-step tungstate-rare-earth transfer (which is efficient), but to the localized nature of the tungstate excitation. The Eu 3+ charge-transfer band is at very low energies.

  8. Combustion synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline WO3.

    PubMed

    Morales, Walter; Cason, Michael; Aina, Olawunmi; de Tacconi, Norma R; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2008-05-21

    The energy payback time associated with the semiconductor active material is an important parameter in a photovoltaic solar cell device. Thus lowering the energy requirements for the semiconductor synthesis step or making it more energy-efficient is critical toward making the overall device economics more competitive relative to other nonpolluting energy options. In this communication, combustion synthesis is demonstrated to be a versatile and energy-efficient method for preparing inorganic oxide semiconductors such as tungsten trioxide (WO3) for photovoltaic or photocatalytic solar energy conversion. The energy efficiency of combustion synthesis accrues from the fact that high process temperatures are self-sustained by the exothermicity of the combustion process, and the only external thermal energy input needed is for dehydration of the fuel/oxidizer precursor mixture and bringing it to ignition. Importantly, we show that, in this approach, it is also possible to tune the optical characteristics of the oxide semiconductor (i.e., shift its response toward the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) in situ by doping the host semiconductor during the formative stage itself. As a bonus, the resultant material shows enhanced surface properties such as markedly improved organic dye uptake relative to benchmark samples obtained from commercial sources. Finally, this synthesis approach requires only very simple equipment, a feature that it shares with other "mild" inorganic semiconductor synthesis routes such as sol-gel chemistry, chemical bath deposition, and electrodeposition. The present study constitutes the first use of combustion synthesis for preparing WO3 powder comprising nanosized particles.

  9. Giant Born effective charges in cubic WO_3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detraux, Francois; Ghosez, Philippe; Gonze, Xavier

    1997-03-01

    WO3 crystallizes in many different phases. It is also sometimes considered in a reference idealized simple cubic structure (defect-perovskite) where the tungsten is at the center of the cell and the oxygens at the middle of each face. Using a variational formulation of the density functional perturbation theory and a planewave-pseudopotential approach, we compute the Born effective charges for this idealized cubic structure, with an optimized lattice parameter of 3.73 ÅThe values obtained are anomalously large with respect to the nominal ionic charge (+6 on W and -2 on O). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor is isotropic and Z_W= +12.43. For the oxygen, we must consider two different elements corresponding respectively to a displacement of the atom parallel or perpendicular to the W-O bond: Z^*O allel= -9.07 and Z^*O ⊥= -1.66. The giant anomalous contributions to Z^*W and Z^*O allel can be explained by transfer of charge produced by dynamic changes of hybridization between the O-2p and W-5d orbitals.

  10. Hierarchically plasmonic photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl nanocrystals coupled with single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Li, Tao; Chen, Qianqian; Gao, Jiabing; Fan, Bingbing; Li, Jian; Li, Xinjian; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2012-08-01

    The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in situ. WO3 nanocrystals with various shapes (i.e., nanoplates, nanorods, and nanoparticles) were used as the substrates to synthesize Ag/AgCl@WO3 photocatalysts, and the effects of the WO3 contents and photoreduction times on their visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance were investigated. The techniques of TEM, SEM, XPS, EDS, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and UV-vis DR spectra were used to characterize the compositions, phases and microstructures of the samples. The RhB aqueous solutions were used as the model system to estimate the photocatalytic performance of the as-obtained Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures under visible light (λ >= 420 nm) and sunlight. The results indicated that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalyst has a higher photodegradation rate than Ag/AgCl, AgCl, AgCl@WO3 and TiO2 (P25). The contents and morphologies of the WO3 substrates in the Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalysts have important effects on their photocatalytic performance. The related mechanisms for the enhancement in visible-light-driven photodegradation of RhB molecules were analyzed.The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in

  11. An optimal GPS data processing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.; Melbourne, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    A formula is derived to optimally combine dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) pseudorange and carrier phase data streams into a single equivalent data stream, reducing the data volume and computing time in the filtering process for parameter estimation by a factor of four. The resulting single data stream is that of carrier phase measurements with both data noise and bias uncertainty strictly defined. With this analytical formula the single stream of equivalent GPS measurements can be efficiently formed by simple numerical calculations without any degradation in data strength. The formulation for the optimally combined GPS data and their covariances are given in closed form. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution, when feasible, is improved due to the preservation of the full data strength with the optimal data combining process.

  12. TOPEX/POSEIDON GPS Demonstration Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J. R.; Jee, J.; Lindqwister, U.; Starr, D.

    1993-01-01

    Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements obtained from the on-board TOPEX/POSEIDON demonstration flight receiver and a global network of ground receivers are available from the GPS Data Handling Facility (GDHF) archive. Ground receiver observations are derived from a six station subset of the GPS global tracking network. The six TOPEX ground stations yielded 95 percent of the expected data during the six month demonstration phase from November, 1992 to April, 1993. For the same period, 98 percent of the available P-code tracking from the TOPEX flight receiver was obtained. Raw carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements are provided for the ground and flight receivers along with an additional file of calibrated and compressed flight receiver data...

  13. GPS common-view time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of the GPS common-view method at the beginning of the 1980's led to an immediate and dramatic improvement of international time comparisons. Since then, further progress brought the precision and accuracy of GPS common-view intercontinental time transfer from tens of nanoseconds to a few nanoseconds, even with SA activated. This achievement was made possible by the use of the following: ultra-precise ground antenna coordinates, post-processed precise ephemerides, double-frequency measurements of ionosphere, and appropriate international coordination and standardization. This paper reviews developments and applications of the GPS common-view method during the last decade and comments on possible future improvements whose objective is to attain sub-nanosecond uncertainty.

  14. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  15. US Coast Guard differential GPS network

    SciTech Connect

    Alsip, D.H.; Butler, J.M.; Radice, J.T.

    1993-03-01

    In order to aid navigation and to prevent disasters such as oil spills, collisions, and wrecks of vessels and aircraft, the US Coast Guard is charged with establishing, maintaining, and operating electronic aids to navigation. In a technological advance developed and operated by the Department of Defense, the global positioning system (GPS) provides all-weather global coverage, 24 hours/day at unprecedented accuracies. GPS provides standard positioning service (SPS) and precise positioning service (PPS). By applying differential techniques to GPS, navigational accuracies of better than 10 meters can be achieved. For the first time, an all-weather system is possible to meet all the marine navigator's needs including harbor and harbor approach navigation. This should revolutionize navigation safety and efficiency, surveying operations, search and rescue operations, and underwater mine disposal efficiency and safety.

  16. Testing Rtk GPS System In Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirti, A.; Ata, E.

    RTK GPS is provided with cm accuracy and real time surveying system. For providing this conditions, the reference is necessary for high accuracy position. Because this sta- tion is transmitted the corrections to the other receivers. At the some time this system is required common satellites on the receiver to compute integer ambiguity solution. In addition to the conditions, the data transmission device's range is very important. Although RTK GPS technique has a lot of advantages, many problems meet in prac- tice. One of the most important problem in RTK system, which is very useful and reliable in the rural areas, uses in the urban areas. We search this article, how influence RTK GPS applications on satellite numbers, multipath, data transmission device's range capability and etc. in the urban areas.

  17. Differential GPS for air transport: Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation presents background on what the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is, desired target dates for initial GNSS capabilities for aircraft operations, and a description of differential GPS (Global Positioning System). The presentation also presents an overview of joint flight tests conducted by LaRC and Honeywell on an integrated differential GPS/inertial reference unit (IRU) navigation system. The overview describes the system tested and the results of the flight tests. The last item presented is an overview of a current grant with Ohio University from LaRC which has the goal of developing a precision DGPS navigation system based on interferometry techniques. The fundamentals of GPS interferometry are presented and its application to determine attitude and heading and precision positioning are shown. The presentation concludes with the current status of the grant.

  18. International GPS Service 2001 - 2002 Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowey, Ken (Editor); Neilan, Ruth (Editor); Moore, Angelyn (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to Earth Science are numerous. The International GPS Service (IGS), a federation of government agencies and universities, plays an increasingly critical role in support of GPS-related research and engineering activities. Contributions from the IGS Governing Board and Central Bureau, analysis and data centers, station operators, and others constitute the 2001 / 2002 Technical Reports. Hard copies of each volume can be obtained by contacting the IGS Central Bureau at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report is published in black and white. To view graphs or plots that use color to represent data trends or information, please refer to the online PDF version at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/pubs.html.

  19. GPS-SNO: Computational Prediction of Protein S-Nitrosylation Sites with a Modified GPS Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yu; Liu, Zexian; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most important and ubiquitous post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, S-nitrosylation plays important roles in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of cellular dynamics and plasticity. Identification of S-nitrosylated substrates with their exact sites is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of S-nitrosylation. In contrast with labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental approaches, prediction of S-nitrosylation sites using computational methods could provide convenience and increased speed. In this work, we developed a novel software of GPS-SNO 1.0 for the prediction of S-nitrosylation sites. We greatly improved our previously developed algorithm and released the GPS 3.0 algorithm for GPS-SNO. By comparison, the prediction performance of GPS 3.0 algorithm was better than other methods, with an accuracy of 75.80%, a sensitivity of 53.57% and a specificity of 80.14%. As an application of GPS-SNO 1.0, we predicted putative S-nitrosylation sites for hundreds of potentially S-nitrosylated substrates for which the exact S-nitrosylation sites had not been experimentally determined. In this regard, GPS-SNO 1.0 should prove to be a useful tool for experimentalists. The online service and local packages of GPS-SNO were implemented in JAVA and are freely available at: http://sno.biocuckoo.org/. PMID:20585580

  20. GPS-SNO: computational prediction of protein S-nitrosylation sites with a modified GPS algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yu; Liu, Zexian; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian

    2010-06-24

    As one of the most important and ubiquitous post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, S-nitrosylation plays important roles in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of cellular dynamics and plasticity. Identification of S-nitrosylated substrates with their exact sites is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of S-nitrosylation. In contrast with labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental approaches, prediction of S-nitrosylation sites using computational methods could provide convenience and increased speed. In this work, we developed a novel software of GPS-SNO 1.0 for the prediction of S-nitrosylation sites. We greatly improved our previously developed algorithm and released the GPS 3.0 algorithm for GPS-SNO. By comparison, the prediction performance of GPS 3.0 algorithm was better than other methods, with an accuracy of 75.80%, a sensitivity of 53.57% and a specificity of 80.14%. As an application of GPS-SNO 1.0, we predicted putative S-nitrosylation sites for hundreds of potentially S-nitrosylated substrates for which the exact S-nitrosylation sites had not been experimentally determined. In this regard, GPS-SNO 1.0 should prove to be a useful tool for experimentalists. The online service and local packages of GPS-SNO were implemented in JAVA and are freely available at: http://sno.biocuckoo.org/.

  1. A GPS Receiver for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, William A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Holt, Greg N.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in October of 2008, NASA will once again begin its quest to land humans on the Moon. This effort will require the development of new spacecraft which will safely transport people from the Earth to the Moon and back again, as well as robotic probes tagged with science, re-supply, and communication duties. In addition to the next-generation spacecraft currently under construction, including the Orion capsule, NASA is also investigating and developing cutting edge navigation sensors which will allow for autonomous state estimation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and cislunar space. Such instruments could provide an extra layer of redundancy in avionics systems and reduce the reliance on support and on the Deep Space Network (DSN). One such sensor is the weak-signal Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver "Navigator" being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). At the heart of the Navigator is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based acquisition engine. This engine allows for the rapid acquisition/reacquisition of strong GPS signals, enabling the receiver to quickly recover from outages due to blocked satellites or atmospheric entry. Additionally, the acquisition algorithm provides significantly lower sensitivities than a conventional space-based GPS receiver, permitting it to acquire satellites well above the GPS constellation. This paper assesses the performance of the Navigator receiver based upon three of the major flight regimes of a manned lunar mission: Earth ascent, cislunar navigation, and entry. Representative trajectories for each of these segments were provided by NASA. The Navigator receiver was connected to a Spirent GPS signal generator, to allow for the collection of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop results for each phase of the flight. For each of the flight segments, the Navigator was tested on its ability to acquire and track GPS satellites under the dynamical

  2. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  3. The W@WO3 ohmic contact induces a high-efficiency photooxidation performance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fangxu; Kong, Lina; Wang, Changhua; Li, Yingying; Liu, Yichun; Zhang, Xintong

    2017-01-31

    The Schottky-type metal-semiconductor (M-S) junction works well in promoting the separation of photogenerated carriers. In this paper, another type of M-S junction, Ohmic contact of W@WO3, has been developed via an acid partial oxidation strategy. By simply tuning the experimental parameters including the acid concentration and the reaction time, WO3 nanosheets are epitaxially grown on a W core; moreover, the thickness and density of the WO3 shell can be finely controlled. The photocatalytic activities of samples are tested via degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde under UV light irradiation. The results show that the W@WO3 core-shell composite with a thinner and looser WO3 shell exhibits a higher mineralization ability of acetaldehyde to carbon dioxide. An Ohmic contact between the W core and the WO3 shell is fairly confirmed by means of photo-electronic measurements. It is believed that the built-in electric field at the interface of the Ohmic contact leads to the migration of photogenerated electrons from WO3 to W, which is beneficial for separation of the electron-hole pairs and hence an enhanced photooxidation ability.

  4. Structural and gasochromic properties of WO3 films prepared by reactive sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Hakoda, T.; Miyashita, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The effects of deposition temperature and film thickness on the structural and gasochromic properties of tungsten trioxide (WO3) films used for the optical detection of diluted cyclohexane gas have been investigated. The WO3 films were prepared on SiO2 substrates by magnetron sputtering, with the deposition temperature ranging from 300 to 550 °C in an Ar and O2 gas mixture. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The gasochromic properties of the WO3 films, coated with a catalytic Pt layer, were examined by exposing them to up to 5% cyclohexane in N2 gas. It was found that (001)-oriented monoclinic WO3 films, with a columnar structure, grew at deposition temperatures between 400 and 450 °C. Furthermore, (010)-oriented WO3 films were preferably formed at deposition temperatures higher than 500 °C. The gasochromic characterization of the Pt/WO3 films revealed that (001)-oriented WO3 films, with cauliflower-like surface morphology, were appropriate for the optical detection of cyclohexane gas.

  5. Superconducting phase diagram of InxWO3 synthesized by indium deintercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocarsly, Joshua D.; Hirai, Daigorou; Ali, M. N.; Cava, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    We report the superconducting phase diagram of the hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) InxWO3. The InxWO3 samples were prepared by indium deintercalation of the thermodynamically stable parent phase In0.33WO3. By employing this technique, a lowest indium content in the HTB phase of x \\sim 0.07 was achieved, which cannot be obtained by conventional solid-state reaction. In addition, accurately and reproducibly controlled indium content and homogeneous samples enable us to perform a systematic study of the physical properties of InxWO3. Most of the InxWO3 samples exhibit a superconducting transition and the highest transition temperature T_{\\text{c}} = 4.2\\text{K} in InxWO3 was observed at x= 0.11 . The indium content dependence of T_{\\text{c}}(x) shows remarkable similarities to other MxWO3 (M=\\text{K} and Rb) HTBs. Our results reveal the universality of physical properties in the HTB family and give a strategy to achieve higher T_{\\text{c}} in HTBs.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of cadmium-doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles under simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xu Chun; Li, Wen Ting; Huang, Wan Zhen; Zhou, Huan; Yin, Hao Yong; Zheng, Yi Fan

    2015-03-01

    Novel cadmium-doped Bi2WO6 nanoparticles with different Cd contents have been synthesized by a one-step route using ethylene glycol and water as solvents at 180 °C for 12 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized in detailed by SEM, XRD, EDS, HRTEM, UV-Vis DRS, BET techniques, and so on. The results shown that with the increase of the Cd2+ addition, the crystal structure, lattice space, and absorption edge were not significantly changed and the calculated band gap value was 2.58 eV. However, the flower-like Bi2WO6 sphere was gradually destroyed. Simultaneously, the surface area and photocurrent responses of the catalysts were greatly increased. Photocatalytic activity of the Cd-doped Bi2WO6 samples was determined by monitoring the change of RhB concentration under simulated solar light. The results revealed that cadmium doping greatly improved the photocatalytic efficiency of Bi2WO6. The Bi2WO6 sample with R Cd = 0.05 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate is about two times greater than pure Bi2WO6. Moreover, the Cd-Bi2WO6 photocatalyst remained stable even after five consecutive cycles. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic activity enhancement on basis of the experimental results was proposed.

  7. Capturing Depolarization Information in GPS Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the surface of the ocean has a prominent effect on the depolarization of the circularly polarized emissions of the GPS satellites. The system designers election to capture the important information carries with it the need to implement the data extraction in a cost efficient manner. Antenna components, and associated networks for deriving depolarization information are described. For typical sea states the polarization characteristics of the reflected GPS signal vary rapidly with time so various methods for recording the changes are discussed.

  8. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  9. Guidance accuracy considerations for realtime GPS interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braasch, Michael S.; Van Graas, Frank

    1991-01-01

    During April and May of 1991, the Avionics Engineering Center at Ohio University completed the first set of realtime flight tests of a GPS interferometric attitude and heading determination system. This technique has myriad applications for aircraft and spacecraft guidance and control. However, before these applications can be further developed, a number of guidance accuracy issues must be considered. Among these are: signal derogation due to multipath and shadowing, effects of structural flexures, and system robustness during loss of phase lock. This paper addresses these issues with special emphasis on the information content of the GPS signal, and characterization and mitigation of multipath encountered while in flight.

  10. Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanipe, David B.; Provence, Robert Steve; Straube, Timothy M.; Reed, Helen; Bishop, Robert; Lightsey, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) will demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) in low Earth orbit (LEO) and gather flight data with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver strictly designed for space applications. ARD is the capability of two independent spacecraft to rendezvous in orbit and dock without crew intervention. DRAGONSat consists of two picosatellites (one built by the University of Texas and one built by Texas A and M University) and the Space Shuttle Payload Launcher (SSPL); this project will ultimately demonstrate ARD in LEO.

  11. Dual preparation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Young-Sik; Huh, Young-Duk

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Red-emitting BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors were prepared in hexane-water bilayer system. • The hydrophobic nanometer-sized BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors were obtained in hexane. • The hydrophilic micrometer-sized BaWO{sub 4}:Eu dendrites were obtained in water. - Abstract: BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors were prepared by performing a solvothermal reaction in a water–hexane bilayer system. A barium oleate (and europium oleate) complex was obtained in hexane via a phase transfer reaction involving Ba{sup 2+} (and Eu{sup 3+}) ions in an aqueous solution of sodium oleate. The outer surfaces of the nanometer-sized BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors were capped by the long alkyl chain of oleate; therefore, the hydrophobic nanometer-sized BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors preferentially dissolved in the hexane layer. The micrometer-sized BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors were obtained in the water layer. The BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors prepared in hexane and water yielded sharp strong absorption and emission peaks at 464 and 615 nm, respectively, due to the {sup 7}F{sub 0} → {sup 5}D{sub 2} and the {sup 5}D{sub 0} →{sup 7} F{sub 2} transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions. The BaWO{sub 4}:Eu phosphors are good candidate red-emitting phosphors for use in InGaN blue-emitting diodes, which have an emission wavelength of 465 nm.

  12. A research on SLAM aided INS/GPS navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Menglong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2007-11-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) aided INS/GPS navigation system is a landmark based terrain aided autonomous integrated system that has the capability for online map building and simultaneously utilizing the generated map to bind the errors in the Inertial Navigation System (INS) when GPS is not available. If GPS information is available, the SLAM integrated system builds a landmark-based map using an INS/GPS solution. If GPS is not available, the previously newly generated map is used to constrain the INS errors. The SLAM augmented INS/GPS system shows two capabilities of landmark tracking and mapping using GPS information and more importantly, aiding the INS under GPS denied situation. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

  13. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into surface mounted metal-organic framework HKUST-1 thin films.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeonseok; Welle, Alexander; Guo, Wei; Choi, Jinsub; Redel, Engelbert

    2017-03-17

    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate WO3@surface-mounted metal-organic framework (SURMOF) hybrid materials by electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into HKUST-1, also termed Cu3(BTC)2 SURMOFs. These materials have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as linear sweep voltammetry. The WO3 semiconductor/SURMOF heterostructures were further tested as hybrid electrodes in their performance for hydrogen evolution reaction from water.

  14. High photocurrent conversion efficiency in self-organized porous WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Ghicov, A.; Schmuki, P.

    2006-05-15

    Self-organized porous structures of WO{sub 3} were grown on tungsten by an anodic oxidation, and their photoelectrochemical properties were characterized. The porous WO{sub 3} layers show a regular morphology with average pore sizes of approximately 70 nm and a pore wall thickness of approximately 10 nm. As formed layers show an amorphous structure but the layers can be altered to a crystalline monoclinic structure by thermal annealing. The annealed porous WO{sub 3} layers show a very high specific photocurrent conversion efficiency.

  15. Fabrication and photocatalysis of mesoporous ZnWO{sub 4} with PAMAM as a template

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Shen Chen Jiebo; Weng Xiulan; Yang Liuyi; Chen Xinqin

    2009-05-06

    Mesoporous ZnWO{sub 4} was prepared with the template of PAMAM. The as-formed samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It is found that the size of pore is in the range of 5-22 nm and that the porosity of ZnWO{sub 4} is composed of aggregated ZnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities towards degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and malachite green (MG) under UV light has been investigated. The formation mechanism of mesoporous structures is proposed.

  16. Metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3: Photoemission spectromicroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3 by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of NaxWO3 reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in NaxWO3.

  17. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into surface mounted metal–organic framework HKUST-1 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyeonseok; Welle, Alexander; Guo, Wei; Choi, Jinsub; Redel, Engelbert

    2017-03-01

    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate WO3@surface-mounted metal–organic framework (SURMOF) hybrid materials by electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into HKUST-1, also termed Cu3(BTC)2 SURMOFs. These materials have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as linear sweep voltammetry. The WO3 semiconductor/SURMOF heterostructures were further tested as hybrid electrodes in their performance for hydrogen evolution reaction from water.

  18. Scheelite (CaWO4)-type microphosphors: Facile synthesis, structural characterization and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dan; Liang, Danyang; Wang, Shiqi; Lu, Guoxin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Pei, Nana

    2016-11-01

    Scheelite (CaWO4)-type microphosphors were synthesized by the precipitation method assisted with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). All compounds crystallized in the tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). FE-SEM micrographs illustrate the spherical-like morphologies and rough surface. PL spectra indicate the broad emission peak maximum at 613 nm under UV excitation. Luminescence decay curves monitored by 5D 6 -7F 0 transition (λex = 394 nm) of Eu3+ in doped CaWO4 are presented, the curves exhibit a single-exponential feature and the lifetime for doped CaWO4 is 0.61 ms.

  19. Enhanced field-emission from SnO2:WO(2.72) nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Deodatta R; Chavan, Padmakar G; Sen, Shashwati; Joag, Dilip S; More, Mahendra A; Gadkari, S C; Gupta, S K

    2011-12-01

    The field-emission properties of SnO(2):WO(2.72) hierarchical nanowire heterostructure have been investigated. Nanoheterostructure consisting of SnO(2) nanowires as stem and WO(2.72) nanothorns as branches are synthesized in two steps by physical vapor deposition technique. Their field emission properties were recorded. A low turn-on field of ~0.82 V/μm (to draw an emission current density ~10 μA/cm(2)) is achieved along with stable emission for 4 h duration. The emission characteristic shows the SnO(2):WO(2.72) nanoheterostructures are extremely suitable for field-emission applications.

  20. Synthesis of WC powder through microwave heating of WO3-C mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnami, Amir Karimzadeh; Hoseinpur, Arman; Sakaki, Masoud; Bafghi, Mohammad Sh.; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2017-02-01

    A simple, easy, and low-cost process for the fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) powder through microwave heating of WO3-C mixtures was developed. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental investigations were carried out for WO3-C and W-C systems, and a formation mechanism was proposed. In the results, for the synthesis of WC, the use of over stoichiometric amount of C together with a specially assembled experimental setup (which effectively retains heat in the system) is necessary. The WC powder is successfully obtained by heating WO3:5C mixture for 900 s in a domestic microwave oven.

  1. CTAB-assisted ultrasonic synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Martínez, D. Gomez-Solis, C.; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures were synthesized by ultrasound method assisted with CTAB. • WO{sub 3} morphology was mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of ∼50 nm. • The highest surface area value of WO{sub 3} was obtained to lowest concentration of CTAB. • WO{sub 3} activity was attributed to morphology, surface area and the addition of CTAB. • WO{sub 3} nanoplates were able to causing almost complete mineralization of rhB and IC. - Abstract: WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures have been prepared by ultrasound synthesis method assisted with CTAB using different molar ratios. The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the WO{sub 3} samples was complemented by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed morphology mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of around 50 nm and length of 100–500 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm the elimination of the CTAB in the synthesized samples. The specific surface area was determinate by the BET method and by means of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) it was determinate the band-gap energy (E{sub g}) of the WO{sub 3} samples. The photocatalytic activity of the WO{sub 3} oxide was evaluated in the degradation reactions of rhodamine B (rhB) and indigo carmine (IC) under Xenon lamp irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the samples containing low concentration of CTAB with morphology of rectangular nanoplates and with higher surface area value than commercial WO{sub 3}. Photodegradation of rhB and IC were followed by means of UV–vis absorption spectra. The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 92% for rhB and 50% for IC after 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  2. Fine tuning GPS clock estimation in the MCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsell, Steven T.

    1995-01-01

    With the completion of a 24 operational satellite constellation, GPS is fast approaching the critical milestone, Full Operational Capability (FOC). Although GPS is well capable of providing the timing accuracy and stability figures required by system specifications, the GPS community will continue to strive for further improvements in performance. The GPS Master Control Station (MCS) recently demonstrated that timing improvements are always composite Clock, and hence, Kalman Filter state estimation, providing a small improvement to user accuracy.

  3. Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding Principal Investigator: Randolph Ware Co-Principal Investigator Christian Rocken UNAVCO...objective of this research is to develop GPS sounding techniques for ground based atmospheric profiling. Atmospheric profiling with GPS from space has been...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Using crystallographic shear to reduce lattice thermal conductivity: high temperature thermoelectric characterization of the spark plasma sintered Magnéli phases WO2.90 and WO2.722.

    PubMed

    Kieslich, Gregor; Veremchuk, Igor; Antonyshyn, Iryna; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Birkel, Christina S; Weldert, Kai; Heinrich, Christophe P; Visnow, Eduard; Panthöfer, Martin; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2013-10-07

    Engineering of nanoscale structures is a requisite for controlling the electrical and thermal transport in solids, in particular for thermoelectric applications that require a conflicting combination of low thermal conductivity and low electrical resistivity. We report the thermoelectric properties of spark plasma sintered Magnéli phases WO2.90 and WO2.722. The crystallographic shear planes, which are a typical feature of the crystal structures of Magnéli-type metal oxides, lead to a remarkably low thermal conductivity for WO2.90. The figures of merit (ZT = 0.13 at 1100 K for WO2.90 and 0.07 at 1100 K for WO2.722) are relatively high for tungsten-oxygen compounds and metal oxides in general. The electrical resistivity of WO2.722 shows a metallic behaviour with temperature, while WO2.90 has the characteristics of a heavily doped semiconductor. The low thermopower of 80 μV K(-1) at 1100 K for WO2.90 is attributed to its high charge carrier concentration. The enhanced thermoelectric performance for WO2.90 compared to WO2.722 originates from its much lower thermal conductivity, due to the presence of crystallographic shear and dislocations in the crystal structure. Our study is a proof of principle for the development of efficient and low-cost thermoelectric materials based on the use of intrinsically nanostructured materials rather than artificially structured layered systems to reduce lattice thermal conductivity.

  5. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…

  6. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  7. Applications of GPS Provided Time and Frequency and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Provided Timing Service – History of UTC and GPS – Accuracy of GPS timing service • Precise Time Requirements – Communication Networks – Power Grid...Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) needs very stable frequency and uses MASER clocks and carrier phase GPS to link various sites. • CERN

  8. Interferometric Determination of GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellite Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-23

    Global Positioning System ,’ GPS interferometrv...INTRODUCTION If the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is to be useful for crustal motion monitoring, the orbits of the GPS satellites 7will need to be... Global Position . * ing System , April 15-19, 1985, Rockville, MD 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on rev’erse side if necessary and Identity by block

  9. Texas Instruments 4100 GPS (Global Positioning System) Positioning Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ). To meet...solutions as correct before accepting them. 9 II, BACKGROUND A. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM GPS is a universal satellite poitioning system that is...ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS GPS = Global Positioning System NPS = Naval Postgraduate School Montcrey CA DMA Defense Mapping Agency NOAA = National Oceanic

  10. Improvements in Dynamic GPS Positions Using Track Averaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ), Precise Positioning System (PPS) solution under dynamic...SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF GPS , Global Positioning System , Dynamic Positioning PAGES 31 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY... Global Positioning System ( GPS ), Precise Positioning System (PPS) solution under dynamic conditions through averaging is investigated. Static

  11. Engineering and Design: Using Differential GPS Positioning for Elevation Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) surveying...Surveying Techniques Directorate of Civil Works NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying. Survey (NGS) using several different GPS surveying 7701...NAVD88 Transformation NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying, for Techniques assistance in setting up a network. a. The GPS relative positioning

  12. 76 FR 67019 - Eighty-Seventh: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...--Working Group 2C, GPS/Inertial November 15--Working Group 2, GPS/WAAS November 16--Working Group 2, GPS...-2A) GPS/Inertial (WG-2C) GPS/Precision Landing Guidance (WG-4) GPS/Airport Surface Surveillance...

  13. IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC for Nigerian SCINDA GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, Daniel; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre; Okere, Bonaventure; Okonkwo, Chinelo; Rabiu, Babatunde

    2015-04-01

    Following the recent proliferation of dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver systems across the African continent, there is a growing number of papers that compare vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) values derived from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model with those obtained from the GPS receiver measurements. In this work we report an investigation of IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC comparisons for three Nigerian SCINDAGPS stations (Nsukka, Ilorin, and Lagos) for which data are available in the year 2012, and present a further review of the differences/similarities observed between them. Since a major interest in this work is to use the GPS measurements to improve the predictions of the IRI model for the region, we present a detailed regression analysis of differences between the two sources in a manner that will benefit this application.

  14. The MARCOR GPS mobile data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothblatt, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Market research revealed several key demands for an Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio. The demands were for minimization of urban building blockage, easy programmability to minimize mobile data transmission costs, high accuracy for street map level coordination, interface capability with non-digital Specialized Mobile Radios (SMR), and a selling price close to that of alternatives such as Signposts and Loran-C. A team of experts was assembled to surmount these challenges and deliver a GPS radio for $500 to $1000, which operates at high accuracy in an urban environment and is plug-compatible with nearly all vehicle radios. Among the engineering and production breakthroughs described here are a unique Simultrac (Trademark) approach to satellite tracking, enabling up to eight GPS satellites to be used for position determination with a 2-channel receiver, and a receiver-in-a-microphone design. A powerful Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) allowed GPS to be brought within easy reach of millions of AVL users such as bus, taxi, and delivery vehicle fleets.

  15. Global geodesy using GPS without fiducial sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael; Bertiger, Willy; Blewitt, Geoff; Freedman, Adam; Hurst, Ken; Lichten, Steve; Lindqwister, Ulf; Vigue, Yvonne; Webb, Frank; Yunck, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Baseline lengths and geocentric radii have been determined from GPS data without the use of fiducial sites. Data from the first GPS experiment for the IERS and Geodynamics (GIG '91) have been analyzed with a no-fiducial strategy. A baseline length daily repeatability of 2 mm + 4 parts per billion was obtained for baselines in the Northern Hemisphere. Comparison of baseline lengths from GPS and the global VLBI solution GLB659 (Caprette et al. 1990) show rms agreement of 2.1 parts per billion. The geocentric radius mean daily repeatability for all sites was 15 cm. Comparison of geocentric radii from GPS and SV5 (Murray et al. 1990) show rms agreement of 3.8 cm. Given n globally distributed stations, the n(n - 1)/2 baseline lengths and n geocentric radii uniquely define a rigid closed polyhedron with a well-defined center of mass. Geodetic information can be obtained by examining the structure of the polyhedron and its change with time.

  16. Processing GPS Occultation Data To Characterize Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George; Kursinski, Emil; Leroy, Stephen; Lijima, Byron; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Romans, Larry; Ao, Chi

    2005-01-01

    GOAS [Global Positioning System (GPS) Occultation Analysis System] is a computer program that accepts signal-occultation data from GPS receivers aboard low-Earth-orbiting satellites and processes the data to characterize the terrestrial atmosphere and, in somewhat less comprehensive fashion, the ionosphere. GOAS is very robust and can be run in an unattended semi-operational processing mode. It features sophisticated retrieval algorithms that utilize the amplitudes and phases of the GPS signals. It incorporates a module that, using an assumed atmospheric refractivity profile, simulates the effects of the retrieval processing system, including the GPS receiver. GOAS utilizes the GIPSY software for precise determination of orbits as needed for calibration. The GOAS output for the Earth s troposphere and mid-to-lower stratosphere consists of high-resolution (<1 km) profiles of density, temperature, pressure, atmospheric refractivity, bending angles of signals, and water-vapor content versus altitude from the Earth s surface to an altitude of 30 km. The GOAS output for the ionosphere consists of electron-density profiles from an altitude of about 50 km to the altitude of a satellite, plus parameters related to the rapidly varying structure of the electron density, particularly in the E layer of the ionosphere.

  17. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  18. GPS LifePlan--Leading Campus Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Larry; Bruner, Mike; Hageman, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The Goals + Plans = Success (GPS) LifePlan is a new and innovative approach to assist and support students in answering critical questions that give direction to their pursuit of success. The program has brought impressive cultural changes to Century College. It benefited new students by establishing a framework for critical decision making that…

  19. Discovering Hidden Treasures with GPS Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul; Palmer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    "I found it!" Addison proudly proclaimed, as she used an iPhone and Global Positioning System (GPS) software to find the hidden geocache along the riverbank. Others in Lisa Bostick's fourth grade class were jealous, but there would be other geocaches to find. With the excitement of movies like "Pirates of the Caribbean" and…

  20. Growth and crystallographic characterization of molecular beam epitaxial WO3 and MoO3/WO3 thin films on sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Mitsuaki; Koike, Kazuto; Matsuo, Masayuki; Murayama, Takayuki; Harada, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Katsuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy of tungsten trioxide (WO3) on (01 1 bar 2)-oriented (r-plane) sapphire substrates and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) on the WO3 was studied by focusing on their crystallogrhaphic properties. Although polycrystalline monoclinic (γ-phase) WO3 films were grown at 500 °C and they became single-crystalline (0 0 1)-oriented γ-phase at 700 °C, the latter films were oxygen-deficient from stoichiometry and contained dense and deep thermal etchpits. By using a two-step growth method where only the initial 15 nm was grown at 700 °C and the rest part was grown at 500 °C, (0 0 1)-oriented γ-phase single-crystalline WO3 films with stoichiometric composition and smooth surface were obtained. On top of the 15-nm-thick WO3 initiation layer, (1 1 0)-oriented orthorhombic (α-phase) MoO3 films with smooth surface were obtained.

  1. U.S. Coast Guard GPS Information Center (GPSIC) and Its Function Within the Civil GPS Service (CGS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    GPSIC) was created to provide civil wers of the Global Positioning System with timely @ern status and other GPS satellite idormation. The GPSIC...ANSI Std Z39-18 timely GPS status information to civil users of the global positioning satellite navigation system . Specifically, the functions to...entity of the (:GS whicll provides GPS status information t o civilian users of the Global Positioning System based on input fro111 the: * GPS

  2. Signal quality monitoring for GPS augmentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitelman, Alexander Michael

    Civilian applications of the Global Positioning System have grown rapidly over the past decade. One of the most significant examples is guidance for aviation. In conjunction with specially designed equipment on the ground, GPS can provide precision approach and landing capability for aircraft. As with other safety-critical aviation applications, GPS-based landing systems must meet stringent accuracy, safety, and availability requirements set by the Federal Aviation Administration. Currently, compliance with FAA requirements is ensured by a host of monitors including the Signal Quality Monitor, a module specifically tasked with continuously observing raw GPS signals for interference and distortion. This dissertation focuses on several theoretical and practical aspects of SQM design. The discussion begins with in-depth analysis of the seminal event in SQM, a significant anomaly on GPS space vehicle 19 initially observed in 1993. At the time, a tenfold increase in vertical position error was reported when this satellite was in view. Little consensus was initially reached about the exact origin, nature, or magnitude of the distortion; this section considers these effects in detail. The analysis is then extended to compute a rigorous upper bound for differential error. Starting with the architecture of a basic landing system, a theoretical worst-case is derived that maximizes user error while defying detection by the ground station. A simplified distortion model, adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization in response to the worst-case analysis, is also described. The discussion then describes the design and construction of an arbitrary GPS generator. Essential features include architecture, shielding, independent signal and noise levels, and fast switching between two input channels. Two example applications are presented to illustrate the instrument's utility. A theoretical analysis of the ICAO model is validated by measuring the spectra of generated

  3. Photoreduction of non-noble metal Bi on the surface of Bi2WO6 for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yu, Shan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2017-02-01

    In this report, Bi2WO6-Bi composite was prepared through an in situ photoreduction method and was characterized systematically by X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The as-prepared Bi2WO6-Bi maintains the same crystal structure with the pristine Bi2WO6 regardless of some surface defects. Nevertheless, these surface defects result in the change of surface oxygen adsorption mode from hydroxyl to molecular oxygen on Bi2WO6. Photocatalytic activity over Bi2WO6-Bi is 2.4 times higher than that of Bi2WO6 towards the degradation of organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A deep study shows that cleavage of benzene ring is the main pathway for RhB degradation over Bi2WO6, but both the benzene cleavage and de-ethylation pathway coexist for RhB decomposition in the presence of Bi2WO6-Bi as the photocatalyst. Photoelectrochemical study including transient photocurrent tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements shows that Bi2WO6-Bi could facilitate the charge transfer process compared to Bi2WO6. These data above has indicated a new insight into the promotion mechanism based on Bi related heterostructures.

  4. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  5. Mutual Information Between GPS Measurements and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Bebbington, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Prior to the wide deployment of Continuous GPS stations in the early 1990s, there were a number of well-documented deformation rate changes observed before large earthquakes. GPS measurements provide the opportunity for systematic investigation of pre-, co- and post-seismic deformation anomalies, but contain much noise that needs to be filtered out of the observations. Assuming the existence of an earthquake cycle (for example, mainshock--aftershock--quiescence--precursory seismicity), a hidden Markov model (HMM) provides a natural framework for analyzing the observed GPS data. For two case studies of a) deep earthquakes in the central North Island, New Zealand, and b) shallow earthquakes in Southern California, an HMM fitted to the trend ranges of the GPS measurements can classify the deformation data into different patterns which form proxies for states of the earthquake cycle. Mutual information can be used to examine whether there is any relation between these patterns, in particular the Viterbi path, and subsequent (or previous) earthquakes. One class of GPS movements (identified by the HMM as having the largest range of deformation rate changes) appears to have some precursory character for earthquakes with minimum magnitude 5.1 (central North Island, New Zealand, 26 earthquakes in 1747 days) and 4.5 (Southern California, 50 earthquakes in 3815 days). We define a ``Time of Increased Probability'' (TIP) as being a 10-day interval (central North Island, New Zealand) or a 20-day interval (Southern California) following entry (as identified by the Viterbi algorithm) to the `precursory' hidden state, and examine the performance of this in probabilistically forecasting subsequent earthquakes.

  6. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation’s original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth’s land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  7. Subdaily Earth rotation model and GPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panafidina, Natalia; Hugentobler, Urs; Seitz, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we study the influence of the subdaily Earth rotation model on the GPS solution including station coordinates, satellite orbits and daily Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). The approach used is based on the transformation of GPS normal equation systems: free daily normal equations containing ERPs with 1-hour resolution are used as input data, in this case the high-frequency ERPs can be transformed into tidal terms which then can be fixed to new a priori values, thus changing implicitly the underlying subdaily Earth rotation model. To study the influence of individual tidal terms on the solution we successively changed a priori values for one tidal term in polar motion and compared the resulting solutions for GPS orbits, station coordinates and daily ERPs for a time interval of 13 years. The comparison reveals periodic changes in all estimated parameters with periods depending on the periods of the changed tidal terms. The dynamical reference frame realized by the GPS orbits is also affected: the whole satellite constellation shows periodic orientation variations, and each individual satellite shows periodic changes in the position of the orbit origin. We present a mechanism showing how errors in the subdaily Earth rotation model are propagated into the dynamical reference frame and the estimated parameters. Our model represents a change in one tidal term over one day as the sum of a prograde diurnal wave, a retrograde diurnal wave and an offset and linear drift in x- and y-pole. We demonstrate that this simple model, in conjunction with appropriate constraints, can explain well the observed variations in a one day GPS solution as well as in daily pole rates caused by changes in the subdaily Earth rotation model.

  8. TIDs over Tucuman by GPS radio interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Victor

    This paper presents some results investigating the new possibilities of radio interferometry of Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) that are based on exploiting standard measurements of transionospheric radio signal characteristics and coordinate-time measurements using dual-frequency multichannel receivers of the Global Positioning System (GPS). We consider some methods of reconstructing TID characteristics, which were used in classical radio interferometry and can be useful when processing GPS data. Let us consider an interferometer that consist of three receivers, installed at vertexes of triangle on Tucuman (26°49' 00" S ;65°13' 00" W) with sides oriented to the north and east. A Statistical Angle-of-arrival and Doppler Method for GPS radio interferometry is proposed for determining the characteristics of the TIDs dynamics by measuring variations of GPS phase derivatives with respect to time and spatial coordinates. These data are used to calculate corresponding values of the velocity vector, in view of a correction for satellite motions based on the current information available regarding the angular coordinates of the satellites. Our findings show that : a) We learnt that Gravity Waves (GW) can be measured with a system of 3 closely located GPS receivers, b) It is possible to detect the angle of arrival, velocity, and period of the GWs, c) Attention has to be paid to cases when there are TEC depletions as they can be mistaken by GWs, d) To avoid a false detection is possible to use a spectral analysis that will help us differentiate between perturbations that are moving with different velocities.

  9. US Coast Guard GPS Information Center (GPSIC) and its function within the Civil GPS Service (CGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barndt, Luann

    1992-01-01

    The Global Positioning System Information Center (GPSIC) was created to provide civil users of the Global Positioning System with timely system status and other GPS satellite information. The GPSIC began providing basic services on a test and evaluation basis in March 1990. Since then we have improved these services, formalized the information gathering processes, and expanded GPSIC operations to meet GPS user needs. The GPSIC serves as a central point of contact for civil users to make their interests and needs known to the system operator, the Department of Defense (DOD) under the management of the U.S. Air Force. The GPSIC provides GPS information to civil users through Operational Advisory Broadcasts (OAB) containing GPS performance data. The OABs are disseminated through numerous sources including 24 hour access to a voice telephone recording and a computer bulletin board system (BBS). The GPSIC staff also responds to individual user inquiries, comments, or concerns about civil access to and use of the GPS during normal working hours. This paper provides an overview of the Civil GPS Service as well as the details of the type of information and services that are available through the GPSIC and how they can be obtained. It will also address the future expansion of GPSIC responsibilities.

  10. Piezo-optic coefficients of CaWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mytsyk, B. G.; Kost', Ya. P.; Demyanyshyn, N. M.; Andrushchak, A. S.; Solskii, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    All components of the piezo-optic coefficient matrix of calcium tungstate crystals, belonging to the 4/ m symmetry class, are determined. The reliability of the piezo-optic effect measurements in CaWO4 crystals is achieved by determining each piezo-optic coefficient from several experimental geometries and is also based on the correlation of the absolute piezo-electric coefficients and the path-difference coefficients. The rotation-shear diagonal coefficients π44 and π66 and three principal piezo-optic coefficients π11, π13, and π31 are refined by the polarization-optical method. It is confirmed that both the interferometric and polarization-optical methods should be used to study the piezo-optic effect with high accuracy. The results show that calcium tungstate is a promising material for acousto-optical and photoelastic modulation.

  11. Efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting by anodically grown WO3 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cristino, Vito; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Meda, Laura; Marra, Gian Luigi; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2011-06-07

    The potentiostatic anodization of metallic tungsten has been investigated in different solvent/electrolyte compositions with the aim of improving the water oxidation ability of the tungsten oxide layer. In the NMF/H(2)O/NH(4)F solvent mixture, the anodization leads to highly efficient WO(3) photoanodes, which, combining spectral sensitivity, an electrochemically active surface, and improved charge-transfer kinetics, outperform, under simulated solar illumination, most of the reported nanocrystalline substrates produced by anodization in aqueous electrolytes and by sol-gel methods. The use of such electrodes results in high water electrolysis yields of between 70 and 90% in 1 M H(2)SO(4) under a potential bias of 1 V versus SCE and close to 100% in the presence of methanol.

  12. Sonochromic effect in WO{sup 3} colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Vinodgopal, K.

    1996-11-13

    In recent years there has been a burst of activities in investigating sonolytic reactions. The usefulness of this technique in synthesizing colloidal semiconductors and metals and dissolution of MnO{sup 2} colloids has also been demonstrated. We have now employed semiconductor colloids to investigate the radical reactions in sonolytic processes. In this study we present our preliminary results from the reaction of WO{sup 3} colloids with sonolytically generated H atoms. Sodium tungstate, oxalic acid, and Acid Orange 7 were obtained from Aldrich. Acid Orange 7 was purified by column chromatography. All other chemicals were analytical reagents of highest available purity. The analysis experiments were carried out with a 640 kHz sonolysis setup of Ultrasonic Energy Systems (Panama City, FL). 24 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Anomalously large Born effective charges in cubic WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detraux, F.; Ghosez, Ph.; Gonze, X.

    1997-07-01

    Within density-functional theory, we compute the Born effective charges of tungsten trioxyde in its reference cubic phase (defect-perovskite structure). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor is isotropic, with Z*W=+12.51. For the oxygen atoms, the two independent components of the tensor, corresponding, respectively, to a displacement of the atom parallel or perpendicular to the W-O bond, have the values Z*O||=-9.13 and Z*O⊥=-1.68. Z*W and Z*O|| are anomalously large with respect to the nominal ionic charges (+6 on W and -2 on O), but compatible with the Born effective charges found in related ABO3-perovskite compounds.

  14. Fabrication of luminescent SrWO{sub 4} thin films by a novel electrochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lianping Gao Yuanhong

    2007-10-02

    Highly crystallized SrWO{sub 4} thin films with single scheelite structure were prepared within 60 min by a cell electrochemical method. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that SrWO{sub 4} thin films have a tetragonal structure. Scanning electron microscopy examinations reveal that SrWO{sub 4} grains grow well in tetragonal tapers and grains like flowers or bunches, which can usually form by using the electrolysis electrochemical method, have disappeared under cell electrochemical conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectra and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis examinations demonstrate that the composition of the film is consistent with its stoichiometry. These SrWO{sub 4} films show a single blue emission peak (located at 460 nm) using an excitation wave of 230 nm. The speed of cell electrochemical method can be controlled by changing temperature. The optimum treatment temperature is about 50-60 deg. C.

  15. Bacteriophage WO Can Mediate Horizontal Gene Transfer in Endosymbiotic Wolbachia Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan H.; Sun, Bao F.; Xiong, Tuan L.; Wang, Yan K.; Murfin, Kristen E.; Xiao, Jin H.; Huang, Da W.

    2016-01-01

    Phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is common in free-living bacteria, and many transferred genes can play a significant role in their new bacterial hosts. However, there are few reports concerning phage-mediated HGT in endosymbionts (obligate intracellular bacteria within animal or plant hosts), such as Wolbachia. The Wolbachia-infecting temperate phage WO can actively shift among Wolbachia genomes and has the potential to mediate HGT between Wolbachia strains. In the present study, we extend previous findings by validating that the phage WO can mediate transfer of non-phage genes. To do so, we utilized bioinformatic, phylogenetic, and molecular analyses based on all sequenced Wolbachia and phage WO genomes. Our results show that the phage WO can mediate HGT between Wolbachia strains, regardless of whether the transferred genes originate from Wolbachia or other unrelated bacteria. PMID:27965627

  16. Hydrothermal Fabrication of WO3 Hierarchical Architectures: Structure, Growth and Response

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Recently hierarchical architectures, consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, are of great interest for potential applications in energy and environmental. Here, novel rose-like WO3 hierarchical architectures were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3 hierarchical architectures were in fact assembled by numerous nanosheets with an average thickness of ~30 nm. We found that the oxalic acid played a significant role in governing morphologies of WO3 during hydrothermal process. Based on comparative studies, a possible formation mechanism was also proposed in detail. Furthermore, gas-sensing measurement showed that the well-defined 3D WO3 hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas sensing properties towards CO. PMID:28347062

  17. Enhanced electrochemical performance of monoclinic WO3 thin film with redox additive aqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Vaibhav C; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Ji, Taeksoo; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2016-12-01

    To achieve the highest electrochemical performance for supercapacitor, it is very essential to find out a suitable pair of an active electrode material and an electrolyte. In the present work, a simple approach is employed to enhance the supercapacitor performance of WO3 thin film. The WO3 thin film is prepared by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition method and its electrochemical performance is tested in conventional (H2SO4) and redox additive [H2SO4+hydroquinone (HQ)] electrolytes. Two-fold increment in electrochemical performance for WO3 thin film is observed in redox additive aqueous electrolyte compared to conventional electrolyte. WO3 thin film showed maximum specific capacitance of 725Fg(-1), energy density of 25.18Whkg(-1) at current density of 7mAcm(-2) with better cycling stability in redox electrolyte. This strategy provides the versatile way for designing the high performance energy storage devices.

  18. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone for Aircraft GPS Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of spurious emissions from a mobile phone are conducted in a reverberation chamber for the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio frequency band. This phone model was previously determined to have caused interference to several aircraft GPS receivers. Interference path loss (IPL) factors are applied to the emission data, and the outcome compared against GPS receiver susceptibility. The resulting negative safety margins indicate there are risks to aircraft GPS systems. The maximum emission level from the phone is also shown to be comparable with some laptop computer's emissions, implying that laptop computers can provide similar risks to aircraft GPS receivers.

  19. Application of GPS tracking techniques to orbit determination for TDRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, B. J.; Lichten, S. M.; Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate two fundamentally different approaches to TDRS orbit determination utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and GPS-related techniques. In the first, a GPS flight receiver is deployed on the TDRSS spacecraft. The TDRS ephemerides are determined using direct ranging to the GPS spacecraft, and no ground network is required. In the second approach, the TDRSS spacecraft broadcast a suitable beacon signal, permitting the simultaneous tracking of GPS and TDRSS satellites from a small ground network. Both strategies can be designed to meet future operational requirements for TDRS-2 orbit determination.

  20. Facile and controlled synthesis of aligned WO3 nanorods and nanosheets as an efficient photocatalyst material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K.; Donfack, P.; Materny, A.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have performed a facile and controlled synthesis of WO3 nanorods and sheets in different crystal phases (triclinic, orthorhombic and monoclinic) of WO3 using the sol-gel method. The detailed structures of the synthesized materials were examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The shapes and crystal phases of the WO3 nanostructures were found to be highly dependent on the calcination temperature. The variation in crystalline phases and shapes is modified the electronic structure of the samples, which causes a variation in the value of optical band gap. The value of the Raman line intensity ratio I264/I320 has been successfully used to identify the structural transition from the triclinic to the orthorhombic phase of WO3. The PL spectra of the synthesized products excited at wavelengths 380, 400, and 420 nm exhibit intense emission peaks that cover the complete visible range (blue-green-red). The emission peaks at 460 and 486 nm were caused by the near band-edge and band to band transition, respectively. The peaks in spectral range 500-600 nm might be originated from the presence of oxygen vacancies lying within the energy band gap. The synthesized WO3 nanostructures showed improved photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of MB dye. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanosheets compared to WO3 nanorods for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye could be due to the shape of the nanostructured WO3. The sheet type of structure provides more active surface for the interaction of dye molecules compared to the rods, which results in a more efficient degradation of the dye molecules.

  1. [Doctor's degree thesis of Tomasz Adolf Wołkowiński "Carditidis rheumaticae historia"].

    PubMed

    Stembrowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.

  2. Light-Driven Au-WO3@C Janus Micromotors for Rapid Photodegradation of Dye Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilu; Dong, Renfeng; Wu, Yefei; Gao, Wei; He, Zihan; Ren, Biye

    2017-02-08

    A novel light-driven Au-WO3@C Janus micromotor based on colloidal carbon WO3 nanoparticle composite spheres (WO3@C) prepared by one-step hydrothermal treatment is described. The Janus micromotors can move in aqueous media at a speed of 16 μm/s under 40 mW/cm(2) UV light due to diffusiophoretic effects. The propulsion of such Au-WO3@C Janus micromotors (diameter ∼ 1.0 μm) can be generated by UV light in pure water without any external chemical fuels and readily modulated by light intensity. After depositing a paramagnetic Ni layer between the Au layer and WO3, the motion direction of the micromotor can be precisely controlled by an external magnetic field. Such magnetic micromotors not only facilitate recycling of motors but also promise more possibility of practical applications in the future. Moreover, the Au-WO3@C Janus micromotors show high sensitivity toward extremely low concentrations of sodium-2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and Rhodamine B (RhB). The moving speed of motors can be significantly accelerated to 26 and 29 μm/s in 5 × 10(-4) wt % DCIP and 5 × 10(-7) wt % RhB aqueous solutions, respectively, due to the enhanced diffusiophoretic effect, which results from the rapid photocatalytic degradation of DCIP and RhB by WO3. This photocatalytic acceleration of the Au-WO3@C Janus micromotors confirms the self-diffusiophoretic mechanism and opens an opportunity to tune the motility of the motors. This work also offers the light-driven micromotors a considerable potential for detection and rapid photodegradation of dye pollutants in water.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of α-Ag2WO4 as novel antifungal agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foggi, Camila C.; Fabbro, Maria T.; Santos, Luís P. S.; de Santana, Yuri V. B.; Vergani, Carlos E.; Machado, Ana L.; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2017-04-01

    Because of the need for new antifungal materials with greater potency, microcrystals of α-Ag2WO4, a complex metal oxide, have been synthetized by a simple co-precipitation method, and their antifungal activity against Candida albicans has been investigated. A theoretical model based on clusters that are building blocks of α-Ag2WO4 has been proposed to explain the experimental results.

  4. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures of CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4} via a facile low-temperature route

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Gong, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yuan, Y.P.; Qian, L.W.; Qian, X.F.

    2009-01-08

    CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4} nanostructures have been synthesized via a simple microemulsion-mediated route. With careful control of the fundamental experimental parameters including the concentration of reactants, the reaction time and the temperature, the products with different morphologies of dumbbell, coral, rod and dendrite have been obtained, respectively. The possible formation mechanism of these unique morphologies has been proposed based on surfactant self-assembly under different experimental conditions. The as-synthesized CaWO{sub 4} samples with various morphologies exhibit different photoluminescence properties. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and luminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize these products.

  5. Impact of GPS tracking data of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, . . . ). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire "constellation" of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we want to study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously using the data of the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS). In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we have to perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, e.g., (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, . . . ), (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours, (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines, (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs, and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance at all to improve the global GPS results. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on

  6. The First Experiment with VLBI-GPS Hybrid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Younghee; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Sekido, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Cho, Jungho; Kim, Tuhwan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce our GPS-VLBI hybrid system and show the results of the first experiment which is now under way. In this hybrid system, GPS signals are captured by a normal GPS antenna, down-converted to IF signals, and then sampled by the VLBI sampler VSSP32 developed by NICT. The sampled GPS data are recorded and correlated in the same way as VLBI observation data. The correlator outputs are the group delay and the delay rate. Since the whole system uses the same frequency standard, many sources of systematic errors are common between the VLBI system and the GPS system. In this hybrid system, the GPS antenna can be regarded as an additional VLBI antenna having multiple beams towards GPS satellites. Therefore, we expect that this approach will provide enough data to improve zenith delay estimates and geodetic results.

  7. Investigation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), cyclic voltammetric analyses of WO3 films and their electrochromic response in FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2006-06-01

    Electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide (WO3) were prepared on transparent conducting oxide substrates, i.e., fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO or SnO2:F) glass and microscopic glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique using pure WO3 (99.99%) pellets at various substrate temperatures (i.e., Tsub = room temperature (RT, 30 °C), 100 °C and 200 °C). The films were prepared under vacuum of the order of 1 × 10-5 mbar. The room temperature prepared films were further post-heat-treated (Tanne) at 200 and 300 °C for about 1 h in the vacuum environment. The prepared films are in monoclinic phase. The chemical composition has been characterized by using the XPS technique. The W 4f and O 1s core levels of WO3 films have been studied on the samples. The obtained core level binding energies revealed the WO3 films contained six-valent tungsten (W6+). The electrochemical nature of the films was studied by a three-electrode electrochemical cell in the configuration of FTO/WO3/H2SO4/Pt, SCE, using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) of the general type FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO were studied. The films produced at higher substrate temperature show smaller modulation of the visible spectrum, compared with the films produced at lower temperatures. The significant chemical bonding nature associated with the coloring/bleaching process which follows the H+ ion incorporation in the film is studied by FTIR analysis. The W-O-W framework peak was observed at 563 cm-1 and confirms the stability of the films in the electrochemical analysis. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry technique and ECD cell characterization are used to emphasize the suitability for some applications of the solar control systems.

  8. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  9. Phonon properties of nanosized MnWO{sub 4} with different size and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, MirosLaw; Ptak, Maciej; Kurnatowska, Michalina; Kepinski, Leszek; Tomaszewski, PaweL; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2011-09-15

    Highly hierarchical barlike and flowerlike MnWO{sub 4} microcrystals have been synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method, where ethanolamine (EA) and cetyltrimethylamonnium bromide (CTAB) play important roles in directing growth and self-assembly of these structures. The possible formation process has been proposed. In addition, platelike nanosized MnWO{sub 4} was also synthesized by annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman and IR methods. Raman spectra showed relatively weak dependence on particle size and morphology of the particles. In contrast to this behavior, IR-active bands showed pronounced shifts and changes in relative intensities on particle size and the morphology. Origin of this behavior is discussed. - Graphical Abstract: SEM images of MnWO{sub 4} particles prepared by hydrothermal process at 150 deg. C (left panel) and 200 deg. C (right panel). Highlights: > Hydrothermal synthesis with ethanolamine enables growth of hierarchical nanosized MnWO{sub 4} particles. > Annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method enables growth of platelike MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles. > Raman and IR spectra of MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles depend on both size and morphology of the nanoparticles. > We discuss origin of this behavior.

  10. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching. PMID:27600368

  11. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-07

    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching.

  12. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching.

  13. MWCNT/WO3 nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Reyhani, Ali; Naseri, Naimeh; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2013-08-01

    The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO3 nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNT’s weight percentages were prepared by sol-gel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO3 thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO3. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO3 photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO3. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO3 nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ~4.5 A/m2 and electron life time of about 57 s.

  14. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic behavior of WO3-fullerene/TiO2 catalysts under visible light

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    WO3-treated fullerene/TiO2 composites (WO3-fullerene/TiO2) were prepared using a sol-gel method. The composite obtained was characterized by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis analysis. A methyl orange (MO) solution under visible light irradiation was used to determine the photocatalytic activity. Excellent photocatalytic degradation of a MO solution was observed using the WO3-fullerene, fullerene-TiO2, and WO3-fullerene/TiO2 composites under visible light. An increase in photocatalytic activity was observed, and WO3-fullerene/TiO2 has the best photocatalytic activity; it may attribute to the increase of the photo-absorption effect by the fullerene and the cooperative effect of the WO3. PMID:21774800

  15. DFT study of CO sensing mechanism on hexagonal WO3 (0 0 1) surface: The role of oxygen vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, FengHui; Zhao, Linghuan; Xue, Xu-Yan; Shen, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiangfeng; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-08-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the adsorption of CO on the oxygen deficient hexagonal WO3 (h-WO3) (0 0 1) surface. Two different situations including the O- and WO-terminated h-WO3 (0 0 1) surfaces are considered. The influence of surface defect density is also concerned. Calculations proposed that the oxygen vacancy exert negative effects on the sensing ability of the h-WO3 material. Under relatively higher defect density, the presence of the oxygen vacancy on both of the O and WO-terminated (0 0 1) surfaces all decreases their sensitivity to CO gas to some extent, while they are still sensitive enough to detect CO gas with the charge transfers of 0.498 and 0.129 e, respectively. Whereas, under lower defect density, calculations indicated that the sensitivity of the material can be lowered largely.

  16. Comparative studies of monoclinic and orthorhombic WO3 films used for hydrogen sensor fabrication on SiC crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. V.; Grigoriev, S. N.; Romanov, R. I.; Fominski, V. Y.; Volosova, M. A.; Demin, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    Amorphous WOx films were prepared on the SiC crystal by using two different methods, namely, reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) and reactive deposition by ion sputtering (RDIS). After deposition, the WOx films were annealed in an air. The RISD film possessed a m-WO3 structure and consisted of closely packed microcrystals. Localized swelling of the films and micro-hills growth did not destroy dense crystal packing. RPLD film had layered β-WO3 structure with relatively smooth surface. Smoothness of the films were destroyed by localized swelling and the micro-openings formation was observed. Comparative study of m-WO3/SiC, Pt/m-WO3/SiC, and P-WO3/SiC samples shows that structural characteristics of the WO3 films strongly influence on the voltage/current response as well as on the rate of current growth during H2 detection at elevated temperatures.

  17. Tectonics of Western Canada From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Flueck, P.; Hyndman, R. D.; Dragert, H.; Craymer, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2002-12-01

    Western Canada can be divided into three main current tectonic domains: The Cascadia subduction zone, the Queen Charlotte transform margin, and the Yukon intraplate deformation region. Well-developed GPS monitoring of present-day deformation has contributed substantially to our knowledge of the dynamics of the Cascadia margin. To the north, although seismicity and plate tectonics model indicate significant deformation, our understanding of the detailed tectonics is still sparse. We present a summary of GPS measurements obtained in western Canada and adjacent regions over the last 10 years that allow us to better apprehend these three tectonic systems. Along the Cascadia margin, the Juan de Fuca (JF) plate subducts beneath North America (NA). The crustal velocity field is well constrained by continuous and campaign GPS data that show a northeastward motion that decreases landward from ~10 to ~5 mm/yr. This deformation pattern indicates significant elastic shortening of the forearc due to the locking of the subduction thrust. The northernmost Cascadia region corresponds to a transition between subduction and transform regimes. GPS campaign data suggest that this transition is accommodated by internal deformation and underthrusting of the Explorer plate beneath the NA margin. Further to the north, the Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) accommodates the strike-slip motion between the Pacific (PA) and the NA plates. The slight obliquity of the PA/NA motion relative to the QCF direction implies some convergence along this margin. GPS campaign data in the Queen Charlotte Islands indicate velocities of 5-15 mm/yr northward with respect to NA. These results suggest a complex interaction between strain loading along the locked QCF, strain loading along a subduction thrust just offshore, and potential long-term deformation of the NA margin up to the Alaska Panhandle. The PA/NA transform margin changes to a convergence system in the Gulf of Alaska, where the Yakutat Terrane is

  18. Reloading Continuous GPS in Northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    For more than 10 years we try to follow the steps of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, this gives us the opportunity to be in position to contribute to develop a modern GPS Network in Mexico. During 1998 and 2001, three stations were deployed in Northwest Mexico in concert with the development of SCIGN: SPMX in north central Baja California state at the National Astronomical Observatory, UNAM in the Sierra San Pedro Martir; CORX in Isla Coronados Sur, offshore San Diego, Ca./Tijuana, Mexico and GUAX in Guadalupe island 150 miles offshore Baja California peninsula, which provide a unique site on the Pacific plate in the Northamerica/Pacific boundary zone in Las Californias. The former IGS station in CICESE, Ensenada, CICE installed in 1995, was replaced by CIC1 in 1999. In 2004 and 2005 with partial support from SCIGN and UNAVCO to University of Arizona a volunteer team from UNAVCO, Caltech, U.S. Geological Survey, Universidad de la Sierra at Moctezuma Sonora and CICESE built two new shallow-braced GPS sites in northwest Mexico. The first site USMX is located at east-central Sonora and the second YESX is located high in the Sierra Madre Occidental at Yecora near the southern border of Sonora and Chihuahua. All data is openly available at SOPAC and/or UNAVCO. The existing information has been valuable to resolve the "total" plate motion between the Pacific plate (GUAX) and the Northamerica plate (USMX and YESX) in the north- central Gulf of California. Since the last year we have the capability of GPS data processing using GAMIT/GLOBK, and after gain some practice with survey mode data processing we can convert us in a GPS processing center in Mexico. Currently only 2 sites are operational: CIC1 and USMX. With new energy we are ready to contribute to the establishment of a modern GPS network in Mexico for science, hazard monitoring and infrastructure.

  19. Monitoring of D-layer using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkov, Maxim; Bessarab, Fedor; Karpov, Ivan; Golubkov, Gennady; Manzheliy, Mikhail; Borchevkina, Olga; Kuverova, Veronika; Malyshev, Nikolay; Ozerov, Georgy

    2016-07-01

    Changes in D layer of ionosphere during the periods of high solar activity lead to non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma parameter variations. Accordingly, the population of orbital degenerate states of Rydberg complexes changes in a fraction of a microsecond. In turn, this affects the operation of any of the systems based on the use of GPS radio signals passing through this layer. It is well known that GPS signals undergo the greatest distortion in the altitude range of 60-110 km. Therefore, the analysis of changes in signal intensity can be useful for plasma diagnosis in these altitudes. In particular, it is useful to determine the vertical temperature profiles and electron density. For this purpose, one can use the satellite radio occultation method. This method is widely used in recent years to solve problems of the electron concentration profile recovery in the F-region of the ionosphere, and also for climate problem solutions. This method allows to define the altitude profiles of the GPS signal propagation delays and to obtain from the inverse problem solution qualitatively high-altitude profiles of the quantities using relative measurements. To ensure the authenticity of the found distributions of electron density and temperature in the D region of the ionosphere, the results should be complemented by measurements of the own atmospheric radiation power at frequencies of 1.4 and 5.0 GHz. This ensures control of the reliability of the results obtained using the "Rydberg" code. Monitoring of the state changes in the D layer by repeatedly following at regular intervals GPS satellite measurements are also of great interest and can provide valuable information on the macroscopic dynamics of D layer containing Rydberg complexes and free electrons. For example, one can monitor changes in the thickness of the emitting layer in time. Such changes lead to an additional contribution to the formation of satellite GPS system errors. It should also be noted that the

  20. Continuous-wave laser operation of Tm and Hoco-doped NaY(WO(4))(2) and NaLu(WO(4))(2) crystals.

    PubMed

    Han, X; Fusari, F; Serrano, M D; Lagatsky, A A; Cano-Torres, J M; Brown, C T A; Zaldo, C; Sibbett, W

    2010-03-15

    Tetragonal single crystals of NaT(WO(4))(2) (T = Y or Lu) co-doped with Tm(3+) and Ho(3+) ions have been employed for broadly tunable and efficient room-temperature laser operation at around 2 mum. With Ti:sapphire laser pumping at 795 nm, a slope efficiency and a maximum output power as high as 48% and 265 mW, respectively, have been achieved at 2050 nm from a Tm,Ho:NaY(WO(4))(2) crystal. Tuning from 1830 nm to 2080 nm has also been obtained using an intracavity Lyot filter.

  1. Improved thermal force modeling for GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Schutz, R. E.; Abusali, P. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geophysical applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) require the capability to estimate and propagate satellite orbits with high precision. An accurate model of all the forces acting on a satellite is an essential part of achieving high orbit accuracy. Methods of analyzing the perturbation due to thermal radiation and determining its effects on the long-term orbital behavior of GPS satellites are presented. The thermal imbalance force, a nongravitational orbit perturbation previously considered negligible, is the focus of this article. The earth's shadowing of a satellite in orbit causes periodic changes in the satellite's thermal environment. Simulations show that neglecting thermal imbalance in the satellite force model gives orbit error larger than ten meters over several days for eclipsing satellites. This orbit mismodeling can limit accuracy in orbit determination and in estimation of baselines used for geophysical applications.

  2. Regional Deformation Studies with GRACE and GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. L.; Elosequi, P.; Tamisiea, M.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2005-01-01

    GRACE data indicate large seasonal variations in gravity that have been shown to be to be related to climate-driven fluxes of surface water. Seasonal redistribution of surface mass deforms the Earth, and our previous study using GRACE data demonstrate that annual radial deformations of +/-13 mm in the region of Amazon River Basin were observed by both GRACE and ten GPS sites in the region. For the GRACE determinations, we estimate in a least-squares solution for each Stokes coefficient parameters that represent the amplitudes of the annual variation. We then filter these parameters based on a statistical test that uses the scatter of the postfit residuals. We demonstrate by comparison to the GPS amplitudes that this method is more accurate, for this region, than Gaussian smoothing. Our model for the temporal behavior of the gravity coefficients includes a rate term, and although the time series are noisy, the glacial isostatic adjustment signal over Hudson s Bay can be observed. .

  3. Airborne Laser/GPS Mapping of Beaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Swift, R. N.; Fredrick, E. B.; Manizade, S. S.; Martin, C. F.; Sonntag, J. G.; Duffy, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from topographic surveys of the Assateague National Seashore Park using recently developed airborne laser and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. During November, 1995, and again in May, 1996, the NASA Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility conducted surveys as a part of technology enhancement activities or warm-up missions prior to conducting elevation measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet as part of NASA's Global Climate Change program. The resulting data are compared to surface surveys using standard techniques. The goal of these projects is to make these measurements to an accuracy of 10 cm. The measurements were made from NASA's 4-engine P-3 Orion aircraft using the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), a scanning laser system. The necessary high accuracy vertical as well as horizontal positioning are provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers located both on board the aircraft and at a fixed site at Wallops Island.

  4. Pseudolite-aided GPS - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Barry A.; Tsang, Wai L.

    The author suggests that there is strong reason to believe that variations in GPS (Global Positioning System) performance as a function of location and time can be mitigated by augmenting the GPS system wih pseudolites in pure geodetic, differential, and hybrid forms. Analysis have been performed to calculate the relative merits of these augmentations. The area of detail studied was the southwestern US to ascertain the effects on a typical test range. Simulation results show that the navigation solution accuracy of either a stationary or mobile user improves by adding pseudolites with a pure geodetic capability, and improves dramatically with a differential capability. The results demonstrate the time dependence of the navigation solution at the user location.

  5. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  6. Effect of fluorine, nitrogen, and carbon impurities on the electronic and magnetic properties of WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    Within electron density functional theory with the use of the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP), the effect of the sp substitutional impurities of fluorine (n-type dopant), nitrogen, and carbon (p-type dopants) on the electronic and magnetic properties of tungsten trioxide WO{sub 3} is studied. It is established that these impurities induce the transformation of tungsten trioxide (nonmagnetic semiconductor) into nonmagnetic metal (WO{sub 3}:F), magnetic semimetal (WO{sub 3}:N), or magnetic metal (WO{sub 3}:C) states.

  7. Inductive effect of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) on morphology and photocatalytic performance of Bi2WO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jinxing; Xie, Yunyun; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2016-04-01

    Bi2WO6 has great potential applications in the field of photocatalyst due to its excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance. This work studied the detailed morphological evolution of Bi2WO6 particles synthesized in a simple hydrothermal system induced by the stabilizer poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The XRD and HRTEM results show PVP would not change the crystal structure of Bi2WO6, but the distribution of PVP on the initially formed Bi2WO6 nanosheets will induce the crystal growth, resulting in a distinct morphology evolution of Bi2WO6 with the increase of the concentration of PVP. At the same time, with the increase of the molecular weight of PVP, the morphology of Bi2WO6 varied from simple sheet-like (S-BWO) to some complicated morphology, such as flower-like (F-BWO), red blood cell-like (B-BWO), and square-pillar-like (SP-BWO). The photocatalytic performances of Bi2WO6 with various morphologies on the decomposition of RhB under visible light irradiation reveal that S-BWO has the best photocatalytic performance, while SP-BWO has the worst. This work not only gives the explanation of the inductive effect of PVP molecular chains on the morphological formation of Bi2WO6 particles, but also provides the controllable way to the preparation of Bi2WO6 with various morphologies taking advantage of the stabilizer PVP.

  8. Global Positioning Systems Directorate: GPS Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning Systems Directorate: GPS Update...Partnership Council 2015 29 Apr 2015 Global Positioning System Directorate Brig Gen Bill Cooley Director, Global Positioning Systems Directorate...UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Global Positioning Systems Directorate Mission: Acquire, deliver and sustain reliable G PS capabilities

  9. The NAVSTAR GPS (Global Positioning System) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Block IIR satellites is the autonomous navigation of GPS satellites utilizing crosslink ranging. The Block II satellites have crosslink Lommunications...capability, but no ranging. The Block HIR satellites will be modified to enable crosslink ranging on the same crosslink frequency and, by processing the... crosslink range measurements, the CPS navigation message can be generated onboard the satellite without daily upload from the ground. Analysis has

  10. Global Geodesy Using GPS Without Fiducial Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael B.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1994-01-01

    Global Positioning System, GPS, used to make global geodetic measurements without use of fiducial site coordinates. Baseline lengths and geocentric radii for each site determined without having to fix any site coordinates. Given n globally distributed sites, n baseline lengths and n geocentric radii form polyhedron with each site at vertex and with geocenter at intersection of all radii. Geodetic information derived from structure of polyhedron and its change with time. Approach applied to any global geodetic technique.

  11. Saved by Iridium? An Alternative to GPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    It receives its name from the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei .51 The €20 billion European Union project launched the first two satellites on 21...98Grewal, Weill, and Andrews, Global Positioning System, Inertial Navigation, and Integration, 239. 99Goodreads, “ Galileo Galilei ...completes-high-integrity-gps-program-milestones-.html 39 Goodreads. “ Galileo Galilei quotes.” http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/ 14190

  12. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  13. Measuring Orientation Of The Earth With GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam P.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses feasibility of using Global Positioning System (GPS) to resolve short-term fluctuations (days or hours) in locations of points on crust of Earth to within centimeters or millimeters. With full constellation of satellites and ground receiving stations, system provides rapid (within 12 hours) determinations of variations in orientation. Measurements used to enhance precision of spacecraft navigation and in geophysical and meteorological studies of daily exchanges of angular momentum among fluid core, crust and mantle, oceans, and atmosphere.

  14. GPS and Relativity: An Engineering Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    System (OCS) of the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) does not include the rigorous transformations between coordinate systems that Einstein’s general... Positioning System ," in Global Positioning System : Theory and Ap- plications, Vol. I, ed. B. Parkinson and J.J. Spilker, Jr. (American Institute of...Nelson 1991, "An analysis of g e n e d ~elativity in the Global Positioning System time transfer algorithm, " report

  15. Precise Clock Solutions Using Carrier Phase from GPS Receivers in the International GPS Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. F.; Jefferson, D. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Young, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    As one of its activities as an Analysis Center in the International GPS Service (IGS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) uses data from a globally distributed network of geodetic-quality GPS receivers to estimate precise clock solutions, relative to a chosen reference, for both the GPS satellites and GPS receiver internal clocks, every day. The GPS constellation and ground network provide geometrical strength resulting in formal errors of about 100 p sec for these estimates. Some of the receivers in the global IGS network contain high quality frequency references, such as hydrogen masers. The clock solutions for such receivers are smooth at the 20-p sec level on time scales of a few minutes. There are occasional (daily to weekly) shifts at the microsec level, symptomatic of receiver resets, and 200-p sec-level discontinuities at midnight due to 1-day processing boundaries. Relative clock solutions among 22 IGS sites proposed as "fiducial" in the IGS/BIPM pilot project have been examined over a recent 4-week period. This allows a quantitative measure of receiver reset frequency as a function of site. For days and-sites without resets, the Allan deviation of the relative clock solutions is also computed for subdaily values of tau..

  16. Time and position accuracy using codeless GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. E.; Jefferson, D. C.; Lichten, S. M.; Thomas, J. B.; Vigue, Y.; Young, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System has allowed scientists and engineers to make measurements having accuracy far beyond the original 15 meter goal of the system. Using global networks of P-Code capable receivers and extensive post-processing, geodesists have achieved baseline precision of a few parts per billion, and clock offsets have been measured at the nanosecond level over intercontinental distances. A cloud hangs over this picture, however. The Department of Defense plans to encrypt the P-Code (called Anti-Spoofing, or AS) in the fall of 1993. After this event, geodetic and time measurements will have to be made using codeless GPS receivers. However, there appears to be a silver lining to the cloud. In response to the anticipated encryption of the P-Code, the geodetic and GPS receiver community has developed some remarkably effective means of coping with AS without classified information. We will discuss various codeless techniques currently available and the data noise resulting from each. We will review some geodetic results obtained using only codeless data, and discuss the implications for time measurements. Finally, we will present the status of GPS research at JPL in relation to codeless clock measurements.

  17. GPS/GNSS reflectometry nanosatellite demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Martin J.; Liddle, J. Douglas; Jason, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of life, injury and huge economic losses are incurred annually due to irregular and insufficient sea-state information. Figures indicate that, each year, the marine insurance industry pays out over $2 billion in claims for weather-related accidents, while bad weather causes one ship of over 500 t to sink somewhere on the globe every week. Accurate knowledge of local ocean conditions is therefore crucial in providing forecasts and early warnings of severe weather conditions. Space-borne systems, particularly satellites, provide the ideal platform for global monitoring of sea conditions via altimetric measurements. As an alternative to active altimetry, another concept is passively receiving reflected signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites. This concept was first developed by Dr Manuel Martin-Neira at ESAESTEC. ESA's Passive Reflectometry and Interferometry System makes use of GPS/GNSS signals from satellites and their reflection off the ocean surface to derive oceanic properties such as surface height, significant wave height, wind speed and wind direction. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd are proposing a nanosatellite demonstration mission to ascertain the feasibility of the GPS ocean reflectometry concept.

  18. Cleaning HI Spectra Contaminated by GPS RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Kamin; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NUDET systems aboard GPS satellites utilize radio waves to communicate information regarding surface nuclear events. The system tests appear in spectra as RFI (radio frequency interference) at 1381MHz, which contaminates observations of extragalactic HI (atomic hydrogen) signals at 50-150 Mpc. Test durations last roughly 20-120 seconds and can occur upwards of 30 times during a single night of observing. The disruption essentially renders the corresponding HI spectra useless.We present a method that automatically removes RFI in HI spectra caused by these tests. By capitalizing on the GPS system's short test durations and predictable frequency appearance we are able to devise a method of identifying times containing compromised data records. By reevaluating the remaining data, we are able to recover clean spectra while sacrificing little in terms of sensitivity to extragalactic signals. This method has been tested on 500+ spectra taken by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), in which it successfully identified and removed all sources of GPS RFI. It will also be used to eliminate RFI in the upcoming Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  19. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chunlin; Shi, Huli; Hu, Chao

    2009-03-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform. The structure of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification, ranging code, spread spectrum, coordinate system, time system, carrier band, and navigation data between GPS and CAPS. Based on Matlab software on a personal computer, baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas. Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning, CAPS positioning, and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out. Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS, while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS. The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  20. NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE IN HIGH EARTH ORBITS USING NAVIGATOR GPS RECEIVER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, William; Naasz, Bo; Moreau, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    NASA GSFC has developed a GPS receiver that can acquire and track GPS signals with sensitivity significantly lower than conventional GPS receivers. This opens up the possibility of using GPS based navigation for missions in high altitude orbit, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in a geostationary orbit, and the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission, in highly eccentric orbits extending to 12 Earth radii and higher. Indeed much research has been performed to study the feasibility of using GPS navigation in high Earth orbits and the performance achievable. Recently, GSFC has conducted a series of hardware in-the-loop tests to assess the performance of this new GPS receiver in various high Earth orbits of interest. Tracking GPS signals to down to approximately 22-25 dB-Hz, including signals from the GPS transmitter side-lobes, steady-state navigation performance in a geostationary orbit is on the order of 10 meters. This paper presents the results of these tests, as well as sensitivity analysis to such factors as ionosphere masks, use of GPS side-lobe signals, and GPS receiver sensitivity.

  1. GPS deflection monitoring of the West Gate Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziq, Noor; Collier, Philip

    2007-05-01

    The achievable precision and relatively high sampling rates of currently available GPS receivers are well suited for monitoring the movements of long-span engineering structures where the amplitude of movements is often more than a few centimetres and the frequency of vibrations is low (below 10 Hz). However, engineering structures often offer non-ideal environments for GPS data collection due to high multipath interference and obstructions causing cycle slips in the GPS observations. Also, for many engineering structures such as bridge decks, vertical movements are more pronounced and more structurally critical than horizontal movements. Accuracy of GPS determined positions in the vertical direction is typically two to three times poorer than in the horizontal component. This paper describes the results of a GPS deflection monitoring trial on the West Gate Bridge in Melbourne, Australia. The results are compared to the estimated frequencies and movements from the design of the bridge and previous accelerometer campaigns. The frequency information derived from the GPS results is also compared to frequency data extracted from an accelerometer installed close to a GPS receiver. GPS results agree closely to the historical results and recent accelerometer trials for key modal frequencies. This indicates the suitability of GPS receivers to monitor engineering structures that exhibit smaller movements due to their stiffness and in environments not ideally suited to using GPS.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of a mesoporous KxWO3 material having superior mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sonal; Anderson, Sean T.; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Sakidja, Ridwan; Landskron, Kai; Kokoszka, Berenika; Mandal, Manik; Wang, Zhongwu

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous materials with tailored properties hold great promise for energy harvesting and industrial applications. We have synthesized a novel tungsten bronze mesoporous material (KxWO3; x ~ 0.07) having inverse FDU-12 type pore symmetry and a crystalline framework. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of the mesoporous K0.07WO3 show persistence of a highly ordered meso-scale pore structure to high pressure conditions (~18.5 GPa) and a material with remarkable mechanical strength despite having ~35% porosity. Pressure dependent in situ SAXS measurements reveal a bulk modulus κ = 44 +/- 4 GPa for the mesoporous KxWO3 which is comparable to the corresponding value for the bulk monoclinic WO3 (γ-WO3). Evidence from middle angle (MAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy shows that the presence of potassium leads to the formation of a K-bearing orthorhombic tungsten bronze (OTB) phase within a monoclinic WO3 host structure. Our ab initio molecular dynamics calculations show that the formation of the OTB phase provides superior strength to the mesoporous K0.07WO3.Mesoporous materials with tailored properties hold great promise for energy harvesting and industrial applications. We have synthesized a novel tungsten bronze mesoporous material (KxWO3; x ~ 0.07) having inverse FDU-12 type pore symmetry and a crystalline framework. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of the mesoporous K0.07WO3 show persistence of a highly ordered meso-scale pore structure to high pressure conditions (~18.5 GPa) and a material with remarkable mechanical strength despite having ~35% porosity. Pressure dependent in situ SAXS measurements reveal a bulk modulus κ = 44 +/- 4 GPa for the mesoporous KxWO3 which is comparable to the corresponding value for the bulk monoclinic WO3 (γ-WO3). Evidence from middle angle (MAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), high

  3. Synthesis and photoactivity enhancement of Ba doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen Ting; Huang, Wan Zhen; Zhou, Huan; Yin, Hao Yong; Zheng, Yi Fan; Song, Xu Chun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route. • The photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was greatly enhanced by Ba-doping. • The effect of Ba on the catalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was studied and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with different barium contents were successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal route at 180 °C for 12 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized in detailed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffusere flectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) and Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) theory. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light. As a result, the photocatalytic properties were enhanced after Ba doping and the Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with R{sub Ba} = 0.15 showed the highest photocatalytic activities of 96.3% RhB was decomposed in 50 min. Close investigation revealed that the proper Ba doped into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} could not only increases its BET surface area, decrease its crystalline size, but also act as electron traps and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activities of Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} were further investigated.

  4. Synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles for superthermites by the template method from silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibot, Pierre; Comet, Marc; Vidal, Loic; Moitrier, Florence; Lacroix, Fabrice; Suma, Yves; Schnell, Fabien; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-05-01

    Nanosized WO 3 tungsten trioxide was prepared by calcination of H 3P 4W 12O 40· xH 2O phosphotungstic acid, previously dissolved in a silica colloidal solution. The influence of the silica spheres/tungsten precursor weight ratio ( x) was investigated. The pristine oxide powders were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM and TEM techniques. A specific surface area and a pore volume of 64.2 m 2 g -1 and 0.33 cm 3 g -1, respectively, were obtained for the well-crystallized WO 3 powder prepared with x = 2/3 and after the removal of the silica template. The WO 3 particles exhibit a sphere-shaped morphology with a particle size of 13 and 320 nm as function of the x ratio. The performance and the sensitivity levels of the thermites prepared from aluminium nanoparticles mixed with (i) the smallest tungsten (VI) oxide material and (ii) the microscale WO 3 were compared. The combustion of these energetic composites was investigated by time resolved cinematography (TRC). This unconventional experimental technique consists to ignite the dried compressed composites by using a CO 2 laser beam, in order to determine their ignition delay time (IDT) and their combustion rate. The downsizing WO 3 particles improves, without ambiguity, the energetic performances of the WO 3/Al thermite. For instance, the ignition delay time was greatly shortened from 54 ± 10 ms to 5.7 ± 0.2 ms and the combustion velocity was increased by a factor 50 to reach a value of 4.1 ± 0.3 m/s. In addition, the use of WO 3 nanoparticles sensitizes the mixture to mechanical stimuli but decreases the sensitivity to electrostatic discharge.

  5. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground

  6. Deactivation of the TiO2 photocatalyst by coupling with WO3 and the electrochemically assisted high photocatalytic activity of WO3.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hiroaki; Kokubu, Akio; Iwasaki, Mitsunobu; Ito, Seisihro

    2004-05-25

    Patterned TiO2 stripes were formed on a sol-gel crystalline WO3 film by using a chemically modified sol-gel method (pat-TiO2/WO3), and the coupling effect on the photocatalytic activity was studied. Although the photoinduced electron transfer from TiO2 to WO3 was confirmed by labeling and visualization of the reduction sites with Ag particles, the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 for both the gas-phase oxidation of CH3CHO and the liquid-phase oxidation of 2-naphthol decreased significantly with the coupling. This finding was rationalized in terms of the decrease in the rate of the electron transfer from the semiconductor-(s) to 02 with the coupling, which was estimated from the kinetic analysis of the photopotential relaxation. When the excited electrons were removed by a SnO2 underlayer, the WO3 film exhibited a high photocatalytic activity exceeding that of TiO2 for the oxidation of 2-naphthol.

  7. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Duong, Thanh Trung; Liao, Jhen-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC) and tightly coupled (TC) schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals) affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system. PMID:23955434

  8. The performance analysis of a real-time integrated INS/GPS vehicle navigation system with abnormal GPS measurement elimination.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Duong, Thanh Trung; Liao, Jhen-Kai

    2013-08-15

    The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC) and tightly coupled (TC) schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals) affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  9. Structural, vibrational and luminescence properties of the (1−x)CaWO{sub 4}−xCdWO{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Taoufyq, A.; Guinneton, F.; Valmalette, J-C.; Arab, M.; Benlhachemi, A.; Bakiz, B.; Villain, S.; and others

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, we investigate the structural, microstructural, vibrational and luminescence properties of the system (1−x)CaWO{sub 4}−xCdWO{sub 4} with x ranging between 0 and 1. Polycrystalline samples were elaborated using a coprecipitation technique followed by thermal treatment at 1000 °C. The samples were then characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and luminescence analyses. X-ray diffraction profile analyses using Rietveld method showed that two kinds of solid solutions Ca{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} having scheelite and wolframite structures, with respectively tetragonal and monoclinic crystal cells, were observed, with a biphasic system for compositions x=0.6 and 0.7. The scanning electron microscopy experiments showed a complex evolution of morphologies and crystallite sizes as x increased. The vibration modes of Raman spectra were characteristic of composition-dependent disordered solid solutions with decreasing wavenumbers as x increased. Luminescence experiments were performed under UV-laser light irradiation. The energies of emission bands increased linearly with cadmium composition x. The integrated intensity of luminescence reached a maximum value for the substituted wolframite phase with composition x=0.8. - Graphical abstract: Luminescence on UV excitation (364.5 nm) of (1−x)CaWO{sub 4−x}CdWO{sub 4} system, elaborated from coprecipitation technique at 1000 °C, with 0WO{sub 4} polycrystalline phases with 0≤x≤0.5. (b) Maximum of luminescence intensity for the composition x=0.8. - Highlights: • Solid solutions Ca{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} are elaborated from coprecipitation technique. • The structures of two types of solid solutions are refined using Rietveld method. • A maximum of luminescence is obtained for an intermediate composition x=0.8.

  10. GPS Modeling and Analysis. Summary of Research: GPS Satellite Axial Ratio Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelrad, Penina; Reeh, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the algorithms developed at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research to model yaw and predict the axial ratio as measured from a ground station. The algorithms are implemented in a collection of Matlab functions and scripts that read certain user input, such as ground station coordinates, the UTC time, and the desired GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, and compute the above-mentioned parameters. The position information for the GPS satellites is obtained from Yuma almanac files corresponding to the prescribed date. The results are displayed graphically through time histories and azimuth-elevation plots.

  11. Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

  12. Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.

  13. The application of NAVSTAR differential GPS in the civilian community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beser, J.; Parkinson, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), currently being developed by the DOD, is a space based navigation system that will provide the user with precise position, velocity, and time information on a 24 hour basis, in all weather conditions and at any point on the globe. The baseline GPS system will provide guaranteed high accuracy to only a limited number of users, mostly the military. The civilian community has to devise a variation of this system to allow for an assured, uninterrupted level of accuracy. Differential GPS provides such a capability. In connection with the conceived possibility of the use of GPS by an enemy, it is found to be necessary to implement a selective availability technical capability. Differential GPS provides an approach for the civilian community to have a guaranteed level of accuracy better than the 250 meters presently planned for GPS.

  14. The attitudes of GPs towards the nurse-practitioner role.

    PubMed

    Carr, J; Bethea, J; Hancock, B

    2001-09-01

    In recent years, nursing and health-care policy have promoted the advanced role of the nurse -- that of nurse practitioner. But such a role has not been integrated widely into the primary health-care team. This study investigates the knowledge and attitudes of GPs who do not employ nurse practitioners to find out what prevents them doing so. Ten GPs who did not already employ a nurse practitioner took part in semi-structured interviews. Our findings show that GPs, although confused about the role, were generally supportive of advanced nursing practice. Skills identified with the role were prescribing, disease diagnosis and minor-illness management. GPs thought that protocols and guidelines should govern practice, which differs fundamentally from the Royal College of Nursing definition. None of the GPs had encountered the role in primary care, and the lack of professional regulation and role definition for practice nurses and nurse practitioners who work in primary care may have affected GPs' perceptions.

  15. 75 FR 28318 - Eighty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... include: Specific Working Group Sessions Tuesday, June 8th All Day, Working Group 2C, GPS/Inertial, Colson...). GPS/GLONASS (WG-2A). GPS/Inertial (WG-2C). GPS/Precision Landing Guidance (WG-4). GPS/Airport...

  16. Briefing Highlights Vulnerability of GPS to Adverse Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    Through its effects on GPS and other technologies, space weather can affect a variety of industries, including agriculture, commercial air travel, and emergency response. Speakers focused on these topics at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. Solar flares can produce radio bursts that directly interfere with GPS signals. Solar activity can also cause ionospheric disturbances that produce distortions and delays in GPS signals, degrading the accuracy of positioning and navigation systems.

  17. Method and apparatus for relative navigation using reflected GPS signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ian R. (Inventor); Boegner, Jr., Gregory J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system to passively navigate an orbiting moving body towards an orbiting target using reflected GPS signals. A pair of antennas is employed to receive both direct signals from a plurality of GPS satellites and a second antenna to receive GPS signals reflected off an orbiting target. The direct and reflected signals are processed and compared to determine the relative distance and position of the orbiting moving body relative to the orbiting target.

  18. A Report on GPS and Galileo Time Offset Coordination Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    A Report on GPS and Galileo Time Offset Coordination Efforts Jörg H. Hahn Galileo Project Office ESA-ESTEC, Navigation Department Noordwijk...The Netherlands joerg.hahn@esa.int Edward D. Powers GPS Operations Division Chief USNO Time Service Department Washington D.C., USA edward.powers...usno.navy.mil Abstract - Precise timing is an inherent part of Radio Navigation Systems like GPS and Galileo. This paper will update progress on

  19. GPS versus Galileo: Balancing for Position in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    others? –– Galileo Galilei In 1633 the Roman Catholic Church declared Galileo Galilei a heretic because his beliefs conflicted with the status quo.1 Almost...MAY 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS versus Galileo . Balancing for Position in Space 5a...lin e GPS versus Galileo Balancing for Position in Space Beidleman COLLEGE OF AEROSPACE DOCTRINE, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION AIR UNIVERSITY GPS versus

  20. Estimating Baselines From Constrained Data On GPS Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey I.

    1991-01-01

    Method of processing measurements of signals received at terrestrial stations from satellites in Global Positioning System (GPS) increases precision of estimates of both orbits of GPS satellites and locations of stations, computed from measurement and orbital data. Involves network of fiducial GPS stations collocated with very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) stations, for which independent VLBI determinations of baselines available. Locations of stations used to establish baselines for geodesy. Potential applications include measurements of seismic and volcanic displacements and movements of tectonic plates.

  1. Terrestrial navigation based on integrated GPS and INS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sam S.; Goh, Terence K. L.; Jiang, T. Y.; Koopman, R.; Chan, S. W.; Fong, A. M.

    1998-07-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) have complimentary features that can be exploited in an integrated system, thus resulting in improved navigation performance. The INS is able to provide accurate aiding data on short-term vehicle dynamics, while the GPS provides accurate data on long-term vehicle dynamics. In this paper, a complete solution is presented for terrestrial navigation based on integrated GPS and INS using Kalman filtering technique.

  2. Feedback from GPS Timing Users: Relayed Observations from 2 SOPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    military systems that utilize one-way synchronization via GPS . 29 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...supports the common perception that many receiver systems don’t sample the GPS navigation message’s subframe 1 health information nearly as often as...most commonly reported problem involved a miscalculation of the GPS -UTC(USN0) correction term. In many cases, several receiver systems would mis-tag

  3. A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS (Global Positioning System).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-27

    reliable and accurate Operational Control System (OCS) is a prerequisite for successful Global Positioning System ( GPS ) navigation performance. The OCS...DDOR Doubly differenced (between station pair and Navstar pair) phase data GPS Global Positioning System MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology...FWft SOTR4as-2 A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS A. S. LIU Systems and Computer Engineering Division Engineering Group The Aerospace

  4. TiO2(B) nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods with enhanced gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Shurong; Wang, Yanshuang; Yang, Jiedi; Gao, Xueling; Wang, Liwei

    2014-06-14

    In this work, TiO2(B) nanoparticle (NP)-functionalized WO3 nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by a two-step solution strategy, with a hydrothermal process for WO3 NRs and hydrolyzation of Ti(OBu)4 for the functionalization of TiO2(B) NPs. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed to investigate the morphology, microstructure, crystalline nature and chemical composition of the prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs. SEM and TEM results revealed that the TiO2(B)-WO3 composite showed a rod-like nanostructure with a diameter in the range from 93 to 154 nm and a rough surface, which could increase the accessible surface area and the amount of surface active sites, thus improving the properties or performance of the as-prepared composite NRs. XRD and XPS analysis clearly verified that monoclinic TiO2(B) NPs, a metastable polymorph of TiO2, were successfully supported on the WO3 NRs. Gas sensing measurement results for several common reductive organic gases such as acetone, ethanol, ether, methanol and formaldehyde demonstrated that the sensor based on the as-obtained TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs exhibited obviously enhanced responses compared with a pure WO3 NR based sensor, as well as fast response-recovery speeds, good reproducibility and good stability, indicating their promising application in gas sensors. The excellent gas sensing performance could be attributed to the unique 1D rod-like nanostructure with a rough surface, the existence of TiO2-WO3 heterojunctions and the catalytic effect of the TiO2(B) NPs. The as-prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs will also have very good prospects in electrochromic devices and catalysis applications.

  5. Synthesis of ZnWO4 Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Su; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO4 with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO4 film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO4 with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO4 films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO4.

  6. Fabrication of core/shell ZnWO4/carbon nanorods and their Li electroactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ah-Hyeon; Lee, Gwang-Hee; Jung, Hang-Chul; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-coated ZnWO4 [C-ZW] nanorods with a one-dimensional core/shell structure were synthesised using hydrothermally prepared ZnWO4 and malic acid as precursors. The effects of the carbon coating on the ZnWO4 nanorods are investigated by thermogravimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The coating layer was found to be in uniform thickness of approximately 3 nm. Moreover, the D and G bands of carbon were clearly observed at around 1,350 and 1,600 cm-1, respectively, in the Raman spectra of the C-ZW nanorods. Furthermore, lithium electroactivities of the C-ZW nanorods were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. In particular, the formed C-ZW nanorods exhibited excellent electrochemical performances, with rate capabilities better than those of bare ZnWO4 nanorods at different current rates, as well as a coulombic efficiency exceeding 98%. The specific capacity of the C-ZW nanorods maintained itself at approximately 170 mAh g-1, even at a high current rate of 3 C, which is much higher than pure ZnWO4 nanorods.

  7. The Facile Hydrothermal Preparation of Orthorhombic WO3 With (001) Facet and Its Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyan; Dou, Jinbiao; Li, Fenfen; Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Guangjun

    2015-12-01

    The orthorhombic WO3 nanoplates with (001) facet were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process, using HBF4 as the acid source. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), respectively. It indicated that the obtained product was orthorhombic WO3 (JCPDS No. 20-1324). And the energy gap was estimated to be 2.52 eV by the intersection point of the tangent of the absorption edge and the baseline. It was affirmed that WO3 crystalline grew along the (001) direction, indicating the product was exposed with (001) facet. The photocatalytic activity of (001) WO3 nanoplates was investigated on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). It demonstrated that photocatalysts exhibited obvious photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. The degradation rate of RhB with the typical product reached 95% after being irradiated for 5 h. It indicated that the photocatalytic efficiency of WO3 could be improved by controlling the crystal growth and its morphology.

  8. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the magnetron sputtered WO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhan Muğlu, G.; Gür, E.

    2016-04-01

    Electrochromism is changing color of a substance in response to the applied an external electric field and the phenomenon is reversible. WO3 is very attractive material due to its electrochromic properties as well as it is also attractive for many different applications such as gas sensors, phosphorous screen, textile, glass industry. In this study, it is aimed to provide optimization of the optical and structural characteristics of WO3 by changing the growth parameters mainly the oxygen partial pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen was changed with increments of 0.7 mTorr. For the analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), absorption, Raman spectroscopy measurements were used. When O2 gas increased, peaks belong to the WO3 was observed in XRD patterns at the 2 theta angles of 23.0, 11.0, 23.5 and 28.5 angles corresponding to the (002), (020) and (220) planes, respectively. This shows that there is a significant effect of increasing O2 partial pressure in the formation of WO3 films. The bandgap energy of the WO3 thin films are found to be around 3.0 eV. Raman measurements showed vibrational modes of W-O-W stretching and bending modes which shows small shifts depending on the partial pressures of the O2. Obtained results indicated that better crystal structure is obtained with higher O2 gas partial pressure.

  9. Electrical characterization of H2S adsorption on hexagonal WO3 nanowire at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Binquan; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Yanling; Peng, Yuehua; Zhou, Weichang; Qin, Zhu'ai; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the electrical transport properties of Au/WO3 nanowire/Au devices in ambient air and gaseous H2S to investigate the adsorption kinetics of H2S molecules on the surface of WO3 nanowire at room temperature. The WO3 nanowire devices exhibit increasing linear conductance and electrical hysteresis in H2S. Furthermore, the contact type between Au electrode and WO3 nanowire can be converted from original ohmic/Schottky to Schottky/ohmic after being exposed to H2S. These results suggest that adsorbed H2S molecules are oxidized by holes to form hydrogen ions and S atoms, which will result in formation of hydrogen tungsten bronze and desorption of previously chemically adsorbed H2O molecules. Adsorbed H2S molecules can also oxidize previously adsorbed and ionized oxygen, which will release the electrons from the ionized oxygen and then weaken upward band bending at the surface of WO3 nanowire.

  10. Characterization of nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nihtianova, D.; Velichkova, N.; Nikolova, R.; Koseva, I.; Yordanova, A.; Nikolov, V.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM method allows to detect small quantities of impurities not detectable by other methods. In our case impurities of W{sub 5}O{sub 14} are detected in Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanopowder. Highlights: {yields} Nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} by simple co-precipitation method. {yields} Spherical particles with mean size of 22 nm distributed between 10 and 40 nm at 630 {sup o}C. {yields} XRD, DTA and TEM confirm well defined products with perfect structure. {yields} TEM locality allows detection of impurities not detectable by XRD and DTA. -- Abstract: Nanosized aluminum tungstate Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} was prepared by co-precipitation reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} aqueous solutions. The powder size and shape, as well as size distribution are estimated after different conditions of powder preparation. The purity of the final product was investigated by XRD and DTA analyses, using the single crystal powder as reference. Between the specimen and the reference no difference was detected. The crystal structure of Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanosized powder was confirmed by TEM (SAED, HRTEM). In additional, TEM locality allows to detect some W{sub 5}O{sub 14} impurities, which are not visible by conventional X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses.

  11. Agx@WO3 core-shell nanostructure for LSP enhanced chemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijie; Yin, Ming-Li; (Frank) Liu, Shengzhong

    2014-01-01

    Exceptional properties of graphene have triggered intensive research on other 2D materials. Surface plasmon is another subject being actively explored for many applications. Herein we report a new class of core-shell nanostructure in which the shell is made of a 2D material for effective plasmonic propagation. We have designed a much enhanced chemical sensor made of plasmonic Agx@(2D-WO3) that combines above advantages. Specifically, the sensor response increases from 38 for Agx-WO3 mixture to 217 for the Agx@(2D-WO3) core-shell structure; response and recovery time are shortened considerably to 2 and 5 seconds; and optimum sensor working temperature is lowered from 370°C to 340°C. Light irradiation is found to increase the Agx@(2D-WO3) sensor response, particularly at blue wavelength where it resonates with the absorption of Ag nanoparticles. Raman scattering shows significantly enhanced intensity for both the 2D-WO3 shell and surface adsorbates. Both the resonance sensor enhancement and the Raman suggest that the improved sensor performance is due to nanoplasmonic mechanism. It is demonstrated that (1) 2D material can be used as the shell component of a core-shell nanostructure, and (2) surface plasmon can effectively boost sensor performance. PMID:25339285

  12. Nanobrick-like WO3 thin films: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochromic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondalkar, V. V.; Kharade, R. R.; Mali, S. S.; Mane, R. M.; Patil, P. B.; Patil, P. S.; Choudhury, S.; Bhosale, P. N.

    2014-09-01

    Nanobrick-like WO3 thin films have been synthesized via facile hydrothermal route. Nanostructured WO3 thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the intentional properties such as phase structure, optical properties and surface morphology. Moreover electrochromic (EC) performance of WO3 thin film was investigated in 0.5 M LiClO4/PC by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and chronoamperometry (CA). The value of diffusion coefficient (D) was determined from anodic peak current and was found to be 1.51 × 10-9 cm2/s. The response time of 6.9 s for bleaching (tb) and 9.7 s for coloration (tc) was observed with excellent reversibility 76%. The coloration efficiency for nanobricks WO3 is 39.24 cm2/C. CIE 1931 L∗ab values for colored and bleached films were estimated at 2° observer using D-65 illumination. The electrochromic studies show highly reversible and the stable nature of WO3 thin film which provides a versatile and promising application towards the fabrication of smart windows.

  13. Phase Correction for GPS Antenna with Nonunique Phase Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin

    2005-01-01

    A method of determining the position and attitude of a body equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver includes an accounting for the location of the nonunique phase center of a distributed or wraparound GPS antenna. The method applies, more specifically, to the case in which (1) the GPS receiver utilizes measurements of the phases of GPS carrier signals in its position and attitude computations and (2) the body is axisymmetric (e.g., spherical or round cylindrical) and wrapped at its equator with a single- or multiple-element antenna, the radiation pattern of which is also axisymmetric with the same axis of symmetry as that of the body.

  14. Obtaining single path phase delays from GPS double differences

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, C.; Ware, R.; Rocken, C.; Braun, J.

    2000-07-01

    We describe a method for obtaining singlepath phase delays from GPS double differences. The resulting “zero differences” (ZDs) can be used for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The method is demonstrated by simulating and observing atmospheric delay gradients, and by comparing ZDs with pointed radiometer observations of integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths. In-situ GPS antenna phase center and multipath effects are mapped in ZD residuals for a specific site and network. We conclude that ZDs derived from GPS network data show promise for real time sensing of water vapor for use in meteorological modeling and forecasting.

  15. Sole means navigation through hybrid Loran-C and GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Graas, Frank

    1988-01-01

    A minimum of four GPS range measurements or two Loran-C time differences are normally required for a position solution for en route navigation, area navigation, and nonprecision approaches. This paper describes a new technique that hybridizes GPS and Loran-C used in the pseudorange mode to process efficiently all available navigation information. Emphasis is placed on combined GPS and Loran-C timing, both for the ground/space facilities and the user. The hybrid system has the potential to solve the GPS and Loran-C integrity problems; more range measurements are available than are required for the navigation solution.

  16. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  17. Kalman Filtering USNO's GPS Observations for Improved Time Transfer Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsell, Steven T.

    1996-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) Master Control Station (MCS) performs the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) time transfer mission by uploading and broadcasting predictions of the GPS-UTC offset in subframe 4 of the GS navigation message. These predictions are based on only two successive daily data points obtained from the US Naval Observatory (USNO). USNO produces these daily smoothed data points by performing a least-squares fit on roughly 38 hours worth of data from roughly 160 successive 13-minute tracks of GPS satellites. Though sufficient for helping to maintain a time transfer error specification of 28 ns (1 Sigma), the MCS's prediction algorithm does not make the best use of the available data from from USNO, and produces data that can degrade quickly over extended prediction spans. This paper investigates how, by applying Kalman filtering to the same available tracking data, the MCS could improve its estimate of GPS-UTC, and in particular, the GPS-UTC A(sub 1) term. By refining the A(sub 1) (frequency) estimate for GPS-UTC predictions, error in GPS time transfer could drop significantly. Additional, the risk of future spikes in GPS's time transfer error could similarly be minimized, by employing robust Kalman filtering for GPS-UTC predictions.

  18. Autonomous navigation system based on GPS and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julie, Thienel K. (Inventor); Richard, Harman R. (Inventor); Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention is drawn to an autonomous navigation system using Global Positioning System (GPS) and magnetometers for low Earth orbit satellites. As a magnetometer is reliable and always provides information on spacecraft attitude, rate, and orbit, the magnetometer-GPS configuration solves GPS initialization problem, decreasing the convergence time for navigation estimate and improving the overall accuracy. Eventually the magnetometer-GPS configuration enables the system to avoid costly and inherently less reliable gyro for rate estimation. Being autonomous, this invention would provide for black-box spacecraft navigation, producing attitude, orbit, and rate estimates without any ground input with high accuracy and reliability.

  19. Persons with Dementia and Their Caregivers Using GPS.

    PubMed

    Øderud, Tone; Landmark, Bjørg; Eriksen, Sissel; Fossberg, Anne Berit; Aketun, Sigrid; Omland, May; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; Østensen, Elisabeth; Ausen, Dag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to generate knowledge on the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to support autonomy and independence for persons with dementia. By studying a larger cohort of persons with dementia (n=208) and their caregivers, this study provides essential knowledge for planning and implementing GPS technology as a part of public health care services. Commercially available GPS technology was provided to the cohort of 208 persons with dementia from nineteen different Norwegian municipalities. The participants used GPS when performing outdoor activities as part of their daily life during a period of time between 2012 and 2014. Their family caregivers were instructed on how to use the GPS technology for locating the participants. The study documents that using GPS for locating persons with dementia provide increased safety for the person with dementia, their family caregivers and their professional caregivers. Furthermore the results confirm that by using GPS, persons with dementia may maintain their autonomy, enjoy their freedom and continue their outdoor activities despite the progression of the disease. Preconditions for successful implementation are that health professionals are trained to assess the participant's needs, that ethical dilemmas are considered, that caregivers have adequate knowledge about using the technology and that procedures and routines for administrating the GPS and locating persons with dementia are established. Early intervention and close collaboration between persons with dementia, family caregivers and professional caregivers are important for successful implementation of GPS in public health care.

  20. Distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blane, David N; McLean, Gary; Watt, Graham

    2015-11-01

    General practice in the UK is widely reported to be in crisis, with particular concerns about recruitment and retention of family doctors. This study assessed the distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation, using routinely available data. We found that there are more GPs (and fewer patients per GP) in the least deprived deciles than there are in the most deprived deciles. Furthermore, there are a higher proportion of older GPs in the most deprived deciles. There are also important gender differences in the distribution of GPs. We discuss the implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners.

  1. GPS-based system for satellite tracking and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Thornton, Catherine L.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance receivers and data processing systems developed for GPS are reviewed. The GPS Inferred Positioning System (GIPSY) and the Orbiter Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) are described. The OASIS software is used to assess GPS system performance using GIPSY for data processing. Consideration is given to parameter estimation for multiday arcs, orbit repeatability, orbit prediction, daily baseline repeatability, agreement with VLBI, and ambiguity resolution. Also, the dual-frequency Rogue receiver, which can track up to eight GPS satellites simultaneously, is discussed.

  2. Test results of the STI GPS time transfer receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. L.; Handlan, J.; Wheeler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Global time transfer, or synchronization, between a user clock and USNO UTC time can be performed using the Global Positioning System (GPS), and commercially available time transfer receivers. This paper presents the test results of time transfer using the GPS system and a Stanford Telecommunications, Inc. (STI) Time Transfer System (TTS) Model 502. Tests at the GPS Master Control Site (MCS) in Vandenburg, California and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) in Washington, D.C. are described. An overview of GPS, and the STI TTS 502 is presented. A discussion of the time transfer process and test concepts is included.

  3. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  4. Continued study of NAVSTAR/GPS for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, R. D.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual approach for examining the full potential of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for the general aviation community is presented. Aspects of an experimental program to demonstrate these concepts are discussed. The report concludes with the observation that the true potential of GPS can only be exploited by utilization in concert with a data link. The capability afforded by the combination of position location and reporting stimulates the concept of GPS providing the auxiliary functions of collision avoidance, and approach and landing guidance. A series of general recommendations for future NASA and civil community efforts in order to continue to support GPS for general aviation are included.

  5. Global and regional kinematics with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The inherent precision of the doubly differenced phase measurement and the low cost of instrumentation made GPS the space geodetic technique of choice for regional surveys as soon as the constellation reached acceptable geometry in the area of interest: 1985 in western North America, the early 1990's in most of the world. Instrument and site-related errors for horizontal positioning are usually less than 3 mm, so that the dominant source of error is uncertainty in the reference frame defined by the satellites orbits and the tracking stations used to determine them. Prior to about 1992, when the tracking network for most experiments was globally sparse, the number of fiducial sites or the level at which they could be tied to an SLR or VLBI reference frame usually, set the accuracy limit. Recently, with a global network of over 30 stations, the limit is set more often by deficiencies in models for non-gravitational forces acting on the satellites. For regional networks in the northern hemisphere, reference frame errors are currently about 3 parts per billion (ppb) in horizontal position, allowing centimeter-level accuracies over intercontinental distances and less than 1 mm for a 100 km baseline. The accuracy of GPS measurements for monitoring height variations is generally 2-3 times worse than for horizontal motions. As for VLBI, the primary source of error is unmodeled fluctuations in atmospheric water vapor, but both reference frame uncertainties and some instrument errors are more serious for vertical than horizontal measurements. Under good conditions, daily repeatabilities at the level of 10 mm rms were achieved. This paper will summarize the current accuracy of GPS measurements and their implication for the use of SLR to study regional kinematics.

  6. Orbit Determination Using GPS Navigation Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, V. M.; Kuga, H. K.; Chiaradia, A. P.; Prado, A. F.

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system that allows the users to determine position, velocity and the time with high precision. Its main purposes are aid to radionavigation in three dimensions with high precision positioning, navigation in real time, global coverage and quick acquisition of data sent by the GPS satellites. The purpose of this work is to compute in real time a state vector composed of position, velocity, GPS receiver clock bias and drift of the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite by filtering the raw navigation solutions obtained by the on-board receiver. In this work the Kalman filter is used to estimate the state vector based on the incoming observations from the receiver. Such a computational algorithm processes measurements to produce minimum variance estimates of the system using knowledge of the dynamics and of the measurements, statistics of the measurement errors, and information about initial conditions. The Kalman filter is used due to its robustness in real time applications, without unnecessary storage of observations, as they can be processed while being collected. The filter dynamic model includes perturbation due to geopotential and the bias and drift are modeled as random walk processes. The observations include the raw navigation solution composed of position and bias. The velocity components of the navigation solution are not used due to its low accuracy. Several simulations are done comprising three days of observations of TOPEX/POSEINDON receiver, which are processed by the proposed algorithm. A comparison is done between the estimated state vector and the precise orbit ephemeris (POE) produced by JPL/NASA. Other characteristics are also analyzed, including effects of truncated dynamic model, step-size of integration, SA effect, to show the impact on the procedure in terms of accuracy and computational burden.

  7. H.sub.2O doped WO.sub.3, ultra-fast, high-sensitivity hydrogen sensors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ping [Denver, CO; Tracy, C Edwin [Golden, CO; Pitts, J Roland [Lakewood, CO; Lee, Se-Hee [Lakewood, CO

    2011-03-22

    An ultra-fast response, high sensitivity structure for optical detection of low concentrations of hydrogen gas, comprising: a substrate; a water-doped WO.sub.3 layer coated on the substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the water-doped WO.sub.3 layer.

  8. ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu system with enhanced photocatalytic activity by photo-Fenton-like synergistic reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jimei; Wang, Hong; Hu, Gang; Zhao, Shaojuan; Hu, Haiqin; Jin, Baokang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► A novel coupled system of ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu exhibited much higher catalytic activity than pure ZnWO{sub 4} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV-light irradiation. ► The enhanced catalytic activity of ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu system was due to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and Fenton-like process. ► The possible mechanism of the synergistic effect was proposed. -- Abstract: A novel coupled system of ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu, combining two different advanced oxidation processes of photocatalysis and Fenton-like for the degradation of organic dyes, was successfully synthesized. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanosized ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu samples exhibited much higher catalytic activity than pure ZnWO{sub 4}. In the presence of the ZC-0.2, the MB solution was completely degraded (the degradation ratio reached 97.79%); while for the ZC-0, the degradation ratio was only 72.29%. The effects of the amount of Cu on the photocatalytic performance of ZnWO{sub 4}–Cu were investigated in detail. The result showed that the synergistic effect between Cu and ZnWO{sub 4} played a key role. The possible mechanism of the synergistic system was proposed.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of nanostructured CaWO{sub 4} as platinum support for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farsi, Hossein; Barzgari, Zahra

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured CaWO{sub 4} was fabricated by co-precipitation method. • Platinum was electrodeposited onto the surface prepared nanostructured CaWO{sub 4}. • Pt/CaWO{sub 4}-graphite demonstrate good oxygen reduction reaction activity. - Abstract: In the present work, we employed nanostructured calcium tungstate as a supporting material for platinum, a well-known electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. The co-precipitation method has been utilized to synthesize nanostructured calcium tungstate from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the obtained CaWO{sub 4} were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Preparation of the Pt/CaWO{sub 4}-graphite catalyst was carried out by electrodeposition of Pt onto the surface of CaWO{sub 4}/graphite electrode. The physical properties of the catalyst were determined by scanning electron microscopy analysis and energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX). The electrochemical activity of the Pt/CaWO{sub 4}-graphite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated in acid solution by cyclic voltammetry measurements, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the Pt/CaWO{sub 4}-graphite has higher electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction in comparison with Pt/graphite catalyst.

  10. Photocatalytic energy storage ability of TiO2-WO3 composite prepared by wet-chemical technique.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linglin; Yuan, Jian; Chen, Mingxia; Shangguan, Wenfeng

    2010-01-01

    TiO2-WO3 hybrid photocatalysts were prepared using wet-chemical technique, and their energy storage performance was characterized by electrochemical galvanostatic method. TiO2 powder was coupled with WO3 powder, which was used as electron pool and the reductive energy could be stored in. As a result, the prepared TiO2-WO3 had good energy storage ability while pure TiO2 showed no capacity and pure WO3 showed quite low performance. The energy storage ability was affected by the crystal structure of WO3 and calcination temperature. The photocatalyst had better capacity when WO3 had low degree of crystallinity, since its loose structure made it easier for electrons and cations to pass through. The photocatalytic energy storage performance was also affected by the molar ratio of TiO2 to WO3. Energy storage capacity was significantly dependent on the composition, reaching the maximum value at TiO2/WO3 1:1 (mol/mol).

  11. Flexible electrochromics: magnetron sputtered tungsten oxide (WO3-x) thin films on Lexan (optically transparent polycarbonate) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uday Kumar, K.; Murali, Dhanya S.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) based electrochromics on flexible substrates is a topic of recent interest. The present communication reports the electrochromic properties of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan, an optically transparent polycarbonate thermoplastic substrate. The WO3-x films are prepared at room temperature (300 K) by the reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The physical properties of metal oxide thin films are known to be controlled by the oxygen stoichiometry of the film. In the present work, the WO3-x thin films are prepared by varying the oxygen flow rates. All the WO3-x thin films are amorphous in nature. The electrochromic performance of the WO3-x thin films is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated lexan and glass substrates. The optical band gap of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan substrates (at any given oxygen flow rate) is significantly higher than those grown on glass substrates. The coloration efficiency of WO3-x thin films (at an oxygen flow rate of 10 sccm) on lexan substrates is: 143.9 cm2 C-1 which is higher compared to that grown on glass: 90.4 cm2 C-1.

  12. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-Bi2WO6 hollow superstructures with excellent photocatalysis and recycle properties.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Fei; Liu, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Jing-huai; Cheng, Xiao; Wang, You

    2014-01-21

    One-dimensional mesoporous TiO2-Bi2WO6 hollow superstructures are prepared using a hydrothermal method and their photocatalysis and recycle properties are investigated. Experimental results indicate that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are coupled with hierarchical Bi2WO6 hollow tubes on their surfaces. The TiO2-Bi2WO6 structure has a mesoporous wall and the pores in the wall are on average 21 nm. The hierarchical TiO2-Bi2WO6 heterostructures exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity in comparison with P25, pure Bi2WO6 hollow tube and mechanical mixture of Bi2WO6 tube and TiO2 nanoparticle in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The as-prepared TiO2-Bi2WO6 heterostructures can be easily recycled through sedimentation and they retains their high photocatalytic activity during the cycling use in the simulated sunlight-driving photodegradation process of RhB. The prepared mesoporous TiO2-Bi2WO6 with hollow superstructure is therefore a promising candidate material for water decontamination use.

  13. ZnO nanoplates surfaced-decorated by WO3 nanorods for NH3 gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dien Nguyen, Dac; Do, Duc Tho; Hien Vu, Xuan; Vuong Dang, Duc; Chien Nguyen, Duc

    2016-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoplates and tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from zinc nitrate/potassium hydroxide and sodium tungstate/hydrochloric acid, respectively. The structure, morphology and compositions of the as-prepared WO3/ZnO nano-composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The obtained ZnO nanoplates have regular shape, single-crystal wurtzite structure with the thickness of 40 nm and 200 versus 400 nm in lateral dimensions. The WO3 nanorods possess the average diameter of 20 nm and the length of approximately 120 nm which were distributed on the surfaces of ZnO nanoplates. The WO3/ZnO nano-composites were prepared by grinding WO3 nanorods powder with ZnO nanoplates powder in various weight ratios (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1). The NH3 gas sensing properties of WO3/ZnO nano-composites were examined through the electrical resistance measurement. The gas sensing performance of the WO3/ZnO composite with weight ratio of 1:1 was better compared with that of other samples. For this sample, the maximum response to 300 ppm NH3 was 24 at the operating temperature of 250 °C. In addition, the gas sensing mechanism of the WO3/ZnO composites was discussed.

  14. Enhancement of photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin by multilayered WO3 x H2O nanocrystals/PVA membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Hu, Fengping; Bao, Qiaoliang; Bao, Shujuan; Qiao, Yan; Yu, Shucong; Guo, Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-02-07

    For the first time, a multilayered WO(3) x H(2)O/PVA membrane on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is constructed to significantly enhance the photoelectric response of bR by the spillover effect of WO(3) x H(2)O nanocrystals, providing great potential in its important applications in bioelectronics and proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  15. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California (PGGA) and GPS observations in Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Yehuds

    1994-01-01

    The Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) is a network of permanent monitoring GPS stations in southern California devoted to the continuous measurement of crustal deformation in near real-time. The PGGA plays a unique role in studies of the kinematics of crustal deformation and the earthquake cycle in southern California because it is also providing temporally dense geodetic measurements of crustal motion over periods of minutes to variations in regional crustal strain. As it expands and matures the PGGA will play an increasingly important role in the study of active tectonics of southern California by bridging the frequency range between seismology, observatory geodesy, paleoseismology, and geology. In Indonesia GPS data is used for measurement of a large scale crustal deformation, extending from north China to the Indonesian archipelago. Indonesia offers a tremendous laboratory to study some of the processes that build continents, and mountains are active there. We began GPS observations in August 1989 on mainland Sumatra and the Mentawai Islands to study the phenomena of oblique plate convergence. We have analyzed the Indonesian data in conjunction with data collected on Christmas and Cocos Islands and at Darwin, Australia, and with the triangulation data in Sumatra.

  16. GPS Diffractive Reflectometry and Further Developments in SNR- and Phase-based GPS Multipath Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geremia-Nievinski, F.; Ferreira e Silva, M.; Boniface, K.; Galera Monico, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The validation of remote sensing environmental estimates requires knowledge of their spatial extent and resolution. Here we consider coherent radio reflections routinely observed in ground-based GPS reflectometry. Their footprint is often conceptualized in terms of the specular point (SP) and the first Fresnel zone (FFZ). Such infinitesimal point and finite zone can be generalized into a spatially continuous sensitivity kernel (SK). The SK represents a diffraction pattern, as the importance of each surface portion depends on its power and phase scattering. We measured the SK of a GPS radio reflection under bi-path reception conditions. The SK exhibited oscillations along the plane of incidence. The envelope of oscillations peaked near the SP and persisted in its decay well beyond the FFZ. Within the FFZ, sensitivity was skewed towards the antenna. This experiment suggests the feasibility of overcoming the diffraction limit and resolving features smaller than the FFZ via GPS diffractive reflectometry. We also report more recent developments in SNR- and carrier-phase-based GPS Multipath Reflectometry.

  17. Multipath calibration in GPS pseudorange measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kee, Changdon (Inventor); Parkinson, Bradford W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Novel techniques are disclosed for eliminating multipath errors, including mean bias errors, in pseudorange measurements made by conventional global positioning system receivers. By correlating the multipath signals of different satellites at their cross-over points in the sky, multipath mean bias errors are effectively eliminated. By then taking advantage of the geometrical dependence of multipath, a linear combination of spherical harmonics are fit to the satellite multipath data to create a hemispherical model of the multipath. This calibration model can then be used to compensate for multipath in subsequent measurements and thereby obtain GPS positioning to centimeter accuracy.

  18. First results from the Fennoscandian GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, J. M.; Jaldehag, R. T. K.

    1993-12-01

    Temporal correlations were measured of data obtained by the Swedish Permanent GPS Network for Positioning (SWEPOS). The model for correlations, r(Delta t) = exp(-(absolute value of (Delta t))/tau), can be used to predict precision of averaged values for different values of tau. Results indicate that tau is approximately equal to 1 day (r less than 1% after 5 days). The results show that the network can be used in geophysical applications such as the DOSE investigation on postglacial rebound.

  19. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  20. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Peter H.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the background, field work, data collection and analysis, and future plans associated with a collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the former Soviet Union. This project involves the amalgamation of two, separately funded projects, which were proposed separately by PIs Hamburger and Reilinger (NSF number EAR-9115159 and NASA number NAG5-1941) and Molnar and Hager (NSF number EAR9117889 and NASA number NAG5-1947). In addition, the work is being conducted under the auspices of the US-USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, with support from the United States Geological Survey.

  1. Navigating the human hippocampus without a GPS.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Halle R; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize to Professors John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser, and Edvard Moser brings global recognition to one of the most significant success stories in modern neuroscience. Here, we consider how their findings, along with related studies of spatial cognition in rodents, have informed our understanding of the human hippocampus. Rather than identifying a "GPS" in the brain, we emphasize that these researchers helped to establish a fundamental role for cortico-hippocampal networks in the guidance of behavior based on a representation of the current place, time, and situation. We conclude by highlighting the major questions that remain to be addressed in future research.

  2. Topo-Iberia GPS network: installation complete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, G.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the project, titled "Geociencias en Iberia: Estudios integrados de topografía y evolución 4D: Topo-Iberia", we have established a network of 26 continuous GPS stations, covering the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and Morocco (4 stations). A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specific areas. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with relatively coarse distribution of the stations, superimposed with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. The majority of the built monuments consist of 1.5-1.8 m tall concrete pillars of 40 cm in diameter anchored to the bedrock using iron rebars. One station in Huesca was built according the UNAVCO's short drilled braced monument (SDBM) specifications. All the monuments were equipped with the SCIGN leveling mounts to ensure the precise antenna alignment and re-alignment in case of the antenna replacement, as well as, tamper resistance of the monument mark. In places were the snow accumulation was possible the antennas were covered with plastic radomes. The instrumentation used is Trimble NetRS dual-frequency receivers with choke-ring antennas. The communication is mainly via cellular telephone system. As of December 2008, the network installation has been competed and all the stations are fully operational. Here we report the milestones of the installation of the network and, as well as, present the first preliminary results of the analysis of the data. Besides the newly established Topo-Iberia CGPS stations, we have included

  3. Closed loop orbit trim using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, B. W.; Axelrad, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an onboard closed-loop navigation and control system capable of executing extremely precise orbit maneuvers. It uses information from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an onboard controller to perform orbit adjustments. As a result, the system circumvents the need for extensive ground support. The particular application considered is an orbit injection system for NASA's Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft. Eccentricity adjustments of 0.0004 to 0.005, and inclination and node changes of 0.001 to 0.01 deg are demonstrated. The same technique can be adapted to other satellite missions.

  4. The band structure of WO3 and non-rigid-band behaviour in Na0.67WO3 derived from soft x-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Laverock, J; Piper, L F J; Preston, A R H; Cho, S W; DeMasi, A; Smith, K E; Scanlon, D O; Watson, G W; Egdell, R G; Glans, P-A; Guo, J-H

    2013-04-24

    The electronic structure of single-crystal WO3 and Na0.67WO3 (a sodium-tungsten bronze) has been measured using soft x-ray absorption and resonant soft x-ray emission oxygen K-edge spectroscopies. The spectral features show clear differences in energy and intensity between WO3 and Na0.67WO3. The x-ray emission spectrum of metallic Na0.67WO3 terminates in a distinct Fermi edge. The rigid-band model fails to explain the electronic structure of Na0.67WO3 in terms of a simple addition of electrons to the conduction band of WO3. Instead, Na bonding and Na 3s-O 2p hybridization need to be considered for the sodium-tungsten bronze, along with occupation of the bottom of the conduction band. Furthermore, the anisotropy in the band structure of monoclinic γ-WO3 revealed by the experimental spectra with orbital-resolved geometry is explained via density functional theory calculations. For γ-WO3 itself, good agreement is found between the experimental O K-edge spectra and the theoretical partial density of states of O 2p orbitals. Indirect and direct bandgaps of insulating WO3 are determined from extrapolating separations between spectral leading edges and accounting for the core-hole energy shift in the absorption process. The O 2p non-bonding states show upward band dispersion as a function of incident photon energy for both compounds, which is explained using the calculated band structure and experimental geometry.

  5. The band structure of WO3 and non-rigid-band behaviour in Na0.67WO3 derived from soft x-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Laverock, J.; Piper, L. F. J.; Preston, A. R. H.; Cho, S. W.; DeMasi, A.; Smith, K. E.; Scanlon, D. O.; Watson, G. W.; Egdell, R. G.; Glans, P.-A.; Guo, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    The electronic structure of single-crystal WO3 and Na0.67WO3 (a sodium-tungsten bronze) has been measured using soft x-ray absorption and resonant soft x-ray emission oxygen K-edge spectroscopies. The spectral features show clear differences in energy and intensity between WO3 and Na0.67WO3. The x-ray emission spectrum of metallic Na0.67WO3 terminates in a distinct Fermi edge. The rigid-band model fails to explain the electronic structure of Na0.67WO3 in terms of a simple addition of electrons to the conduction band of WO3. Instead, Na bonding and Na 3s-O 2p hybridization need to be considered for the sodium-tungsten bronze, along with occupation of the bottom of the conduction band. Furthermore, the anisotropy in the band structure of monoclinic γ-WO3 revealed by the experimental spectra with orbital-resolved geometry is explained via density functional theory calculations. For γ-WO3 itself, good agreement is found between the experimental O K-edge spectra and the theoretical partial density of states of O 2p orbitals. Indirect and direct bandgaps of insulating WO3 are determined from extrapolating separations between spectral leading edges and accounting for the core-hole energy shift in the absorption process. The O 2p non-bonding states show upward band dispersion as a function of incident photon energy for both compounds, which is explained using the calculated band structure and experimental geometry.

  6. Structural investigations of TiO2-WO3-Au porous composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, M.; Baia, M.; Pap, Zs.; Danciu, V.; Baia, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a morpho-structural analysis of heat treated TiO2-WO3-Au aerogel composites is presented. Simultaneously, the influence of the loaded Au nanoparticles on the morphological and structural characteristics of the TiO2-WO3 aerogel is also analyzed. X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements indicated that TiO2 crystallizes mainly in anatase phase, while the WO3 structure remains amorphous. The morphological features of the samples, i.e. crystallites mean size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the pores, are investigated by using XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption/desorption, respectively. The results indicate a decrease in size of the titania crystallites as the tungsten oxide content increases. The diffuse reflectance spectra modified by applying a Kubelka-Munk transformation reveal that the presence of gold nanoparticles improves the material's response in the visible domain.

  7. Synthesis of CaWO4 nanocolloidal suspension via pulsed laser ablation and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jeong Ho; Park, Gyeong Seon; Kim, Kang Min; Lim, Chang Sung; Yoon, Jong-Won; Shim, Kwang Bo

    2007-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in the liquid phase was successfully employed to synthesize calcium tungstate (CaWO4) nanocolloidal suspension. The crystalline phase, particle morphology and laser ablation mechanism for the colloidal nanoparticles were investigated using XRD, TEM and SEM. The obtained colloidal suspension consisted of well-dispersed CaWO4 nanoparticles which showed a spherical shape with sizes ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The laser ablation and the nanoparticle forming process were discussed under consideration of the photo-ablation mechanism, where the nanoparticles were generated by rapid condensation of the plume in high pressured ethanol vapor. The optical properties of the prepared CaWO4 colloidal nanoparticles were analyzed in detail using XPS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and PL spectrophotometry. The optical band gap was estimated by Tauc and Menths law.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of assembled sphere-like WO3 architectures and their gas-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hejing; Liu, Tianmo; Huang, Long; Guo, Weiwei; Liu, Dejun; Zeng, Wen

    2012-04-01

    Unique assembled sphere-like WO3 architectures were successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of malic acid followed by subsequent heat treatment. We found that malic acid played a significant role in governing morphologies of WO3·xH2O precursors during hydrothermal process. A possible formation mechanism was also proposed in detail. Experimental results showed that the optimized hydrothermal precursor could be dehydrated to mixed composition of hexagonal and monoclinic WO3 with the unique sphere-like porous architecture after being annealed at 400 °C for 2.5 h. Besides, gas-sensing measurement indicated that the well-defined 3D assembled sphere-like architectures exhibited the highest sensor response to ethanol at the optimal temperature of 250 °C among the samples.

  9. Degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Here I report on the degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films under the action of light. Dimethylformamide, a substance that has a series of interesting properties, was adsorbed on the surface of the WO3 films and its adsorption mechanism and transformations under the action of light have been investigated with the help of the IR spectroscopy. The spirit of the research is that both DMF modifications have been used i.e., conventional and that with the substitution of hydrogen atoms by deuterium. Formation of two weak bonds (donor-acceptor bond and hydrogen bond) provides a great catalytic effect for photo-initiated proton-coupled electron transfer from the adsorbed molecules to the WO3 film surface. The mechanism of the detachment of hydrogen atoms and subsequent transformation of the adsorbed molecules has been investigated and discussed.

  10. Improved Gas Response at Room Temperature of Activated Nanocrystalline WO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, L. F.; Saukko, S.; Hoel, A.; Lantto, V.; Granqvist, C. G.; Lappalainen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced reactive gas deposition was used to produce pure and Auactivated nanocrystalline WO3 films for gas-sensing studies. Many different methods such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize structural properties of the films. The WO3 particles in the films had the high-temperature tetragonal crystal structure after deposition, and the average crystallite size was about 10nm. The effect of sintering on structural, electrical, and gassensing properties of both pure and Au-activated WO3 films was also studied. Gas response experiments with films on alumina substrate were done at different operation temperatures, from room temperature up to about 450°C, at exposure to different concentrations of H2S and H2 in dry synthetic air.

  11. Understanding the Potential of WO3 Based Sensors for Breath Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Staerz, Anna; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide is the second most commonly used semiconducting metal oxide in gas sensors. Semiconducting metal oxide (SMOX)-based sensors are small, robust, inexpensive and sensitive, making them highly attractive for handheld portable medical diagnostic detectors. WO3 is reported to show high sensor responses to several biomarkers found in breath, e.g., acetone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, toluene, and nitric oxide. Modern material science allows WO3 samples to be tailored to address certain sensing needs. Utilizing recent advances in breath sampling it will be possible in the future to test WO3-based sensors in application conditions and to compare the sensing results to those obtained using more expensive analytical methods. PMID:27801881

  12. Effect of Pt Nanoparticles on the Optical Gas Sensing Properties of WO3 Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad U.; Diaz Diaz, Alex Fabian; Cittadini, Michaela; Martucci, Alessandro; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Llobet, Eduard; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten trioxide were deposited on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Different annealing temperatures in the range from 423 to 973 K were used under ambient atmosphere. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure and optical properties of the resulting WO3 thin films were studied. The surface morphology of the films is composed of grains with an average size near 70 nm for the films annealed between 773 and 973 K. Some of the WO3 thin films were also coated with Pt nanoparticles of about 45 nm in size. Spectrometric measurements of transmittance were carried out for both types of WO3 samples in the wavelength range from 200–900 nm, to determine the effect of the exposure to two different gases namely H2 and CO. Films showed fast response and recovery times, in the range of few seconds. The addition of Pt nanoparticles enables reducing the operation temperature to room temperature. PMID:24977386

  13. Metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}: Photoemission spectromicroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Sanhita Ghosh, Anirudha Raj, Satyabrata

    2014-04-24

    We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}.

  14. Synthesis and room-temperature NO2 gas sensing properties of a WO3 nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Peng; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Ming; Ma, Shuang-Yun; Yan, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of a room-temperature NO2 gas sensor based on a WO3 nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure. The W18O49 nanowires are synthesized directly from a sputtered tungsten film on a porous silicon (PS) layer under heating in an argon atmosphere. After a carefully controlled annealing treatment, WO3 nanowires are obtained on the PS layer without losing the morphology. The morphology, phase structure, and crystallinity of the nanowires are investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Comparative gas sensing results indicate that the sensor based on the WO3 nanowires exhibits a much higher sensitivity than that based on the PS and pure WO3 nanowires in detecting NO2 gas at room temperature. The mechanism of the WO3 nanowires/PS hybrid structure in the NO2 sensing is explained in detail.

  15. Signature of polaron formation in Na0.025WO3: Photoemission and X-ray diffraction investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2013-06-01

    We have carried out temperature dependent high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on non-stoichiometric sodium tungsten bronzes (NaxWO3 for x=0.025). Our photoemission investigation shows evidence for polaron formation at the valence band edge and the photoemission spectra collected in different modes of the electron analyzer suggest that the density of states at valence band edge gradually moves to other k-points in the Brillouin zone with increasing temperature and explain the dynamics of polaron formation in Na0.025WO3. Infact our x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a structural modification of Na0.025WO3 around 230K. The corner sharing WO6 octadedra gets sufficiently distorted at low temperature due to displacement of tugsten and oxygen atoms from their mean position. This structural modification induces polaron formation in Na0.025WO3 below 230K.

  16. Rigidity of Major Plates and Microplates Estimated From GPS Solution GPS2006.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2006-05-01

    Here we analyze the rigidity of eight major lithospheric plates using our global GPS solution GPS2006.0. We included all daily observations in interval 1995.0 to 2006.0 collected at IGS stations, as well as observations at many important stations not included in IGS. Loose multiyear solution GPS2006.0 is based on daily solutions by GAMIT software, performed at SOPAC and at Columbia University; those daily solutions were combined by Kalman filter (GLOBK software) into a loose multiyear solution. The constrained solution for station positions and velocities was obtained without a conventional reference frame; instead, we applied translation and rotation in order to best fit the zero velocities of 76 stations in stable plate cores excluding the regions of postglacial rebound. Simultaneously, we estimated relative plate rotation vectors (RV) and the origin translation rate (OTR), and then corrected station velocities for it. Therefore, the velocities in GPS2006.0 are unaffected by the OTR error of ITRF2000 conventionally used to constrain a loose solution. The 1-sigma plate-residual velocity in a stable plate core is less than 1 mm/yr for the plates: Eurasia, Pacific, North and South Americas, Nubia, Australia, and Antarctica; it is 1.4 mm/yr for the Indian plate, most probably because of poorer data quality. Plate-residuals at other established plates (Arabia, Nazca, Caribbean, Philippine) were not assessed for lack of observations. From our analysis, an upper bound for the mobility of the plate inner area is 1 mm/yr. Plate- residual GPS velocities for several hypothesized microplates in east Asia, such as Okhotsk, Amuria, South China, are 3-4 times higher; corresponding strain rates for these microplates are an order of magnitude higher than for Eurasia, North America, and other large plates.

  17. Synthesis and photo-degradation application of WO3/TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kezhen; Li, Jie; Qing, Xiaoxia; Li, Wenzhang; Chen, Qiyuan

    2011-05-15

    A WO(3)/TiO(2) composite, hollow-sphere photocatalyst with average diameter of 320 nm and shell thickness of 50 nm was successfully prepared using a template method. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra illustrated that the main absorption edges of the WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres were red-shifted compared to the TiO(2) hollow spheres, indicating an extension of light absorption into the visible region of the composite photocatalyst. The WO(3) and TiO(2) phases were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. BET isotherms revealed that the specific surface area and average pore diameter of the hollow spheres were 40.95 m(2)/g and 19 nm, respectively. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that 78% MB was degraded by WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres under visible light within 80 min. Under the same conditions, only 24% MB can be photodegraded by TiO(2). The photocatalytic mineralization of MB, catalyzed by TiO(2) and WO(3)/TiO(2), proceeded at a significantly higher rate under UV irradiation than that under visible light, and more significant was the increase in the apparent rate constant with the WO(3)/TiO(2) composite semiconductor material which was 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher than with the TiO(2) material under both UV and visible light irradiation. The increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled nanocomposites was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency and the extension of the wavelength range of photoexcitation.

  18. Photoluminescence in the Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO{sub 4} system at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Porto, S.L.; Longo, E.; Simoes, L.G.P.; Lima, S.J.G.; Ferreira, J.M.; Soledade, L.E.B.; Espinoza, J.W.M.; Cassia-Santos, M.R.; Maurera, M.A.M.A.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Santos, I.M.G. Souza, A.G.

    2008-08-15

    In this work, a study was undertaken about the structural and photoluminescent properties, at room temperature, of powder samples from the Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO{sub 4} (x=0-1.0) system, synthesized by a soft chemical method and heat treated between 400 and 700 deg. C. The material was characterized using Infrared, UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy and XRD. The most intense PL emission was obtained for the sample calcined at 600 deg. C, which is neither highly disordered (400-500 deg. C), nor completely ordered (700 deg. C). Corroborating the role of disorder in the PL phenomenon, the most intense PL response was not observed for pure CaWO{sub 4} or SrWO{sub 4}, but for Ca{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}WO{sub 4}. The PL emission spectra could be separated into two Gaussian curves. The lower wavelength peak is placed around 530 nm, and the higher wavelength peak at about 690 nm. Similar results were reported in the literature for both CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The structural and room temperature photoluminescence of Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO4 synthesized by a soft chemical method was studied. The most intense PL emission was obtained for the sample calcined at 600 deg. C, that is neither highly disordered (400-500 deg. C), nor completely ordered (700 deg. C). Corroborating the role of disorder in the PL phenomenon, the most intense PL response was not observed for pure CaWO{sub 4} or SrWO{sub 4}, but for Ca{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}WO{sub 4}.

  19. One-dimensional WO{sub 3} and its hydrate: One-step synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Rauwel, Protima; Kuznetsov, Andrej Y.; Norby, Truls

    2012-01-15

    We report on a one-step hydrothermal growth of one-dimensional (1D) WO{sub 3} nanostructures, using urea as 1D growth-directing agent and a precursor free of metals other than tungsten. By decreasing the pH of the starting solution, the size of the nanostructures was reduced significantly, this development being accompanied by the realization of phase pure hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanorods (elimination of monoclinic impurity phase) and a red shift in optical absorption edge. Surface analyses indicated the presence of reduced tungsten species in the WO{sub 3} nanostructures, which increased two-fold in a hydrated WO{sub 3} phase obtained with further decrease in pH. We suggest that oxygen vacancies are responsible for this defect state in WO{sub 3}, while protons are responsible or contribute significantly to the same in the hydrated phase. - Graphical abstract: The figure illustrates the role of pH in morphological and absorption edge evolution of WO{sub 3} (hydrate) as well as the variation in the concentration of defect electrons between anhydrous and hydrated WO{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} nanorods prepared in a one step procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCl (aq) enables phase pure WO{sub 3} nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCl (aq) induces significant reduction in dimension of and red shift in absorption edge of nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer W{sup 5+} detected in hydrothermal WO{sub 3} phase, the concentration of which increases in the hydrated phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer W{sup 5+} from the two phases due to different positive defects.

  20. Improved modeling of GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braasch, Michael S.; Fink, Annmarie; Duffus, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Selective Availability (SA) represents the dominant error source for stand-alone users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Even for DGPS, SA mandates the update rate required for a desired level of accuracy in realtime applications. As was witnessed in the recent literature, the ability to model this error source is crucial to the proper evaluation of GPS-based systems. A variety of SA models were proposed to date; however, each has its own shortcomings. Most of these models were based on limited data sets or data which were corrupted by additional error sources. A comprehensive treatment of the problem is presented. The phenomenon of SA is discussed and a technique is presented whereby both clock and orbit components of SA are identifiable. Extensive SA data sets collected from Block 2 satellites are presented. System Identification theory then is used to derive a robust model of SA from the data. This theory also allows for the statistical analysis of SA. The stationarity of SA over time and across different satellites is analyzed and its impact on the modeling problem is discussed.

  1. Ionospheric Indices Based on GPS TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, C.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Schunk, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    The solar terrestrial environment is presently characterized by a suite of indices that represent the system's dynamics and indicate the degree of space weather effects. These indices an have extended heritage based on measurements that are well calibrated and readily available. Examples of these are the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7), magnetospheric currents inferred from ground-based magnetographs (Dst), and auroral electrojet also based on ground-based magnetograms (AE family of indices). At the present time, the ionosphere's dynamics and response to space weather are not characterized by a "true" ionosphere index. However, since ionospheric plasma variability has a major adverse effect on human space technologies, the creation of such an index may be appropriate. The major adverse effects are associated with radio wave propagation through the ionosphere either communications or navigation. Over the past decade thousands of ground-based dual frequency GPS receivers have been deployed. Each of these measures ionospheric total electron content (TEC) continuously in multiple directions. Hence, with the standardized formatting of these measurements and their near real-time nature, a unique ionospheric data stream exists from which indices can, in principle, be developed. This study is an initial exploration of how a purely ionospheric index could be derived from these GPS TEC data. Regional versus global issues are addressed, as well as diurnal issues.

  2. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  3. Estimating Drivers’ Stress from GPS Traces

    PubMed Central

    Vhaduri, Sudip; Ali, Amin; Sharmin, Moushumi; Hovsepian, Karen; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Driving is known to be a daily stressor. Measurement of driver’s stress in real-time can enable better stress management by increasing self-awareness. Recent advances in sensing technology has made it feasible to continuously assess driver’s stress in real-time, but it requires equipping the driver with these sensors and/or instrumenting the car. In this paper, we present “GStress”, a model to estimate driver’s stress using only smartphone GPS traces. The GStress model is developed and evaluated from data collected in a mobile health user study where 10 participants wore physiological sensors for 7 days ( for an average of 10.45 hours/day) in their natural environment. Each participant engaged in 10 or more driving episodes, resulting in a total of 37 hours of driving data. We find that major driving events such as stops, turns, and braking increase stress of the driver. We quantify their impact on stress and thus construct our GStress model by training a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) on our data. We evaluate the applicability of GStress in predicting stress from GPS traces, and obtain a correlation of 0.72. By obviating any burden on the driver or the car, we believe, GStress can make driver’s stress assessment ubiquitous. PMID:25866847

  4. GPS Receiver for a Student Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, E.; Andersson, J.

    This paper covers work that has been carried out during the investigation phase for the M-2 project, which is a satellite project performed by students at Department of Space Physics in Kiruna at the University of Umeå. The goal for this part of the project was to investigate how a suitable GPS receiver onboard the satellite should be built or bought. The first part of the paper covers some of the basics in GPS theory and how it works. The satellite is planned to be small and cheap, with a mass of approximately 7 kg and a power budget of around 7W. Some basic OEM receivers are compared, and methods are presented to verify that they will work at velocities above the limits defined by ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations). If the manufacturer is willing to modify the software the next step is to apply for a licence from US Department of Defence. An alternative solution is to build the device ourselves, or have someone make it for us. The most suitable solution is probably the Orionkit from Mitel. This solution is successfully used in some sounding rockets launched in Sweden. The price will be about 5000 Euro, and the power consumption will be about 100mW, which is much cheaper and uses much less power compared with one of the best OEM, Ashtech G12.

  5. Faster Processing for Inverting GPS Occultation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ao, Chi

    2004-01-01

    A document outlines a computational method that can be incorporated into two prior methods used to invert Global Positioning System (GPS) occultation data [signal data acquired by a low-Earth-orbiting satellite as either this or the GPS satellite rises above or falls below the horizon] to obtain information on altitude-dependent properties of the atmosphere. The two prior inversion methods, known as back propagation and canonical transform, are computationally expensive because for each occultation, they involve numerical evaluation of a large number of diffraction-like spatial integrals. The present method involves an angular-spectrum-based phase-extrapolation approximation in which each data point is associated with a plane-wave component that propagates in a unique direction from the orbit of the receiving satellite to intersect a straight line tangent to the orbit at a nearby point. This approximation enables the use of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs), which apply only to data collected along a straight-line trajectory. The computation of the diffraction-like integrals in the angular-spectrum domain by use of FFTs takes only seconds, whereas previously, it took minutes.

  6. GPS application to mapping, charting and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senus, W. J.; Hill, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    GPSPAC, a receiver being developed for space applications by the Defense Mapping Agency and NASA, will use signals from GPS constellations to generate real-time values of host vehicle position and velocity. The GPSPAC has an L-band antenna and preamp capable of receiving the 1575 MHz and 1227 MHz spread spectrum signals; its stable oscillator at 5.115 MHz provides the basic frequency reference, resulting in a long term drift of less than one part in 10 to the -10th day. The GPSPAC performs many functions on board the spacecraft which were previously relegated to large-scale ground-based computer/receiver systems. A positional accuracy of better than 8 can be achieved for those periods when four or more NAVSTAR satellites are visible to the host satellite. The GPS geodetic receiver development, which will provide prototype receivers for utilization in terrestrial surveying operations, has the potential to significantly enhance the accuracy of point geodetic surveys over the current user hardware capability.

  7. Gravity wave detection by GPS radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Arras, Christina; De la Torre, Alejandro; Alexander, Peter; Llamedo, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role for the general atmospheric circulation due to the related transport of energy and momentum between different regions of the atmosphere. The momentum mostly generated in the troposphere is transported to upper atmospheric levels where GWs break or dissipate and transfer their momentum to the background wind (GW drag). The deposit of GW momentum can occur in the complete altitude range from the upper troposphere-stratosphere, the mesosphere, and even in the thermosphere. A global observation of GW parameters (e.g. potential energy and vertical flux of absolute horizontal momentum) is only possible with satellite data. The radio occultation (RO) technique uses GPS signals received aboard low Earth orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding. Atmospheric temperature profiles in the troposphere/stratosphere and ionospheric electron densities are derived with high vertical resolution. The GPS RO technique is sensitive to GWs with small ratios of vertical to horizontal wavelengths. In this presentation we give an overview about the derivation of GW parameters from RO temperature profiles, review some results of GW detection with RO data, and discuss the limitations of the RO technique. The focus of the presented results is (1) global GW activity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for different seasons, (2) influence of the topography on GW activity from the troposphere to the ionosphere in the Andean region of South America, and (3) the variation of ionospheric sporadic E layers.

  8. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  9. All Source Adaptive Fusion for Aided Navigation in Non-GPS Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    providing navigation aiding in the GPS - denied environment as well as obstacle avoidance and 3-D digital terrain mapping in the presence of GPS. The 3-D...fusing optical flow, star-tracking measurements with inertial data, navigation accuracy in a GPS - denied environment is obtained that is superior to...degrees. Figure 8 shows the target location errors (TLE) for INS/GPS only, compared with the results for INS/GPS plus feature tracking, again with GPS

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiWO4 crystals for high performance non-enzymatic glucose biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sivakumar; Vediyappan, Veeramani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Madhu, Rajesh; Pitchaimani, Veerakumar; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal route for the synthesis of ordered NiWO4 nanocrystals, which show promising applications as high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor is reported. The NiWO4-modified electrodes showed excellent sensitivity (269.6 μA mM−1 cm−2) and low detection limit (0.18 μM) for detection of glucose with desirable selectivity, stability, and tolerance to interference, rendering their prospective applications as cost-effective, enzyme-free glucose sensors. PMID:27087561

  11. End pumped yellow laser performance of Dy3+:ZnWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhongchao; Yang, Fugui; Qiao, Liang; Yan, Fengpo

    2017-03-01

    We report an end pumped single transverse-mode (TEM00) yellow laser based on Dy3+:ZnWO4 crystal. The pump light is InGaN blue laser diode at 450 nm with the maximum power of 1.5 W. A 3 cm length Dy3+:ZnWO4 crystal served as the gain medium. By way of the square filter, we discuss the TEM00 properties. In continuous-wave operation and single transverse-mode, a maximum output power of 0.110 W and a slope efficiency of 13.0% are achieved at an emission wavelength of 575 nm.

  12. Surface morphology-controlled fabrication of Na2WO4 films with high structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dachi; Hernandez, Jose A.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Fonseca, Luis F.

    2016-06-01

    Films with designed surface morphologies are of great importance for high-performance devices and other applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. Na2WO4 films with various surface morphologies have been fabricated via physical evaporation inside the chamber created by approaching mouth to mouth two alumina boats containing precursors and by covering alumina boat with aluminum foil, respectively. The temperature-dependence Raman investigation reveals red shifting of the Raman peaks with increasing temperature in all cases. The observed Raman shifts are relatively small confirming high stability of the Na2WO4 films within the investigated temperature range.

  13. Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate KEr(WO4)2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11914 TITLE: Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate ...potassium erbium double tungstate KEr(W0 4)2 T.Zayarnyukl*, M.T.Borowiecl*, V.DyakonovŖ, H.Szymczak’, E.Zubov Ŗ, A.Pavlyuk3, M.Barafiski’ 1Institute of... tungstate KEr(WO4)2 are reported. The single crystals of KEr(WO4)2 were grown by Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) technique. They belong to the chain

  14. Structural analysis and optical properties of the Bi2–xYxWO6 system

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, S.; Levy, D.; Paz, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy has attracted considerable interest for several decades. One compound already reported as a visible-light-active photocatalyst for water splitting is BiYWO6, a member of the Bi2–xYxWO6 family of compounds. The structural and optical properties of other members of this family have not been reported to date. In this work, we synthesized various compositions of Bi2–xYxWO6, studied their optical properties, and report their structural parameters obtained by utilizing powder diffraction coupled with Rietveld refinement. PMID:28066155

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiWO4 crystals for high performance non-enzymatic glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Sivakumar; Vediyappan, Veeramani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Madhu, Rajesh; Pitchaimani, Veerakumar; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A facile hydrothermal route for the synthesis of ordered NiWO4 nanocrystals, which show promising applications as high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor is reported. The NiWO4-modified electrodes showed excellent sensitivity (269.6 μA mM-1 cm-2) and low detection limit (0.18 μM) for detection of glucose with desirable selectivity, stability, and tolerance to interference, rendering their prospective applications as cost-effective, enzyme-free glucose sensors.

  16. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  17. An Interdisciplinary Approach at Studying the Earth-Sun System with GPS/GNSS and GPS-like Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuffada, Cinzia; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Chao, Yi; Ao, Chi; Zumberge, James

    2005-01-01

    The value of Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) measurements to atmospheric science, space physics, and ocean science, is now emerging or showing a potential to play a major role in the evolving programs of NASA, NSF and NOAA. The objective of this communication is to identify and articulate the key scientific questions that are optimally, or perhaps uniquely, addressed by GPS or GPS-like observations, and discuss their relevance to existing or planned national Earth-science research programs. The GPS-based ocean reflection experiments performed to date have demonstrated the precision and spatial resolution suitable to altimetric applications that require higher spatial resolution and more frequent repeat than the current radar altimeter satellites. GPS radio occultation is promising as a climate monitoring tool because of its benchmark properties: its raw observable is based on extremely accurate timing measurements. GPS-derived temperature profiles can provide meaningful climate trend information over decadal time scales without the need for overlapping missions or mission-to-mission calibrations. By acquiring data as GPS satellites occult behind the Earth's limb, GPS also provides high vertical resolution information on the vertical structure of electron density with global coverage. New experimental techniques will create more comprehensive TEC maps by using signals reflected from the oceans and received in orbit. This communication will discuss a potential future GNSS Earth Observing System project which would deploy a constellation of satellites using GPS and GPS-like measurements, to obtain a) topography measurements based on GPS reflections with an accuracy and horizontal resolution suitable for eddy monitoring, and h) climate-records quality atmospheric temperature profiles. The constellation would also provide for measurements of ionospheric elec tron density. This is a good example of an interdisciplinary mission concept, with broad science objectives

  18. Modeling low elevation GPS signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Wu, Zhensen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Hongguang; Zhu, Qinglin

    2012-05-01

    Using the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method, we model low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts. To consider sea surface impedance, roughness, and the effects of earth's curvature, we propose a new initial field model for the GPS PWE split-step solution. On the basis of the comparison between the proposed model and the conventional initial field model for a smooth, perfectly conducting sea surface on a planar earth, we conclude that both the amplitude and phase of the initial field are influenced by surface impedance and roughness, and that the interference behavior between direct and reflected GPS rays is affected by earth's curvature. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated with examples of low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in three types of ducts: an evaporation duct, a surface-based duct, and an elevated duct. The GPS PWE is numerically implemented using the split-step discrete mixed Fourier transform algorithm to enforce impedance-type boundary conditions at the rough sea surface. Because the GPS signal is right hand circularly polarized, we calculate its power strength by combining the propagation predictions of the horizontally and the vertically polarized components. The effects of the maritime atmospheric ducts on low elevation GPS signal propagation are demonstrated according to the presented examples, and the potential applications of the GPS signals affected by ducts are discussed.

  19. Advancing Technology: GPS and GIS Outreach Training for Agricultural Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Arnold, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Information Systems (GIS) has made significant impacts on agricultural production practices. However, constant changes in the technologies require continuing educational updates. The outreach program described here introduces the operation, use, and applications of GPS receivers and GIS…

  20. Mapping where We Live and Play with GPS Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of technological advances such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS), mapping practices and applications have become far more sophisticated. This article suggests family and consumer sciences students and professionals consider using GPS technology to map their communities as a strategy to…

  1. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  2. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice... December 2013 from 0900-1300 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  3. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION... 14 December 2012 from 0900-1600 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  4. Where in the World?: GPS Projects for the Technology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guccione, Sam

    2005-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) has many uses. They include navigation, location finding, vehicle tracking, surveying, autonomous control of highway construction equipment, scientific activities, asset location and entertainment. The GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites located in a 10,000-mile radius orbit in a way that allows for at least six…

  5. High integrity GPS/INS filter for precise relative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.

    A GPS/INS filter design for absolute and relative state estimation is discussed. The GPS code and Doppler measurements are used for absolute state estimation while the GPS carrier phase and Doppler measurements are used for relative state estimation. Real-time results obtained from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation and actual F-18 flight tests are presented. To ensure accurate state estimation, the observability of the GPS/INS system is analyzed analytically when the system is at rest and during maneuvers. The system observability enhancement during two different maneuvers is discussed. Simulation results illustrating the observability of the system during the different stages of the GPS/INS system operation are also presented. To allow successful use of the high-accuracy carrier phase measurements, two methods for resolving GPS integer ambiguity are introduced. The first combines an efficient method for obtaining the admissible integer ambiguity hypotheses within a probabilistic volume with an integer hypothesis testing method to reduce the convergence time with high probability to the GPS carrier phase integers. The second GPS integer ambiguity resolution method is based on a log-formulation of the Multiple Hypothesis Wald Sequential Probability Test (MHWSPT). The computational time requirement of the latter method is shown to be smaller than the former method. Real-time results are presented to show the performance of the two methods introduced.

  6. Coordinate Time and Proper Time in the GPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matolcsi, T.; Matolcsi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) provides an excellent educational example of how the theory of general relativity is put into practice and becomes part of our everyday life. This paper gives a short and instructive derivation of an important formula used in the GPS, and is aimed at graduate students and general physicists. The authors…

  7. A Simple Method to Improve Autonomous GPS Positioning for Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory. PMID:22163917

  8. Backyard Botany: Using GPS Technology in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…

  9. Calibration of GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles is a special type of GPS speed meter which uses Doppler Demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the speed of a moving target. It is increasingly used as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed measurement, but acknowledged standard calibration methods are still lacking. To solve this problem, this paper presents the set-ups of simulated calibration, field test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical sensor based non-contact speed meter. All the experiments were carried out on particular speed values in the range of (40-180) km/h with the same GPS speed meter. The speed measurement errors of simulated calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1 km/h or +/-0.1%, with uncertainties smaller than 0.02% (k=2). The errors of replay calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1% with uncertainties smaller than 0.10% (k=2). The calibration results justify the effectiveness of the two methods. The relative deviations of the GPS speed meter from the optical sensor based noncontact speed meter fall in the range of +/-0.3%, which validates the use of GPS speed meter as reference instruments. The results of this research can provide technical basis for the establishment of internationally standard calibration methods of GPS speed meters, and thus ensures the legal status of GPS speed meters as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed metrology.

  10. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  11. A simple method to improve autonomous GPS positioning for tractors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory.

  12. Towards GPS Surface Reflection Remote Sensing of Sea Ice Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, A.; Maslanik, J. A.; Zavorotny, V. U.; Axelrad, P.; Katzberg, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the research to extend the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) signal reflections, received by airborne instruments, to cryospheric remote sensing. The characteristics of the GPS signals and equipment afford the possibility of new measurements not possible with existing radar and passive microwave systems. In particular, the GPS receiving systems are small and light-weight, and as such are particularly well suited to be deployed on small aircraft or satellite platforms with minimal impact. Our preliminary models and experimental results indicate that reflected GPS signals have potential to provide information on the presence and condition of sea and fresh-water ice as well as the freeze/thaw state of frozen ground. In this paper we show results from aircraft experiments over the ice pack near Barrow, Alaska suggesting correlation between forward scattered GPS returns and RADARSAT backscattered signals.

  13. GPS=A Good Candidate for Data Assimilation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, P.; Joiner, J.; Kursinski, R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) enables positioning anywhere about our planet. The microwave signals sent by the 24 transmitters are sensitive to the atmosphere. Using the radio occultation technique, it is possible to perform soundings, with a Low Earth Orbiter (700 km) GPS receiver. The insensitiveness to clouds and aerosols, the relatively high vertical resolution (1.5 km), the self-calibration and stability of the GPS make it a priori a potentially good observing system candidate for data assimilation. A low-computing cost simple method to retrieve both temperature and humidity will be presented. Comparisons with radiosonde show the capability of the GPS to resolve the tropopause. Options for using GPS for data assimilation and remaining issues will be discussed.

  14. Terrain-Moisture Classification Using GPS Surface-Reflected Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Acton, Scott T.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we present a novel method of land surface classification using surface-reflected GPS signals in combination with digital imagery. Two GPS-derived classification features are merged with visible image data to create terrain-moisture (TM) classes, defined here as visibly identifiable terrain or landcover classes containing a surface/soil moisture component. As compared to using surface imagery alone, classification accuracy is significantly improved for a number of visible classes when adding the GPS-based signal features. Since the strength of the reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, use of these GPS features provides information about the surface that is not obtainable using visible wavelengths alone. Application areas include hydrology, precision agriculture, and wetlands mapping.

  15. How and Why to Do VLBI on GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish the position of the center of mass of the Earth in the International Celestial Reference Frame, observations of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) constellation using the IVS network are important. With a good frame-tie between the coordinates of the IVS telescopes and nearby GPS receivers, plus a common local oscillator reference signal, it should be possible to observe and record simultaneously signals from the astrometric calibration sources and the GPS satellites. The standard IVS solution would give the atmospheric delay and clock offsets to use in analysis of the GPS data. Correlation of the GPS signals would then give accurate orbital parameters of the satellites in the ICRF reference frame, i.e., relative to the positions of the astrometric sources. This is particularly needed to determine motion of the center of mass of the earth along the rotation axis.

  16. Operational Use of GPS Navigation for Space Shuttle Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Propst, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The STS-118 flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was the first shuttle mission flown with three Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in place of the three legacy Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) units. This marked the conclusion of a 15 year effort involving procurement, missionization, integration, and flight testing of a GPS receiver and a parallel effort to formulate and implement shuttle computer software changes to support GPS. The use of GPS data from a single receiver in parallel with TACAN during entry was successfully demonstrated by the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis during four shuttle missions in 2006 and 2007. This provided the confidence needed before flying the first all GPS, no TACAN flight with Endeavour. A significant number of lessons were learned concerning the integration of a software intensive navigation unit into a legacy avionics system. These lessons have been taken into consideration during vehicle design by other flight programs, including the vehicle that will replace the Space Shuttle, Orion.

  17. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements for Ekofisk

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Luttenberger, C.; Landau, H.; Gustavsen, K.

    1995-12-01

    A fully automatic procedure for the measurement of subsidence of many platforms in almost real time is presented. Such a method is important for developments which may be subject to subsidence and where reliable subsidence and rate measurements are needed for safety, planning of remedial work and verification of subsidence models. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. A description of the system is given. The derivation of those parameters which give optimal measurement accuracy is described, the results of these derivations are provided. GPS satellite based measurements are equivalent to pressure gauge based platform subsidence measurements, but they are much cheaper to install and maintain. In addition, GPS based measurements are not subject to drift of any gauges. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance. These quantities now follow from GPS based measurements.

  18. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation Using Above-the-Constellation GPS Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke

    2017-01-01

    GPS-based spacecraft navigation offers many performance and cost benefits, and GPS receivers are now standard GNC components for LEO missions. Recently, more and more high-altitude missions are taking advantage of the benefits of GPS navigation as well. High-altitude applications pose challenges, however, because receivers operating above the GPS constellations are subject to reduced signal strength and availability, and uncertain signal quality. This presentation will present the history and state-of-the-art in high-altitude GPS spacecraft navigation, including early experiments, current missions and receivers, and efforts to characterize and protect signals available to high-altitude users. Recent results from the very-high altitude MMS mission are also provided.

  19. GPS Climatology: Long-term PWV Records from a Dense GPS Array (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Yoshida, K.

    2009-12-01

    More than ten years has passed since people recognized meteorological value of atmospheric delays observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) together with station coordinates. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) data are obtained from ~1000 receivers of GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) in Japan in near real time. After years of basic studies of GPS meteorology, Japan Meteorological Agency has recently started to incorporate GPS-PWV routinely into its atmospheric model for numerical weather prediction. Here we expand the concept and study longer term behaviors of the atmospheric water vapor, i.e. GPS climatology. We use zenith total delays (ZTD) at GPS stations over the last 12 years. We also use surface meteorological data from ~200 observatories to isolate delays due to water vapor (zenith wet delay, ZWD) by removing those by dry air (hydrostatic delay). ZWD is proportional to PWV, and we explore climatological signals in PWV, e.g. interannual changes due to El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), longer-term changes such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and secular increase due to global warming. Average temperature over Japan in this period shows relatively rapid increase in late 1990’s and 2000’s and moderate decrease in the first half of 2000’s. PWV showed similar long-term signals to the surface temperature changes as well as strong seasonal signatures. These changes negatively correlate with indices of PDO, an inter-decadal climate oscillation in the northern Pacific Ocean bringing colder climates in its western part during positive phases. Unlike surface temperature, PWV did not show significant net increase during the studied period. NAO is considered to be a part of Arctic Oscillation (AO), and strongly influence winter climate in northern Japan. Negative temperature anomalies prevailed there in the 2000-2001 winter, when the NAO index was negative, but such anomalies were not evident in PWV. In addition to such

  20. Consistency of Crustal Loading Signals Derived from Models and GPS: Inferences for GPS Positioning Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J.; Collilieux, X.; Rebischung, P.; van Dam, T. M.; Altamimi, Z.

    2011-12-01

    After applying corrections for surface load displacements to a set of station position time series determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS), we are able to infer precise error floors for the determinations of weekly dN, dE, and dU components. The load corrections are a combination of NCEP atmosphere, ECCO non-tidal ocean, and LDAS surface water models, after detrending and averaging to the middle of each GPS week. These load corrections have been applied to the most current station time series from the International GNSS Service (IGS) for a global set of 706 stations, each having more than 100 weekly observations. The stacking of the weekly IGS frame solutions has taken utmost care to minimize aliasing of local load signals into the frame parameters to ensure the most reliable time series of individual station motions. For the first time, dN and dE horizontal components have been considered together with the height (dU) variations. By examining the distributions of annual amplitudes versus WRMS scatters for all 706 stations and all three local components, we find an empirical error floor of about 0.65, 0.7, and 2.2 mm for weekly dN, dE, and dU. Only the very best performing GPS stations approach these floors. Most stations have larger scatters due to other non-load errors. These global error floors have been verified by studying differences for a subset of 119 station pairs located within 25 km of each other. Of these, 19 pairs share a common antenna, which permits an estimate of the fundamental electronic noise in the GPS estimates: 0.4, 0.4, and 1.3 mm for dN, dE, and dU. The remaining 100 close pairs that do not share an antenna include this noise component as well as errors due to multipath, equipment differences, data modeling, etc, but not due to loading or direct orbit effects since those are removed by the differencing. The WRMS dN, dE, and dU differences for these close pairs imply station error floors of 0.8, 0.9, and 2.1 mm, respectively

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel WO{sub 3} loaded Ag–ZnO and its photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Subash, B.; Krishnakumar, B.; Pandiyan, V.; Swaminathan, M.; Shanthi, M.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A novel WO{sub 3} loaded Ag–ZnO was prepared by a simple solvothermal method. ► ‘Ag’ traps the electron from both ZnO and WO{sub 3} reducing electro–hole recombination. ► WO{sub 3}–Ag–ZnO is more efficient than Ag–ZnO, WO{sub 3}–ZnO, Ag–WO{sub 3} and undoped catalysts. ► WO{sub 3}–Ag–ZnO material will be much useful for the treatment of dye effluents. -- Abstract: A novel WO{sub 3} loaded Ag–ZnO photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3}–Ag–ZnO was investigated for the degradation of RR 120 and RO 4 dyes in aqueous solution using UV-A light. WO{sub 3}–Ag–ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag–ZnO, WO{sub 3}–ZnO, Ag–WO{sub 3}, commercial ZnO, prepared ZnO, TiO{sub 2}-P25 and TiO{sub 2} (Merck) at neutral pH for the mineralization of dyes. First time we have reported that novel WO{sub 3} loaded Ag–ZnO has been found to be very efficient for two azo dyes removal when compared to commercially available catalyst (Degussa P25, ZnO (Merck) and TiO{sub 2} (Merck)). The mineralization of dyes has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A mechanism of degradation has been proposed for the higher efficiency of WO{sub 3}–Ag–ZnO.

  2. Electronic polarizability and interaction parameter of gadolinium tungsten borate glasses with high WO{sub 3} content

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Yukina; Shinozaki, Kenji; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Dimitrov, Vesselin; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2014-12-15

    Glasses with the compositions of 25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–xWO{sub 3}–(75−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with x=25–65 were prepared by using a conventional melt quenching method, and their electronic polarizabilities, optical basicities Λ(n{sub o}), and interaction parameters A(n{sub o}) were estimated from density and refractive index measurements in order to clarify the feature of electronic polarizability and bonding states in the glasses with high WO{sub 3} contents. The optical basicity of the glasses increases monotonously with the substitution of WO{sub 3} for B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and contrary the interaction parameter decreases monotonously with increasing WO{sub 3} content. A good linear correlation was observed between Λ(n{sub o}) and A(n{sub o}) and between the glass transition temperature and A(n{sub o}). It was proposed that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide belongs to the category of basic oxide with a value of A(n{sub o})=0.044 Å{sup −3} as similar to WO{sub 3}. The relationship between the glass formation and electronic polarizability in the glasses was discussed, and it was proposed that the glasses with high WO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents would be a floppy network system consisting of mainly basic oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the correlation between the optical basicity and interaction parameter in borate-based glasses. The data obtained in the present study for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–WO{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses are locating in the correlation line for other borate glasses. These results shown in Fig. 8 clearly demonstrate that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–WO{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses having a wide range of optical basicity and interaction parameter are regarded as glasses consisting of acidic and basic oxides. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–WO{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses with high WO{sub 3} contents were prepared. • Electronic polarizability and interaction parameter were estimated. • Optical basicity increases

  3. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  4. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  5. Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

    The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault

  6. Three-Dimensional Geodetic Control by Interferometry with GPS (Global Positioning System): Processing of GPS Phase Observables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-23

    8217 geodetic networks; three, dimensional geodesy, satellite geodesy, NAVSTAR Global Positioning System,’ GPS , interferometry 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...8217 - - .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -t INTRODUCTION GPS interferometry is a method by which three-dimensional relative-position vectors between observing stations can be

  7. Numerical model of the catchments of the oziąbel and wołczyński strumień rivers - Wołczyn municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Wcisło, Marek; Staśko, Stanisław; Buczyński, Sebastian; Modelska, Magdalena; Tarka, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The article presents a numerical model designed for determining groundwater dynamics and water balance of the catchments of the Oziąbel (Czarna Woda) river and the Wołczyński Strumień river in Wołczyn region. Hydrogeological mapping and modelling research covered the area of 238.9 km2. As a result of measurements performed in 2008-2009, flows were determined in major rivers and water table positions were measured at 26 points. In the major part of the area described, the water table, lying at the depth of 1.5-18.7 m, has unconfined character, and the aquifer is built of Neogene (Quaternary) sands and gravels. In the area under study, groundwaters are drawn from 6 wells with total withdrawal of 6133 m3/d. The numerical modelling was performed with the use of Visual Modflow 3.1.0 software. The area was partitioned by a discretization grid with a step size l = 250 m. The conceptual model of the hydrogeological system is based on hydrological data gathered over a period of one year, data from HYDRO bank database, cross-sections and maps. The boundaries of the modelled hydrogeological system were established on the watersheds of the Wołczyński Strumień river and the Oziąbel river, apart from the areas where they run together. The modelled area was extended (271.5 km2) around the Wołczyński Strumień river catchment to achieve a more effective mapping of the anthropogenic impact on its balance and the hydrodynamic system of the catchment area. The structure is characterised by the occurrence of one or rarely two aquifers separated by a pack of Quaternary clays. The investigation produced a detailed water balance and its components.

  8. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  9. Robust GPS attitude determination for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John Carl

    2000-11-01

    The space environment presents challenging operating conditions for a GPS attitude receiver. While spacecraft vehicle attitude dynamics may be at a lower rate than terrestrial vehicles or aircraft, they may undergo a much more general attitude motion. For example, for inertially fixed spacecraft or spinning spacecraft there is no preferred orientation of an array of antennas with aligned boresights that will give good GPS constellation visibility and ensure continuous attitude solution availability over an entire orbit. For these cases of general vehicle attitude motion, continuous attitude solution availability can be achieved using an array of antennas pointing in different directions. However, such a non-aligned antenna array requires modifications to the receiver signal processing algorithms to make attitude determination possible and to achieve accuracies comparable to an aligned array. Non-aligned antenna arrays introduce LOS dependent phase errors into the differential carrier phase measurements, the most significant of which are; the right hand circular polarization (RHCP) contribution to the carrier phase, antenna phase center variations, and multipath error. In this dissertation, the results of two experimental laboratory demonstrations of attitude determination using measurements from a non-aligned antenna array are presented, along with a simulation study for the on-orbit case. In the first laboratory demonstration, attitude estimation was done (in post processing) using a passive, spinning platform with only single degree of freedom rotation, in a laboratory environment that had very significant reflected multipath signals, and near transmitters. The experiment used a 2-D air cushion vehicle on a granite table top with a single antenna baseline measurement. The results of this experiment showed that robust attitude solutions could be attained from differential carrier phase measurements taken from an array of non-aligned antennas, but also highlighted

  10. Dopant-dependent reflectivity and refractive index of microcrystalline HxWO3 and LixWO3 bronze thin films.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zahid

    2002-11-01

    Reflectivity spectra of HxWO3 and LiWO3 thin films were measured over the photon energy range from 0.4 to 4.2 eV. It was found that microcrystalline tungsten bronzes have reflectances of 8%-30% over the dopant concentration range x (0 < or = x < or = 0.25). Values for the real part of refractive index n were also determined from the refined reflectivity data. The optical data are interpreted by use of a modified Drude-Zener model together with a single-oscillator model to differentiate between bound and free electronic states. The values of high-frequency dielectric constant epsilon(hf) of MxWO3 (M = H+, Li+) bronzes were determined from the refractive-index data for estimation of the effective electronic masses involved in optical and polaronic transitions. A single-oscillator model showed that oscillator energy Ea and dispersion energy Ed increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing x values, opposite what occurs in crystalline tungsten bronzes. These findings support the fact that Bloch electrons are almost absent; instead, the polaronic species (W5+ and W4+) are assumed to control the reflectivity modifications (or variations in the refractive index) that are associated with the microcrystalline tungsten bronzes.

  11. Physical properties and surface/interface analysis of nanocrystalline WO3 films grown under variable oxygen gas flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, R. S.; Carbjal-Franco, G.; Ferrer, D. A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline WO3 films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition in a wide range of oxygen gas flow rates while keeping the deposition temperature fixed at 400 oC. The physical characteristics of WO3 films were evaluated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Physical characterization indicates that the thickness, grain size, and density of WO3 films are sensitive to the oxygen gas flow rate during deposition. XRD data indicates the formation of tetragonal WO3 films. The grain size increases from 21 to 25 nm with increasing oxygen gas flow rate to 65%, at which point the grain size exhibits a decreasing trend to attain the lowest value of 15 nm at 100% oxygen. TEM analysis provides a model consisting of isotropic WO3 film (nanocrystalline)-SiO2 interface (amorphous)-Si(100) substrate. XRR simulations, which are based on this model, provide excellent agreement to the experimental data indicating that the normalized thickness of WO3 films decreases with the increasing oxygen gas flow rate. The density of WO3 films increases with increasing oxygen gas flow rate.

  12. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Bi2WO6 hybrid with ultrafast charge separation and improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Liang, Yinghua; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2017-01-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wrapped Bi2WO6 (Bi2WO6@rGO) hybrid as photoelectrode for enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of organic pollutants is reported, which exhibited excellent charge separation and photoconversion efficiency. The core@shell structured Bi2WO6@rGO photoelectrode yielded a pronounced 1.56-fold and 23.8-fold photocurrent density at 1.0 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), than that of loading structured Bi2WO6-rGO and pure Bi2WO6. The Bi2WO6@rGO hybrid exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic efficiency for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), which was 43.0% and 65.6% higher than that of photocatalytic (PC) and electrocatalytic (EC) processes, respectively. The enhancement in PEC degradation of RhB benefited from: (1) a strong interaction and a wide range of conjugation were formed in the core@shell system; (2) a 0.26 V of flat band potential was negatively shifted in case of Bi2WO6@rGO composite; (3) the photogenerated electrons and holes could be spatially separated by external electric potentials.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of a mesoporous K(x)WO3 material having superior mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sonal; Anderson, Sean T; Mayanovic, Robert A; Sakidja, Ridwan; Landskron, Kai; Kokoszka, Berenika; Mandal, Manik; Wang, Zhongwu

    2016-02-07

    Mesoporous materials with tailored properties hold great promise for energy harvesting and industrial applications. We have synthesized a novel tungsten bronze mesoporous material (K(x)WO3; x ∼ 0.07) having inverse FDU-12 type pore symmetry and a crystalline framework. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of the mesoporous K(0.07)WO3 show persistence of a highly ordered meso-scale pore structure to high pressure conditions (∼18.5 GPa) and a material with remarkable mechanical strength despite having ∼35% porosity. Pressure dependent in situ SAXS measurements reveal a bulk modulus κ = 44 ± 4 GPa for the mesoporous K(x)WO3 which is comparable to the corresponding value for the bulk monoclinic WO3 (γ-WO3). Evidence from middle angle (MAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy shows that the presence of potassium leads to the formation of a K-bearing orthorhombic tungsten bronze (OTB) phase within a monoclinic WO3 host structure. Our ab initio molecular dynamics calculations show that the formation of the OTB phase provides superior strength to the mesoporous K(0.07)WO3.

  14. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  15. Time Transfer Through GPS, and the Harmonization of GPS, GLONASS and Galileo for Timing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    for a special project [5]. In the Figs. 3 and 4, the largest bias and RMS deviations are often associated with observations from India, South ...America, and South Africa. This is due to lack of CV observations but may also be in part due to long distances between them and other laboratories...were also analyzed by site. Daily averages of all the GPS data observed from satellites in one hemisphere (of direction north, south , east, or west

  16. Building personal maps from GPS data.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lin; Patterson, Donald J; Fox, Dieter; Kautz, Henry

    2006-12-01

    In this article we discuss an assisted cognition information technology system that can learn personal maps customized for each user and infer his daily activities and movements from raw GPS data. The system uses discriminative and generative models for different parts of this task. A discriminative relational Markov network is used to extract significant places and label them; a generative dynamic Bayesian network is used to learn transportation routines, and infer goals and potential user errors at real time. We focus on the basic structures of the models and briefly discuss the inference and learning techniques. Experiments show that our system is able to accurately extract and label places, predict the goals of a person, and recognize situations in which the user makes mistakes, such as taking a wrong bus.

  17. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  18. A rubidium clock for GPS. [breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design objectives and approach; the more important design features; the signal parameters and error budget; and early test results in the development of a second-source rubidium frequency standard for use in the GPS navigation satellites are discussed. Tests of a breadboard version of the RFS show that the measured time-domain stability is within the goal specification. The results are uncorrected for the conribution of the reference and are probably limited by the reference stability in the medium term region. The Rb reference is bbetter in the medium term region, but the Cs reference is etter at 10,000 seconds and longer, probably because of the barometric sensitivity of the rubidium reference unit.

  19. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  20. Surface deformation in Houston, Texas using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelkemeir, Richard; Khan, Shuhab D.; Burke, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    Surface deformation in the Houston area has been quantified by using a variety of methods including LIDAR, InSAR, extensometers, drilling (to approximately 100 m), and Ground Penetrating Radar. In this paper we report on GPS data acquired during the period between 1995 and 2005 that found evidence of ongoing subsidence (up to - 56 mm/year) in northwestern Houston and of possible horizontal surface movement towards the Gulf of Mexico (up to 6 mm/year). We describe the methods of data-processing used in the study and speculate on the possibility that the active elevation of salt domes, mainly at the south and east of the city, may indirectly influence other surface movements including fault movements and subsidence over areas > 1 km 2. Making use of our observations and analysis could help in natural hazard mitigation in the Houston area and possibly also indicate approaches to surface subsidence study that might be used in other urban areas.

  1. Topological Path Planning in GPS Trajectory Data

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Padraig

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel solution to the problem of computing a set of topologically inequivalent paths between two points in a space given a set of samples drawn from that space. Specifically, these paths are homotopy inequivalent where homotopy is a topological equivalence relation. This is achieved by computing a basis for the group of homology inequivalent loops in the space. An additional distinct element is then computed where this element corresponds to a loop which passes through the points in question. The set of paths is subsequently obtained by taking the orbit of this element acted on by the group of homology inequivalent loops. Using a number of spaces, including a street network where the samples are GPS trajectories, the proposed method is demonstrated to accurately compute a set of homotopy inequivalent paths. The applications of this method include path and coverage planning. PMID:28009817

  2. Some applications of GPS timing information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yinbai

    1994-01-01

    GPS Satellites transmit two independent signals. One is C/A code (course acquisition signal) which could be utilized by all civilian users. This service is called a Standard Positioning Service (SPS). Another is P code (precise signal) that could be only accessed by those authorized users. The service is called a precise positioning service (PPS). SPS C/A code users can navigate with accuracy of approximately 100 m and timing accuracy of about 250-300 ns (1 sigma). Such timing accuracy is not enough for precision time and frequency value transfer. For this reason we must do some research work to improve the SPS C/A code accuracy which SPS users can get. This paper presents our recent progress on timing information analysis, its data processing and its timing and frequency measurement applications.

  3. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  4. GPS Velocity and Strain Rate Fields in Southwest Anatolia from Repeated GPS Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Saffet; Şahin, Muhammed; Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Gülal, Engin; Telli, Ali Kazım

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006 to estimate current crustal deformation of this tectonically active region. GPS data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and velocity and strain rate fields were estimated in the study area. The measurements showed velocities of 15–30 mm/yr toward the southwest and strain values up to 0.28–8.23×10−8. Results showed that extension has been determined in the Burdur-Isparta region. In this study, all of strain data reveal an extensional neotectonic regime through the northeast edge of the Isparta Angle despite the previously reported compressional neotectonic regime. Meanwhile, results showed some small differences relatively with the 2006 model of Reilinger et al. As a result, active tectonic movements, in agreement with earthquake fault plane solutions showed important activity. PMID:22573998

  5. Comparison of GPS receiver DCB estimation methods using a GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Park, Jong-Uk; Min Roh, Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Two approaches for receiver differential code biases (DCB) estimation using the GPS data obtained from the Korean GPS network (KGN) in South Korea are suggested: the relative and single (absolute) methods. The relative method uses a GPS network, while the single method determines DCBs from a single station only. Their performance was assessed by comparing the receiver DCB values obtained from the relative method with those estimated by the single method. The daily averaged receiver DCBs obtained from the two different approaches showed good agreement for 7 days. The root mean square (RMS) value of those differences is 0.83 nanoseconds (ns). The standard deviation of the receiver DCBs estimated by the relative method was smaller than that of the single method. From these results, it is clear that the relative method can obtain more stable receiver DCBs compared with the single method over a short-term period. Additionally, the comparison between the receiver DCBs obtained by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and those of the IGS Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) showed a good agreement at 0.3 ns. As the accuracy of DCB values significantly affects the accuracy of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), more studies are needed to ensure the reliability and stability of the estimated receiver DCBs.

  6. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  7. Effects of Nickel Doping on the Multiferroic and Magnetic Phases of MnWO 4

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, N.; Lorenz, B.; Lv, B.; ...

    2015-12-15

    There are various orders in multiferroic materials with a frustrated spiral spin modulation inducing a ferroelectric state are extremely sensitive to small perturbations such as magnetic and electric fields, external pressure, or chemical substitutions. A classical multiferroic, the mineral Hubnerite with chemical formula MnWO4, shows three different magnetic phases at low temperature. The intermediate phase between 7.5K < T < 12.7K is multiferroic and ferroelectricity is induced by an inversion symmetry breaking spiral Mn-spin order and strong spin-lattice interactions. Furthermore, the substitution of Ni2+ (spin 1) for Mn2+ (spin 5/2) in MnWO4 and its effects on the magnetic and multiferroicmore » phases are studied. The ferroelectric phase is stabilized for low Ni content (up to 10%). Upon further Ni doping, the polarization in the ferroelectric phase is quickly suppressed while a collinear and commensurate magnetic phase, characteristic of the magnetic structure in NiWO4, appears first at higher temperature, gradually extends to lower temperature, and becomes the ground state above 30% doping. Between 10% and 30%, the multiferroic phase coexists with the collinear commensurate phase. In this concentration region, the spin spiral plane is close to the a-b plane which explains the drop of the ferroelectric polarization. Finally, the phase diagram of Mn1-xNixWO4 is derived by a combination of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electric polarization, and neutron scattering measurements.« less

  8. Formation and electrochemical characterization of anodic ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide nanotubular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Stuart R.; Raja, Krishnan S.

    2014-06-01

    ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide nanotubes were synthesized by a simple electrochemical anodization route. The oxide nanotubes contained a mixture of metastable hexagonal WO3 and monoclinic (and orthorhombic) ZrO2 phases, as well as a mixed-oxide ZrW2O8 phase that showed a metastable tetragonal symmetry. Evaluation of photo-activity of the materials showed generation of photo-potentials of -85 mV and -230 mV in the as-anodized and annealed conditions. Because of the mismatch in the band edge positions of the WO3 and ZrO2 phases and the resultant relaxation of photo-generated charge carriers, no significant photo-current density could be observed. The arrays of oxide nanotubes are considered for electrochemical capacitor application because of their morphology-assisted fast charge/discharge kinetics and large surface area. Presence of a large concentration of charge defects (on the order of 1021 cm-3) and the reported high proton conductivity of the ZrO2-WO3 mixed oxide rendered high capacitance, which decreased with an increase in the scan rate of cyclic voltammetry. The highest measured capacitance was 40.03 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 10 mV/s and the lowest was 1.93 mF/cm2 at 1 V/s in 1 M sulfuric acid solution.

  9. Environmentally friendly aqueous solution synthesis of hierarchical CaWO4 microspheres at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshou; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Chengyan; Zhang, Baoyou; Shao, Wenzhu

    2008-03-01

    An environmentally friendly route for the synthesis of hierarchical CaWO4 microspheres with novel morphology at room temperature has been successfully developed. CaCl2 and Na2WO4 were used as reaction regents, and distilled water was used as an environmentally friendly solvent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. This green wet-chemical route provides a simple, one-step, low-cost approach for the large-scale synthesis of hierarchical CaWO4 microspheres with relatively uniform diameters of 3-6 microm. The hierarchical microspheres are built up with numerous nanorods with an average diameter of 50 nm, which are radially oriented to the microsphere center. SEM observations of different intermediates indicate the possible growth process, in which the hierarchical structure growth is from nuclei through kayak-like, rod-like, peanut-like, dumbbell-like, and peach-like structures to final microspheres, via "self-assembled preferential end growth" of kayak-like particles in aqueous solution. The hierarchical CaWO4 microspheres exhibit a strong, broad blue emission peak of 412 nm.

  10. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity

    DOE PAGES

    Reyes-Gil, Karla R.; Stephens, Zachary D.; Stavila, Vitalie; ...

    2015-01-06

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NT) with WO3 electrodeposited on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its Ti substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. Several adhesion layers were tested, finding that a paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length and WO3 concentration on the EC performancemore » were studied. As a result, the composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast, and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2 materials« less

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity in anodized WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, M.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Bayati, R.; Eftekhari-Yekta, B.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, TiO2 and WO3-grafted TiO2 nanotubes were grown via anodizing of titanium substrates in tungstate containing electrolytes. The samples were characterized in detail by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry techniques. Besides, photocatalytic characteristics were evaluated through measuring the degradation rate of 4-chlorophenol to establish a correlation between structure and photochemical properties. We were able to control morphology and growth mode of nanotubes from a tubular to a worm-like structure by changing the electrolyte composition. The samples possessed an anatase-rutile matrix where the anatase/rutile ratio was found to increase with the concentration of tungstate in the electrolyte. We attributed this observation to change in electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and the heat generated on the substrates. It was unambiguously revealed that a composite of WO3 and TiO2 forms and, in parallel, tungsten is doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO2. The maximum photocatalytic reaction rate constant for TiO2 and WO3-TiO2 samples was determined to be 0.0131 and 0.0174 min-1 respectively. The grafting TiO2 nanotubes with WO3 enhances the photocatalytic activity mainly due to the hindrance of charge carrier recombination and the formation of a more acidic surface. We established a correlation between structure, stoichiometry, and photocatalytic characteristics of nanotubes.

  12. Simple route to (NH4)(x)WO3 nanorods for near infrared absorption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chongshen; Yin, Shu; Dong, Qiang; Sato, Tsugio

    2012-06-07

    Described here is how to synthesize one-dimensional ammonium tungsten bronze ((NH(4))(x)WO(3)) by a facile solvothermal approach in which ethylene glycol and acetic acid were employed as solvents and ammonium paratungstate was used as a starting material, as well as how to develop the near infrared absorption properties of (NH(4))(x)WO(3) nanorods for application as a solar light control filter. The as-obtained product was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry (TG), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis-NIR spectra. The SEM and TEM images clearly revealed that the obtained sample possessed rod/fiber-like morphologies with diameters around 120 nm. As determined by UV-Vis-NIR optical measurement, the thin film consisted of (NH(4))(x)WO(3) nanoparticles, which can selectively transmit most visible lights, but strongly absorb the near-infrared (NIR) lights and ultraviolet rays. These interesting optical properties make the (NH(4))(x)WO(3) nanorods suitable for the solar control windows.

  13. Electrochemical Performance of Morphologically Different Bi2WO6 Nanostructures Synthesized via a Hydrothermal Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Haimin; Su, Junyan; Wang, Xiangxian

    2017-01-01

    Morphologically different Bi2WO6 nanostructures have been synthesized via a hydrothermal route, where the morphology was tailored by varying the pH value of the precursor solution. The samples prepared at pH 1, 7, and 11 consisted of flower-like hierarchical structures with average diameter of 7 μm, irregular flake-like structures with average thickness of 90 nm, and uniform spherical structures with average size of 85 nm, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared Bi2WO6 samples was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In 1 M KOH electrolyte at current density of 0.5 mA cm-2, the specific capacitance of the Bi2WO6 with flower-like hierarchical, flake-like, and spherical structure was measured to be 255 F g-1, 214 F g-1, and 412 F g-1, respectively. After 850 charge-discharge cycles at current density of 3 mA cm-2, the capacitance of the three samples remained at 87%, 78%, and 95% of the initial value, respectively. Among the three types of Bi2WO6 morphology, the spherical structure delivered the best electrochemical performance.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and NH3 gas sensing property of WO3 nanorods at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dien Nguyen, Dac; Vuong Dang, Duc; Chien Nguyen, Duc

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional self-assembled single-crystalline hexagonal tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanostructures were synthesized by wet chemical-assisted hydrothermal processing at 120 °C for 24 h using sodium tungstate and hydrochloric acid. Urchin-like hierarchical nanorods (petal size: ∼16 nm diameter and 110 nm length) were obtained. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Sensors based on WO3 nanorods were fabricated by coating them on SiO2/Si substrate attached with Pt interdigitated electrodes. NH3 gas-sensing properties of WO3 nanorods were measured at different temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 350 °C and the response was evaluated as a function of ammonia gas concentration. The gas-sensing results reveal that WO3 nanorods sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity to NH3 at low operating temperature (50 °C). The maximum response reached at 50 °C was 192 for 250 ppm NH3, with response and recovery times of 10 min and 2 min, respectively.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Ammonia Sensing Properties of WO3/Fe2O3 Nanorod Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dien, Nguyen Dac; Phuoc, Luong Huu; Hien, Vu Xuan; Vuong, Dang Duc; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2017-01-01

    WO3 nanorods (NRs) and α-Fe2O3 NRs were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment. Composites of these materials were created by mixing with ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 in weight. Morphology, structure and composition characteristics of the WO3/Fe2O3 NRs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results of sensing measurements indicated that the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 2:1 exhibited fairly good sensitivity toward NH3 at 300°C and the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 1:1 can be used as a NH3 sensor with an operating temperature of 350°C. Selectivity and response-recovery times are suitable for practical applications. Finally, the mechanism for the improvement in the gas-sensing property was discussed.

  16. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO3) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O2 atmosphere. Ti:WO3 thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10-3-5.0 × 10-3 mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm2) and tungsten (3 W/cm2) were kept constant. Ti:WO3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10-3 mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm2/C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: -22.01 mC/cm2, Qa: 17.72 mC/cm2), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (-1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO3 films.

  17. Characterization of MeWO 4 (Me = Ba, Sr and Ca) nanocrystallines prepared by sonochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtem, Titipun; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai

    2008-09-01

    Metal tungstates (MeWO 4, Me = Ba, Sr and Ca) were successfully prepared using the corresponding Me(NO 3) 2·2H 2O and Na 2WO 4·2H 2O in ethylene glycol by the 5 h sonochemical process. The tungstate phases with scheelite structure were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Their calculated lattice parameters are in accord with those of the JCPDS cards. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of nanoparticles composing the products. Their average sizes are 42.0 ± 10.4, 18.5 ± 5.1 and 13.1 ± 3.3 nm for Me = Ba, Sr and Ca, respectively. Interplanar spaces of the crystals were also characterized with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). Their crystallographic planes are aligned in systematic array. Six different vibration wavenumbers were detected using Raman spectrometer and are specified as ν1(A g), ν3(B g), ν3(E g), ν4(B g), ν2(A g) and free rotation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra provided the evidence of scheelite structure with W-O anti-symmetric stretching vibration of [WO 4] 2- tetrahedrons at 786-883 cm -1. Photoluminescence emission of the products was detected over the range of 384-416 nm.

  18. Lattice dynamics study of scheelite tungstates under high pressure I. BaWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjón, F. J.; Errandonea, D.; Garro, N.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Radescu, S.; López-Solano, J.; Mujica, A.; Muñoz, A.

    2006-10-01

    Room-temperature Raman scattering has been measured in barium tungstate (BaWO4) up to 16GPa . We report the pressure dependence of all the Raman active first-order phonons of the tetragonal scheelite phase ( BaWO4-I , space group I41/a ), which is stable at normal conditions. As pressure increases the Raman spectrum undergoes significant changes around 6.9GPa due to the onset of the structural phase transition to the monoclinic BaWO4-II phase (space group P21/n ). This transition is only completed above 9.5GPa . A further change in the spectrum is observed at 7.5GPa related to a scheelite-to-fergusonite transition. The scheelite, BaWO4-II , and fergusonite phases coexist up to 9.0GPa due to the sluggishness of the I→II phase transition. Further to the experimental study, we have performed ab initio lattice dynamics calculations that have greatly helped us in assigning and discussing the pressure behavior of the observed Raman modes of the three phases.

  19. Lattice dynamics study of scheelite tungstates under high pressure II. PbWO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjon, F. J.; Errandonea, D.; Garro, N.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; López-Solano, J.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Radescu, S.; Mujica, A.; Muñoz, A.

    2006-10-01

    Room-temperature Raman scattering has been measured in lead tungstate up to 17GPa . We report the pressure dependence of all the Raman modes of the tetragonal scheelite phase ( PbWO4-I or stolzite, space group I41/a ), which is stable at ambient conditions. Upon compression the Raman spectrum undergoes significant changes around 6.2GPa due to the onset of a partial structural phase transition to the monoclinic PbWO4-III phase (space group P21/n ). Further changes in the spectrum occur at 7.9GPa , related to a scheelite-to-fergusonite transition. This transition is observed due to the sluggishness and kinetic hindrance of the I→III transition. Consequently, we found the coexistence of the scheelite, PbWO4-III , and fergusonite phases from 7.9to9GPa , and of the last two phases up to 14.6GPa . We have performed ab initio lattice-dynamics calculations, which have greatly helped us in assigning the Raman modes of the three phases and discussing their pressure dependence. The Raman modes of the free WO4 molecule are discussed.

  20. NO{sub 2} gas sensing of flame-made Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} thick films

    SciTech Connect

    Samerjai, Thanittha; Tamaekong, Nittaya; Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2014-06-01

    Unloaded WO{sub 3} and 0.25–1.0 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BET surface area (SSA{sub BET}) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the sensors based on unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated. The results showed that the gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. Especially, 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} than the others at low operating temperature of 150 °C. - Graphical abstract: The response of 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO3 sensor was 637 towards NO{sub 2} concentration of 10 ppm at 150 °C. - Highlights: • Unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). • Gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. • 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} at low operating temperature of 150 °C.

  1. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Delgado, N A; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Maya-Treviño, L; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Guzman-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol-gel method with two different percentages of WO3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO2 was also prepared by sol-gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRUV-vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSABET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO3/TiO2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO3/TiO2) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO3/TiO2, respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO3/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO3/TiO2 and bare TiO2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO3/TiO2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability.

  2. Synthesis of carbon doped WO3·0.33H2O hierarchical photocatalyst with improved photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Gang; Yu, Yaoguang; Zhou, Yansong; He, Fang

    2016-01-01

    A carbon doping method is developed to overcome the drawback of conventional carbon doping method. The carbon dopant is synthesized by treating carbon with dilute nitric acid through hydrothermal process. Carbon-doped WO3·0.33H2O (Csbnd WO3·0.33H2O) is obtained by adding the carbon dopant solution, and then through an additional hydrothermal process. Based on XRD, Raman and XPS, carbon have been incorporated into the interstitial position of WO3·0.33H2O unit cell rather than substitution of oxygen in lattice of WO3·0.33H2O, which induces distortion of WO6 octahedron and lattice defect. In addition, carbon doping also induces the emergence of new level above the valence band. The new level increases the migration pathway of photo-generated carriers, which reduces the recombination rate of photo-generated carriers. The changes of band structure, distortion of WO6 octahedron and lattice defect are beneficial to improve the photocatalytic performance of WO3·0.33H2O. Compared with pristine WO3·0.33H2O, Csbnd WO3·0.33H2O display better photocatalytic performance on degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), which include the faster de-ethylation process and cycloreversion process. Moreover, the experiments of radical quenchers confirmed that the h+ display the main influence on degradation of RhB. This study implies that carbon can be doped into some metal oxide hydrates through a mild preparation process, which provides a possible way for the synthesis of carbon doped thermal unstable materials.

  3. High photocatalytic performance of BiOI/Bi2WO6 toward toluene and Reactive Brilliant Red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Cui, Yumin; Hong, Wenshan

    2013-01-01

    BiOI sensitized nano-Bi2WO6 photocatalysts with different BiOI contents were successfully synthesized by a facile deposition method at room temperature, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of BiOI/Bi2WO6 was evaluated by the photo-degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red (X-3B) in suspended solution and toluene in gas phase. It has been shown that the BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalysts exhibit a coexistence of both tetragonal BiOI and orthorhombic Bi2WO6 phases. With increasing BiOI content, the absorption intensity of BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalysts increases in the 380-600 nm region and the absorption edge shifts significantly to longer wavelengths as compared to pure Bi2WO6. The 13.2% BiOI/Bi2WO6 catalyst exhibits obviously higher UV and visible light photocatalytic activities than commercial P25, pure Bi2WO6 and BiOI, for the photodegradation of toluene and X-3B. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the fact that the proper BiOI sensitized nano-Bi2WO6 increase its BET surface area, decrease band-gap energy, enhance absorption in the 380-600 nm region and inhibit the recombination of photo-induced carriers.

  4. Observation on long afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Haoyi; Hu, Yihua; Kang, Fengwen; Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ju, Guifang; Mu, Zhongfei

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} is observed in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. The main emission of the afterglow is ascribed to the {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 6}. Emission due to {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} is weak. The cross-relaxation dominate the afterglow emission and it enhances the transition from {sup 5}D{sub 4} whereas from {sup 5}D{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A green long afterglow is observed from Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two traps which may have a strong influence on the afterglow properties are revealed by TL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism model based on energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} followed by cross-relaxation is proposed. -- Abstract: The Tb{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphors are synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that small amount of Tb{sup 3+} does not have a significant influence on the structure of CaWO{sub 4}. A broad absorption band of the WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group is observed from photoluminescence and the energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} ions induces the f-f transition. The cross-relaxation between two adjacent Tb{sup 3+} ions weakens {sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions and enhances the {sup 5}D{sub 4}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions, leading to a green long afterglow of the phosphors. The thermoluminescence curves centered around 75 Degree-Sign C reveal the trap depth for afterglow generation is about 0.74-0.77 eV. The optimum Tb{sup 3+} concentration for afterglow properties is about 1%. A deep hole trap is induced when Tb{sup 3+} concentration exceeds 1% and it suppresses the thermoluminescence and the decay properties.

  5. Analysis of volcanic plume detection on Mount Etna through GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranzulla, Massimo; Cannavò, Flavio; Scollo, Simona; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Immé, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    A permanent and continuous GPS network developed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (Italy) was used to study its capability in detecting volcanic plumes produced during Etna explosive eruptions. Indeed, the electron plasma and neutral atmosphere, water vapor, hydrometeors and particulates induce propagation path delays in the GPS signal. The existing GPS network consists of 35 permanent stations located on the volcano flanks and is currently used to detect ground displacements of the volcano. We processed the GPS data coming from the Etna network using the GAMIT package developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We used the undifferenced post-fit phase residuals as input in testing for the presence of a volcanic plume. Four robust cross-statistics were applied to assert the plume detection by GPS signals with 99% of confidence. The GPS network was able to detect the volcanic plume occurred on 4 September 2007. Here, we extend the proposed method to the lava fountains of Etna recorded in 2012. During this period Mount Etna produced more than twenty lava fountain episodes, forming volcanic plumes from few to tens kilometers of altitude. Starting from the previous experiences in which we considered a simplified paraboloid model to represent the geometry of the volcanic plume in atmosphere to evaluate the GPS satellite-station paths that crossed the plume, here we improve the method taking into account the results of simulations of volcanic ash dispersal in order to have a more realistic volcanic plume representation.

  6. Application of neural networks to South African GPS TEC modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre J.; Opperman, Ben D. L.

    2009-06-01

    The propagation of radio signals in the Earth's atmosphere is dominantly affected by the ionosphere due to its dispersive nature. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provides relevant information that leads to the derivation of total electron content (TEC) which can be considered as the ionosphere's measure of ionisation. This paper presents part of a feasibility study for the development of a Neural Network (NN) based model for the prediction of South African GPS derived TEC. The South African GPS receiver network is operated and maintained by the Chief Directorate Surveys and Mapping (CDSM) in Cape Town, South Africa. Vertical total electron content (VTEC) was calculated for four GPS receiver stations using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) model. Factors that influence TEC were then identified and used to derive input parameters for the NN. The well established factors used are seasonal variation, diurnal variation, solar activity and magnetic activity. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from both the NN model and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2001) with GPS TEC revealed that the IRI provides more accurate predictions than the NN model during the spring equinoxes. However, on average the NN model predicts GPS TEC more accurately than the IRI model over the GPS locations considered within South Africa.

  7. Robust Real-Time Wide-Area Differential GPS Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Lichten, Stephen M. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Muellerschoen, Ronald J. (Inventor); Wu, Sien-Chong (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device for providing superior differential GPS positioning data. The system includes a group of GPS receiving ground stations covering a wide area of the Earth's surface. Unlike other differential GPS systems wherein the known position of each ground station is used to geometrically compute an ephemeris for each GPS satellite. the present system utilizes real-time computation of satellite orbits based on GPS data received from fixed ground stations through a Kalman-type filter/smoother whose output adjusts a real-time orbital model. ne orbital model produces and outputs orbital corrections allowing satellite ephemerides to be known with considerable greater accuracy than from die GPS system broadcasts. The modeled orbits are propagated ahead in time and differenced with actual pseudorange data to compute clock offsets at rapid intervals to compensate for SA clock dither. The orbital and dock calculations are based on dual frequency GPS data which allow computation of estimated signal delay at each ionospheric point. These delay data are used in real-time to construct and update an ionospheric shell map of total electron content which is output as part of the orbital correction data. thereby allowing single frequency users to estimate ionospheric delay with an accuracy approaching that of dual frequency users.

  8. Applications of Clocks to Space Navigation & "Planetary GPS"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to fly atomic clocks on GPS satellites has profoundly defined the capabilities and limitations of GPS in near-Earth applications. It is likely that future infrastructure for Lunar and Mars applications will be constrained by financial factors. The development of a low cost, small, high performance space clock -- or ultrahigh performance space clocks -- could revolutionize and drive the entire approach to GPS-like systems at the Moon (or Mars), and possibly even change the future of GPS at Earth. Many system trade studies are required. The performance of future GPS-like tracking systems at the Moon or Mars will depend critically on clock performance, availability of inertial sensors, and constellation coverage. Example: present-day GPS carry 10(exp -13) clocks and require several updates per day. With 10(exp -15) clocks, a constellation at Mars could operate autonomously with updates just once per month. Use of GPS tracking at the Moon should be evaluated in a technical study.

  9. Accuracy of High-Rate GPS for Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Oberlander, D.; Baena, R.; Ekstrom, G.

    2006-01-01

    We built a device for translating a GPS antenna on a positioning table to simulate the ground motions caused by an earthquake. The earthquake simulator is accurate to better than 0.1 mm in position, and provides the "ground truth" displacements for assessing the technique of high-rate GPS. We found that the root-mean-square error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates over the 15-min duration of the simulated seismic event was 2.5 mm, with approximately 96% of the observations in error by less than 5 mm, and is independent of GPS antenna motion. The error spectrum of the GPS estimates is approximately flicker noise, with a 50% decorrelation time for the position error of approx.1.6 s. We that, for the particular event simulated, the spectrum of dependent error in the GPS measurements. surface deformations exceeds the GPS error spectrum within a finite band. More studies are required to determine whether a generally optimal bandwidth exists for a target group of seismic events.

  10. The infrared properties of the GPS and CSS radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-02-01

    I review the results of three Spitzer studies of GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies. The luminosity of the IR continuum and the high ionization lines confirm that some GPS/CSS can have central engines which are similar to those of the extended powerful radio sources. This is consistent with the hypothesis that some GPS/CSS can evolve to become the large-scale sources. Warm H_2 is common in the GPS/CSS sources consistent with feedback via jet-ISM interaction. The GPS/CSS seem to have higher star formation rates than typical (2JY + 3CRR) radio sources. This should be confirmed with a larger sample. If compact sources interact with dense, clumpy star forming clouds and if the interaction with the dense medium sufficiently enhances the radio power, these star forming galaxies with enhanced radio emission will be selected for the current bright samples of GPS and CSS sources. This will increase the number of GPS and CSS sources which are observed to be forming stars. If radio sources have longer lives and/or star formation is more common in large radio galaxies, the need for a new population of star forming compact sources with enhanced radio emission is reduced.

  11. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were <10 m, almost 1% of the errors were >50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  12. The assemblage WO2 + H2O as a steady-state hydrogen source in moderately reduced hydrothermal experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cygan, G.L.; I-Ming, Chou

    1990-01-01

    The values of fH2 for the assemblage WO2 + WO2.72 + H2O (designated as WO) have been measured in sealed Au capsules under an external pressure of 2 kbar CH4 and between 650 and 800??C using Ag-AgBr-HBr sensors of fH2. The fH2 values obtained can be represented by the equation log(fWOH2)2kbar,T(??0.06) = (-1924.9 ??(T,K) + 4.06 and are found to be slightly greater than those associated with the previously calibrated C-CH4 buffer. -from Authors

  13. On the low-lying states of WO - A comparison with CrO and MoO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelin, C. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The four low-lying states of WO were investigated and compared with similar states of CrO and MoO. For all these systems the ground state is 5 Pi, but the ordering of the upper states is different between WO and either CrO or MoO. The difference in the state ordering arises in part from the fact that in WO all of the states are formed from W(+) in a d4S1 configuration, whereas in both CrO and MoO some states are formed from the d5 configuration and others from the d4S1 configuration.

  14. Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction study of lightly doped Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Sanhita; Mukherjee, G. D.; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata; Oishi, S.

    2011-03-21

    Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction studies have been carried out on nonstoichiometric lightly doped sodium tungsten bronze (Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} for x=0.025). The investigation reveals a structural modification around 230 K. Although the high and low temperature phases are monoclinic but at low temperature the corner sharing WO{sub 6} octahedra get significantly distorted due to displacement of tungsten and oxygen atoms from its mean position. This structural modification induces polaron formation in Na{sub 0.025}WO{sub 3} below 230 K.

  15. Theory of the Color Change of NaxWO3 as a Function of Na-Charge Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical investigations of the coloration of WO{sub 3} upon charge insertion using sodium tungsten bronze (Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}) as a model system. Our results explain well the systematic color change of Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} from dark blue to violet, red-orange, and finally to golden yellow as sodium concentration x increases from 0.3 to unity. Proper accounts for both the interband and the intraband contributions to the optical response are found to be very important for a detailed understanding of the coloration mechanism in this system.

  16. Unprecedented Dawson isomerism induced by a central [WO5] and four 45°-rotated belt square pyramids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Dong, Huan-Li; Sang, Rui-Li; Xu, Li

    2012-12-28

    The seventh type of Wells-Dawson isomer, δ-[(WO(5))W(17)Cu(H(2)O)O(55)](10-) (1a) was obtained as a consequence of the formation of the first central square-pyramidal [WO(5)] moiety that results in a 45° rotation of the four belt [CuO(5)]/[WO(5)] square pyramids, establishing a new type of WD isomerism involving the rotation of the belt polyhedra, that were previously believed to stay unchanged.

  17. Why GPS makes distances bigger than they are

    PubMed Central

    Ranacher, Peter; Brunauer, Richard; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Van der Spek, Stefan; Reich, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most important sensors for movement analysis. GPS is widely used to record the trajectories of vehicles, animals and human beings. However, all GPS movement data are affected by both measurement and interpolation errors. In this article we show that measurement error causes a systematic bias in distances recorded with a GPS; the distance between two points recorded with a GPS is – on average – bigger than the true distance between these points. This systematic ‘overestimation of distance’ becomes relevant if the influence of interpolation error can be neglected, which in practice is the case for movement sampled at high frequencies. We provide a mathematical explanation of this phenomenon and illustrate that it functionally depends on the autocorrelation of GPS measurement error (C). We argue that C can be interpreted as a quality measure for movement data recorded with a GPS. If there is a strong autocorrelation between any two consecutive position estimates, they have very similar error. This error cancels out when average speed, distance or direction is calculated along the trajectory. Based on our theoretical findings we introduce a novel approach to determine C in real-world GPS movement data sampled at high frequencies. We apply our approach to pedestrian trajectories and car trajectories. We found that the measurement error in the data was strongly spatially and temporally autocorrelated and give a quality estimate of the data. Most importantly, our findings are not limited to GPS alone. The systematic bias and its implications are bound to occur in any movement data collected with absolute positioning if interpolation error can be neglected. PMID:27019610

  18. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-03

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  19. Why GPS makes distances bigger than they are.

    PubMed

    Ranacher, Peter; Brunauer, Richard; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Van der Spek, Stefan; Reich, Siegfried

    2016-02-01

    Global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most important sensors for movement analysis. GPS is widely used to record the trajectories of vehicles, animals and human beings. However, all GPS movement data are affected by both measurement and interpolation errors. In this article we show that measurement error causes a systematic bias in distances recorded with a GPS; the distance between two points recorded with a GPS is - on average - bigger than the true distance between these points. This systematic 'overestimation of distance' becomes relevant if the influence of interpolation error can be neglected, which in practice is the case for movement sampled at high frequencies. We provide a mathematical explanation of this phenomenon and illustrate that it functionally depends on the autocorrelation of GPS measurement error (C). We argue that C can be interpreted as a quality measure for movement data recorded with a GPS. If there is a strong autocorrelation between any two consecutive position estimates, they have very similar error. This error cancels out when average speed, distance or direction is calculated along the trajectory. Based on our theoretical findings we introduce a novel approach to determine C in real-world GPS movement data sampled at high frequencies. We apply our approach to pedestrian trajectories and car trajectories. We found that the measurement error in the data was strongly spatially and temporally autocorrelated and give a quality estimate of the data. Most importantly, our findings are not limited to GPS alone. The systematic bias and its implications are bound to occur in any movement data collected with absolute positioning if interpolation error can be neglected.

  20. Polymorphism in Strontium Tungstate SrWO4 under Quasi-Hydrostatic Compression.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Perez, David; Errandonea, Daniel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Placida; Muñoz, Alfonso; Lacomba-Perales, Raul; Polian, Alain; Meng, Yue

    2016-10-03

    The structural and vibrational properties of SrWO4 have been studied experimentally up to 27 and 46 GPa, respectively, by angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements as well as using ab initio calculations. The existence of four polymorphs upon quasi-hydrostatic compression is reported. The three phase transitions were found at 11.5, 19.0, and 39.5 GPa. The ambient-pressure SrWO4 tetragonal scheelite-type structure (S.G. I41/a) undergoes a transition to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure (S.G. I2/a) at 11.5 GPa with a 1.5% volume decrease. Subsequently, at 19.0 GPa, another structural transformation takes place. Our calculations indicate two possible post-fergusonite phases, one monoclinic and the other orthorhombic. In the diffraction experiments, we observed the theoretically predicted monoclinic LaTaO4-type phase coexisting with the fergusonite-type phase up to 27 GPa. The coexistence of the two phases and the large volume collapse at the transition confirm a kinetic hindrance typical of first-order phase transitions. Significant changes in Raman spectra suggest a third pressure-induced transition at 39.5 GPa. The conclusions extracted from the experiments are complemented and supported by ab initio calculations. Our data provides insight into the structural mechanism of the first transition, with the formation of two additional W-O contacts. The fergusonite-type phase can be therefore considered as a structural bridge between the scheelite structure, composed of [WO4] tetrahedra, and the new higher pressure phases, which contain [WO6] octahedra. All the observed phases are compatible with the high-pressure structural systematics predicted for ABO4 compounds using crystal-chemistry arguments such as the diagram proposed by Bastide.