Science.gov

Sample records for graal experience conception

  1. Nuclear multifragmentation by 700–1500 MeV photons: New data of GRAAL experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nedorezov, V. G. Lapik, A. M.; Collaboration: GRAAL Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    The cross sections of carbon nucleus photodisintegration into protons and neutrons with high multiplicity for photon energies from 700 to 1500 MeV were measured. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the GRAAL setup using the wide-aperture detector LAGRANγE. It was shown that multifragmentation up to complete disintegration into separate nucleons is initiated by elementary reactions of meson photoproduction with a subsequent intranuclear cascade.

  2. L-GRAAL: Lagrangian graphlet-based network aligner

    PubMed Central

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Discovering and understanding patterns in networks of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a central problem in systems biology. Alignments between these networks aid functional understanding as they uncover important information, such as evolutionary conserved pathways, protein complexes and functional orthologs. A few methods have been proposed for global PPI network alignments, but because of NP-completeness of underlying sub-graph isomorphism problem, producing topologically and biologically accurate alignments remains a challenge. Results: We introduce a novel global network alignment tool, Lagrangian GRAphlet-based ALigner (L-GRAAL), which directly optimizes both the protein and the interaction functional conservations, using a novel alignment search heuristic based on integer programming and Lagrangian relaxation. We compare L-GRAAL with the state-of-the-art network aligners on the largest available PPI networks from BioGRID and observe that L-GRAAL uncovers the largest common sub-graphs between the networks, as measured by edge-correctness and symmetric sub-structures scores, which allow transferring more functional information across networks. We assess the biological quality of the protein mappings using the semantic similarity of their Gene Ontology annotations and observe that L-GRAAL best uncovers functionally conserved proteins. Furthermore, we introduce for the first time a measure of the semantic similarity of the mapped interactions and show that L-GRAAL also uncovers best functionally conserved interactions. In addition, we illustrate on the PPI networks of baker's yeast and human the ability of L-GRAAL to predict new PPIs. Finally, L-GRAAL's results are the first to show that topological information is more important than sequence information for uncovering functionally conserved interactions. Availability and implementation: L-GRAAL is coded in C++. Software is available at: http://bio-nets.doc.ic.ac.uk/L-GRAAL/. Contact: n

  3. graal: a Drosophila gene coding for several mosaic serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Munier, Anne Isabelle; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Janeway, Charles A; Doucet, Daniel; Capovilla, Maria; Lagueux, Marie

    2004-10-01

    Serine proteases play vital roles in several biological processes such as development and immunity. We have characterized Graal, a large multi-domain serine protease from Drosophila. Graal is spliced in at least three transcripts that are present throughout development. The domains found in Graal proteins are: chitin-binding domains (CBD), scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, low density lipoprotein receptor cysteine-rich (LDLR-CR) domains, histidine and proline-rich domains, a NGGYQPP-repeat domain and a serine protease domain. The last 2370 nucleotides of these RNAs are identical and encode a His-rich domain, two SRCR domains, two LDLR-CR domains and a protease domain. The transcription of graal is upregulated after fungal or bacterial infection. Analysis of the Iso1 (y;cn,sp,bw) strain shows that graal transcription is impaired in this fly line due to the insertion of a retrotransposon in the sixth exon. However, no phenotype could be observed consecutive to the absence of graal full length transcripts, particularly in the context of an immune challenge.

  4. Recent Results from the Graal and LEGS Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, Carlo

    2008-10-13

    The polarized and tagged Graal gamma-ray beam is obtained by backward Compton scattering of laser light on the high-energy electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. This technique, first developed for the Ladon beam on the storage ring Adone at LNF [1], provides gamma-ray beams with linear or circular polarizations close to one and well known. The Graal beam covers the energy region between 600 and 1500 MeV thus allowing the study of baryon resonances up to an energy of 1916 MeV, in large part by precision measurements of beam polarization asymmetries in meson photoproduction on the nucleons.

  5. SATS HVO Concept Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Williams, Daniel; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) in an effort to comprehensively validate tools and procedures intended to enable the Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept of operations. The SATS HVO procedures were developed to increase the rate of operations at non-towered, non-radar airports in near all-weather conditions. A key element of the design is the establishment of a volume of airspace around designated airports where pilots accept responsibility for self-separation. Flights operating at these airports, are given approach sequencing information computed by a ground based automated system. The SATS HVO validation experiment was conducted in the ATOL during the spring of 2004 in order to determine if a pilot can safely and proficiently fly an airplane while performing SATS HVO procedures. Comparative measures of flight path error, perceived workload and situation awareness were obtained for two types of scenarios. Baseline scenarios were representative of today s system utilizing procedure separation, where air traffic control grants one approach or departure clearance at a time. SATS HVO scenarios represented approaches and departure procedures as described in the SATS HVO concept of operations. Results from the experiment indicate that low time pilots were able to fly SATS HVO procedures and maintain self-separation as safely and proficiently as flying today's procedures.

  6. Concept Maps: Experiments on Dynamic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbentseva, Natalia; Safayeni, Frank; Canas, Alberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of map structure, concept quantification, and focus question on dynamic thinking during a Concept Map (CMap) construction task. The first experiment compared cyclic and hierarchical structures. The second experiment examined the impact of the quantification of the header concept in the map.…

  7. Fusion Concept Exploration Experiments at PPPL

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart Zweben; Samuel Cohen; Hantao Ji; Robert Kaita; Richard Majeski; Masaaki Yamada

    1999-05-01

    Small ''concept exploration'' experiments have for many years been an important part of the fusion research program at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). this paper describes some of the present and planned fusion concept exploration experiments at PPPL. These experiments are a University-scale research level, in contrast with the larger fusion devices at PPPL such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which are at ''proof-of-principle'' and ''proof-of-performance'' levels, respectively.

  8. Concepts for microgravity experiments utilizing gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Facemire, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The need for glovebox facilities on spacecraft in which microgravity materials processing experiments are performed is discussed. At present such facilities are being designed, and some of their capabilities are briefly described. A list of experiment concepts which would require or benefit from such facilities is presented.

  9. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…

  10. Nonlinear Circuit Concepts -- An Elementary Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matolyak, J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes equipment and procedures for an experiment using diodes to introduce non-linear electronic devices in a freshman physics laboratory. The experiment involves calculation and plotting of the characteristic-curve and load-line to predict the operating point and compare prediction to experimentally determined values. Background information…

  11. C-GRAAL: common-neighbors-based global GRAph ALignment of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Memišević, Vesna; Pržulj, Nataša

    2012-07-01

    Networks are an invaluable framework for modeling biological systems. Analyzing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks can provide insight into underlying cellular processes. It is expected that comparison and alignment of biological networks will have a similar impact on our understanding of evolution, biological function, and disease as did sequence comparison and alignment. Here, we introduce a novel pairwise global alignment algorithm called Common-neighbors based GRAph ALigner (C-GRAAL) that uses heuristics for maximizing the number of aligned edges between two networks and is based solely on network topology. As such, it can be applied to any type of network, such as social, transportation, or electrical networks. We apply C-GRAAL to align PPI networks of eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, as well as inter-species PPI networks, and we demonstrate that the resulting alignments expose large connected and functionally topologically aligned regions. We use the resulting alignments to transfer biological knowledge across species, successfully validating many of the predictions. Moreover, we show that C-GRAAL can be used to align human-pathogen inter-species PPI networks and that it can identify patterns of pathogen interactions with host proteins solely from network topology.

  12. Replication concepts for bioenergy research experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are some large and fundamental differences among disciplines related to the conversion of biomass to bioenergy, all scientific endeavors involve the use of biological feedstocks. As such, nearly every scientific experiment conducted in this area, regardless of the specific discipline, is...

  13. Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  14. Exobiology experiment concepts for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, L. D.; Devincenzi, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that simulate the primitive Earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  15. An Overburdened Term: Dewey's Concept of "Experience" as Curriculum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Jayson; Nelsen, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines Dewey's concept of "experience" in light of his analysis of industrial capitalism, his anthropological thinking, and his critique of early 20th century educational ideologies, giving the concept a more expansive meaning than what is typically represented in the educational literature. We also outline the specific curricular…

  16. Patient Experiences of Loneliness: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhe, Liisa; Kaunonen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is a painful experience for patients. To clarity the concept of patient loneliness, this study undertook an evolutionary concept analysis based on a literature search in the main relevant databases. We identified 7 dimensions in adult patients' experiences of loneliness. These dimensions of loneliness have different causes and theoretical foundations, which have different implications for patient care. Patients may be lonely in their different relationships, including those with nurses and doctors. Loneliness in relation to health care professionals is a new application of the concept of loneliness that provides a useful starting point for future research.

  17. Atmospheric guidance concepts for an aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Cerimele, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Higgins, J.

    1988-06-01

    Three atmospheric guidance concepts proposed for an aeroassist flight experiment are presented. The flight experiment will simulate a return from geosynchronous orbit by an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle and is proposed to be flown on board the Space Shuttle in 1992. The three guidance concepts include an analytic predictor/corrector, a numeric predictor/corrector, and an energy controller. The algorithms for the three guidance methods are developed and performance results are presented for the nominal case and for several cases dispersed from the nominal conditions.

  18. Proto-experiences and subjective experiences: classical and quantum concepts.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2008-03-01

    Deterministic reductive monism and non-reductive substance dualism are two opposite views for consciousness, and both have serious problems. An alternative view is needed. For this, we hypothesize that strings or elementary particles (fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) elemental proto-experiences (PEs) as phenomenal aspect, and (ii) mass, charge, and spin as material aspect. Elemental PEs are hypothesized to be the properties of elementary particles and their interactions, which are composed of irreducible fundamental subjective experiences (SEs)/PEs that are in superimposed form in elementary particles and in their interactions. Since SEs/PEs are superimposed, elementary particles are not specific to any SE/PE; they (and all inert matter) are carriers of SEs/PEs, and hence, appear as non-experiential material entities. Furthermore, our hypothesis is that matter and associated elemental PEs co-evolved and co-developed into neural-nets and associated neural-net PEs (neural Darminism), respectively. The signals related to neural PEs interact in a neural-net and neural-net PEs emerges from random process of self-organization. The neural-net PEs are a set of SEs embedded in the neural-net by a non-computational or non-algorithmic process. The non-specificity of elementary particles is transformed into the specificity of neural-nets by neural Darwinism. The specificity of SEs emerges when feedforward and feedback signal interacts in the neuropil and are dependent on wakefulness (i.e., activation) attention, re-entry between neural populations, working memory, stimulus at above threshold, and neural net PE signals. This PE-SE framework integrates reductive and non-reductive views, complements the existing models, bridges the explanatory gaps, and minimizes the problem of causation.

  19. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  20. The Beatrice experiment and the luminance concept in Dante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdea, R.

    1984-05-01

    An experiment suggested by Beatrice in Dante's Divine Comedy is analyzed to show that Dante was well aware of the knowledge of his time to the point of exploring concepts not understood in the 13th century. The experiment shows that the luminance of a spherical light source as perceived by the retina, is independent of the source distance. Three mirrors are used in the experimental set-up.

  1. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The minimum number of standardized (common) module concepts that will satisfy the experiment program for manned space stations at least cost is investigated. The module interfaces with other elements such as the space shuttle, ground stations, and the experiments themselves are defined. The total experiment module program resource and test requirements are also considered. The minimum number of common module concepts that will satisfy the program at least cost is found to be three, plus a propulsion slice and certain experiment-peculiar integration hardware. The experiment modules rely on the space station for operational, maintenance, and logistic support. They are compatible with both expendable and shuttle launch vehicles, and with servicing by shuttle, tug, or directly from the space station. A total experiment module program cost of approximately $2319M under the study assumptions is indicated. This total is made up of $838M for experiment module development and production, $806M for experiment equipment, and $675M for interface hardware, experiment integration, launch and flight operations, and program management and support.

  2. Evolution in HOPE concept and flight experiment plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaba, Hiroshi; Ito, Testsuichi; Takizawa, Yoshisada; Akimoto, Toshio; Inaba, Motoyuki

    1990-10-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan is conducting conceptual design of HOPE, H-II Orbiting Plane. The purpose of the current study is to establish the feasible concept of HOPE and to prepare the technical bases. The primary mission of HOPE is the Space Station Freedom/JEM logistics transportation. Besides previous concept of ten ton class orbiter launched by H-II rocket, extended size orbiter concept has been studied along with enhancement of H-II rocket. An orbiter derived from this study weights 20 tons at lift off and has three to five tons of payload capability. Subsystems design and technology development in such field as aerodynamics, structure and materials, guidance, navigation and control are in progress. In order to acquire the reentry flight data, orbital reentry experiment is planned and under development utilizing orbital flight opportunity of H-II test flight in 1993.

  3. Capstone experience: analysis of an educational concept for nursing.

    PubMed

    Schroetter, Shay A; Wendler, M Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, nursing education prepares registered nurses for practice through generic programs of study that vary in length from 2 to 4 years. All have differing graduation requirements and purported student outcomes. Often, baccalaureate-prepared nurses with a liberal arts foundation are required to complete a comprehensive "capstone experience," which may facilitate degree differentiation upon graduation. However, there is little consensus in higher education regarding the defining aspects of such an experience. The purpose of this article is to analyze and clarify the concept of capstone experience in the context of baccalaureate nursing education. Using a traditional approach of concept analysis [Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2004). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson], an extensive review of pertinent literature was completed. As a result, critical or defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of capstone experiences were determined. Case examples, including a real model case, highlight these aspects, and a definition of capstone experience is offered. Implications for nursing education, research, and practice are provided, and a useful list of evaluative criteria for capstone experiences is presented.

  4. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  5. The technological concept of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaux, M.; Cbm-Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to explore the properties of strongly interacting matter in the regime of highest net baryon densities. It aims to find experimental evidence for numerous predicted effects like a first order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter, the existence of a critical endpoint of this phase transition and the expected onset of chiral symmetry restoration. The 8-45 AGeV heavy ion beam needed to create the hot and dense matter in the fixed target experiment will be provided by the SIS100 and the SIS300 synchrotron of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The paper provides an introduction into the measurement challenges and the technological concept of CBM-experiment from an instrumentalist's point of view.

  6. Reinforcing Cultural Competency Concepts During Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Caligiuri, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To incorporate cultural competency concepts into various introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at the University of Missouri - Kansas City, School of Pharmacy. Design A 6-week series, titled “Becoming a Culturally Competent Provider” was developed to provide IPPE students with the opportunity to apply theory regarding cultural competency in a clinical context. Assessment Pre- and post-intervention attitude survey instruments were administered to 25 students in the spring semester of 2009. Several activities within the series were associated with reflection exercises. Student presentations were evaluated and formal feedback was provided by faculty members. A course evaluation was administered to evaluate the series and determine areas of improvement. Conclusion A special series on cultural competency resulted in positive changes in students' attitudes, highlighting the importance of reinforcing cultural competency concepts during IPPEs. PMID:21088735

  7. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  8. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  9. The Concept of Experience by John Dewey Revisited: Conceiving, Feeling and "Enliving"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjorg

    2013-01-01

    "The concept of experience by John Dewey revisited: conceiving, feeling and 'enliving'." Dewey takes a few steps towards a differentiation of the concept of experience, such as the distinction between primary and secondary experience, or between ordinary (partial, raw, primitive) experience and complete, aesthetic experience. However, he does not…

  10. MHD stability control in alternate confinement concept experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.

    2006-10-01

    High-quality plasma operation and good energy confinement in the alternate confinement experiments require control of ideal and resistive MHD instabilities. New experiments in the revitalized ICC program, supported by modern MHD computational capabilities, are demonstrating progress in this control which significantly extends previous work. Results from the classical tokamak are thereby extended into new parameter regimes, generating insight into the physics. We consider both toroidal and open concepts and, where appropriate, highlight comparisons with the tokamak, ST, and stellarator. The driving forces for ideal MHD modes are characterized using the Frieman-Rotenberg condition, which generalizes the stability analysis by including plasma flow. Stabilizing mechanisms include conducting walls (RFP, spheromak, FRC); plasma shaping as characterized by the magnetic dipole moment (spheromak, FRC); current-profile control (RFP, spheromak); sheared, super-Alfvénic flows (Z-pinch, centrifugal mirror); quadrupole magnetic wells (FRC, mirror); and high kinetic-energy density flow in good curvature regions (gas-dynamic trap). Resistive tearing is stabilized or limited by current profile control, primarily in the RFP and spheromak. Non-MHD mechanisms such as FLR can also be stabilizing and will be most effective if the MHD growth rate is minimized. Most of the experimental work to date has focused on global or large-scale modes; the possible consequences of short-wavelength or local modes will be explored. E. Frieman and M. Rotenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960).

  11. Concepts of peace education: A view of western experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Robin; Aspeslagh, Robert

    1983-09-01

    Approaches to the theory and practice of peace education are as varied as the situations across the world in which it is undertaken. Against a framework established by the Peace Education Commission of IPRA, current trends in the conceptualization and experience of peace education (from a Western view-point) are considered and reveal (1) acceptance of `development' with `justice' and `human rights' as integral to the concept of peace; (2) emphasis on the psychological as well as socio-political, economic and structural conditions that maintain present injustices and oppressions; (3) renewed efforts to try out innovative educational approaches to a variety of learning situations, from the pre-school to adult formal and non-formal settings; (4) new concern about the materials, content and techniques of learning; and (5) fresh examination of the inter-relationships between theory and practice, research and action. Analyzing a number of conceptual approaches to peace and disarmament education, the authors support a political, participatory strategy and set it in a historical context. Hence, its connection with development education and the significance and implications of a global perspective are demonstrated. The global perspective is seen as a growing-point for peace education today, providing the potential for political consciousness and action.

  12. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  13. Roles of Terminology, Experience, and Energy Concepts in Student Conceptions of "Freezing" and "Boiling"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of some student conceptions of the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase transitions is presented. Data from open-ended, short-answer questions were collected from first-semester general chemistry students and then discussed in the context of previous studies. The responses gave insight into the various student conceptions about these…

  14. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  15. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Space construction experiments concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.; Wiley, L. F.; Gimlich, G. W.; Greenberg, H. S.; Hart, R. J.; Lefever, A. E.; Lillenas, A. N.; Totah, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas in the orbital assembly of large space structures are addressed. The areas included structures, remotely operated assembly techniques, and control and stabilization. Various large space structure design concepts are reviewed and their construction procedures and requirements are identified.

  16. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  17. Pathway Concepts Experiment for Head-Down Synthetic Vision Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow s feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow s feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  18. Pathway concepts experiment for head-down synthetic vision displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-08-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow's feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow's feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  19. Conceptions of Research: The Doctoral Student Experience in Three Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubb, Jenni; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how doctoral students perceive research work in the context of their own PhD projects. Thirty-two students from a Finnish university were interviewed, representing three disciplines: medicine, natural sciences and behavioural sciences. Their conceptions of research varied in terms of describing research as "a job to…

  20. Using Real-Life Experiences to Teach Computer Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Teaching computer concepts to individuals with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or visually impaired) presents some unique challenges. Students often have difficulty remembering to perform certain steps or have difficulty remembering specific keystrokes when using computers. Many cannot visualize the way in which complex computing…

  1. The role of aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and oversampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be a result of neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict two other SPD criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms.

  2. Experiments in concept modeling for radiographic image reports.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, D S; Pattison-Gordon, E; Greenes, R A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of methods for building concept models to support structured data entry and image retrieval in chest radiography. DESIGN: An organizing model for chest-radiographic reporting was built by analyzing manually a set of natural-language chest-radiograph reports. During model building, clinician-informaticians judged alternative conceptual structures according to four criteria: content of clinically relevant detail, provision for semantic constraints, provision for canonical forms, and simplicity. The organizing model was applied in representing three sample reports in their entirety. To explore the potential for automatic model discovery, the representation of one sample report was compared with the noun phrases derived from the same report by the CLARIT natural-language processing system. RESULTS: The organizing model for chest-radiographic reporting consists of 62 concept types and 17 relations, arranged in an inheritance network. The broadest types in the model include finding, anatomic locus, procedure, attribute, and status. Diagnoses are modeled as a subtype of finding. Representing three sample reports in their entirety added 79 narrower concept types. Some CLARIT noun phrases suggested valid associations among subtypes of finding, status, and anatomic locus. CONCLUSIONS: A manual modeling process utilizing explicitly stated criteria for making modeling decisions produced an organizing model that showed consistency in early testing. A combination of top-down and bottom-up modeling was required. Natural-language processing may inform model building, but algorithms that would replace manual modeling were not discovered. Further progress in modeling will require methods for objective model evaluation and tools for formalizing the model-building process. PMID:7719807

  3. The dual mobility socket concept: experience with 668 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Benoit; Ardouin, Ludovic; Burdin, Gilles; Lautridou, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Long-term results of a retrospective series of primary arthroplasty with the original cementless dual mobility socket (A) and the midterm results with the second generation (B) are reported. In series A (follow-up 16.5 years) 437 total hip arthroplasties (THA) were included and in series B (follow-up five years) 231 hips. The 15-year survival rate was 84.4 ± 4.5% (revision for any reason as endpoint); 30 hips (6.8%) were revised for aseptic loosening. Five THA were revised for dislocation: two early and three after ten years or more. With the second generation socket neither dislocation nor revision for mechanical reasons were observed. The survival rate was 99.6 ± 0.4% (revision for any reason). The prevalence of revision for dislocation was very low in our series. This concept does not avoid wear and aseptic loosening, especially in young active patients, but the long-term stability has been confirmed. Dual mobility can be recommended for patients over 70 years of age and for younger patients with high risk of dislocation. PMID:21184223

  4. Learning for School Leadership: Using Concept Mapping to Explore Learning from Everyday Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory…

  5. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  6. Alternative Conceptions about Micro-Organisms Are Influenced by Experiences with Disease in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana; Krajcovicová, Adriána

    2016-01-01

    Children's ideas concerning natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists, and these ideas are termed as alternative conceptions. The prevalence of alternative conceptions is highest among young children who possess less experience with the natural world as compared with adults. Children's ideas about micro-organisms are of special…

  7. Curriculum Conceptions of Open Learning: Theory, Intention and Student Experience in the Australian Open Learning Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Helen Margaret

    This thesis seeks to clarify the meaning of the open learning concept by examining it in alternative ways--as an element of social theory, as an intended curriculum, and as a perceived student learning experience. The three curriculum conceptions of open learning are applied to the Australian Open Learning Iniative. Students' curriculum…

  8. The Superorbital Expansion Tube concept, experiment and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, A. J.; Morgan, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the need for ground testing facilities for super orbital re-entry research, a small scale facility has been set up at the University of Queensland to demonstrate the superorbital expansion tube concept. This unique device is a free piston driven, triple diaphragm, impulse shock facility which uses the enthalpy multiplication mechanism of the unsteady expansion process and the addition of a secondary shock driver to further heat the driver gas. The pilot facility has been operated to produce quasi-steady test flows in air with shock velocities in excess of 13 km/s and with a usable test flow duration of the order of 15 micro sec. an experimental condition produced in the facility with total enthalpy of 108 MJ/kg and a total pressure of 335 MPa is reported. A simple analytical flow model which accounts for non-ideal rupture of the light tertiary diaphragm and the resulting entropy increase in the test gas is discussed. It is shown that equilibrium calculations more accurately model the unsteady expansion process than calculations assuming frozen chemistry. This is because the high enthalpy flows produced in the facility can only be achieved if the chemical energy stored in the test flow during shock heating of the test gas is partially returned to the flow during the process of unsteady expansion. Measurements of heat transfer rates to a flat plate demonstrate the usability of test flow for aerothermodynamic testing and comparison of these rates with empirical calculations confirms the usable accuracy of the flow model.

  9. Design of experiments applications in bioprocessing: concepts and approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Bhalla, Akriti; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Most biotechnology unit operations are complex in nature with numerous process variables, feed material attributes, and raw material attributes that can have significant impact on the performance of the process. Design of experiments (DOE)-based approach offers a solution to this conundrum and allows for an efficient estimation of the main effects and the interactions with minimal number of experiments. Numerous publications illustrate application of DOE towards development of different bioprocessing unit operations. However, a systematic approach for evaluation of the different DOE designs and for choosing the optimal design for a given application has not been published yet. Through this work we have compared the I-optimal and D-optimal designs to the commonly used central composite and Box-Behnken designs for bioprocess applications. A systematic methodology is proposed for construction of the model and for precise prediction of the responses for the three case studies involving some of the commonly used unit operations in downstream processing. Use of Akaike information criterion for model selection has been examined and found to be suitable for the applications under consideration.

  10. Design of experiments applications in bioprocessing: concepts and approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Bhalla, Akriti; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Most biotechnology unit operations are complex in nature with numerous process variables, feed material attributes, and raw material attributes that can have significant impact on the performance of the process. Design of experiments (DOE)-based approach offers a solution to this conundrum and allows for an efficient estimation of the main effects and the interactions with minimal number of experiments. Numerous publications illustrate application of DOE towards development of different bioprocessing unit operations. However, a systematic approach for evaluation of the different DOE designs and for choosing the optimal design for a given application has not been published yet. Through this work we have compared the I-optimal and D-optimal designs to the commonly used central composite and Box-Behnken designs for bioprocess applications. A systematic methodology is proposed for construction of the model and for precise prediction of the responses for the three case studies involving some of the commonly used unit operations in downstream processing. Use of Akaike information criterion for model selection has been examined and found to be suitable for the applications under consideration. PMID:24123959

  11. Experiments of new plasma concepts for enhanced microwave vacuum electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P.; Hoffman, J.R.; Yampolsky, J.; Cordell, J.F.; Gundersen, M.A.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

    1999-07-01

    Recently new schemes have been proposed for plasma based microwave sources that could lead to output power increases by orders of magnitude, as well as offer new possibilities such as broad band tuning and frequency chirping, ultra-short pulse generation, pulse design, etc. In the first scheme, the static field of an alternatively biased capacitor is directly converted into short pulses of turnable electromagnetic (em) radiation upon transmission through a relativistic; under dense ionization front. The structure presently under investigation consists of pin pairs (capacitors) inserted into an X-band waveguide through its narrow sidewall and separated by 1.134 cm. The generated frequency is in the X-band frequency range (8.4--12.4 GHz) when operated with plasma densities between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}. The output power is in the 100 W range with an applied voltage of 6 kV and is limited by high voltage (HV) breakdown inside the structure. Much higher output power levels are expected with the new, shorter pulse, HV pulser, since the output power is proportional to the square of the applied voltage. At larger plasma densities, generation of a higher order mode traveling in the backward direction is also observed. In the second scheme, a fraction of the large amplitude electrostatic (es) wave generated in a plasma beat wave acceleration (PBWA) experiment (up to 3 GeV/m) is converted into em radiation by applying a static magnetic field perpendicularly to the driving laser beam. The two-frequency CO{sub 2} laser beam resonantly drives the es wave, and couples to the L branch of the XO mode of the magnetized plasma through Cherenkov radiation. The radiation is emitted predominantly in the forward direction (direction of the laser beam), and is at the plasma frequency (n{sub c} {approximately}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, f{approximately}1 THz). With an applied magnetic field of 6 kG the output power is calculated to be in the megawatt range (for a

  12. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  13. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of 'colour vision' that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  14. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences. PMID:25102085

  15. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.

  16. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  17. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  18. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  19. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  20. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  1. Materials experiment carrier concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical report, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A materials experiment carrier (MEC) that provides effective accommodation of the given baseline materials processing in space (MPS) payloads and demonstration of the MPS platform concept for high priority materials processing science, multidiscipline MPS investigations, host carrier for commercial MPS payloads, and system economy of orbital operations is defined. The study flow of task work is shown. Study tasks featured analysis and trades to identify the MEC system concept options.

  2. Experiences of adult smokers from the concepts of smoking: A content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking cigarettes is a risk factor for many physical and mental diseases. About five million people die of smoking every year. Understanding the concept of cigarette smoking can help people develop their knowledge with regard to smoking. A qualitative research seems essential to detect these concepts. Therefore, the present study aims to take into account the experience of adult smokers with regard to the concept of smoking. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers in four selected cities in Iran. Data were collected by in-depth, semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and simultaneously coded. Subsequently, they were analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: In the present study, eight concepts (themes), 22 subcategories, and 81 codes have emerged. The obtained concepts are physics of a cigarette, addiction and dependency, habit, feel the need, pleasure, seeking peace, mental involvement, and self-induction. Conclusions: The participants’ experiences with regard to cigarette smoking can affect their understanding of the concepts of smoking. The understanding of these concepts by nurses and smokers can enhance their knowledge about the existing facts of smoking, which can act as a foundation for designing preventive methods and smoking cessation programs. PMID:25558249

  3. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  4. Applying integrated urban water management concepts: a review of Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, V Grace

    2006-05-01

    This article explores recent Australian experiences in the application of the concept of integrated urban water management (IUWM) to land development sites through the review of 15 case studies. It discusses IUWM's emergence and comments on the success or otherwise of Australian experience in its application. The understanding of IUWM is maturing within the Australian water industry, an occurrence that has been facilitated by demonstration sites such as those reviewed. Successes include the translation of IUWM concepts into well-functioning operational urban developments, significant reductions in the impact of the urban developments on the total water cycle, and the increasing acceptance of the concept within the water and land development industries. However, there is still room for greater integration of the water supply, stormwater, and wastewater components of the urban water cycle, improved dissemination of knowledge, enhancement of skills in both public and private organisations, and monitoring the performance of systems and technologies.

  5. Relationships among Dispositional Ability Conceptions, Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Competence, Experience, Persistance, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Lee, Amelia M.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationships among individuals' dispositional ability conceptions, intrinsic motivation, experience, perceived competence, persistence, and performance. Participants practiced a novel task, completed surveys before instruction and after practicing the task, and completed a skill test. The results indicated…

  6. Board Games and Board Game Design as Learning Tools for Complex Scientific Concepts: Some Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Fabio; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors report different experiences in the use of board games as learning tools for complex and abstract scientific concepts such as Quantum Mechanics, Relativity or nano-biotechnologies. In particular we describe "Quantum Race," designed for the introduction of Quantum Mechanical principles, "Lab on a chip,"…

  7. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  8. Concept definition for space station technology development experiments. Experiment definition, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The second task of a study with the overall objective of providing a conceptual definition of the Technology Development Mission Experiments proposed by LaRC on space station is discussed. During this task, the information (goals, objectives, and experiment functional description) assembled on a previous task was translated into the actual experiment definition. Although still of a preliminary nature, aspects such as: environment, sensors, data acquisition, communications, handling, control telemetry requirements, crew activities, etc., were addressed. Sketches, diagrams, block diagrams, and timeline analyses of crew activities are included where appropriate.

  9. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  10. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepeveen, N. F. B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximum aerodynamic efficiency for below rated wind speeds. The experiments with a small horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor, coupled to a hydraulic circuit, were conducted at the Open Jet Facility of the Delft University of Technology. In theory, the placement of a nozzle at the end of the hydraulic circuit causes the pressure and hence the rotor torque to increase quadratically with flow speed and hence rotation speed. The rotor torque is limited by a pressure relief valve. Results from the experiments proved the functionality of this passive speed control concept. By selecting the correct nozzle outlet area the rotor operates at or near the optimum tip speed ratio.

  11. [Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment].

    PubMed

    Krauthausen, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment. The paper argues that Ernst Mach's conception of the thought experiment from 1897/1905 holds a singular position in the lively discussions and repeated theorizations that have continued up to the present in relation to this procedure. Mach derives the thought experiment from scientific practice, and does not oppose it to the physical experiment, but, on the contrary, endows it with a robust relation to the facts. For Mach, the thought experiment is a reliable means of determining empiricism, and at the same time a real, because open and unbiased, experimenting. To shed light on this approach, the paper carries out a close reading of the relevant texts in Mach's body of writings (in their different stages of revision) and proceeds in three steps: first, Mach's processual understanding of science will be presented, which also characterizes his research and publication practice (I. 'Aperçu' and 'Sketch'. Science as Process and Projection); then in a second step the physiological and biological justification and valorization of memory and association will be examined with which Mach limits the relevance of categories such as consciousness and will (II. The Biology of Consciousness. Or The Polyp Colony); against this background, thirdly, the specific empiricism can be revealed that Mach inscribes into the thought experiment by on the one hand founding it in the memory and association, and on the other by tracing it back to geometry, which he deploys as an experimenting oriented to experience (III. Thinking and Experience. The Thought Experiment).

  12. [Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment].

    PubMed

    Krauthausen, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment. The paper argues that Ernst Mach's conception of the thought experiment from 1897/1905 holds a singular position in the lively discussions and repeated theorizations that have continued up to the present in relation to this procedure. Mach derives the thought experiment from scientific practice, and does not oppose it to the physical experiment, but, on the contrary, endows it with a robust relation to the facts. For Mach, the thought experiment is a reliable means of determining empiricism, and at the same time a real, because open and unbiased, experimenting. To shed light on this approach, the paper carries out a close reading of the relevant texts in Mach's body of writings (in their different stages of revision) and proceeds in three steps: first, Mach's processual understanding of science will be presented, which also characterizes his research and publication practice (I. 'Aperçu' and 'Sketch'. Science as Process and Projection); then in a second step the physiological and biological justification and valorization of memory and association will be examined with which Mach limits the relevance of categories such as consciousness and will (II. The Biology of Consciousness. Or The Polyp Colony); against this background, thirdly, the specific empiricism can be revealed that Mach inscribes into the thought experiment by on the one hand founding it in the memory and association, and on the other by tracing it back to geometry, which he deploys as an experimenting oriented to experience (III. Thinking and Experience. The Thought Experiment). PMID:26140511

  13. Using Wikipedia to learn semantic feature representations of concrete concepts in neuroimaging experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Detre, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that a corpus of a few thousand Wikipedia articles about concrete or visualizable concepts can be used to produce a low-dimensional semantic feature representation of those concepts. The purpose of such a representation is to serve as a model of the mental context of a subject during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. A recent study [19] showed that it was possible to predict fMRI data acquired while subjects thought about a concrete concept, given a representation of those concepts in terms of semantic features obtained with human supervision. We use topic models on our corpus to learn semantic features from text in an unsupervised manner, and show that those features can outperform those in [19] in demanding 12-way and 60-way classification tasks. We also show that these features can be used to uncover similarity relations in brain activation for different concepts which parallel those relations in behavioral data from human subjects. PMID:23243317

  14. Second decision in the EVS concept: an experiment to evaluate pilot ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymeric, Bruno; Leger, Alain; Kostoj, Thierry

    1998-07-01

    The scope of this research is the use of an infrared sensor image, projected on a HUD, to land an A/C in 200 m RVR (CATIII) when the airfield is equipped only for CATI. The corresponding operational scenario requires that the pilot perform a second decision on direct visual cues at 50 ft (CATIII DH). This second decision is the core of the concept and appears as one of the most acute problems against the EVS concept. To initiate the reflection, we conducted an experiment to test the ability of pilots to take a correct decision in abnormal situations, using SXT part task simulator. Results show an overall correct behavior of the pilots despite a workload much higher than it would be in real operations. Their comments during and after each trial demonstrate a correct awareness of their situation with respect to the real runway at 50 ft (direct visual cues). However a few instances of incorrect decision occurred and are discussed. The conclusion is that it seems possible to propose a 2 decisions procedure, but further experiments are required. Lessons learned to set up these experiments are presented.

  15. Experiments and theoretical modelling for a core catcher concept for future light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tromm, W.; Alsmeyer, H.; Buerger, M.; Widmann, W.; Buck, M.

    1996-12-31

    The COMET concept of corium cooling is proposed to be integrated into future reactors. The concept is based on spreading of the ex-vessel core-melt on a sacrificial concrete layer and, after erosion of this layer, flooding the melt by totally passive water ingression from below through a multitude of melt plugs. The resulting evaporation and interaction processes should lead to a fragmented and porously solidified melt, rapidly coolable through open flow channels. The important processes of melt fragmentation and heat transfer from the melt at direct water contact are investigated with thermite melts in medium scale experiments, and with decay heat simulation in large scale experiments in the modified BETA facility. The experiments show fast cool-down of the melt and solidification of the metallic and oxidic fraction of the melt as a porous structure which, due to its high permeability for the steam-water flow, ensures short-term and long-term coolability. As the experiments are 1-dimensional representations of the central section of the core catcher in the characteristic scale, they should be directly applicable to reactor conditions. Specific tests on the possibility of steam explosions at the initial melt water contact showed very low mechanical loads. The conceptual and experimental work at FZK is accompanied by theoretical investigations at IKE, Stuttgart. Main aims are to optimize the cooling behavior and to evaluate the possible threat by strong steam explosions. Penetration of water jets into an overlying melt layer and resulting phenomena of fragmentation, coolant channel and porous medium formation constitute the key physical processes. Basic models have been developed and applied to the experiments.

  16. Movable-molybdenum-reflector reactivity experiments for control studies of compact space power reactor concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental reflector reactivity study was made with a compact cylindrical reactor using a uranyl fluoride - water fuel solution. The reactor was axially unreflected and radially reflected with segments of molybdenum. The reflector segments were displaced incrementally in both the axial and radial dimensions, and the shutdown of each configuration was measured by using the pulsed-neutron source technique. The reactivity effects for axial and radial displacement of reflector segments are tabulated separately and compared. The experiments provide data for control-system studies of compact-space-power-reactor concepts.

  17. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  18. Learning from experience: Bion's concept of reverie and Buddhist meditation. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pelled, Esther

    2007-12-01

    The author argues for a common denominator between Bion's view and the Buddhist view of mental development. In both thought systems, mental growth is synonymous to learning from experience. The author closely examines Bion's concept of attention and compares it to mindfulness, a major factor in Buddhist meditation. In both doctrines, attention must be isolated from other mental processes in order to attain learning from experience. The author compares reverie to the state of mind of equanimity. She argues that enhancement of the ability of reverie, or improving the inner container such that it can hold any content while unmoved by desire, is the purpose of Buddhist practice. Both view the mind as capable of transcending its own restrictions and 'the capacity to know anything' as attainable through disciplined practice.

  19. Concept development evaluation for John Deere/UA STS middeck experiment location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to consider and evaluate some specific concepts for performing a number of extremely low gravity (i.e., microgravity) experiments involving the directional solidification of samples of high carbon, cast iron alloys. The specific experiments considered herein were conceived to permit scientific investigation of the resultant microstructures and mechanical properties of the test samples after the microgravity environment processing. This study was limited to consideration of the NASA/MSFC furnace payloads, referred to herein as the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF) systems. Three ADSF systems were reviewed and are as follows: (1) Low temperature ADSF (ADSF-1); (2) High temperature ADSF (ADSF-2); and (3) Advanced ADSF (AADSF).

  20. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development and Initial Analysis of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMI investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMI uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMI is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity Environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station. .

  1. Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

  2. NITARP: Measuring The Effectiveness of an Authentic Research Experience in Secondary Astronomy Education Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Elin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Black, David V.; Gibbs, John; Larsen, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    For secondary students to make use of astronomical data in a school setting, they previously needed access to large telescopes, expensive equipment and difficult-to-use software. This has improved as online data archives have become available; however, difficulties remain, including searching and downloading the data and translating it into formats that high school students can readily analyze. To address these issues, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) selects teams consisting of teachers and students from several schools. Each year, new teams of educators attend an introductory workshop at the winter AAS conference where they select a research project that will use the archived data. Throughout the spring, educators engage in weekly teleconferences, write proposals, and begin working with their students. The teams meet at Caltech in the summer to learn how to access and analyze the IPAC data and continue to work throughout the fall. Through this experience, participants learn how to search, download, translate, and analyze authentic astronomical data. They learn the nature of scientific communication through developing and presenting their findings alongside practicing astronomers at the following winter AAS. In order to measure how successful the 2014 NITARP summer visit was in teaching participating high school students the terminology and processes necessary to analyze IPAC data, students were asked to create concept maps showing the main and subsidiary ideas and concepts related to their research. They then synthesized their group webs into a master web. When additional terms and concepts were presented, the students were able to integrate them into the master web, showing that they understood the relationship of ideas, concepts, and processes needed for their research. Our companion poster, Gibbs et al., presents the scientific aspects of this project. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program

  3. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan.

  4. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan. PMID:18490884

  5. A Proof of Concept Experiment for Reducing Skin Friction by Using a Micro-Blowing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1996-01-01

    A proof of concept experiment for reducing skin friction has been conducted in the Advanced Nozzle and Engine Components Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In this unique concept, called the micro-blowing technique (MBT), an extremely small amount of air was blown vertically through very small holes to reduce the surface roughness and to control the gradient of the flow velocity profile on the surface thereby reducing skin friction. Research revealed that the skin was the most important factor to make this concept achievable. The proposed skin consisted of two layers. The inner layer was a low permeable porous skin for distributing the blowing air evenly while the outer layer with small holes controlled the vertical or nearly vertical blowing air. Preliminary experimental results showed that the MBT has the potential of a very large reduction in skin friction below the skin friction of a nonporous plain flat plate. Of the skins tested, three have been identified as the MBT skins. They provided very low unblown skin friction such that a large skin friction reduction, below a flat plate value, was achieved with very small amounts of blowing air. The reduction in skin friction of 55 percent was achieved at the Mach number of 0.3 for the exhaust pressure of 0.85 atm, and 60 percent reduction was obtained for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm (corresponding to 10 700-m altitude) at the same Mach number. A significant reduction in skin friction of over 25 percent was achieved for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm at the Mach number of 0.7. This implied that the MBT could be applied to a wide range of flight conditions. It is also believed that additional 10 percent reduction could be obtained by eliminating the gap between the inner layer and the outer layer. The aspect ratio of the vertical small holes for the outer layer of the MBT skin should be larger than 4 based on the preliminary conclusion from this test. Many experiments are needed to find out the

  6. Complete Photo-production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O.; Fantini, A.; Schaerf, C.; Vegna, V.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizilgul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Lleres, A.; Rebreyend, D.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Miceli, L.

    2011-10-24

    The extraction of resonance parameters from meson photo-reaction data is a challenging effort, that would greatly benefit from the availability of several polarization observables, measured for each reaction channel on both proton and neutron targets. In the aim of obtaining such complete experiments, polarized photon beams and targets have been developed at facilities, worldwide. We report on the latest results from the LEGS and GRAAL collaborations, providing single and double polarization measurements on pseudo-scalar meson photo-production from the nucleon.

  7. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  8. Niels Bohr as philosopher of experiment: Does decoherence theory challenge Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian; Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2015-02-01

    Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem of the quantum-classical transition that were pursued by several of Bohr's followers and culminated in the development of decoherence theory.

  9. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  10. Experiences of Academic Staff in Using Threshold Concepts within a Reformed Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Turpin, Merrill; O'Brien, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Threshold concepts were used to underpin a major curriculum reform endeavour in occupational therapy. After rigorous interrogation of troublesome knowledge and ensuring that the emergent concepts conformed to the five characteristics of previously proposed threshold concepts, we identified five threshold concepts. Two years into the rollout of the…

  11. Evaluation of Concepts for Mulitiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; Hans D. Gougar; John M. Ryskamp

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Originally operated primarily in support of the Offcie of Naval Reactors (NR), the mission has gradually expanded to cater to other customers, such as the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), private industry, and universities. Unforeseen circumstances may lead to the decommissioning of ATR, thus leaving the U.S. Government without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. This work can be viewed as an update to a project from the 1990’s called the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). In FY 2012, a survey of anticipated customer needs was performed, followed by analysis of the original BATR concepts with fuel changed to low-enriched uranium. Departing from these original BATR designs, four concepts were identified for further analysis in FY2013. The project informally adopted the acronym MATRIX (Multiple-Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments). This report discusses analysis of the four MATRIX concepts along with a number of variations on these main concepts. Designs were evaluated based on their satisfaction of anticipated customer requirements and the “Cylindrical” variant was selected for further analysis of options. This downselection should be considered preliminary and the backup alternatives should include the other three main designs. The baseline Cylindrical MATRIX design is expected to be capable of higher burnup than the ATR (or longer cycle length given a

  12. Walter Benjamin's Conception of Experience: A Way of Thinking about Otherness in Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In the context of educational practice and research, the individual is often understood in terms of autonomy. From this point of view, we will see our experience as cumulative, as inside of us, and as strengthening us against others. It means that the conception of experience tends to be understood primarily in relation to usefulness. In search of…

  13. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm{sup 2} across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests.

  14. Conception of the `Chirality-Experiment' on esa's mission ROSETTA to comet 46p/wirtanen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Rosenbauer, H.; Meierhenrich, U. J.

    In the last years extraterrestrial scenarios for the origin of homochirality in biological structures received considerable attention in the topical literature: Rubenstein and Bonner postulated a rapidly rotating neutron star emitting circularly polarised synchrotron radiation responsible for the first asymmetric synthesis; the group of Bailey published the observation of circular polarisation caused by Mie scattering from aligned dust grains in the Orion OMC-1 star-formation region that might provide an enantioselective effect on prochiral or racemic organic molecules. Rikken and Raupach observed a magnetochiral effect and considered extraterrestrial magnetic fields of sufficient strengths to introduce biomoleculars parity violation. With the aim to investigate these hypotheses among other theories describing the origin of biological asymmetry, our laboratory participates in the conception and development of ROSETTA's COSAC Experiment, that is designed to identify organic molecules in the cometary matter in situ. Within COSAC's 'Chirality Module' enantiomers will be separated gas chromatographically with the help of capillary columns coated with chirally active liquid films. This technique will allow the separation of specific chiral organic compounds out of the analysed cometary matter into their enantiomeric constituents. Both thermo conductivity and mass spectrometric detectors will be used to determine each enantiomer's amount and therefore the corresponding enantiomeric excesses. As a consequence of COSAC's 'Chirality-Experiment' far-reaching results are expected to investigate the various hypotheses about the first asymmetric synthesis.

  15. Teacher thinking and interconnectedness: Teachers' thinking about students' experiences and science concepts during classroom teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar Raj

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 4 elementary school teachers' thinking during science teaching in 2 urban schools in the southern United States. Most of the students in these schools come from minority families with low socioeconomic status. The teachers involved in this study were participants in the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program, a curriculum designed for urban elementary students to learn life and environmental sciences. The research employed cross-case study methodology to understand teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during classroom teaching. Fifteen science lessons were taped (7 videotaped and 8 audiotaped) for each teacher over a period of 7 months. Six stimulated recall interviews were conducted to elicit the teachers' thinking and decision-making process during teaching. Data were analyzed using William and Baxter's (1996) discourse analysis framework. Three factors that influence elementary school teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during science teaching emerged from the data analysis: (1) Most teachers believed that students' experiences could be used during teaching, but they disagreed about the usefulness of students' experiences in teaching science for understanding. Two teachers who perceived their students to be less intelligent did not use students' experiences during teaching. (2) All the teachers in the study asserted that students must have the knowledge of science process skills to succeed in science investigation and high-stakes tests. These teachers also believed that mastering science process skills aided in students' understanding of science concepts. (3) In an academically high-performing school, the school administrators played a less significant role in teachers' thinking and decision making than in an academically low-performing school. Administrators were under pressure to "teach to the test" so that students would perform better in the high-stakes test. Teachers perceived a higher incentive for teaching

  16. Getting to Know Me: Social Role Experiences and Age Differences in Self-Concept Clarity During Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development. PMID:20663028

  17. Getting to know me: social role experiences and age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W

    2010-10-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development.

  18. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of…

  19. Technical experience from clinical studies with INPRES and a concept for a miniature augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudra, Gunther; Marmulla, Ruediger; Salb, Tobias; Gockel, Tilo; Eggers, Georg; Giesler, Bjoern; Ghanai, Sassan; Fritz, Dominik; Dillmann, Ruediger; Muehling, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    This paper is going to present a summary of our technical experience with the INPRES System -- an augmented reality system based upon a tracked see-through head-mounted display. With INPRES a complete augmented reality solution has been developed that has crucial advantages when compared with previous navigation systems. Using these techniques the surgeon does not need to turn his head from the patient to the computer monitor and vice versa. The system's purpose is to display virtual objects, e.g. cutting trajectories, tumours and risk-areas from computer-based surgical planning systems directly in the surgical site. The INPRES system was evaluated in several patient experiments in craniofacial surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/University of Heidelberg. We will discuss the technical advantages as well as the limitations of INPRES and present two strategies as a result. On the one hand we will improve the existing and successful INPRES system with new hardware and a new calibration method to compensate for the stated disadvantage. On the other hand we will focus on miniaturized augmented reality systems and present a new concept based on fibre optics. This new system should be easily adaptable at surgical instruments and capable of projecting small structures. It consists of a source of light, a miniature TFT display, a fibre optic cable and a tool grip. Compared to established projection systems it has the capability of projecting into areas that are only accessible by a narrow path. No wide surgical exposure of the region is necessary for the use of augmented reality.

  20. Use of novel proteosome inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in lymphomas current experience and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Emmanuel Akinola; Sissolak, Gerhard; Jacobs, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Precedent from preclinical experiments coupled with two pivotal phase 2 studies in myeloma has focused attention on a potential role for ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in modulating a number of events that occur commonly in the neoplastic process involving proteins in the regulation of cells cycling, growth and differentiation. This influence is vested in the proteasomes which are large complexes of proteolytic enzymes responsible for degradation of many of these intracellular messengers. Logically interest has centred on molecules having the capacity to influence, by degradation, such molecules and although a number of agents are in development bortezomib is the only one currently in clinical use. Velcade, formerly PS-341, is a novel dipeptide boronic acid capable of reversibly inhibiting the 26S proteasome through a range of activities. The latter are anti-proliferative and proapoptotic with the latter blocking nuclear transcription via NF-kappa B in addition to down regulating adhesion and inhibiting angiogenesis. Additional changes are mediated in protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum and contribute to cell death. These concepts are given focus by considering their introduction into treatment of lymphoreticular malignancy.

  1. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  2. Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions. The students perform these experiments before the concepts are discussed in class, with the emphasize on the construction of meaning from observation, measurement, and data analysis. The set includes: Are All Pennies the Same?, which introduces students to the differences between extensive and intensive quantities. How Much is Enough?, examines the quantitative aspects of the reaction between metals and hydrogen ions leading to the concept of the mole and stoichiometric calculations. How Much is Too Much?, which identifies and distinguishes between limiting reagents, excess reagents, spectator ions and reactant ions. What is an Active Metal?, provides the observations needed to sort common metals into an activity series and How Active are the Active Metals?, allows students to develop a quantitative model of metal activity.

  3. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  4. From Concept Maps to Computer Based Learning: The Experience of NoteCards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleese, Ray

    This paper begins with a description of the context and background of cognitive research into knowledge acquisition and representation for computer based training. The nature of concept maps is alluded to and examples are given of the ways that maps can facilitate knowledge elicitation. It is noted that: (1) the concept knowledge in this research…

  5. Friendship Group Identification, Multidimensional Self-Concept, and Experience of Developmental Tasks in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and…

  6. Effects of a Tall Ship Sail Training Experience on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurso, Michele; Borsci, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a sail training education programme on the self-concept of a group of 147 adolescents. The Competence and Social domains of Bracken's self-concept scale were assessed by a quasi-experimental design in three phases: before commencement of the activities, on the last day of the voyage, and three months after…

  7. Entrepreneurial Failure as a Threshold Concept: The Effects of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Alexander R.; Brown, Kory D.

    2015-01-01

    Some curricular elements are threshold concepts that involve "troublesome knowledge," not because they are difficult for students to comprehend per se, but because they are challenging for students to fully appreciate. In this article, we suggest that entrepreneurial failure is a threshold concept in entrepreneurship courses because…

  8. Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durmus, Jale; Bayraktar, Sule

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of…

  9. Psychosocial Experiences Associated with Confirmed and Self-Identified Dyslexia: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…

  10. Teaching Concepts to Young Children Through Cultural Cooking Experiences. Bilingual/Bicultural Child Development Associate Pilot Project: Module XIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa R.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) module, the fourteenth in a series of 16, suggests ways concepts can be taught by involving preschool children in carefully planned classroom cooking activities. Designed for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees, the module provides tips on food preparation as a learning experience. Required…

  11. The Influence of Cooperative Education and Reflection upon Previous Work Experiences on University Graduates' Vocational Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative effects of participation in cooperative education (co-op) and engagement in reflection upon previous work experiences on undergraduate students' vocational self-concept (VSC) at graduation. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional survey of graduating students (n = 1,483) from a…

  12. Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students.

    PubMed

    González, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umaña, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M, Luz Adriana

    2008-12-01

    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience on meaningful learning during the cardiovascular module of a medical physiology course at Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. This research was based on the ideas of David Ausubel (meaningful learning), Joseph Novak (concept maps), and Reuven Feuerstein (mediated learning experience). Students were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (mediated learning experience articulated with concept mapping) or a control group (traditional methodology). The intervention group constructed concept maps related to cardiovascular physiology and used them to solve problems related to this subject. The control group attended traditional discussion sessions and problem-solving sessions. All students were evaluated with two types of exams: problem-solving and multiple-choice exams. The intervention group performed significantly better on the problem-solving exams, but the difference was not significant in the multiple-choice exam. It was concluded that intervention promoted meaningful learning that allowed the students to transfer this knowledge to solve problems. The implemented strategy had a greater impact on the students who came into the study with the lowest cognitive competence, possibly because they were empowered by the intervention.

  13. Optimization of Fast Critical Experiments to Reduce Nuclear Data Uncertainties in Support of a Fast Burner Reactor Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, Tracy E., Jr.

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept's core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  14. A Dedicated Postpartum Intrauterine Device Inserter: Pilot Experience and Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Dewan, Rupali; Mittal, Pratima; Bhamrah, Renita; Lerma, Klaira; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a dedicated postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) inserter specifically designed for the post-delivery setting. Primary objectives of fundal placement and expulsion rates were assessed. Secondary objectives were participant satisfaction and IUD retention. Methods: In this pilot proof of concept, we enrolled 80 women who presented for PPIUD insertion at 2 government hospitals in Delhi and Lucknow, India, between March and July 2015. PPIUD insertion was completed with the dedicated inserter in all cases, by trained providers with no prior experience in PPIUD insertion, followed immediately by ultrasound to assess location and fundal placement of the IUD. Follow-up took place at 6 to 8 weeks post-insertion, and ultrasound was used to assess IUD location. Providers and participants also completed satisfaction surveys. Results: High fundal placement (≤10 mm from uterine fundus) was achieved with the dedicated PPIUD inserter in 82% of cases (n = 65). There were no perforations or infections among the participants and no other complications associated with use of the dedicated inserter. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial verge immediately post-insertion was 5.8 mm (range, 0–31; N = 80); this distance at follow-up was also 5.8 mm (range, 0–25; n = 50). Complete expulsion was observed in 6 cases (7.5%), and asymptomatic partial expulsion in 8 cases (10%). Providers reported the majority (93%, n = 74) of insertions to be easy. The majority (74%, n = 59) of participants reported the same level of pain before and after insertion. Conclusions: This dedicated PPIUD inserter performed as intended and was found to be safe, with high acceptability among the participants and providers. Further study and use of the dedicated inserter may reveal reduced risk of infection among PPIUD users as well as increased convenience compared with standard PPIUD insertion

  15. Developmental experiences during extracurricular activities and Australian adolescents' self-concept: particularly important for youth from disadvantaged schools.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2011-05-01

    Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.

  16. Concept-Based Problem Solving: Combining Educational Research Results and Practical Experience To Create a Framework for Learning Physics and To Derive Effective Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

    This paper identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' grasp of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of these…

  17. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. A proof of concept

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-06-25

    Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  18. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments-A proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael H. L. S.; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-10-01

    We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  19. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  20. Physical Experiences: Primary Student Teachers' Conceptions of Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Robyne; Wrench, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Background: People's actions and decisions are deeply influenced by their sense of self as well as the meanings they afford to particular ideas and concepts around them. These meanings and ways of understanding oneself in relation to the world constitute an individual's subjectivity. It is produced through a range of discursive practices, the…

  1. Reinforcing Concepts of Transient Heat Conduction and Convection with Simple Experiments and COMSOL Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure…

  2. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  3. Wiimote Experiments: 3-D Inclined Plane Problem for Reinforcing the Vector Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawam, Alae; Kouh, Minjoon

    2011-01-01

    In an introductory physics course where students first learn about vectors, they oftentimes struggle with the concept of vector addition and decomposition. For example, the classic physics problem involving a mass on an inclined plane requires the decomposition of the force of gravity into two directions that are parallel and perpendicular to the…

  4. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  5. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  6. Inquiry Based-Computational Experiment, Acquisition of Threshold Concepts and Argumentation in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiment approach considers models as the fundamental instructional units of Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSE) and STEM Education, where the model take the place of the "classical" experimental set-up and simulation replaces the experiment. Argumentation in IBSE and STEM education is related to the…

  7. Teaching Tools for Pedagogy at the Nanoscale: Towards the Understanding of Concepts Through Experience and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, Marc Nicholas

    The field of nanochemistry is at the forefront of the physical sciences, and is increasingly finding diverse applications. As such, there is a need to allow this frontier to be explored thoroughly in undergraduate chemistry curricula. The development of new instructional materials is necessary, as the existing literature in undergraduate nanochemistry education does not provide instructors with adequate resources to help students make connections between core scientific concepts and those pertinent to the nanoscale. As such, we aim to treat nanoscale phenomena not as a niche subject but as an educationally rich portion of chemistry at the interface of discrete and bulk structures. To accomplish this, we have developed and tested instructional materials that are designed to fit directly into the chemistry curriculum and provide instructors with the flexibility to incorporate them in their courses. These teaching tools/modules have been designed using a theoretical framework for analogy and similarity coupled with a bridging framework in order to reinforce students' physical and chemical concepts and facilitate their recognition of such in the context of nanochemistry. Our approach is to construct concepts related to nanochemistry by tethering them directly, through the use of analogy and similarity, to material commonly covered within the courses, rather than present them in an unrelated fashion or completely outside the students' current frame of reference. Assessment of these tools has been carried out through a qualitative analysis incorporating a discourse analytical framework applied to individual student interviews and small group discussions. A coding scheme was devised and utilized for consistent characterization of students' responses and discussions. Results are discussed critically and pedagogical implications for each activity and the project as a whole are provided.

  8. Introducing Students to Basic ChE Concepts: Four Simple Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Duncan M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an Introduction to Chemical Engineering course with particular reference to the development, use, and evaluation of four simple experiments centered around the fundamental principles of heat transfer, mass transfer, reaction kinetics, and momentum transfer. (WRM)

  9. Inflated concepts for the earth science geostationary platform and an associated flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G.

    1992-01-01

    Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.

  10. The experience of adolescent women living with spina bifida part I: self-concept and family relationships.

    PubMed

    Bellin, Melissa Hayden; Sawin, Kathleen J; Roux, Gayle; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent women with spina bifida (SB) face unique and diverse challenges. The purpose of this qualitative component of a larger mixed-method study on adaptation was to heighten rehabilitation nurses' understanding of self-concept and family relationships during adolescence. Interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent women and analyzed for themes. The women described a range of experiences, including challenges of typical adolescence, specific concerns about living with SB, school-based stressors, and incidences of teasing and bullying. The overall self-concept was primarily positive, despite the diverse stressors encountered. A significant source of strength was the close relationships with parents, although an undercurrent of tension related to independence was also expressed. Results from this study support the need for rehabilitation nurses to address not only the functional status but also the well-being and psychosocial challenges of adolescent women with SB. PMID:17432634

  11. Effects of radiation damping for biomolecular NMR experiments in solution: a hemisphere concept for water suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having −Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1H-15N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0–28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution. PMID:27524944

  12. Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Part -1

    PubMed Central

    Anantheswar, Y. N.; Venkataramana, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Craniostenosis is a disease characterized by untimely fusion of cranial sutures resulting in a variety of craniofacial deformities and neurological sequelae due to alteration in cranial volume and restriction of brain growth. This involves vault sutures predominantly, but cranial base is not immune. Association with a variety of syndromes makes the management decision complex. These children need careful evaluation by multiple specialists to have strategic treatment options. Parental counseling is an important and integral part of the treatment. Recent advancements in the surgical techniques and concept of team approach have significantly enhanced the safety and outcome of these children. We had an opportunity of treating 57 children with craniostenosis in the last 15 years at our craniofacial service. Out of them, 40 were nonsyndromic and 17 were syndromic variety. We describe our successful results along with individualized operative technical modifications adopted based on the current understanding of the disease. PMID:21887189

  13. Fluorescent X-Ray Computed Tomography towards Molecular Imaging: Proof-of-Concept Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Akatsuka, Takao; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Dilmanian, F. Avraham

    2009-03-10

    By means of fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) one can detect and image a distribution of non-radioactive imaging agent, e.g., iodine, in a biomedical subject at a high spatial resolution, so it can be a novel molecular imaging modality. We have been studying an FXCT system using synchrotron radiation for in-vivo imaging brains of small animals such as mouse, or rat. For the purpose, we propose a fast FXCT imaging method based on the novel geometry. In this study, we prove the feasibility of this concept and investigate its imaging properties, including spatial and contrast resolutions and quantitativeness, by imaging an acrylic phantom and a normal mouse brain using a preliminary imaging system with monochromatic synchrotron x rays.

  14. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: concept and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  15. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Enrique Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  16. Applying Agar's Concept of "Languaculture" to Explain Asian Students' Experiences in the Australian Tertiary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Tsedendamba, Nara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a broader qualitative case study of Asian students "translation" (Agar, 2006) to study in an Australian university. The paper is concerned with the experiences of eight participants and their involvement in a training programme in the use of language learning strategies (LLS) to support their engagement with…

  17. Educative Experience of the Use of Concept Mapping in Science and Environmental Teacher Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes-Pedrajas, Alfonso; Varo-Martínez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education in the 21st century requires well-instructed teachers with teaching and communication abilities. This paper presents an educational experience developed in several biology and environmental teacher training courses and focused on the treatment of environmental education as a transversal educational topic. For that aim, text…

  18. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  19. Supporting School-Home Connections through Photo Journaling: Capturing Everyday Experiences of Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Smith, Brian K.; Park, Sunghyun; Beabout, Brian; Kim, KyoungNa

    2009-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (2000) note that students spend only 14% of their time in school but roughly 53% of their time in the home and community. The context of children's home and community life is largely untapped by schools, partially due to the logistics of organizing and capturing these experiences for study in the classroom. The use of…

  20. Construction of a Creative and Self-Transcending Life: George Sudarshan's Conception and Experience of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a philosophical perspective on creativity as described in the writings of George Sudarshan, a highly accomplished theoretical physicist and natural philosopher whose vision of creativity was influenced by "the direct experience of transcendence." The article reviews his conceptualization of the various mental states…

  1. From Purines to Basic Biochemical Concepts: Experiments for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Many high school biology courses address mainly the molecular and cellular basis of life. The complexity that underlies the most essential processes is often difficult for the students to understand; possibly, in part, because of the inability to see and explore them. Six simple practical experiments on purine catabolism as a part of a…

  2. Spirituality as a universal concept: student experience of learning about spirituality through the medium of art.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Bróna; Timmins, Fiona

    2007-09-01

    Precise definitions of spirituality can be elusive (McSherry, 2000). This factor together with the increasing class sizes for undergraduate nursing students render the teaching and learning of spirituality in nursing a challenge for both lecturers and students alike (McSherry, 2000). This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative spirituality program for second year nursing students attending a Bachelor of Science degree at a university in the Republic of Ireland. This teaching program was introduced in 2005 to enhance nursing students' engagement with the concept of spirituality. The program consisted of a series of lectures on the topic, followed by a visit to the National Gallery of Ireland. The latter involved a structured visit, whereby the students (n=100) were divided into ten small groups and asked to wander through a section of the gallery and choose a piece of art work that they perceived to be spiritual in nature. Students were then asked to write their subjective impressions and reasons for their choice of painting. A list of themes related to spirituality was provided to the students as a prompt. Students later visited the paintings with both a lecturer and an art gallery guide and their chosen paintings were discussed within the group. Later that day, purposive sampling was used, whereby a selection of nursing students participating in the Gallery visit (n=21) partook in four recorded focus group interviews following the Gallery visit. Themes emerging from the interviews pertained to the universal and individual nature of spirituality. In keeping with Mc Sherry's (2000:27) definition of spirituality as a "universal concept relevant to all individuals", students in the study revealed their surprise at the uniqueness of their colleague's interpretations. The teaching methodology offered them an opportunity to reflect upon their own understandings and develop a deeper awareness of the meaning of spirituality. It also allowed

  3. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  4. Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Negative Ion Driver Beams for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Grisham; S.K. Hahto; S.T. Hahto; J.W. Kwan; K.N. Leung

    2003-05-06

    Negative halogen ion beams have recently been proposed as heavy ion fusion drivers. They would avoid the problem of electron accumulation in positive ion beams, and could be efficiently photo-detached to neutrals if desired. Initial experiments using chlorine produced a current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of 99.5% atomic negative Cl with an e/Cl- ratio as low as 7:1 and good emittance.

  5. Instrumentation concepts and requirements for a space vacuum research facility. [molecular shield for spaceborne experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, H. N.

    1979-01-01

    An earth-orbiting molecular shield that offers a unique opportunity for conducting physics, chemistry, and material processing experiments under a combination of environmental conditions that are not available in terrestrial laboratories is equipped with apparatus for forming a molecular beam from the freestream. Experiments are carried out using a moderate energy, high flux density, high purity atomic oxygen beam in the very low density environment within the molecular shield. As a minimum, the following instruments are required for the molecular shield: (1) a mass spectrometer; (2) a multifunction material analysis instrumentation system; and (3) optical spectrometry equipment. The design is given of a furlable molecular shield that allows deployment and retrieval of the system (including instrumentation and experiments) to be performed without contamination. Interfaces between the molecular shield system and the associated spacecraft are given. An in-flight deployment sequence is discussed that minimizes the spacecraft-induced contamination in the vicinity of the shield. Design approaches toward a precursor molecular shield system are shown.

  6. Optimal sign inverting control for time-delayed systems, a concept study with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingbin; Olgac, Nejat

    2015-01-01

    An intriguing control logic, sign inverting control (SIC) is considered for control systems with delayed feedback. It starts with a nominal control law formulated for non-delayed case and simply inverts the sign of the control gains for some surprising benefits when used with the delays. This operation sounds paradoxical as the sign inversion potentially harms the stability of the non-delayed dynamics. However, SIC with large delays may yield some complementary benefits to the nominal control logic from delay robustness perspective. The main question we address in this paper is 'How to select the nominal control law so that such a contribution can be (a) feasible, (b) optimal in some sense?' A structured methodology is proposed to achieve this, starting with a linear quadratic regulator based controller. A single scaling factor on the corresponding control gains is used for one-dimensional optimisation. Experimental validation of the concept of this optimal SIC procedure is also reported on a single-axis manipulator.

  7. Turn Back the Clock... Discovering What Makes Me Tick: A Teaching Technique to Help Individuals Understand the Effects of Childhood Experiences on the Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, Mary Jo

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a series of lessons planned for group discussion, the objectives of which are to help individuals discover that their childhood experiences affect their self-concepts and to promote positive self-concepts in children that they may encounter. (MF)

  8. Do We Need to Talk to Each Other? How the Concept of "Experience" Can Contribute to an Understanding of "Bildung" and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    In this article I argue that the contested concept of "Bildung," with its roots in the late 18th century, remains of interest in the postmodern era, even if there is also certainly a debate about it having had its day. In the specific discussion about "Bildung and democracy," I suggest that Dewey's reconstructed concept of experience has several…

  9. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  10. [The phenomenon of possession. Conception and experiences of possession in youth].

    PubMed

    Bron, B

    1975-01-01

    In the last few years, a trend to the multiplication of experiences of possession has been observed in young people. On the basis of four typical examples, the author examines this phenomenon in the light of the psychiatric, psychoanalytic and theological understanding of possession. It involves mostly young people, who do not have hysterical fits or psychotic episodes during spiritualist practices but who specially tend to take a strong interest in occultism, who very often consume drugs and have contacts with groups in which the interest for demonology plays an important part. PMID:1192724

  11. Materials experiment carrier concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The materials experiment carrier (MEC) is an optimized carrier for near term and advanced materials processing in space (MPS) research and commercial payloads. When coupled with the space platform (SP), the MEC can provide the extended duration, high power and low acceleration environment the MPS payload typically requires. The lowest cost, technically reasonable first step MEC that meets the MPS program missions objectives with minimum programmatic risks is defined. The effectiveness of the initial MEC/space platform idea for accommodating high priority, multidiscipline, R&D and commercial MPS payloads, and conducting MPS payload oprations at affordable funding and acceptable productivity levels is demonstrated.

  12. Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Parts -2

    PubMed Central

    Anantheswar, Y. N.; Venkataramana, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Craniostenosis associated with other syndromes poses several clinical and management challenges. Involvement of cranial, facial, and systemic defects with an underlying genetic abnormality needs comprehensive understanding, to plan appropriate and safe treatment modalities. Often, these children require staging involving several/multiple surgical procedures. Unsuccessful outcomes and retrusion of the deformities are common in comparison to the nonsyndromic variety. We present our experience in treating 17 children with syndromic craniostenosis with successful outcomes and minimal morbidity. We also describe the principles behind the staging. Technology adoption has improved the results as well as reduced the complications to an acceptable minimum. PMID:21887190

  13. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    ignitron designs have used mercury as the liquid metal cathode, owing to its presence as a liquid at room temperatures and a vapor pressure of 10 Pa (75 mtorr) at room temperature. While these are favorable properties, there are obvious environmental and personal safety concerns with the storage, handling, and use of mercury and its compounds. The purpose of the present work was to fabricate and test an ignitron that used as its cathode an alternate liquid metal that was safe to handle and store. To that end, an ignitron test article that used liquid gallium as the cathode material was developed and tested. Gallium is a metal that has a melting temperature of 29.76 C, which is slightly above room temperature, and a boiling point of over 2,300 C at atmospheric pressure. This property makes gallium the element with the largest relative difference between melting and boiling points. Gallium has a limited role in biology, and when ingested, it will be subsequently processed by the body and expelled rather than accumulating to toxic levels. The next section of this Technical Memorandum (TM) provides background information on the development of mercury-based ignitrons, which serves as the starting point for the development of the gallium-based variant. Afterwards, the experimental hardware and setup used in proof-of-concept testing of a basic gallium ignitron are presented. Experimental data, consisting of discharge voltage and current waveforms as well as high-speed imaging of the gallium arc discharge in the gallium ignitron test article, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. Discussion of the data and suggestions on improvements for future iterations of the design are presented in the final two sections of this TM.

  14. Turbulent boundary layers under irregular waves and currents: Experiments and the equivalent-wave concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing

    2016-04-01

    A full-scale experimental study of turbulent boundary layer flows under irregular waves and currents is conducted with the primary objective to investigate the equivalent-wave concept by Madsen (1994). Irregular oscillatory flows following the bottom-velocity spectrum under realistic surface irregular waves are produced over two fixed rough bottoms in an oscillatory water tunnel, and flow velocities are measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry. The root-mean-square (RMS) value and representative phase lead of wave velocities have vertical variations very similar to those of the first-harmonic velocity of periodic wave boundary layers, e.g., the RMS wave velocity follows a logarithmic distribution controlled by the physical bottom roughness in the very near-bottom region. The RMS wave bottom shear stress and the associated representative phase lead can be accurately predicted using the equivalent-wave approach. The spectra of wave bottom shear stress and boundary layer velocity are found to be proportional to the spectrum of free-stream velocity. Currents in the presence of irregular waves exhibit the classic two-log-profile structure with the lower log-profile controlled by the physical bottom roughness and the upper log-profile controlled by a much larger apparent roughness. Replacing the irregular waves by their equivalent sinusoidal waves virtually makes no difference for the coexisting currents. These observations, together with the excellent agreement between measurements and model predictions, suggest that the equivalent-wave representation adequately characterizes the basic wave-current interaction under irregular waves.

  15. Numerical experiments with the Lamellae Upscaling Concept with Approximate Handling of Coalescence of the Reaction Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, M.; Ginn, T. R.; Le Borgne, T.; Schreyer, L. G.; Dentz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The challenge in characterizing mixing-limited reaction rates between displacing and displaced groundwater solutions (Figure 1, left panel) is the in quantifying mixing extent that is controlled by small scale heterogeneity. We describe limited numerical 2D testing of the lamella approach that focuses on the deformation of the moving front, treated as a set of linearized patches termed lamellae. We simulate flow and reactive transport in a recently characterized sample of Massillon sandstone to provide Eulerian test data for comparison with the new Lagrangian lamella-based solution. In our numerical experiments particle tracking is used to approximate the lamellar positions and deformations at any given time, and reactions are calculated on each lamella in proportion to the local scalar dissipation rate. The simulated data show the effect of small scale heterogeneity including strong shearing and local collapse or coalescence (Figure 1, right panel) of the reaction front on the global reaction rate. We propose a simple approximation to handle coalescence in the lamella-based upscaling and we test it against the simulated data.

  16. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  17. Measuring stream discharge by non-contact methods: A proof-of-concept experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Spicer, K.R.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.B.; Thurman, E.M.; Plant, W.J.; Keller, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an experiment to make a completely non-contact open-channel discharge measurement. A van-mounted, pulsed doppler (10GHz) radar collected surface-velocity data across the 183-m wide Skagit River, Washington at a USGS streamgaging station using Bragg scattering from short waves produced by turbulent boils on the surface of the river. Surface velocities were converted to mean velocities for 25 sub-sections by assuming a normal open-channel velocity profile (surface velocity times 0.85). Channel cross-sectional area was measured using a 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar antenna suspended from a cableway car over the river. Seven acoustic doppler current profiler discharge measurements and a conventional current-meter discharge measurement were also made. Three non-contact discharge measurements completed in about a 1-hour period were within 1 % of the gaging station rating curve discharge values. With further refinements, it is thought that open-channel flow can be measured reliably by non-contact methods.

  18. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  19. Becoming physics people: Development of physics identity in self-concept and practice through the Learning Assistant experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor

    2016-03-01

    The physics department at Texas State University has implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program with reform-based instructional changes in our introductory course sequences. We are interested in how participation in the LA program influences LAs' identity both as physics students and as physics teachers; in particular, how being part of the LA community changes participants' self-concepts and their day-to-day practice. We analyze video of weekly LA preparation sessions and interviews with LAs as well as written artifacts from program applications, pedagogy course reflections, and evaluations. Our analysis of self-concepts is informed by the identity framework developed by Hazari et al., and our analysis of practice is informed by Lave and Wenger's theory of Communities of Practice. Regression models from quantitative studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics; the goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger ``physics student'' identity and stronger ``physics instructor'' identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. In addition to becoming more confident and competent in physics, LAs perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community; participation in the LA program also changes their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics. This research and the TXST LA program are supported by NSF DUE-1240036, NSF DUE-1431578, and the Halliburton Foundation.

  20. The impact of real-time, Internet experiments versus interactive, asynchronous replays of experiments on high school students science concepts and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasko, Dennis S., Jr.

    ). Students' attitudes towards learning about science concepts weren't different from one group to the other, but all students changed their views independent of treatment condition. Across treatment groups students performed similarly on all assessment instruments used to measure the nature of science domain. Furthermore, there were no significant differences, pre-test to post-test between groups or due to interaction. These findings show that students' investigations using the Internet and stored replay experiences can assist science educators in providing student with more inquiry-based experiences.

  1. Impact experiments into multiple-mesh targets: Concept development of a lightweight collisional bumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Gray, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The utility of multiple-mesh targets as potential lightweight shields to protect spacecraft in low-Earth orbit against collisional damage is explored. Earlier studies revealed that single meshes comminute hypervelocity impactors with efficiencies comparable to contiguous targets. Multiple interaction of projectile fragments with any number of meshes should lead to increased comminution, deceleration, and dispersion of the projectile, such that all debris exiting the mesh stack possesses low specific energies (ergs/sq cm) that would readily be tolerated by many flight systems. The study is conceptually exploring the sensitivity of major variables such as impact velocity, the specific areal mass (g/sq cm) of the total mesh stack (SM), and the separation distance (S) between individual meshes. Most experiments employed five or ten meshes with total SM typically less than 0.5 the specific mass of the impactor, and silicate glass impactors rather than metal projectiles. While projectile comminution increases with increasing impact velocity due to progressively higher shock stresses, encounters with multiple-meshes at low velocity (1-2 km/s) already lead to significant disruption of the glass impactors, with the resulting fragments being additionally decelerated and dispersed by subsequent meshes, and, unlike most contiguous single-plate bumpers, leading to respectable performance at low velocity. Total specific bumper mass must be the subject of careful trade-off studies; relatively massive bumpers will generate too much debris being dislodged from the bumper itself, while exceptionally lightweight designs will not cause sufficient comminution, deceleration, or dispersion of the impactor. Separation distance was found to be a crucial design parameter, as it controls the dispersion of the fragment cloud. Substantial mass savings could result if maximum separation distances were employed. The total mass of debris dislodged by multiple-mesh stacks is modestly smaller than

  2. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission Concept and First Scientific Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, John P.; Weber, Mark; Buchwitz, Michael; Rozanov, Vladimir; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Richter, Andreas; Debeek, Rüdiger; Hoogen, Ricarda; Bramstedt, Klaus; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Eisinger, Michael; Perner, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument aboard the European Space Agency's (ESA) Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), which was launched in April 1995. The main scientific objective of the GOME mission is to determine the global distribution of ozone and several other trace gases, which play an important role in the ozone chemistry of the earth's stratosphere and troposphere. GOME measures the sunlight scattered from the earth's atmosphere and/or reflected by the surface in nadir viewing mode in the spectral region 240-790 nm at a moderate spectral resolution of between 0.2 and 0.4 nm. Using the maximum 960-km across-track swath width, the spatial resolution of a GOME ground pixel is 40 × 320 km2 for the majority of the orbit and global coverage is achieved in three days after 43 orbits.Operational data products of GOME as generated by DLR-DFD, the German Data Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) for GOME, comprise absolute radiometrically calibrated earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra (level 1 products) and global distributions of total column amounts of ozone and NO2 (level 2 products), which are derived using the DOAS approach (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy). (Under certain conditions and some restrictions, the operational data products are publically available from the European Space Agency via the ERS Helpdesk.)In addition to the operational data products, GOME has delivered important information about other minor trace gases such as OClO, volcanic SO2, H2CO from biomass burning, and tropospheric BrO. Using an iterative optimal estimation retrieval scheme, ozone vertical profiles can be derived from the inversion of the UV/VIS spectra. This paper reports on the GOME instrument, its operation mode, and the retrieval techniques, the latter with particular emphasis on DOAS (total column retrieval) and advanced optimal estimation (ozone profile retrieval).Observation of ozone depletion in the

  3. A Case Study in High Contrast Coronagraph for Planet Discovery: The Eclipse Concept and Support Laboratory Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Eclipse is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to perform a sensitive imaging survey of nearby planetary systems, including a survey for jovian-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars to distances of 15 pc. We outline the science objectives of the Eclipse mission and review recent developments in the key enabling technologies. Eclipse is a space telescope concept for high-contrast visible-wavelength imaging and spectrophotometry. Its design incorporates a telescope with an unobscured aperture of 1.8 meters, a coronographic camera for suppression of diffracted light, and precise active wavefront correction for the suppression of scattered background light. For reference, Eclipse is designed to reduce the diffracted and scattered starlight between 0.33 and 1.5 arcseconds from the star by three orders of magnitude compared to any HST instrument. The Eclipse mission provides precursor science exploration and technology experience in support of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program.

  4. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases [1]. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission [2]. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  5. Solar Heating Proof-of-Concept Experiment for a Public School Building. Report for the Period 15 Jan. 1974 to 15 May 1974. No. ER-7934.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    In the middle of January 1974, AAI Corporation received a contract to conduct a solar heating proof-of-concept experiment (POCE) for a public school building. On March 1, 1974, the experiment began as Timonium Elementary School, in Maryland, became the first school in the United States to be heated by solar energy. In this brief period, the…

  6. Monitoring of learning at the category level when learning a natural concept: will task experience improve its resolution?

    PubMed

    Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have recently begun to investigate people's ability to monitor their learning of natural categories. For concept learning tasks, a learner seeks to accurately monitor learning at the category level - i.e., to accurately judge whether exemplars will be correctly classified into the appropriate category on an upcoming test. Our interest was in whether monitoring resolution at the category level would improve as participants gain task experience across multiple study-test blocks, as well as within each block. In four experiments, exemplar birds (e.g., American Goldfinch, Cassin's Finch) paired with each family name (e.g., Finch) were studied, and participants made a judgment of learning (JOL) for each exemplar. Of most interest, before and after studying the exemplars, participants made category learning judgments (CLJs), which involved predicting the likelihood of correctly classifying novel birds into each family. Tests included exemplars that had been studied or exemplars that had not been studied (novel). This procedure was repeated for either one or two additional blocks. The relative accuracy of CLJs did not improve across blocks even when explicit feedback was provided, whereas item-by-item JOL accuracy improved across blocks. Category level resolution did improve from pre-study to post-study on an initial block, but it did not consistently increase within later blocks. The stable accuracy of CLJs across blocks poses a theoretical and empirical challenge for identifying techniques to improve people's ability to judge their learning of natural categories.

  7. The experience factory: Can it make you a 5? or what is its relationship to other quality and improvement concepts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of quality improvements have permeated many businesses. It is clear that the nineties will be the quality era for software and there is a growing need to develop or adapt quality improvement approaches to the software business. Thus we must understand software as an artifact and software as a business. Since the business we are dealing with is software, we must understand the nature of software and software development. The software discipline is evolutionary and experimental; it is a laboratory science. Software is development not production. The technologies of the discipline are human based. There is a lack of models that allow us to reason about the process and the product. All software is not the same; process is a variable, goals are variable, etc. Packaged, reusable, experiences require additional resources in the form of organization, processes, people, etc. There have been a variety of organizational frameworks proposed to improve quality for various businesses. The ones discussed in this presentation include: Plan-Do-Check-Act, a quality improvement process based upon a feedback cycle for optimizing a single process model/production line; the Experience Factory/Quality Improvement Paradigm, continuous improvements through the experimentation, packaging, and reuse of experiences based upon a business's needs; Total Quality Management, a management approach to long term success through customer satisfaction based on the participation of all members of an organization; the SEI capability maturity model, a staged process improvement based upon assessment with regard to a set of key process areas until you reach a level 5 which represents a continuous process improvement; and Lean (software) Development, a principle supporting the concentration of the production on 'value added' activities and the elimination of reduction of 'not value added' activities.

  8. Using a physics experiment in a lecture setting to engage biology students with the concepts of Poiseuille's law.

    PubMed

    Breckler, Jennifer L; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently "catch up" at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students' math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement.

  9. New IES Scheme for Power Conditioning at Ultra-High Currents: from Concept to MHD Modeling and First Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvatin, Alexandre S.; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Aranchuk, Leonid E.; Huet, Dominique; Gasilov, Vladimir A.; Krukovskii, Alexandre Yu.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Fursov, Fiodor I.

    2002-12-01

    This work introduces an inductive energy storage (IES) scheme which aims pulsed-power conditioning at multi- MJ energies. The key element of the scheme represents an additional plasma volume, where a magnetically accelerated wire array is used for inductive current switching. This plasma acceleration volume is connected in parallel to a microsecond capacitor bank and to a 100-ns current ruse-time useful load. Simple estimates suggest that optimized scheme parameters could be reachable even when operating at ultra-high currents. We describe first proof-of-principle experiments carried out on GIT12 generator [1] at the wire-array current level of 2 MA. The obtained confirmation of the concept consists in generation of a 200 kV voltage directly at an inductive load. This load voltage value can be already sufficient to transfer the available magnetic energy into kinetic energy of a liner at this current level. Two-dimensional modeling with the radiational MHD numerical tool Marple [2] confirms the development of inductive voltage in the system. However, the average voltage increase is accompanied by short-duration voltage drops due to interception of the current by the low-density upstream plasma. Upon our viewpoint, this instability of the current distribution represents the main physical limitation to the scheme performance.

  10. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    PubMed Central

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently “catch up” at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students’ math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement. PMID:23737633

  11. Swingbed Amine Carbon Dioxide Removal Flight Experiment - Feasibility Study and Concept Development for Cost-Effective Exploration Technology Maturation on The International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Nalette, Timothy; Graf, John; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery; Hayley, Elizabeth; Williams, Antony; Button, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The completion of International Space Station Assembly and transition to a full six person crew has created the opportunity to create and implement flight experiments that will drive down the ultimate risks and cost for human space exploration by maturing exploration technologies in realistic space environments that are impossible or incredibly costly to duplicate in terrestrial laboratories. An early opportunity for such a technology maturation experiment was recognized in the amine swingbed technology baselined for carbon dioxide and humidity control on the Orion spacecraft and Constellation Spacesuit System. An experiment concept using an existing high fidelity laboratory swing bed prototype has been evaluated in a feasibility and concept definition study leading to the conclusion that the envisioned flight experiment can be both feasible and of significant value for NASA s space exploration technology development efforts. Based on the results of that study NASA has proceeded with detailed design and implementation for the flight experiment. The study effort included the evaluation of technology risks, the extent to which ISS provided unique opportunities to understand them, and the implications of the resulting targeted risks for the experiment design and operational parameters. Based on those objectives and characteristics, ISS safety and integration requirements were examined, experiment concepts developed to address them and their feasibility assessed. This paper will describe the analysis effort and conclusions and present the resulting flight experiment concept. The flight experiment, implemented by NASA and launched in two packages in January and August 2011, integrates the swing bed with supporting elements including electrical power and controls, sensors, cooling, heating, fans, air- and water-conserving functionality, and mechanical packaging structure. It is now on board the ISS awaiting installation and activation.

  12. Another Wrinkle in the Debate about Successful Aging: The Undervalued Concept of Resilience and the Lived Experience of Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2008-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" is a contested discourse in gerontology. Two conflicting paradigms dominate the discussion: a health promotion activity model, and a model critical of the concept of successful aging. However, this study takes a different perspective and proposes that perhaps we have been striving for the wrong goal. The true…

  13. THE INTERACTION OF WORDS AND GRAPHIC SYMBOLS, INVESTIGATED VIA A PROGRAMED SEQUENCE OF CONCEPT FORMATION EXPERIENCES RELATED TO VECTOR SPACES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLYARD, A. JOYCE; SMITH, M. DANIEL

    A SEQUENCE OF LEARNING TASKS WHICH USED NONVERBAL STIMULI TO INTRODUCE CONCEPTS OF VECTOR SPACES WAS CONSTRUCTED. THE SAMPLE WAS 20 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 5 AND 6 WHO WERE MATCHED ON THE BASES OF INTELLIGENCE, READING, AND ARITHMETIC ACHIEVEMENT. EACH STAGE OF THE PROGRAMED SEQUENCE WAS PRESENTED TO EACH SUBJECT AS A CONCEPT-FORMATION PROBLEM.…

  14. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases.1 Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission.2 Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an Advanced Design Methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development e ort. In order to t a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  15. Early Childhood Musical Experiences: Contributing to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers's Self-Concept in Music and Success in Music Education (during Student Age)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruismaki, Heikki; Tereska, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    This article studies early childhood musical experiences of Finnish pre-service elementary teachers (N=590). The article also analyses their connections between musical self-concept at student age and musical progress in teacher education. Research material was gathered by a questionnaire, which posed retrospective questions about childhood as…

  16. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+). PMID:26933902

  17. The Comparison of Self-differentiation and Self-concept in Divorced and Non-divorced Women Who Experience Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Fatemeh; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmati Zadeh, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of researches indicate that domestic violence (DV) causes abuse and vulnerability of women and children. Two components that can decrease violence and divorce are self-concept and self-differentiation. Objectives In this research, we compare self-differentiation and self-concept in divorced and non-divorced women that experience domestic violence. Materials and Methods To achieve the goal of the research, 80 divorced women with domestic violence were chosen through available sampling and equalized with 80 non divorced women with domestic violence in aspect of age and education. They respond to instrument of self-differentiation (Skowron) and self-concept (Rodgers). Data was analyzed between the two groups using independent t-test. The significant level was (P < 0.01). Results The findings indicated divorced women have more self-differentiation and self-concept than non-divorced women. In addition, there is a significant difference with respect to self-differentiation and self-concept in divorced and non-divorced women with domestic violence. Conclusions These results emphasize that self-differentiation and self-concept can be considered in premarital education (therapeutic interventions) to protective conditions against the occurrence of DV. PMID:24971277

  18. GPS for low-cost attitude determination. A review of concepts, in-flight experiences, and current developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Q. P.; Van Woerkom, P. Th. L. M.

    accuracy requirements. As carrier phase difference measurements are ambiguous because of the unknown number of GPS signal cycles received, the estimated attitude is in principle ambiguous as well. Therefore, resolution of the GPS signal cycle ambiguity becomes a necessary task before determining the attitude for a stand-alone GPS attitude sensing system. This problem may be solved by introducing additional low-cost reference attitude sensors like three-axis magnetometers. This is also one of the advantages of integrated sensor systems. The paper is organized as follows. Global Positioning System and GPS observables are described in the first two sections. The main attitude determination concepts are presented in the next section. For small spacecraft, GPS integrated with other low-cost attitude sensors results in a data fusion concept, to be discussed next. The last section highlights experiences and on-going projects related to the spacecraft attitude determination using GPS.

  19. Influence of Precollege Experience on Self-Concept among Community College Students in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    Female and minority students have historically been underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, and engineering at colleges and universities. Although a plethora of research has focused on students enrolled in 4-year colleges or universities, limited research addresses the factors that influence gender differences in community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering. Using a target population of 1,599 aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, this study investigates the determinants of self-concept by examining a hypothetical structural model. The findings suggest that background characteristics, high school academic performance, and attitude toward science have unique contributions to the development of self-concept among female community college students. The results add to the literature by providing new theoretical constructs and the variables that predict students' self-concept.

  20. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  1. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking.

  2. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  3. Student Conceptions about the DNA Structure within a Hierarchical Organizational Level: Improvement by Experiment- and Computer-Based Outreach Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module.…

  4. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the discussion about the objectives of scientific literacy-oriented chemistry teaching, its connection to the German concept of "Allgemeinbildung", and the debate of "science through education" vs. "education through science". About 10 years ago the sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching was suggested…

  5. Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

  6. Mediated Learning Experience and Concept Maps: A Pedagogical Tool for Achieving Meaningful Learning in Medical Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umana, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M., Luz Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience…

  7. Concept Development and Meaningful Learning among Electrical Engineering Students Engaged in a Problem-Based Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior…

  8. The "Real Self" and Inauthenticity: The Importance of Self-Concept Anchorage for Emotional Experiences in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Melissa M.

    2007-01-01

    I examine the utility of self-concept anchorage (as described by Turner 1976) in the analysis of inauthenticity in the workplace. As controlling internally felt emotion may distance the worker from her true feelings or true self, the management of emotion in the workplace can produce feelings of inauthenticity in the worker. This relationship has…

  9. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass.

  10. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. PMID:25086436

  11. Student conceptions about the DNA structure within a hierarchical organizational level: Improvement by experiment- and computer-based outreach learning.

    PubMed

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module. To give participants the hierarchical organizational level which they have to draw, was a specific feature of our study. We introduced two objective category systems for analyzing drawings and inscriptions. Our results indicated a long- as well as a short-term increase in the level of conceptual understanding and in the number of drawn elements and their grades concerning the DNA structure. Consequently, we regard the "draw and write" technique as a tool for a teacher to get to know students' alternative conceptions. Furthermore, our study points the modification potential of hands-on and computer-supported learning modules.

  12. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Matthew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design can have a profound impact on life-cycle cost (LCC). Widely accepted that nearly 80% of LCC is committed. Decisions made during early design must be well informed. Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center aids in decision making for launch vehicles. Provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A studies. Provides customer with preliminary vehicle sizing information, vehicle feasibility, and expected performance.

  13. Quality Experiences of Inquiry in Blended Contexts--University Student Approaches to Inquiry, Technologies, and Conceptions of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the quality of inquiry using technology in blended contexts at university is a complex phenomenon as there are many variables which could account for qualitative variation in the experience. This study looks at reasons for qualitative variation in the university student experience of inquiry using technologies. It considers approaches…

  14. Experiments to be flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: The US experiments on the first international microgravity laboratory, from concept to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.; Lashbrook, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The current life cycle of NASA ARC-managed flight experiments is presented. The two main purposes are: (1) to bring to the attention of biologists, and in particular cell and plant biologists, some of the requirements for flying a life science experiment in space; and (2) to introduce the subject to biologists embarking on studies in the field and to delineate some of the specific requirements that will be encountered by an ARC-managed microgravity experiment. This is not intended to be an exhaustive encyclopedia of all techniques used to prepare an experiment to evaluate the effect of microgravity on plant and animal cells. However, many of the requirements are the same for all biological systems and for other NASA centers. Emphasis is on the principle investigator's (PI's) involvement in the activities required for successful completion of major reviews. The PI support required for activities other than these reviews is also discussed, as are the interactions between ARC and the PI that will be required as problems or questions arise throughout experiment and payload development. It is impossible to predict the extent of this activity because it varies according to the complexity of the experiment and the flight experience of the PI.

  15. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  16. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  17. Modeling and experiment of the suspended seismometer concept for attenuating the contribution of tilt motion in horizontal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Evans, M.; Mittleman, R.; MacInnis, M.; Biscans, S.; Dooley, K. L.; Sohier, H.; Lauriero, A.; Paris, H.; Koch, J.; Knothe, P.; Carbajo, A.; Dufort, C.

    2016-06-01

    Tilt-horizontal coupling in inertial sensors limits the performance of active isolation systems such as those used in gravitational wave detectors. Inertial rotation sensors can be used to subtract the tilt component from the signal produced by horizontal inertial sensors, but such techniques are often limited by the sensor noise of the tilt measurement. A different approach is to mechanically filter the tilt transmitted to the horizontal inertial sensor, as discussed in this article. This technique does not require an auxiliary rotation sensor and can produce a lower noise measurement. The concept investigated uses a mechanical suspension to isolate the inertial sensor from input tilt. Modeling and simulations show that such a configuration can be used to adequately attenuate the tilt transmitted to the instrument, while maintaining translation sensitivity in the frequency band of interest. The analysis is supported by experimental results showing that this approach is a viable solution to overcome the tilt problem in the field of active inertial isolation.

  18. A qualitative study of parents' experiences using family support services: applying the concept of surface and depth.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cox, Pat; Thomas, Nigel; Cocker, Karen

    2014-09-01

    United Kingdom policy and practice endorses family support for child well-being. Achieving such support requires multi-agency approaches that consider all aspects of parents' and children's lives and which offer practical, social and emotional help. The potential for services to make a positive impact on parents and their families will depend in part on the level and nature of engagement. In this paper, a case is made for the application of the two-part surface and depth concept for understanding how practitioners engage with families and how they might improve the chances of supporting sustainable differences for parents and families. To illustrate, qualitative data from a review of family centre support provided by a north of England local authority are presented. The review was commissioned to explore why families often need to re-engage with intensive support services. Data were drawn from interviews with parents (n = 18, recruited following a survey of all those registered with the service during April-May 2009) and discussions with family centre support workers (n = 4), and following thematic analysis, three dominant themes emerged--resources available, staff approach and real life--which were appraised in the light of the surface and depth concept. Much of the work with parents effectively dealt with pressing needs. This felt gratifying for both parent and worker and supported immediate service engagement. However, each noted that the more complex issues in parents' lives went unchallenged and thus the sustainability of progress in terms of parenting practice was questionable. A strengths focused approach by staff that understood needs in the context of parents' real-life circumstances was important to parent engagement. Thus, longer term benefits from family support require practitioners to work with parents to problem solve immediate issues while also digging deeper to acknowledge and seek to resolve the more complex challenges parents face in their real

  19. Illustrating the Concepts of Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry in Introductory Courses: A MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopke, Nancy Carter; Lovett, Timothy Neal

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a widely used and versatile tool for scientists in many different fields. Soft ionization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) allow for the analysis of biomolecules, polymers, and clusters. This article describes a MALDI mass spectrometry experiment designed for students in introductory…

  20. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  1. A Comparison of the Concepts of Democracy and Experience in a Sample of Major Works by Dewey and Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    While theorizing in distinctly different times, distinctly different cultures, and under distinctly different circumstances, notable philosophical similarities can be drawn between John Dewey and Paulo Freire. This article focuses on two major themes evident in a sample of each philosopher's major works, democracy and experience, and draws…

  2. The Eratosthenes Project: the reproduction of a historical experiment as a resource for the inclusion of Astronomy concepts in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus Santos, Antônio José; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Teixeira de Araújo, Mauro Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    This investigation was about an educational approach based on the History of Science and experimentation involving scientific concepts in the area of Astronomy, highlighting the reproduction of the original experiment performed by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C., designed to measure the Earth radius. It was found that the realized activities contributed significantly to the success of High School students from two public schools of Sergipe - the State College State Secretary Francisco Rosa Santos in Aracaju, Sergipe and the Federal Institute, campus of São Cristov - since these activities had aroused the students' interest for the construction of new scientific knowledge, and they improved their comprehension of some aspects related to Science and Astronomy in particular, as its empirical character and its historical development, therefore immersed in a specific social, economic and cultural context. The approach allowed for a greater involvement of participating students and it improved student-teacher relationship. The evaluations identified that a significant learning of the discussed concepts involving Physics and Astronomy had occurred, such as latitude, longitude, equinox, solstice, midday sun, among other concepts treated in an interdisciplinary manner with other disciplines such as Geography, History and Mathematics.

  3. Five biomedical experiments flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: Lessons learned from developing these experiments on the first international microgravity mission from concept to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lashbrook, J. J.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous problems associated with accommodating complex biological systems in microgravity in the flexible laboratory systems installed in the Orbiter cargo bay. This presentation will focus upon some of the lessons learned along the way from the University laboratory to the IML-1 Microgravity Laboratory. The First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission contained a large number of specimens, including: 72 million nematodes, US-1; 3 billion yeast cells, US-2; 32 million mouse limb-bud cells, US-3; and 540 oat seeds (96 planted), FOTRAN. All five of the experiments had to undergo significant redevelopment effort in order to allow the investigator's ideas and objectives to be accommodated within the constraints of the IML-1 mission. Each of these experiments were proposed as unique entities rather than part of the mission, and many procedures had to be modified from the laboratory practice to meet IML-1 constraints. After a proposal is accepted by NASA for definition, an interactive process is begun between the Principal Investigator and the developer to ensure a maximum science return. The success of the five SLSPO-managed experiments was the result of successful completion of all preflight biological testing and hardware verification finalized at the KSC Life Sciences Support Facility housed in Hangar L. The ESTEC Biorack facility housed three U.S. experiments (US-1, US-2, and US-3). The U.S. Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility housed GTHRES and FOTRAN. The IML-1 mission (launched from KSC on 22 Jan. 1992, and landed at Dryden Flight Research Facility on 30 Jan. 1992) was an outstanding success--close to 100 percent of the prelaunch anticipated science return was achieved and, in some cases, greater than 100 percent was achieved (because of an extra mission day).

  4. Active bio-monitoring of contamination in aquatic systems--an in situ translocation experiment applying the PICT concept.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Stefanie; Sans-Piché, Frédéric; Streck, Georg; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2011-01-17

    The environmental risk assessment of toxicants is often derived from chemical monitoring, based on single species tests performed in the laboratory. However, to provide ecologically relevant information, community approaches are required. The aim of this study was to causally link prometryn exposure to community-level effects in complex field situations and to identify response times of adaptation to pollution and recovery from pollution. For this reason sensitivity shifts in communities were detected and related to structural changes within the periphyton community. Furthermore, it was intended to illustrate the possibility of a combined approach of community translocation and sensitivity assessment for active monitoring of polluted sites. Periphyton was grown at a reference (R) and at a polluted (P) site of the river Elbe basin for 26 days, was subsequently transferred from the polluted site to the reference site and vice versa. Sensitivity of communities to prometryn was determined according to the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT)-concept in short-term tests by measuring photosynthesis inhibition and was related to structural changes in algal class and diatom species composition. Exposure to prometryn was determined using polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS), giving time-weighted average concentrations. Environmental concentrations of prometryn were significantly higher at the polluted site compared to the reference site. Communities grown at the polluted site showed a higher tolerance to prometryn in comparison to the reference site. 17 Days after the translocation to the reference site, EC(50) decreased 2-fold compared to the non-translocated P-community of the same age. By contrast, EC(50) of the community grown at the reference site was 5 times higher after 17 days exposure at the polluted site. Furthermore, P-R communities were less sensitive to prometryn (higher EC(50)) than R-P communities, 24 days after translocation. These changes in

  5. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.

  6. Latina and European American Girls’ Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810

  7. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810

  8. Carbon rod radiant source for blast/fire interaction experiments: proof of concept and design. Interim report, 28 March 1979-30 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cockayne, J.E.; Malinowski, R.L.; Meisner, J.L.

    1980-08-30

    The investigation of the blast interaction with fires ignited by the nuclear flash requires controlled experiments. A simulator for the pulse of thermal energy is needed in order to properly initiate the fire. This report addresses the development of carbon rod radiant source (CARRS) that is compatible with the FEMA long-duration shock/blast tube at Camp Parks, California. The effort commenced with an understanding of the specific requirements and pertinent research, both past and present. Evaluation of the alternate candidates provided direction for a proof of concept experiment. Subsequent steps produced a laboratory scale (constant 25 kw) model for investigating the electrical, mechanical and optical issues of a 1.8 Mw peak power CARRS. A conservative design was done, which may soon be 'overcome by events' in pulsed power technology.

  9. Modeling and experiment of the suspended seismometer concept for attenuating the contribution of tilt motion in horizontal measurements.

    PubMed

    Matichard, F; Evans, M; Mittleman, R; MacInnis, M; Biscans, S; Dooley, K L; Sohier, H; Lauriero, A; Paris, H; Koch, J; Knothe, P; Carbajo, A; Dufort, C

    2016-06-01

    Tilt-horizontal coupling in inertial sensors limits the performance of active isolation systems such as those used in gravitational wave detectors. Inertial rotation sensors can be used to subtract the tilt component from the signal produced by horizontal inertial sensors, but such techniques are often limited by the sensor noise of the tilt measurement. A different approach is to mechanically filter the tilt transmitted to the horizontal inertial sensor, as discussed in this article. This technique does not require an auxiliary rotation sensor and can produce a lower noise measurement. The concept investigated uses a mechanical suspension to isolate the inertial sensor from input tilt. Modeling and simulations show that such a configuration can be used to adequately attenuate the tilt transmitted to the instrument, while maintaining translation sensitivity in the frequency band of interest. The analysis is supported by experimental results showing that this approach is a viable solution to overcome the tilt problem in the field of active inertial isolation. PMID:27370484

  10. Integration of Long term experiments on terrestrial ecosystem in AnaEE-France Research Infrastructure : concept and adding value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, André; Chabbi, Abad; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Pichot, Christian; Raynal, Hélène; Saint-André, Laurent; Clobert, Jean; Greiveldinger, Lucile

    2015-04-01

    Continental ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations like biomass production, that participate to the regulation of the global biogeochemical cycles and contribute and contribute to the maintenance of air and water quality. Global changes effects on continental ecosystems are likely to impact the fate of humanity, which is thus facing numerous challenges, such as an increasing demand for food and energy, competition for land and water use, or rapid climate warming. Hence, scientific progress in our understanding of the continental critical zone will come from studies that address how biotic and abiotic processes react to global changes. Long term experiments are required to take into account ecosystem inertia and feedback loops and to characterize trends and threshold in ecosystem dynamics. In France, 20 long-term experiments on terrestrial ecosystems are gathered within a single Research Infrastructure: ANAEE-France (http://www.anaee-s.fr), which is a part of AnaEE-Europe (http://www.anaee.com/). Each experiment consist in applying differentiated pressures on different plot over a long period (>20 years) representative of a range of management options. The originality of such infrastructure is a combination of experimental set up and long-term monitoring of simultaneous measurements of key ecosystem variables and parameters through a multi-disciplinary approach and replications of each treatment that improve the statistical strength of the results. The sites encompass gradients of climate conditions, ecosystem complexity and/or management, and can be used for calibration/validation of ecosystem functioning models as well as for the design of ecosystem management strategies. Gathering those experiments in a single research infrastructure is an important issue to enhance their visibility and increase the number of hosting scientific team by offering a range of services. These are: • Access to the ongoing long

  11. Conceptions of reality and the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Anna, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    A core of neurobiological mechanisms is implicated in different forms of pain. Fabbro and Crescentini [4] show that this fact is significant both on the scientific level and on the philosophical level. Their main philosophical claim is that the existence of a neural circuit devoted to the experience of time suggests that time might not be real. An upshot would be that the objects which populate the world of our experience might not be real either, and hence the attachment to them and the mechanisms of pain for the separation from them that were developed through evolution would be misplaced. By contrast, in their view, we inhabit a Heraclitean or Buddhist world of processes: indeed, by inhibiting our time circuits, mindful meditation releases us from perceiving reality as a world of objects and thereby reliefs us from pain. Fabbro and Crescentini remark on a limitation of attempts to employ mindful meditation as a pain killer in clinical contexts: a long time of meditation practice is needed for a subject to be able to alleviate pain through that method.

  12. Sensory integration intervention: historical concepts, treatment strategies and clinical experiences in three patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kratz, S V

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a review of clinical experiences providing developmental therapy services for three boys diagnosed with paediatric neurotransmitter disease. The clinical presentation of paediatric neurotransmitter diseases might parallel other diagnostic characteristics seen in a typical paediatric therapy clinic (i.e. hypotonia, motor and cognitive delays, coordination, expressive speech, and ocular motor difficulties.) From the clinical perspective of the author, sensory integrative function is but one aspect of a thorough evaluation and treatment plan for all patients. The manifestations of sensory integration dysfunction (SID), also known as sensory processing dysfunction (SPD), can occur alone or be concurrent with a variety of known medical, behavioural and neurological diagnoses. These manifestations of SPD can include, but are not limited to: hypotonia, hyperactivity, irritability, distractibility, attention difficulties, learning difficulties, clumsiness and incoordination, instability, poor motor skills, social-emotional difficulties, and behavioural problems. This paper summarizes the theory and practice applications of sensory integration. The author discusses clinical experiences providing occupational therapy services utilizing sensory integration methods and strategies with clients who were eventually diagnosed with SSADH deficiency.

  13. Conceptualizing the aesthetic experience: using the influence matrix to show causal relationships between basic concepts in aesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that using tools from systems science for teaching and learning in the Humanities offers innovative insights that can prove helpful for both students and lecturers. Our contention here is that a method used in systems science, namely the influence matrix, can be a suitable tool to facilitate the understanding of elementary notions in Aesthetics by means of systematizing this process. As we will demonstrate in the upcoming sections, the influence matrix can help us to understand the nature and function of the basic elements that take part in the aesthetic experience and their evolving relevance in the history of Aesthetics. The implementation of these elements to an influence matrix will contribute to a more detailed understanding of (i) the nature of each element, (ii) the interrelation between them and (iii) the influence each element has on all the others.

  14. Clinical experiences derived from implementation of an easy to use concept for treatment of wound healing by secondary intention and guidance in selection of appropriate dressings.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Chris; Guenther, Nina; Menenakos, Charalambos; Muenzberg, Helga; Pirlich, Matthias; Lochs, Herbert; Mueller, Joachim M

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this case-cohort-type observational study conducted at different Surgical Departments of the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin was to evaluate the sequential use concept first described by Systagenix Wound Management in 2007. Fifty-two patients with different wound healing by secondary intention were treated for 7 weeks at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin. A multidisciplinary team worked together to reach consensus in wound assessment; in classification of infection status according to the criteria described by European Wound Management Association (EWMA); in treatment protocol and on dressings to be used to 'cover' wounds. Before dressing application, all wounds were cleaned from debris. Following the sequential use concept, wounds classified as stages 2 and 3 were dressed with SILVERCEL(®) and TIELLE(®) or TIELLE PLUS(®) to 'clean' the wounds. After 2-3 weeks, treatment was changed to PROMOGRAN PRISMA(®) and TIELLE(®) to 'close and cover' wounds, thus providing optimal wound healing. Wounds classified as non infected were dressed with PROMOGRAN PRISMA(®) and TIELLE(®) during the complete treatment period. Patients were asked to evaluate the treatment using a simplified questionnaire developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin. Wounds comprised 37 surgical procedures, 8 chronic mixed ulcer, 4 pressure sores, 1 diabetic foot ulcer, 1 venous leg ulcer, and 1 mixed arterial/venous ulcer. At baseline, 12 wounds were classified as stage 3, 38 wounds as stage 2 and 2 wounds as stage 1. After 7 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a positive clinical response to the sequential use treatment. Results of wound size showed a high significant progression of wound healing expressed with a profound reduction of wound area (P in all measurements <0·001, chi-square test) and improved granulation. This study summarises the clinical experiences derived from the evaluation of the sequential use concept in the daily

  15. [Sedation concepts with volatile anaesthetics in intensive care: practical use and current experiences with the AnaConDa system].

    PubMed

    Kompardt, J; Schärff, K; Kubosch, K; Pohl, C; Bomplitz, M; Soukup, J

    2008-12-01

    The use of volatile anaesthetics in intensive care medicine has so far been limited by the lack of equipment suitable for daily routine use and the need for an anaesthetic machine. The new Anaesthetic Conserving Device (AnaConDa) enables the routine use of volatile anaesthetics for long-term sedation via intensive care ventilators. The Anaesthetic Conserving Device replaces the common heat and moisture exchanger in the ventilation circuit. The volatile anaesthetic is continuously applied in liquid status via a syringe pump to a form of mini-vaporiser where the anaesthetic agent is vaporised. The expired anaesthetic gas is stored in the carbon filter and approximately 90% of the gas is resupplied into the breathing cycle. The current experiences suggest that volatile anaesthetics present an alternative for long-term sedation in intensive care units, providing optimised pathways, from a medical as well as from an economical point of view. It must, however, be emphasized that the use of volatile anaesthetics for longer periods of time is an off-label use and should only undertaken by medical professionals at their own risk. PMID:18839123

  16. Brief reminiscence activities improve state well-being and self-concept in young adults: a randomised controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Hallford, David John; Mellor, David

    2016-11-01

    Reminiscence-based psychotherapies have been demonstrated to have robust effects on a range of therapeutic outcomes. However, little research has been conducted on the immediate effects of guided activities they are composed of, or how these might differ dependent on the type of reminiscence. The current study utilised a controlled experimental design, whereby 321 young adults (mean age = 25.5 years, SD = 3.0) were randomised to one of four conditions of online reminiscence activity: problem-solving (successful coping experiences), identity (self-defining events contributing to a meaningful and continuous personal identity), bitterness revival (negative or adverse events), or a control condition (any memory from their past). Participants recalled autobiographical memories congruent with the condition, and answered questions to facilitate reflection on the memories. The results indicated that problem-solving and identity reminiscence activities caused significant improvements in self-esteem, meaning in life, self-efficacy and affect, whereas no effects were found in the bitterness revival and control conditions. Problem-solving reminiscence also caused a small effect in increasing perceptions of a life narrative/s. Differences between the conditions did not appear to be explained by the positive-valence of memories. These results provide evidence for the specific effects of adaptive types of problem-solving and identity reminiscence in young adults.

  17. Simulation Modeling of Lakes in Undergraduate and Graduate Classrooms Increases Comprehension of Climate Change Concepts and Experience with Computational Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Cayelan C.; Gougis, Rebekka Darner

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem modeling is a critically important tool for environmental scientists, yet is rarely taught in undergraduate and graduate classrooms. To address this gap, we developed a teaching module that exposes students to a suite of modeling skills and tools (including computer programming, numerical simulation modeling, and distributed computing) that students apply to study how lakes around the globe are experiencing the effects of climate change. In the module, students develop hypotheses about the effects of different climate scenarios on lakes and then test their hypotheses using hundreds of model simulations. We taught the module in a 4-hour workshop and found that participation in the module significantly increased both undergraduate and graduate students' understanding about climate change effects on lakes. Moreover, participation in the module also significantly increased students' perceived experience level in using different software, technologies, and modeling tools. By embedding modeling in an environmental science context, non-computer science students were able to successfully use and master technologies that they had previously never been exposed to. Overall, our findings suggest that modeling is a powerful tool for catalyzing student learning on the effects of climate change.

  18. A Unifying Concept for the Dependence of Whole-crop N : P Ratio on Biomass: Theory and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Duncan J.; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Zhang, Kefeng; Bosh-Serra, Angela; Boldrini, Arianna; Karawulova, Lyudmila

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous estimates have been made of the concentrations of N and P required for good growth of crop species but they have not been defined by any unifying model. The aim of the present study was to develop such a model for the dependence of the N : P ratio on crop mass, to test its validity and to use it to identify elements of similarity between different crop species and wild plants. Methods A model was derived between plant N : P ratio (Rw) and its dry biomass per unit area (W) during growth with near optimum nutrition by considering that plants consist of growth-related tissue and storage-related tissue with N : P ratios Rg and Rs, respectively. Testing and calibration against experimental data on different crop species led to a simple equation between Rw and W which was tested against independent experimental data. Key Results The validity of the model and equation was supported by 365 measurements of Rw in 38 field experiments on crops. Rg and Rs remained approximately constant throughout growth, with average values of 11·8 and 5·8 by mass. The model also approximately predicted the relationships between leaf N and P concentrations in 124 advisory estimates on immature tissues and in 385 wild species from published global surveys. Conclusions The N : P ratio of the biomass of very different crops, during growth with near optimum levels of nutrients, is defined entirely in terms of crop biomass, an average N : P ratio of the storage/structure-related tissue of the crop and an average N : P ratio of the growth-related tissue. The latter is similar to that found in leaves of many wild plant species, and even micro-organisms and terrestrial and freshwater autotrophs. PMID:18840873

  19. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE)- Concept of Operations Evaluation for Using Remote Guidance Ultrasound for Planetary Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; Peterson, Sean; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Douglas; Ham, David; Amponsah, David; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Use of remote guidance (RG) techniques aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has enabled astronauts to collect diagnostic-level ultrasound images. Exploration class missions will require this cohort of (typically) non-formally trained sonographers to operate with greater autonomy given the longer communication delays (2 seconds for ISS vs. >6 seconds for missions beyond the Moon) and communication blackouts. To determine the feasibility and training requirements for autonomous ultrasound image collection by non-expert ultrasound operators, ultrasound images were collected from a similar cohort using three different image collection protocols: RG only, RG with a computer-based learning tool (LT), and autonomous image collection with LT. The groups were assessed for both image quality and time to collect the images. Methods Subjects were randomized into three groups: RG only, RG with LT, and autonomous with LT. Each subject received 10 minutes of standardized training before the experiment. The subjects were tasked with making the following ultrasound assessments: 1) bone fracture and 2) focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) to assess a patient s abdomen. Human factors-related questionnaire data were collected immediately after the assessments. Results The autonomous group did not out-perform the two groups that received RG. The mean time for the autonomous group to collect images was less than the RG groups, however the mean image quality for the autonomous group was less compared to both RG groups. Discussion Remote guidance continues to produce higher quality ultrasound images than autonomous ultrasound operation. This is likely due to near-instant feedback on image quality from the remote guider. Expansion in communication time delays, however, diminishes the capability to provide this feedback, thus requiring more autonomous ultrasound operation. The LT has the potential to be an excellent training and coaching component for

  20. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  1. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective.

  2. GRAAL - Griggs-type Apparatus equipped with Acoustics in the Laboratory: a new instrument to explore the rheology of rocks at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A.; Champallier, R.; Precigout, J.; Pinquier, Y.; Ferrand, T. P.; Incel, S.; Hilairet, N.; Labrousse, L.; Renner, J.; Green, H. W., II; Stunitz, H.; Jolivet, L.

    2015-12-01

    Two new generation solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus have been set up at the Laboratoire de Géologie of ENS PARIS, and the Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans (ISTO). These new set-ups allow to perform controlled rock deformation experiments on large volume samples, up to 5 GPa and 1300°C. Careful pressure - stress calibration will be performed (using D-DIA and/or Paterson-type experiments as standards), strain-stress-pressure will be measured using modern techniques and state of the art salt assemblies. Focusing on rheology, the pressure vessel at ISTO has been designed in a goal of deforming large sample diameter (8 mm) at confining pressure of up to 3 GPa. Thanks to this large sample size, this new vessel will allow to explore the microstructures related to the deformation processes occurring at pressures of the deep lithosphere and in subduction zones. In this new apparatus, we moreover included a room below the pressure vessel in order to develop a basal load cell as close as possible to the sample. This new design, in progress, aims at significantly improving the accuracy of stress measurements in the Griggs-type apparatus. The ultimate goal is to set up a new technique able to routinely quantify the rheology of natural rocks between 0.5 and 5 GPa. Although fundamental to document the rheology of the lithosphere, such a technique is still missing in rock mechanics. Focusing on the evolution of physical and mechanical properties during mineral phase transformations, the vessel at ENS is equipped with continuous acoustic emission (AE) multi-sensor monitoring in order to "listen" to the sample during deformation. Indeed, these continuous recordings enable to detect regular AE like signals during dynamic crack propagation, as well as non-impulsive signals, which might be instrumental to identify laboratory analogs to non-volcanic tremor and low frequency earthquake signals. P and S elastic wave velocities will also be measured contemporaneously during

  3. Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A total of 122 middle-class White boys and girls aged 3 through 12 years were interviewed to determine the nature and the development of their concepts of death and the impact of experience on those concepts. (Author/BH)

  4. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  5. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  6. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  7. Using place-based concepts, multicultural lenses, and hands-on experience to broaden participation in the sciences for native youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, K. C.; Keepseagle, L.

    2013-12-01

    . Through field trips to broaden perspective, self-directed action research projects, and formal and informal classroom settings, the SLC serves as a stepping stone for students to discover Science/Math/ Technology-related careers and interact with people and professionals of all ages who pursue these careers. SLC participation empowers young students so they may one day serve as leaders and roles models to positively influence their classmates, schools, and communities for future generations. Through this collaborative education design process we have used place-based concepts, multicultural lenses, and hands-on experiences to explore reciprocal learning relationships which broaden participation of native students in geosciences and geoscientists' participation in cultural teachings.

  8. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  9. Experiments on egg transfer in the cow and ewe: dependence of conception rate on the transfer procedure and stage of the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lawson, R A; Rowson, L E; Moor, R M; Tervit, H R

    1975-10-01

    The effects on embryo survival of procedures used in transferring eggs non-surgically were investigated in three experiments in ewes and heifers. In Exp. 1, two techniques for introducing eggs into the uterus through the cervix in heifers were compared; namely (i) deposition of the eggs high into the uterine horn or (ii) into the body of the uterus. Both methods were followed by inflation of the uterus with carbon dioxide. Out of a total of 34 heifers, only one became pregnant by the use of Method (i). Non-surgical egg tansfers early (Days 3 to 5) or later (Days 6 to 9) in the oestrous cycles of heifers were carried out in Exp. 2. Three transfer procedures were compared: (i) pipette transfer of an egg into the body of the uterus through the cervix (control), (ii) the control procedure performed under Fluothane anaesthesia, or (iii) followed by inflation of the uterus with carbon dioxide. Wide transfers carried out early in the cycle, pregnancies resulted in 1/10, 0/10 and 1/10 of the heifers in the control, carbon dioxide and Fluothane groups, respectively. With late transfers, 7/20, 1/10 and 8/20 heifers became pregnant in the respective treatment groups. This trend for pregnancy rate to be improved when late transfers were done in the control and Fluothane groups was significant only at the 10% level of probability when both groups were pooled. It was tentatively concluded, however, that non-surgical transfers of fertilized eggs to heifers may be best done during mid-cycle, after Day 6. Fluothane anaesthesia did not improve conception rate. Inflation of the uterus with carbon dioxide appeared to be deleterious when used at the mid-cycle stage in heifers. In Exp. 3, it was found that inflation of the ewe's uterus with carbon dioxide or nitrogen following the surgical thansfer of an egg did not affect the incidence of pregnancy. The introduction of 50 mul liquid Fluothane into the lumen of the uterus was embryotoxic.

  10. Exploring the Role of Culturally-Based Concepts of Disability and Special Education in Immigrant Care-Givers' Experiences with the Special Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of ten immigrant families in regard to the education of their children with disabilities. The purposes were to: (a) explore the role of culturally-based concepts of disability and special education in these families' involvement in the education of the children with disabilities; (b) determine…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Concept Mapping Enhanced Laboratory Experience on Turkish High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Coll, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here consists of the introduction of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities combined with concept mapping. The purpose of this intervention was to enhance student understanding of acid-base chemistry for tenth grade students' from two classes in a Turkish high school. An additional aim was to enhance…

  12. The Impact of the Use of Response Pad System on the Learning of Secondary School Physics Concepts: A Singapore Quasi-Experiment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Wong Kin; Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of researchers have examined response pad systems (RPSs) in higher education, there has been very little research at the K-12 level. This paper investigated the impact of using an RPS in the learning of physics concepts in a secondary school in Singapore. Two classes (n = 35 students in each class) of secondary five students…

  13. Circulation and Internationalisation of Pedagogical Concepts and Practices in the Discourse of Education: The Hamburg School Reform Experiment (1919-1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the international exchange of school reform ideas and concepts, the new schools in Hamburg were recognised as exemplary instances of a revolutionary and forceful reform in the public elementary school systems. Based on studies of transfer and their premise that the transnational transfer of ideas, practices and objects does not…

  14. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  15. Ways of probing situated concepts.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J

    2010-02-01

    Two ways of eliciting conceptual content have been to instruct participants to list the intrinsic properties that concept exemplars possess or to report any thoughts that come to mind about the concept. It has been argued that the open, unconstrained probe is better able to elicit the situational information that concepts contain. We evaluated this proposal in two experiments comparing the two probes with regard to the content that they yield for object concepts at the superordinate and basic levels. The results showed that the open probe was better able to elicit situated conceptual knowledge and point out differences in the representations of superordinate and basic concepts.

  16. Student Conceptions of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joughin, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    A phonographic study of students' experience of oral presentations in an open learning theology programme constituted three contrasting conceptions of oral presentations--as transmission of ideas; as a test of students' understanding of what they were studying; and as a position to be argued. Each of these conceptions represented a combination of…

  17. Participant observation and change of perspectives: medical anthropology and the encounter with socially marginalised groups. First experiences with a new teaching concept.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Berit; Hovermann, Peter; Roelcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the new teaching concept "Providing medical care on the fringe of society: Participant observation and change in perspectives" in the context of the interdisciplinary field of Querschnittsbereich 2/Q 2 (the transdisciplinary section under AOÄ, the German Regulations for licensed physicians) that explores the history, theory and ethics of medicine. The disciplinary approach usually adopted in Q 2 is supplemented with concepts from medical anthropology; in addition students will be exposed to people in extreme social situations. The aim is to make students aware of and invite them to reflect upon: the importance of participant observation in the specific on-site setting of medical thinking and acting; the importance of the subjectivity of all those involved in doctor/patient interaction; and the fact that key medical terms (such as the "need" as seen by the physician vs. the need as seen by the patient) are essentially context-dependent in their interpretation. At a more general level students will learn how to put themselves in the position of different protagonists in a range of medical settings, and practice the skill of reflecting critically upon putative conceptual/theoretical and normative-ethical assumptions in medicine.

  18. The innovative viscoelastic CP ESP cervical disk prosthesis with six degrees of freedom: biomechanical concepts, development program and preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Ricart, Olivier; Rakover, Jean Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The viscoelastic cervical disk prosthesis ESP is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer. It is an evolution of the LP ESP lumbar disk implanted since 2006. CP ESP provides six full degrees of freedom about the three axes including shock absorbtion. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. The concept of the ESP prosthesis is fundamentally different from that of the devices currently used in the cervical spine. The originality of the concept of the ESP® prosthesis led to innovative and intense testing to validate the adhesion of the viscoelastic component of the disk on the titanium endplates and to assess the mechanical properties of the PCU cushion. The preliminary clinical and radiological results with 2-year follow-up are encouraging for pain, function and kinematic behavior (range of motion and evolution of the mean centers of rotation). In this series, we did not observe device-related specific complications, misalignment, instability or ossifications. Additional studies and longer patient follow-up are needed to assess long-term reliability of this innovative implant.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Survey Study About the Most Common Solitary and Social Flow Activities to Extend the Concept of Optimal Experience

    PubMed Central

    Magyaródi, Tímea; Oláh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Previous assumptions note that the most powerful experiences of engagement are shared with others. Therefore, in the framework of positive psychology, to expand the dynamic interactionism-related flow theory, we have attempted to conduct an exploratory study about flow to reveal the most common activities that can trigger this experience during solitary or social situations. The study involved 1,709 adult participants from Hungary (Age: M = 26.95, SD = 11.23). They read descriptions about optimal experience in solitary and social situations and were asked to identify the activity from their life that is most typically followed by the described experiences. The social context was supplemented by other flow-related questions for a deeper understanding and to contribute to the research. According to the results the most typical solitary flow activities are found to be work, sports, creative activities and reading. The most common flow-inducing social activities are work and sports. The choice of the most frequent flow-inducing activities in both solitary and interpersonal situations is dependent on the gender of the respondent, and various demographical factors can influence the frequency of flow experiences in different contexts. Analysis reveal that optimal experience during a social interaction is determined by the perceived level of challenges, the perceived level of cooperation, the immediateness and clarity of the feedback, and the level of the skill. Our study may contribute to the broadening purpose of positive psychology as it focuses on the interpersonal level in relation to flow experience, which, in turn, may also support a higher level of well-being. PMID:27247682

  20. A Cross-Sectional Survey Study About the Most Common Solitary and Social Flow Activities to Extend the Concept of Optimal Experience.

    PubMed

    Magyaródi, Tímea; Oláh, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Previous assumptions note that the most powerful experiences of engagement are shared with others. Therefore, in the framework of positive psychology, to expand the dynamic interactionism-related flow theory, we have attempted to conduct an exploratory study about flow to reveal the most common activities that can trigger this experience during solitary or social situations. The study involved 1,709 adult participants from Hungary (Age: M = 26.95, SD = 11.23). They read descriptions about optimal experience in solitary and social situations and were asked to identify the activity from their life that is most typically followed by the described experiences. The social context was supplemented by other flow-related questions for a deeper understanding and to contribute to the research. According to the results the most typical solitary flow activities are found to be work, sports, creative activities and reading. The most common flow-inducing social activities are work and sports. The choice of the most frequent flow-inducing activities in both solitary and interpersonal situations is dependent on the gender of the respondent, and various demographical factors can influence the frequency of flow experiences in different contexts. Analysis reveal that optimal experience during a social interaction is determined by the perceived level of challenges, the perceived level of cooperation, the immediateness and clarity of the feedback, and the level of the skill. Our study may contribute to the broadening purpose of positive psychology as it focuses on the interpersonal level in relation to flow experience, which, in turn, may also support a higher level of well-being. PMID:27247682

  1. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  2. [Realization of Tissue Care Concept by the use of Denti Bone Level implants. Three years of clinical experience in applying Denti BL implants].

    PubMed

    Vajdovich, István; Orosz, Mihály

    2012-12-01

    Several scientific studies in the international literature discuss the practical application of preventive measures in implantation resulting in long-term success. These complex preventive principles are referred to as Tissue Care Concept (TCC). The authors' summarize the characteristics and prerequisites of TCC. Following several years of research, DenTi System Ltd. introduced a new dental implant, the Denti Bone Level (BL), in accordance with TTC requirements in 2008. In the last 3 years (between 2008 and 2011), the authors inserted 345 BL implants in 202 patients in either one or two sittings. Immediate, delayed, early or late implantations were performed following extraction. Fixation of crowns supported by implants resulted in immediate, early or delayed loading. The success rate of the implants was > 98% in the 3-year period.

  3. Difficult Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosbury, R.

    2005-12-01

    Beautiful colour images of the sky are both a blessing and a curse for the communication of astronomy to the public. While undoubtedly attractive, they can obscure the fact that discoveries are often made in astrophysics using techniques and measurements that are much more difficult to grasp and certainly less appealing to view. Should we try to explain such concepts as spectroscopy, polarimetry and interferometry, or is it a lost cause? The most effective approach to this problem may be to lead the audience to ask the question themselves: "But how do you know that?"

  4. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Seawell, Patricia Chandler; Imam, Jamie F. Conklin; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of…

  5. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  6. Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors: liquid jet impact experiments. Final report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1982-08-01

    The goal of this initial scoping study was to evaluate the transient and steady state drag of a single bar and of some selected arrays of bars and to determine the momentum removed from impacting liquid slugs. In order to achieve this aim, use has been made of both the published literature and experimental data obtained from a small-scale experimental apparatus. The implications of two possible scaling laws for use in designing the small-scale experiment are discussed. The use of near-universal curves to evaluate the momentum removed during the initial transient period is described. The small-scale apparatus used to obtain steady-state drag data is described. Finally, these results are applied to the HYLIFE fusion reactor.

  7. Concepts for a theoretical and experimental study of lifting rotor random loads and vibrations (further experiments with progressing/regressing rotor flapping modes), Phase 7-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Crews, S. T.

    1973-01-01

    The experiments with progressing/regressing forced rotor flapping modes have been extended in several directions and the data processing method has been considerably refined. The 16 inch hingeless 2-bladed rotor model was equipped with a new set of high precision blades which removed previously encountered tracking difficulties at high advance ratio, so that tests up to .8 rotor advance ratio could be conducted. In addition to data with 1.20 blade natural flapping frequency data at 1.10 flapping frequency were obtained. Outside the wind tunnel, tests with a ground plate located at different distances below the rotor were conducted while recording the dynamic downflow at a station .2R below the rotor plane with a hot wire anemometer.

  8. The concept of runoff elements as a basis of scale-free approach to runoff formation modelling - the experience of the model "Hydrograph" development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Yu. B.; Semenova, O.

    2009-04-01

    The concept of runoff elements used in proposed model as a base for calculating routine describing slope runoff transformation gives the opportunity to avoid the scale problem in hydrological modelling which, to our opinion, mainly refers to mathematical approaches (the framework of Navier-Stokes equations) widely used for description of water movement within the basin. River basin is a system of elementary watersheds of surface and underground ones of various layers. The topography of river basin surface conditionally can be presented by a system of the inclined surfaces each of them being an elementary slope. Within a surface elementary slope water flowing down is realized over non-channel rill system and within the underground elementary slope - over the underground drainage system. The elementary slopes and watersheds in their turn consist of a system of runoff elements - limited by micro-divides areas of the surface and underground elementary slopes and watersheds exposed with their open part to the slope non-channel or underground drainage system. Runoff elements are not the kind of idealization but they can be easily identified with the natural formations. Surface runoff elements depending on natural conditions but mainly on inclination can be measured from shares and ones up to tens of thousand square meters. Underground runoff elements can be much greater. For each runoff element there is a balance ratio (1) There is the unique nonlinear relation between W and outflow dischargeR: (2) Then, the corresponding equation of the outflow hydrograph from runoff elements of a given layer is the following: (3) Here R0 is the initial value of runoff R and S is the runoff rate (m3s-1); Δt is the computational time interval (sec) during which S is constant; a,b - hydraulic coefficients (which determine the conditions of outflow) with dimension m-3 and m3 s-1. In the general case, we assume that the number of runoff elements is proportional to the basin area F (m2

  9. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  10. PhasePlot: An Interactive Software Tool for Visualizing Phase Relations, Performing Virtual Experiments, and for Teaching Thermodynamic Concepts in Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    content (S) and are quite useful for understanding concepts like heat of reaction and crystallization; they are especially effective for illustrating invariant point behavior in magmatic systems. V-T grids are useful for relating the volume change of reaction (e.g., crystallization in magmatic systems) to pressure, and illustrate the importance of compressibility. V-S grids permit visualization of phase relations in chemically isolated systems embedded in a deformable and cooling matrix, such as isolated bodies of magma emplaced into the shallow crust. These additional features of PhasePlot greatly facilitate understanding of the topological mapping between phase diagrams in alternate reference systems. From a pedagogical perspective, these new features help the student understand the effect of different thermodynamic constraints on derived phase relations and reinforce the notion that pressure and temperature may be consequences and not dictates of the evolution of a chemical system. In addition to extended computational features, this revision of PhasePlot includes several user interface enhancements and an upgrade to the computational engine that drives contour plot and phase diagram generation.

  11. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  12. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  13. [Loneliness: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Chen, Chin-Mi

    2010-10-01

    Loneliness is a kind of mood that most people have experienced at one time or another. Individual experiences with loneliness as joyful or painful saturation are highly personal and can be defined only in such a context. Loneliness has differing effects on the long-term health of individuals. Although loneliness impacts greatly on individual health, there is little in the literature related to concept analyses of loneliness. The purpose of this article was to use Walker and Avant's (2005) concept analysis methodology to review conceptual definitions of loneliness, characteristics, antecedents and consequences; construct examples and establish empirical measurements. Results indicate that defining attributes of loneliness included an individual's subjective mood, descriptions of aloneness, depression, desolation or empty feelings, and the perception of the spirit isolated from others. It is hoped that nursing staffs may better understand loneliness through this article, provide an assessment of client loneliness as early as possible, and enhance client health condition. PMID:20878616

  14. Facilitating Student Experimentation with Statistical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia K.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a Web page with seven Java applets allowing students to experiment with key concepts in an introductory statistics course. Indicates the applets can be used in three ways: to place links to the applets, to create in-class demonstrations of statistical concepts, and to lead students through experiments and discover statistical relationships.…

  15. Putting concepts into context.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-08-01

    At first glance, conceptual representations (e.g., our internal notion of the object "lemon") seem static; we have the impression that there is something that the concept lemon "means" (a sour, yellow, football-shaped citrus fruit) and that this meaning does not vary. Research in semantic memory has traditionally taken this "static" perspective. Consequently, only effects demonstrated across a variety of contexts have typically been considered informative regarding the architecture of the semantic system. In this review, we take the opposite approach: We review instances of context-dependent conceptual activation at many different timescales-from long-term experience, to recent experience, to the current task goals, to the unfolding process of conceptual activation itself-and suggest that the pervasive effects of context across all of these timescales indicate that rather than being static, conceptual representations are constantly changing and are inextricably linked to their contexts. PMID:27282993

  16. [Innovative teleradiology network: concept and experience report].

    PubMed

    Kämmerer, M; Bethge, O T; Antoch, G

    2014-04-01

    (DICOM E-MAIL provides a standardized way for exchanging DICOM objects (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) and further relevant patient data for the treatment context reliably and securely via encrypted e-mails. The current version of the DICOM E-MAIL standard recommendations of the"Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG, German Röntgen Society) defines for the first time options for setting up a special directory service for the provision and distribution of communication data of all participants in a network. By using such"telephone books", networks of any size can be operated independent of the provider. Compared to a Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) scenario, the required infrastructure is considerably less complex and quicker to realize. Critical success factors are, in addition to the technology and an effective support, that the participants themselves contribute to the further development of the network and in this way, the network approach can be practiced. PMID:24549740

  17. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: current concepts and local experience.

    PubMed

    Hee, Hwan Tak

    2005-12-01

    With the aging population in our country, symptomatic osteoporotic compression fractures are increasingly common. Osteolytic compression fractures from spinal metastasis are also becoming more frequently seen because of the longer life expectancy from improvements in chemotherapy. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with PMMA has been shown to be an efficient procedure to treat pain due to these fractures. It is a minimally invasive procedure performed under local anesthesia and sedation. Injection of PMMA provides immediate stability when it hardens, and permits the patient to ambulate without pain. Appropriate patient selection is the key to clinical success. However, this procedure must be treated with respect, and has to be performed by physicians with the necessary training. Otherwise, increased pain, paralysis, and even death may occur from this seemingly innocuous procedure. In this article, I will deal with the background issues of osteoporotic and osteolytic vertebral compression fractures, patient selection, surgical technique, complications, and review of current literature on vertebroplasty. Key areas of development in this field include the use of kyphoplasty, defining the role of prophylactic augmentation, and improvements in biomaterials.

  18. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model.

  19. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model. PMID:27256943

  20. Linear separability in superordinate natural language concepts.

    PubMed

    Ruts, Wim; Storms, Gert; Hampton, James

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which linear separability was investigated in superordinate natural language concept pairs (e.g., toiletry-sewing gear). Representations of the exemplars of semantically related concept pairs were derived in two to five dimensions using multidimensional scaling (MDS) of similarities based on possession of the concept features. Next, category membership, obtained from an exemplar generation study (in Experiment 1) and from a forced-choice classification task (in Experiment 2) was predicted from the coordinates of the MDS representation using log linear analysis. The results showed that all natural kind concept pairs were perfectly linearly separable, whereas artifact concept pairs showed several violations. Clear linear separability of natural language concept pairs is in line with independent cue models. The violations in the artifact pairs, however, yield clear evidence against the independent cue models.

  1. Concept-Based Problem Solving: Making Concepts the Language of Physics. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    This document identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' understanding of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of…

  2. SEDS experiment design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

  3. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  4. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  5. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  6. The Use of the Rolled-up Vortex Concept for Predicting Wing-tail Interference and Comparison with Experiment at Mach Number of 1.62 for a Series of Missile Configurations Having Tandem Cruciform Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Carl E

    1952-01-01

    The method for predicting wing- tail interference whereby the trailing vortex system behind lifting wings is replaced by fully rolled-up vortices has been applied to the calculation of tail efficiency parameters, lift characteristics, and center -of-pressure locations for a series of generalized missile configurations. The calculations have been carried out with assumed and experimental vortex locations, and comparisons made with experimental data. The measured spanwise locations of the vortices for the inline case were found to be in good agreement with the asymptotic values computed from the center of gravity of the vorticity using the method of Lagerstrom and Graham. For the interdigitated configurations the measured spanwise locations were in only fair agreement with the asymptotic locations computed for the inline case. The vertical displacement of the vortices with angle of attack for both inline and interdigitated configurations was small. The method utilizing the rolled -up vortex concept was shown to give good results in the prediction of tail efficiency variations with angle of attack for inline configurations. Not as good correlation with experiment was shown for the interdigitated configurations. Complete configuration lift -curve slopes and center -of-pressure locations, obtained using t ail efficiency calculations together with the characteristics of the components obtained from available theoretical methods, showed excellent correlation with experimental results.

  7. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  8. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  9. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  10. Research-Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. J.; Kolb, W.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts ranked according to potential benefit/cost ratios. ARINC Researh Concept Evaluation Methodology (ARCEM) program provides powerful tool for organization and planning of research activities indicating which concepts provide greatest benefit for investment and determines number of concepts implemented to justify expenditures for development of generic technologies.

  11. Basic Physical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlich, Philipp; Bill, Eckhard; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is based on recoilless emission and resonant absorption of γ-radiation by atomic nuclei. The aim of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with the concepts of nuclear γ-resonance and the Mössbauer effect, before we describe the experiments and relevant electric and magnetic hyperfine interactions in Chaps. 3 and 4. We prefer doing this by collecting formulae without deriving them; comprehensive and instructive descriptions have already been given at length in a number of introductory books ([7-39] in Chap. 1). Readers who are primarily interested in understanding their Mössbauer spectra without too much physical ballast may skip this chapter at first reading and proceed directly to Chap. 4. However, for the understanding of some aspects of line broadening and the preparation of optimized samples discussed in Chap. 3, the principles described here might be necessary.

  12. The Saturn management concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  13. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  14. SOCIAL CLASS EFFECTS ON CONCEPT ATTAINMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSLER, SONIA F.

    SEVERAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE CONCEPTUAL BEHAVIOR OF LOWER AND MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN ARE DESCRIBED IN AN EFFORT TO CLARIFY AN APPARENT DISCREPANCY BETWEEN PREVIOUS LABORATORY FINDINGS AND OBSERVED CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, INDUCTIVE CONCEPT LEARNING WAS INVESTIGATED AS A FUNCTION OF SOCIAL CLASS MEMBERSHIP AND PRIOR EXPERIENCE.…

  15. A Cognitive Approach to Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This paper asks a fundamental question: what is happening inside the mind of the undergraduate during teaching and learning experiences, and how should curricula be designed to support it? A number of concepts lend themselves to providing an answer, principle among which is the relatively recent idea of Threshold Concepts. In this paper we attempt…

  16. Improved Self-Concepts Through Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Walter Arthur

    Investigations linking communication media experiences and self-concepts suggest that changes in the self-concept of Afro-American students may be acutely affected in instructional environments through group activities employing mediated approaches, participation in the media as producers rather than consumers, and instruction through visual…

  17. Young Children's Conception of Status and Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses young children's conceptions of status and role based on sociolinguistic analyses of spontaneous role play. Links developmental features of social knowledge to contextual features of children's interactive experiences. (Author/CK)

  18. A behavioral technology for producing concept formation in university students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. Keith; Weaver, F. Hal

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments analyzed the effectiveness of a textbook incorporating “concept programming” in producing concept formation in university students. The concept programming portion of each lesson requires students to determine which concept is illustrated by each of 20 short fictional stories about everyday behavioral situations. The stories are selected to illustrate and contrast the concepts of that lesson. Student responses are heavily prompted during the initial stories of each lesson. The first experiment demonstrated that students generalize to entirely novel examples from the examples in the textbook. The second experiment demonstrated that the concept programming portion of the textbook is a critical component in producing generalization. The third experiment demonstrated that the amount of concept formation produced by the concept programmed textbook is greater than that produced by a widely used standard textbook. PMID:16795527

  19. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  20. Is there an exemplar theory of concepts?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-08-01

    It is common to describe two main theories of concepts: prototype theories, which rely on some form of summary description of a category, and exemplar theories, which claim that concepts are represented as remembered category instances. This article reviews a number of important phenomena in the psychology of concepts, arguing that they have no proposed exemplar explanation. In some of these cases, it is difficult to see how an exemplar theory would be adequate. The article concludes that exemplars are certainly important in some categorization judgments and in category-learning experiments, but that there is no exemplar theory of human concepts in a broad sense.

  1. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  2. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category.

  3. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  4. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  5. Anhedonia: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nancy; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Anhedonia presents itself in a myriad of disease processes. To further develop our understanding of anhedonia and effective ways to manage it, the concept requires clear boundaries. This paper critically examined the current scientific literature and conducted a concept analysis of anhedonia to provide a more accurate and lucid understanding the concept. As part of the concept analysis, this paper also provides model, borderline, related, and contrary examples of anhedonia. PMID:23706888

  6. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  7. Applications of Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews three major uses of the concept-mapping strategies for postsecondary learning: the external representation of concept maps as an external scratch pad to represent major ideas and their organization, the mental construction of concept maps when students are seeking a time-efficient tool, and the electronic construction and…

  8. Concept Mapping Improves Metacomprehension Accuracy among 7th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a…

  9. Double pi(0) Photoproduction on the Proton at GRAAL.

    PubMed

    Assafiri, Y; Bartalini, O; Bellini, V; Bocquet, J P; Bouchigny, S; Capogni, M; Castoldi, M; D'Angelo, A; Didelez, J P; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Fichen, L; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Guidal, M; Hourany, E; Kouznetsov, V; Kunne, R; Laget, J-M; Lapik, A; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Moricciani, D; Nedorezov, V; Rebreyend, D; Randieri, C; Renard, F; Rudnev, N; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M; Sutera, M; Turinge, A; Zucchiatti, A

    2003-06-01

    The double pi(0) photoproduction off the proton has been measured in the beam energy range of 0.65-1.5 GeV. The total and differential cross sections and the Sigma beam asymmetry were extracted. The total cross section measured for the first time in the third resonance region of the nucleon shows a prominent peak. The interpretation of these results by two independent theoretical models infers mostly the selective excitation of P11- and D13-nucleon resonances.

  10. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  11. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  12. Investigating the Ocean-Climate System, Concept by Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharon, A.; Karp-Boss, L.; Boss, E.; Graham, S.; Manahan, A.; Weller, H.

    2006-12-01

    -school teachers and focused physical concepts that are already an integral part of the pre-college physics, chemistry, physical science, or earth sciences curricula, emphasizing their links to ocean science (e.g., density, pressure, waves). Special efforts were made to developing readily reproducible "hands on" activities and inquiry based learning. Evaluations conducted before, during, and after the workshop reveal that regardless of experience (i.e., "veteran" vs. "new" teacher), location (i.e., coastal vs. inland), or grade level, ocean science is viewed as an attractive medium through which other standards-required topics can be taught. Based on "lessons learned" from the summer workshop, a UMaine semester course is under development for pre-service educators and Marine Sciences majors who may consider entering the field of education.

  13. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    distance between Earth and the sun. And the disks in these systems were found to circumnavigate both members of the star pair, rather than just one.

    Though follow-up studies are needed, the results could mean that planet formation is more common around extra-tight binary stars than single stars. Since these types of systems would experience double sunsets, the artistic view portrayed here might not be fiction.

    The original sunset photo used in this artist's concept was taken by Robert Hurt of the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  14. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  15. Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

    2013-05-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation.

  16. What's in a Name? Young Adolescents' Implicit Conceptions of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 55 6th grade students' conceptions of "invention and patent processes". Suggests that students have few or simplistic conceptions of invention and patent processes and prior exposure to invention instruction, or previous experiences with inventing did not appear to have an impact on students' conceptions of invention. (Contains 70…

  17. The Development of the Concept of Suicide in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Claude L.; Mishara, Brian L.

    1992-01-01

    Examined development of concept of suicide in 60 children. Found that 10 percent of first, 50 percent of third, and 95 percent of fifth graders had basic understanding of suicide. Attitudes toward suicide were neutral or negative. Concept of suicide was significantly related to concept of death and experiences with death and was also related to…

  18. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  19. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  20. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  1. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  2. The Concept of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurro, Rafael; Hjorland, Birger

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the status of the concept of information in information science, with reference to interdisciplinary trends. Highlights include defining scientific terms; studies and sources of the word information; the concept of information in the natural sciences, and in the humanities and social sciences; librarianship; information retrieval; and the…

  3. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  4. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  5. New Concepts of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The two-day Canadian conference focused on the topics: "Why are new concepts of work emerging?" and "How can we encourage desirable new work concepts in our society?" Following an introductory summary by David P. Ross, Stephen Peitchinis (Dean, School of Business Administration, University of Calgary) presented the economic circumstances of the…

  6. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  7. The Concept of Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Students are aware of the theoretical or abstract concept of density, but fail to understand its practical implication in that the thickness concentrated in a solid object is what constitutes density. A study of the density concept reveals its very practical and qualitative nature, and the students must look beyond theoretical equations to…

  8. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  9. [The concept of happiness].

    PubMed

    Yampey, N

    1980-12-01

    The author points to the universal character of this complex psychic reality, i.e. happiness, and intends to define and describe its characteristics. Etymologically speaking, it means joy that is experienced through the object reached or the objective achieved, achievements which presuppose activity and effort. This psychological state is a pleasant, relative and dynamic one and shows itself up through the impulses that lead to spontaneous actions which are in harmony with the fundamental tendencies of the subject. They are not alien to running risks and to the will of victory. Some people believe happiness is attained at random, others think it is an art and a science to be developped by voluntary effort. Limited as it is by the order of universe and human constitution, its being a spiritual condition conveys a transcendency to it but by the same token it implies the sacrifice of immediate pleasure. Love between two people is its paramount paradigm. Love originates in sexual attraction but in its development and at its summit there is tenderness and companionship in a mutual relation between two people who share their genitality. Individual happiness is inseparable of collective happiness and on this idea stands social welfare. From the psychoanalytical point of view, the feeling of happiness relates itself to the personality as a whole and presupposes the cooperation in harmony of all the constituents of the self. It occurs when there is an experience of unity between Ego and World, Id or Ego Ideal, unity which is a consequence of having liberated oneself from the repressive instance. It is the result of a synthetic process, is essentially endogenous and is reached by the linking force of narcissistic libido. It is submitted to internal laws, that is why it possesses a passing condition. Enjoyment of happiness presupposes psychic integration and in this sense it is related to the modern health approach as stated by World Health Organization. In this conference

  10. Concept Abstractness and the Representation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu; Paulson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research on noun-noun combinations has been largely focusing on concrete concepts. Three experiments examined the role of concept abstractness in the representation of noun-noun combinations. In Experiment 1, participants provided written interpretations for phrases constituted by nouns of varying degrees of abstractness. Interpretive focus (the…

  11. The concept exploration model and an application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yin; Gao, Kening; Zhang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    For a user who is unfamiliar with a target domain, the first step to conduct an exploratory search task is to go over a learning phrase, which means to learn from the search results to acquire basic domain knowledge. Since lots of search results could be returned by a search engine, and usually only a small portion of all the results contain valuable knowledge to the current search task, the user usually needs to read lots of documents and could only learn limited knowledge. This makes the learning phrase a low efficiency, time consuming and easy to fail process. In order to support the learning phrase of the exploratory search process, this paper proposes the concept exploration model which describes how a user reads search results and figures out interesting concepts. The model focuses on how does a user explore related concepts during the learning phrase, and factorizes the concept exploration process as a production of the probability that concepts form a specific relation structure, and the probability that a user is attracted by a concept. In an application example, the concept exploration model is used in a query recommendation task to support exploratory search. We demonstrate how to determine the two probabilistic factors and evaluate the model with a set of metrics. The experiment results show that the application example could help users explore domain concepts more effectively.

  12. Feminism: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, H T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of feminism in order to clarify a sociological concept for its use in nursing theory and practice. This analysis is carried out using the Walker & Avant (1988) model. It includes: a literature review, an overview of the uses of the concept drawn from the literature, the defining attributes and the justification of their choice, the cases to demonstrate the concept, and the concept criteria. The concept was chosen out of an interest in developing a feminist nursing theory and desire to enhance nursing practice. The literature search proved most fruitful in the sociological literature. The nursing sources were fewer and concerned with practice rather than articulating any feminist nursing theory. Many of these sources were sociologists and nurses. The concept of feminism was defined as the concern with gender equality and the promotion of equal rights for men and woman, the expression of these concerns through theory or action, and the valuing of individuals for their contributions to society rather than their biological or sexual characteristics or roles. Although the concept of feminism was defined and analysed within the model suggested by Walker & Avant, the author found that the concept became oversimplified, losing much of the richness of the literature. The author felt that, for any development of theory or practice, this analysis would have to be expanded. It is argued that their model is too restrictive as it is based on positivist philosophy which seeks to establish divisions where, in fact, there is a blurring of meaning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  14. What a Concept! Using Concept Mapping on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina; Royer, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    When designed properly, concept mapping activities can engage students in meaningful learning. In the process of creating concept maps, students relate new information to more general concepts already held, develop fuller understandings of those general concepts, and recognize new relationships between concepts. Students engage in these activities…

  15. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  16. Concepts in Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  17. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Video Gallery

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  18. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Wind tunnel model of Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory concept on sting. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  19. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  20. Concept analysis: resilience.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Ona, Leila; Jakubowski, Rita; O'Flaherty, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    This paper will systematically analyze the concept of resilience using an integrated review of literature. The historical perspective, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of resilience will be reviewed. A theoretical and operational definition will be provided. The Walker and Avant method will be used to describe the cases. Finally, the use of concept map will capture the relationships among the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical indicators through clustering and chaining. PMID:24238005

  1. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  2. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  3. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Williams, R. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  4. Experience, Competence and Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine employees' conceptions of the meaning of experience in job-competence and its development in workplace context. The aim is to bring out the variety of conceptions related to experience, competence and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on interview data from six Finnish small and…

  5. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  6. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  7. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  8. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  9. Survey of CELSS Concepts and Preliminary Research in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohya, H.; Oshima, T.; Nitta, K.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural and other experiments relating to the development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) were proposed. The engineering feasibility of each proposal was investigated by a CELSS experiment concept met study group. The CELSS experiment concept to clarify the goals of CELSS and to determine three phases to achieve the goals. The resulting phases, or missions, and preliminary proposals and studies needed to develop a CELSS are described.

  10. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  11. [Concepts of anthropological medicine].

    PubMed

    Petzold, E R; Petzold, U

    2001-01-01

    Medical anthropology is the teaching of the ill human being, of being ill; anthropological medicine is the realization of this teaching in practice. This concept was first developed and assessed in the "Gestaltkreis" and in the Pathosophy (44), in Medicine in Motion (39), and in the Bipersonality (10). The four most important concepts are represented, which have their origin and aim in anthropological medicine: anthropological medicine, Balint-work, family-oriented medicine, and salutogenesis. These concepts are exemplified in the Aachen psychosomatic liaison model, the Aachen Balint cooperation model, and the Aachen model of psychosomatic care. We wish to portray the meaning of these resources for the medicine of the future, since they have proven to be effective, cost-saving, and easy to be handled. In the latter part of our presentation, we will document this point with a pilot study conducted in Israel and in our own clinic in Aachen. PMID:11603206

  12. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  13. Basic concepts of depression.

    PubMed

    Paykel, Eugene S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century, as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1980s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed.

  14. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  15. The Core Journal Concept in Black Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Black Studies scholars have shown interest in the core journal concept. Indeed, the idea of core journals for the study of the Black experience has changed several times since 1940. While Black Studies scholars are citing Black Studies journals with frequency, they also cite traditional disciplinary journals a great deal of the time. However,…

  16. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  17. Teaching the Concept of Demand: Another Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee

    1984-01-01

    In this college level economics exercise, students at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) learned about the concepts of demand and price setting through a real world experience. They studied and analyzed a service provided by the Wisconsin Student Association which sells students subscriptions to lecture notes for large lecture courses. (RM)

  18. The Thomas Self-Concept Values Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Walter L.

    A test was developed to assess personal self-concept values of preprimary and primary aged children. If large scale preschool programs are to be justified, effects in the areas of intellectual growth, achievement performance, and personal-social growth must be observable in children several years after preschool experience and must be measurable…

  19. Service Quality: A Concept not Fully Explored.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Nitecki, Danuta A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of service quality in libraries. Highlights include assessment; service quality versus user satisfaction; measuring service quality, including SERVQUAL; planning; experiences at Texas A& M University in cooperation with ARL (Association of Research Libraries) that resulted in LibQUAL+; and conceptual issues. (Contains 54…

  20. Project Design: An Emerging Curriculum Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Project Design, a curriculum concept being implemented in Ontario schools, in which groups of students are given the opportunity to contribute to the selection and design of a material object or system which they subsequently construct, test, and evaluate. Project focus in on basic learning experiences which involve multidisciplinary…

  1. Mars Rover Concept Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTamaney, Louis S.; Harmon, Scott Y.

    1989-03-01

    FMC conducted a carefully structured study effort designed to develop an extensive set of mobility and navigation concepts for a planetary exploration vehicle. This focused study commenced with a requirements analysis that defined operational and functional requirements and constraints. Next, the physical system, its value system (evaluation parameters and design criteria) and the martian terrain design environment (surface models) were developed simultaneously. Mobility (the basic vehicle structure, suspension, and power train) and navigation (both global and local navigation including global reference, local terrain assessment, and guidance and control) concepts were developed independently and then integrated. Special attention was paid to the interdependency of navigation and locomotion in order to strike the appropriate balance between autonomy and mobility. Finally, the most promising concepts were subjected to a rigorous, structured evaluation process to derive the best candidate systems. To support the evaluation process, a three-layer computer model of the martian surface was developed. This model was based on the 1/64° Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Mars developed by USGS Flagstaff. Local surface roughness based on measured martian slope distribution and power spectral density was superimposed on the DEM. Rocks based on H. Moore's distribution model were then added. To assess performance, selected concepts were modeled using DADSR from Computer Aided Software Inc., and simulations were run with the vehicle traversing the martian surface model, including one meter high vertical steps and one meter wide crevasses . During the course of this study, over 300 mobility concepts and more than 400 navigation concepts generated during a series of brainstorming sessions evolved into three promising candidate systems. The evolution of these systems is discussed; design details, conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  2. MSFC Skylab corollary experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab experiments from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All experiment systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.

  3. Revisiting the matricellular concept

    PubMed Central

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Sage, E. Helene

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25064829

  4. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  5. Teaching power concepts.

    PubMed

    Heineken, J; McCloskey, J C

    1985-01-01

    Concepts and strategies presented here provide nurses with a new perspective from which to analyze and interact with power dynamics. Understanding fundamental concepts of power will help nurses enjoy a more equal status and bargaining position within the community of health professionals and in health care delivery systems. As nurses integrate and utilize this content for enhancing professional practices and client services, our public image will also continue to be strengthened. In so doing, our power base and sphere of influence will also be broadened.

  6. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization. PMID:27024939

  7. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  8. Revisiting the matricellular concept.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E; Sage, E Helene

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine.

  9. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  10. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  11. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  12. The Fuzzy Nature Of Concepts: Stochastic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Megaklis Th.

    2010-09-01

    Concept is every assignment of a prototype to an icon, whatever may be the prototype or the icon. We call the prototype "object" and the icon "attributes". Concepts are couples of sets O and A, that is assignments, of the object O (a set of none, or one or more elements -there is no real difference), to the set A of (their common) attributes. The objects change according to the sequence of attributes. So, only couples of objects and attributes, enriched with the proper operations, are adequate for our Knowledge Space. Concepts are proved to have the structure (order) of a Boolean Algebra(Lattice), which is more complex than linear or hierarchical ones. The lattice is created by two algebraic operations ("intersection of concepts" as the multiplication and "symmetric-difference(!) of concepts" as the addition (!)). There are two other operations (the "union of two concepts" and the "complement of a concept"). Intersection and union(which cannot play the role of multiplication) express similarities, while the other two operations express dissimilarities. Union, intersection and the complement are used for the definition of the symmetric-difference. The complement cannot be expressed by the two predefined operations union and intersection, which have the meaning of "common". Besides, it is not a deterministic function: the complement Oc may have attributes inside the complement Ac of attributes (and if yes, we do not know, from the beginning, which of them). Now, the situation becomes stochastic: if Ω' is the set of n attributes we are interested in (e.g., in m sequential experiments), suppose that, in each experiment, some attributes appear(are detected) and the rest from Ω' do not appear. Everyone from the m experiments consists of n Bernulli trials (one for every attribute) and, consequently, we get m stochastically changing objects (concepts) and the (complete, if we are very lucky) lattice of the m concepts. Everyone from the n attributes corresponds to a B

  13. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  14. MSFC Skylab Kohoutek experiments mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Comet Kohoutek was documented by the Skylab 4 experiments' observations. The experiment concepts, hardware, operational performance and anomalies are discussed. Experiments which viewed the comet were mainly through the SAL and ATM, but some were handheld and EVA.

  15. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  16. The Concept of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the ordinary concept of intelligence are few and far between in philosophical literature. Such analyses as there have been in recent years are heavily influenced by Ryle's suggestion that to act intelligently is to act "well" or "competently" in a particular domain. Here I show that there are serious problems with Ryle's account and…

  17. Team Building Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It briefly explains how team building concepts affect businesses in new ways and how they help create an environment that provides job satisfaction for everyone and high-quality products for the…

  18. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  19. The Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, I. M.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study of difficulties encountered by 14.5- to 15.0- year-old children in learning the mole concept with a programed instruction. Concludes that three respective disturbing factors were embedded in manipulation of molarity of solutions, balancing equations, and misapprehension that one mole of a compound always reacts with one mole of…

  20. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  1. Using Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabell, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept cartoons are cognitive drawings or "visual disagreements" that use a cartoon-style design to present mathematical conversations inside speech bubbles. The viewpoints portrayed are all different and it is this difference that acts as a catalyst for further conversations, as learners talk together to discuss their thinking. They make…

  2. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  3. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  4. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  5. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  6. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  7. Creativity: Concepts and Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookey, T. Jerome

    The lack of a universal definition of creativity has led to the assessment of creativity according to the definition favored by the evaluator. These assessments fall into four groups. The first centers around the concept of the creative product; it assesses a tangible event or relationship that results from the creative process, which is implied…

  8. Nursing Concepts. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains the materials required to teach a course to prepare students for employment as practical nurses. The following topics are covered in seven instructional units: successful learning skills, positive self-concept, techniques for a balanced lifestyle, communication skills, legal and ethical issues, organizational and…

  9. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  10. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  11. The Concept of "Teachability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  12. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  13. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  14. What Is a Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    1975-01-01

    Article explores some of the key notions of the construct "concept" from the psychological and educational literature in order to demonstrate the need for standardization of definition and a more unified front in future investigations involving this important element in the study of cognition. (Author)

  15. Force Concept Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  16. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  17. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  18. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  19. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  20. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  1. The Concept of "Bildung"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varkoy, Oivind

    2010-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the originally German term and concept of Bildung. The reason why I, as a Scandinavian, find such a discussion both interesting and important is that the trend of instrumentalism in modern educational politics and pedagogical thinking (at least in Scandinavian countries) is problematic; that is, looking on knowledge…

  2. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  3. What Can a Concept Do? Rethinking Education's Queer Assemblages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Allen, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    In a discussion of Deleuze's theorization of concepts, Todd May asks "what can a concept do with that which cannot be identified?" Or to put it another way, May writes--"A concept is a way of addressing the difference that lies beneath the identities we experience." This is not to say that identities, concepts, and…

  4. Multiwall TPS - An emerging concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. L.; Kelly, H. N.; Avery, D. E.; Blosser, M. L.; Adelman, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    Research on titanium multiwall used for thermal protection is reviewed. Continuing analytical and experimental studies yielding a fundamental understanding of the thermal and structural performance of the basic multiwall concept are presented noting that central to this understanding is a knowledge of the extensional behavior of the dimpled sheets since the thinner flat sheets will buckle and be relatively ineffective in supporting compressive loads. Results from radiant heating, aerothermal, vibration, acoustic and lightning strike tests are described as part of an effort to verify the performance of multiwall tiles under representative operating conditions. Flight tests of a large array of tiles are also planned as part of an orbiter experiments program. The research effort is being extended from flat all-titanium multiwall configurations limited to temperatures below 810 K to curved surfaces and higher temperature versions. Multi-wall concepts are found to offer the durability of metallic systems and to be mass competitive with the insulation system currently used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  5. Developing a concept of choice.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Our adult concept of choice is not a simple idea, but rather a complex set of beliefs about the causes of actions. These beliefs are situation-, individual- and culture-dependent, and are thus likely constructed through social learning. This chapter takes a rational constructivist approach to examining the development of a concept of choice in young children. Initially, infants' combine assumptions of rational agency with their capacity for statistical inference to reason about alternative possibilities for, and constraints on, action. Preschoolers' build on this basic understanding by integrating domain-specific causal knowledge of physical, biological, and psychological possibility into their appraisal of their own and others' ability to choose. However, preschoolers continue to view both psychological and social motivations as constraints on choice--for example, stating that one cannot choose to harm another, or to act against personal desires. It is not until later that children share the adult belief that choice mediates between conflicting motivations for action. The chapter concludes by suggesting avenues for future research--to better characterize conceptual changes in beliefs about choice, and to understand how such beliefs arise from children's everyday experiences. PMID:23205412

  6. ADPF spoke cavity cryomodule concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J. P.; Roybal, P. L.; La Fave, R. P.; Waynert, J. A.; Schrage, D. L.; Schmierer, E. N.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Garnett, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) is being developed as a reactor concepts test bed for transmutation of nuclear waste. A 13.3 mA continuous-wave (CW) proton beam will be accelerated to 600 MeV and impinged on a spallation target. The subsequent neutron shower is used to create a nuclear reaction within a subcritical assembly of waste material that reduces the waste half-life from the order of 10{sup 5} years to 10{sup 2} years. Additionally, significant energy is produced that can be used to generate electrical power. The ADTF proton accelerator consists of room-temperature (RT) structures that accelerate the beam to 6.7-MeV and superconducting (SC) elements that boost the beam's energy to 600-MeV. Traditional SC elliptical cavities experience structural difficulties at low energies due to their geometry. Therefore, stiff-structured SC spoke cavities have been adopted for the energy range between 6.7 and 109 MeV. Elliptical cavities are used at the higher energies. This paper describes a multi-spoke-cavity cryomodule concept for ADTF.

  7. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  8. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  9. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  10. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  11. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  12. The novel Light Amplifier concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenc, Daniel; Kranich, Daniel; Laille, Alvin; Lorenz, Eckart

    2006-11-01

    Photon detectors are indispensable in many areas of fundamental physics research, particularly in the emerging field of particle astrophysics, as well as in medical imaging and nuclear nonproliferation. For a significant progress in all these areas a new, inexpensive industrial mass-production photosensor technology is needed, in many cases with a very large active area. In order to reach that goal we have introduced several innovations. This paper focuses on one of them, the hemispherical Light Amplifier. We report on the proof of principle tests of the prototype derived from an existing QUASAR phototube and a new Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. Our experiments prove that Light Amplifier concept presents a promising solution for a next-generation low-cost photon detector offering superior performance.

  13. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimizu, N.

    2016-10-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the qz direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  14. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    PubMed

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness.

  15. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    PubMed

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. PMID:25676193

  16. Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J

    2000-10-01

    One of the unsolved problems in the field of human concept learning concerns the factors that determine the subjective difficulty of concepts: why are some concepts psychologically simple and easy to learn, while others seem difficult, complex or incoherent? This question was much studied in the 1960s but was never answered, and more recent characterizations of concepts as prototypes rather than logical rules leave it unsolved. Here I investigate this question in the domain of Boolean concepts (categories defined by logical rules). A series of experiments measured the subjective difficulty of a wide range of logical varieties of concepts (41 mathematically distinct types in six families--a far wider range than has been tested previously). The data reveal a surprisingly simple empirical 'law': the subjective difficulty of a concept is directly proportional to its Boolean complexity (the length of the shortest logically equivalent propositional formula)--that is, to its logical incompressibility. PMID:11034211

  17. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  18. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  19. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  20. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  1. Artist's Concept of Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This artist's concept of the Voyager spacecraft with its antenna pointing to Earth. The identical Voyager spacecraft are three-axis stabilized systems that use celestial or gyro referenced attitude control to maintain pointing of the high-gain antennas toward Earth. The prime mission science payload consisted of 10 instruments (11 investigations including radio science). Only five investigator teams are still supported, though data are collected for two additional instruments.

  2. Some core contested concepts.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  3. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  4. The Fuego System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-rico, Cristóbal; Gonzalo, Jesús; Mariani, Andrea; Leibrandt, Wolfgang

    FUEGO is a satellite system intended to provide the firefighting forces in the world with early fire warning and fire monitoring capabilities. It is being conceived with the users, by fostering continuous user direction of the development process. This system concept is presented. We present the user requirements that have evolved from user consultation and have been confirmed in the First FUEGO Users Conference in Madrid. The sensor arrangement is discussed including the sort of algorithm envisaged and the necessary supporting spectral bands and sensitivity. Technological aspects are reviewed. The operational concept is briefly described. The architecture is shown to be flexible and adapted to user expectations. From the operational concept the satellite and ground segment requirements and design are presented, to show the feasibility in technical and programmatic terms. The main system issues are analysed for criticality and basic conclusions are derived. A summary of cost benefit analysis is presented. A satellite system is therefore proposed as an operational mission to support the forest firefighting activity.

  5. Concepts about Relations among Time, Distance and Velocity In Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, F.; And Others

    Almost all experimental investigations on concepts of time (T), distance (D) and velocity (V) since 1946 have been based on the Piagetian theory. However, there are several controversial points in Piaget's investigations. In the experiment described in this paper, developmental changes of concepts concerning relation of T, D, and V were examined…

  6. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  7. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  8. Concept Mapping Revisited: Nurturing Children's Writing Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has long been used an assessment tool by educators to illustrate students' conceptual development of a topic over time. In this article, we chronicle the use of concept maps in a language arts environment. Focusing on a literacy tutoring program for struggling readers/writers centered on hands-on science experiments, we explain how…

  9. Teaching Method and Effect on Learning Piagetian Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, David J.; Amadio, Dean M.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors of psychology typically use a variety of methods to teach concepts. The present double-blind experiment is intended to determine the effectiveness of popular television clips as exemplars of Piagetian concepts compared to verbal descriptions of the same exemplars among a sample of 86 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory…

  10. Development of the Angle Concept by Abstraction from Situated Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; White, Paul

    This paper explores a framework for research on the development of the angle concept based on theories of abstraction. The framework suggests that children initially acquire a body of disconnected angle knowledge situated in everyday experiences, group the situations to form angle contexts, and then form an abstract angle concept. The framework is…

  11. Examining Students' Generalizations of the Tangent Concept: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çekmez, Erdem; Baki, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a tangent is important in understanding many topics in mathematics and science. Earlier studies on students' understanding of the concept of a tangent have reported that they have various misunderstandings and experience difficulties in transferring their knowledge about the tangent line from Euclidean geometry into calculus. In…

  12. Concepts First, Jargon Second Improves Student Articulation of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lisa; Barker, Megan K.; Wieman, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, students in a large undergraduate biology course were first exposed to the concepts without new technical vocabulary ("jargon") in a pre-class reading assignment. Their learning of the concepts and jargon was compared with that of an equivalent group of students in another section of the same course, whose pre-class…

  13. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  14. Concepts of Scale Held by Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated students' with visual impairment concepts about linear size and scale. Specifically the study examined the accuracy of students' concepts over many orders of magnitude as well as experiences students have had in and out-of-school learning about size and scale. The results of assessments of 17 students with visual impairment…

  15. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  16. The Reconnaissance of Apophis (RA) Picosatellite Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noviello, J. L.; Ying, X. Y.; Wren, P. F.; Stinnett, B. L.; Akshay, R. T.; Karjigi, S.; Ridge, M. G.; Koganti, P.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a mission concept design for a picosatellite that will travel via mothership to 99942 Apophis, launch itself, and land on the surface to conduct experiments on dust accumulation rates and mobility in a microgravity environment.

  17. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. PMID:21916951

  18. Rethinking Experience: What Do We Mean by This Word "Experience"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses autoethnography to reassess the concept "experience" and the lack of theoretical frameworks within experiential education for delimiting experience within the practices and research around experiential, adventure, and outdoor education. Although a pivotal and essential part of practice, theoretical understandings of experience have…

  19. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  20. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  1. Teacher Self-Concept and Student Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edeburn, Carl E.; Landry, Richard G.

    This research concerns the changes in children's levels of self-concept over an academic year and whether these changes are related to the self-concept of their teachers. Data were generated from 16 self-contained classrooms in the third, fourth, and fifth grades of a midwestern city. Students' self-concepts were measured by the primary form of…

  2. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice informed by…

  3. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  4. The concept behind sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Epemolu, O; Bom, A

    2014-05-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. It allows rapid reversal of any degree of neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex acts by encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent. This prevents the drug from acting on prejunctional and postjunctional nicotinic receptors, allowing acetylcholine to activate these receptors, and resulting in reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. Objective monitoring of the degree of neuromuscular blockade is strongly recommended to determine the optimal dose of sugammadex. A good understanding of the concept behind sugammadex is essential in order to use this reversal agent in clinical practice.

  5. On the gestalt concept.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Jost, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    We define a gestalt as the invariants of a collection of patterns that can mutually be transformed into each other through a class of transformations encoded by, or conversely, determining that gestalt. The class of these transformations needs to satisfy structural regularities like the ones of the mathematical structure of a group. This makes an analysis of a gestalt possible in terms of relations between its representing patterns. While the gestalt concept has its origins in cognitive psychology, it has also important implications for morphology.

  6. Paraterraforming - The worldhouse concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard L. S.

    1992-08-01

    This paper discusses 'paraterraforming' as a means of creating and maintaining habitable environments on other planets. The 'worldhouse' concept of paraterraforming can be formulated within the existing boundaries of technological knowledge and can provide a quasi-unconstrained global habitable environment at significantly lower levels of materials requirement and economic cost. Construction can proceed on a modular basis. A coarse-grained assessment of the possibilities of paraterraforming Mars is presented. It is suggested that the establishment of a fully habitable worldhouse environment on the planet Mercury would be a much less difficult undertaking than taerraforming Venus and could be economically important for the human exploitation of the solar system.

  7. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  8. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  9. Mapping Earth Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Van Dine, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two experiments concerned with mapping skills. Directions are given for calculating the circumference of the earth and for developing a model of the solar system using familiar territory as a frame of reference. (MA)

  10. Educational Videogames: Concept, Design And Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlick, D.; Yang, A.; Kilb, D. L.; Ma, L.; Ruzic, R.; Peach, C. L.; Layman, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Videogames have historically gained popularity thanks to their entertainment rather than their educational value. This may be due, in part, to the fact that many educational videogames present academic concepts in dry, quiz-like ways, without the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement of non-educational games. The increasing availability of tools that allow designers to easily create rich experiences for players now makes it simpler than ever for educational game designers to generate the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement that gamers have grown to expect. Based on data from our work, when designed effectively, educational games can engage players, teach concepts, and tear down the stereotype of the stuffy, boring educational game. Our team has been experimenting with different ways to present scientific and mathematical concepts to middle and high school students through engaging, interactive games. When designing a gameplay concept, we focus on what we want the player to learn and experience as well as how to maintain a learning environment that is fun and engaging. Techniques that we have found successful include the use of a series of fast-paced 'minigames,' and the use of a 'simulator' learning method that allows a player to learn by completing objectives similar to those completed by today's scientists. Formative evaluations of our games over the past year have revealed both design strengths and weaknesses. Based on findings from a systematic evaluation of game play with diverse groups, with data collected through in-person observations of game play, knowledge assessments, focus groups, interviews with players, and computer tracking of students' game play behavior, we have found that players are uniformly enthusiastic about the educational tools. At the same time, we find there is more work to be done to make our tools fully intuitive, and to effectively present complex mathematical and scientific concepts to learners from a wide

  11. Multimedia event detection using visual concept signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younessian, Ehsan; Quinn, Michael; Mitamura, Teruko; Hauptmann, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia Event Detection (MED) is a multimedia retrieval task with the goal of finding videos of a particular event in a large-scale Internet video archive, given example videos and text descriptions. In this paper, we mainly focus on an 'ad-hoc' scenario in MED where we do not use any example video. We aim to retrieve test videos based on their visual semantics using a Visual Concept Signature (VCS) generated for each event only derived from the event description provided as the query. Visual semantics are described using the Semantic INdexing (SIN) feature which represents the likelihood of predefined visual concepts in a video. To generate a VCS for an event, we project the given event description to a visual concept list using the proposed textual semantic similarity. Exploring SIN feature properties, we harmonize the generated visual concept signature and the SIN feature to improve retrieval performance. We conduct different experiments to assess the quality of generated visual concept signatures with respect to human expectation, and in the context of the MED task to retrieve the SIN feature of videos in the test dataset when we have no or only very few training videos.

  12. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  13. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  14. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  15. [The concept of health].

    PubMed

    Segre, M; Ferraz, F C

    1997-10-01

    Objections to the present WHO (World Health Organization) definition of HEALTH, as "the state of perfect physical, mental and social well-being", are expressed. It is considered to be anachronistic, first because it aims at perfection which is unaltainelle because of district personality characteristics. As the main support for this idea, the necessary renunciation of part of man's drive to liberty in exchange for the lesser insecurity provided by social life (Freud, Castoriadis and McDougall), is groted. The validity of distinguishing between "soma", "psyche" and "society" is questioned and the concept of the "integrated man", alluding to Pierre Marty and to Freud himself is adapted, and situations are recalled in which the interaction of the three aspects mentioned above is actually evident. Finally, the notion of the quality of life, in accordance with an antipositivistic taken from Bion, point of view, is discussed, and the concept that reality is that of each human being, is adapted. This priority and the proposal to rescue subjectivism which was also observed by Foucault when he studied mental disease, leads to a last criticism of the present definition of health, based exclusively on external, objective evaluations. PMID:9629735

  16. A TACSAT SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. D.; Baker, C. J.; Keyte, G. E.; Murphy, L. M.

    1993-02-01

    The payload concept covered is that of a low cost, high performance radar sensor capable of detecting and recognizing static objects within an imaged scene of the Earth's surface using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technique. The overall system is integrated with a TACSAT platform in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and, although only passing reference is made to this feature, the radar could also have a capability for the detection of Ground Moving Targets (GMTI). A parametric review of such a sensor in the light of the target and background features to be observed is provided. A design concept is included showing the possible hardware realization of a candidate system, as well as budgets for the mass, size, power, and pointing requirements of the instrument. Additional design features considered are the influence that short duration missions may have on hardware redundancy and the effect of short, low duty-cycle observation periods on solar array and battery sizing. The way towards a low cost R and D demonstrator system allowing a practical investigation of the key techniques and technologies is addressed.

  17. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  18. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  19. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  20. [The concept of health].

    PubMed

    Segre, M; Ferraz, F C

    1997-10-01

    Objections to the present WHO (World Health Organization) definition of HEALTH, as "the state of perfect physical, mental and social well-being", are expressed. It is considered to be anachronistic, first because it aims at perfection which is unaltainelle because of district personality characteristics. As the main support for this idea, the necessary renunciation of part of man's drive to liberty in exchange for the lesser insecurity provided by social life (Freud, Castoriadis and McDougall), is groted. The validity of distinguishing between "soma", "psyche" and "society" is questioned and the concept of the "integrated man", alluding to Pierre Marty and to Freud himself is adapted, and situations are recalled in which the interaction of the three aspects mentioned above is actually evident. Finally, the notion of the quality of life, in accordance with an antipositivistic taken from Bion, point of view, is discussed, and the concept that reality is that of each human being, is adapted. This priority and the proposal to rescue subjectivism which was also observed by Foucault when he studied mental disease, leads to a last criticism of the present definition of health, based exclusively on external, objective evaluations.

  1. Powerful concepts in global health

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health. PMID:25674576

  2. Concepts in strong Langmuir turbulence theory

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the basic concepts of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are reviewed. In SLT system, a major fraction of the turbulent energy is carried by local, time-dependent, nonlinear excitations called cavitons. Modulational instability, localization of Langmuir fields by density fluctuations, caviton nucleation, collapse, and burnout and caviton correlations are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence will be presented for SLT phenomena in the interaction of powerful HF waves with the ionosphere and in laser-plasma interaction experiments. 38 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  4. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  5. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  6. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the sense given…

  7. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  8. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  9. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  10. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  11. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  12. SPICE: An innovative, flexible instrument concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, Kenji; Cauffman, D. P.; Jurcevich, B.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Studies and plans for orbital capture of cosmic dust and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) looked very bright with the advent of space station Freedom (SSF) and formal selection of Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) as an attached payload in 1990. Unfortunately it has been downhill since its selection, culminating in CDCF being dropped as attached payload in the SSF redesign process this year. This action was without any input from the science or cosmic dust communities. The Exobiology Intact Capture Experiment (Exo-ICE) as an experiment on CDCF was also lost. Without CDCF, no facility-class instrument for cosmic dust studies is available or planned. When CDCF (and Exo-ICE) was selected as a SSF attached payload, an exercise called the small particle intact capture experiment (SPICE) was started for Exo-ICE to develop an understanding and early testing of the necessary expertise and technology for intact capture of cosmic dust and IDP's. This SPICE activity looks to fly small, meter square or less, collection area experiments on early orbital platforms of opportunity such as EURECA, MIR, WESTAR, and others, including the shuttle. The SPICE activity has focused on developing techniques and instrument concepts to capture particles intact and without inadvertent contamination. It began with a survey and screening of available capture media concepts and then focused on the development of a capture medium that can meet these requirements. Evaluation and development of the chosen capture medium, aerogel (a silicon oxide gel), has so far lived up to the expectations of meeting the requirements and is highlighted in a companion paper at this workshop. Others such as McDonnell's Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE) on EuReCa and Tsuo's GAS-CAN lid experiments on STS 47 and 57 have flown aerogel, but without addressing the contamination issue/requirement, especially regarding organics. Horz, Zolenskym and others have studied and have also been advocates for its

  13. Condensed Laboratory Experiences for Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, James M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of laboratory experiments termed hands-on demonstrations that are designed to reinforce the concepts covered in lecture with emphasis on maximizing the sense content (sight, smell, hearing) to improve retention by the student. (GS)

  14. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  15. The fate of activated information in impression formation: fluency of concept activation moderates the emergence of assimilation versus contrast.

    PubMed

    Greifeneder, Rainer; Bless, Herbert

    2010-06-01

    Prior research has shown that activated concepts may influence subsequent interpretation and judgmental processes via priming. Building on this evidence, we suggest that the fluency associated with concept activation may determine whether activated content elicits assimilation or contrast. In two experiments, concept activation in a typical priming experiment was rendered fluent or non-fluent. Consistent with hypotheses, fluent concept activation led to assimilation, whereas non-fluent concept activation led to contrast.

  16. [Charcot's epistemological concept].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, A

    1994-01-01

    Through a brilliant medical way, Charcot was, at the same time, rheumatologist, geriatric, clinician, pathologist - and mainly neuro-pathologist - ending as a psychiatrist (according to todays medical terminology). Here, we will point out how much scientific theory and philosophy may support an original concept very unusual during the second half of XIXth century medicine. Describing connection between biology and medicine according to Auguste Comte thoughte, the author is thoroughly going into the course introduced by Charcot: scientific medicine instead of empirical one; structural medical-anatomy against rudimentary approach and rising of experimental medicine; impact of human sciences on medical knowledge; appearance of specialists near general practitioners; idea of organic disturbances denying any 'faith healing". In fact, Charcot asserts that bedside instruction prevails against accurate sciences.

  17. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  18. [Charcot's epistemological concept].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, A

    1994-01-01

    Through a brilliant medical way, Charcot was, at the same time, rheumatologist, geriatric, clinician, pathologist - and mainly neuro-pathologist - ending as a psychiatrist (according to todays medical terminology). Here, we will point out how much scientific theory and philosophy may support an original concept very unusual during the second half of XIXth century medicine. Describing connection between biology and medicine according to Auguste Comte thoughte, the author is thoroughly going into the course introduced by Charcot: scientific medicine instead of empirical one; structural medical-anatomy against rudimentary approach and rising of experimental medicine; impact of human sciences on medical knowledge; appearance of specialists near general practitioners; idea of organic disturbances denying any 'faith healing". In fact, Charcot asserts that bedside instruction prevails against accurate sciences. PMID:11640482

  19. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  20. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  1. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  2. Fluvial sediment concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    This report is the first of a series concerned with the measurement of and recording of information about fluvial sediment and with related environmental data needed to maintain and improve basic sediment knowledge. Concepts presented in this report involve (1) the physical characteristics of sediment which include aspects relative 'to weathering, soils, resistance to erosion, and particle size, (2) sediment erosion, transport, and deposition characteristics, which include aspects relative to fine sediment and overland flow, coarse sediment and streamflow, variations in stream sediment concentration, deposition, and denudation, (3) geomorphic considerations, which include aspects relative to the drainage basin, mass wasting, and channel properties, (4) economic aspects, and (5) data needs and program objectives to be attained through the use of several kinds of sediment records.

  3. Avicenna's concept of pain

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Osama A.; Johnson, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    Ibn Sina (Latin name – Avicenna, 980–1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire. PMID:21483573

  4. Avicenna's concept of pain.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I

    2010-09-08

    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  5. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  6. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked. PMID:8974516

  7. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked.

  8. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  9. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  10. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health. PMID:23858273

  11. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  12. Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Ridder, Huib; Freeman, Jonathan; Avons, Steve E.

    2000-06-01

    The concept of presence, i.e. the sensation of 'being there' in a mediated environment, has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and is becoming increasingly relevant both to broadcasters and display developers. Although research into presence is still at an early stage of development, there is a consensus that presence has multiple determinants. To identify and test which parameters affect presence, a reliable, robust and valid means of measuring presence is required. In this paper, we describe the categories of factors thought to have an impact on presence. Furthermore, we present an overview of various approaches taken to measuring presence, which can be divided into two general categories: subjective measures and objective corroborative measures. Since presence is a subjective experience, the most direct way of assessment is through users' subjective report. This approach has serious limitations however, and should be used judiciously. Objective measures, such as postural, physiological or social responses to media, can be used to corroborate subjective measures, thereby overcoming some of their limitations. At present, the most promising direction for presence measurement is to develop and use an aggregate measure of presence that is comprised of both subjective and objective components, tailored to the specific medium under study.

  13. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Jefferies, Sharon; Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert; Mary, Natalie; Watson, Judith; Lewis, Ruthan

    2016-01-01

    When the first human visitors on Mars prepare to return to Earth, they will have to comply with stringent planetary protection requirements. Apollo Program experience warns that opening an EVA hatch directly to the surface will bring dust into the ascent vehicle. To prevent inadvertent return of potential Martian contaminants to Earth, careful consideration must be given to the way in which crew ingress their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel that eliminates extravehicular activity (EVA) ingress is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications, such as rover to habitat transfer, once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The study team began by identifying the minimum set of functional requirements needed for the tunnel to perform its primary mission, as this would presumably be the simplest design, with the lowest mass and volume. This Minimum Functional Tunnel then becomes a baseline against which various tunnel design concepts and potential alternatives can be traded, and aids in assessing the mass penalty of increased functionality. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mass of a single-mission tunnel is about 237 kg, not including mass growth allowance.

  14. Ardhanareeshwara concept: Brain and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Raveesh, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Ardhanareeshvara is a combination of three words “Ardha,” “Nari,” and “Ishwara” means “half,” “woman,” and “lord,” respectively, which when combined means the lord whose half is a woman. It is believed that the God is Lord Shiva and the woman part is his consort Goddess Parvati or Shakti. The Ardhanareeshvara represents a constructive and generative power. Ardhanareeshvara symbolizes male and female principles cannot be separated. It conveys the unity of opposites in the universe. The male half stands for Purusha and female half is Prakriti. Ardhanareeshvara harmonizes the two conflicting ways of life: The spiritual way of the ascetic as represented by Shiva, and the materialistic way of the householder symbolized by Parvati. It conveys that Shiva and Shakti are one and the same. A human being is not a pure unisexual organism. Each human organism bears the potentiality of both male and female sex. Neurohormonal mechanisms have been found to be greatly influencing the sexual behavior. The modern world has come to understand the concept of “Ardhanareeshwara” as it aspires to resolve the paradox of opposites into a unity, not by negation, but through positive experiences of life. The matching of opposites produces the true rhythm of life. PMID:23858265

  15. Investigating the Act of Design in Discharge Concept Using PMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestariningsih; Anwar, Muhammad; Setiawan, Agus Mulyanto

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the act of design in discharge concept using Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) approach with Lapindo's Mud phenomenon as a context. Design research was chosen as the method used in this research that consists of three phases, namely preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and…

  16. Understanding the Concept Emotion: Support for a Prototype Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaccino, James

    A study examined a series of seven experiments conducted in order to identify more precisely the hierarchical structure of the concept emotion, which presumably extended from superordinate to basic and finally subordinate levels. Subjects, 1,052 persons in all, participated in any of seven different experiments: (1) listing basic level categories…

  17. Hot Brakes and Energy-Related Concepts: Is Energy Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, V.; Pinto, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first…

  18. Presupposition Processing and the (Re)activation of Negated Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Negated words take longer to recognize than non-negated words following sentences with negation, suggesting that negated concepts are less active. The present experiments tested the possibility that this reduced activation would not persist beyond immediate testing. Experiment 1 used a probe task and materials similar to those used in previous…

  19. SLI Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education, and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle. For the SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second- generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  20. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  1. The PRISM concept

    SciTech Connect

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Jacobs, G.K.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching.

  2. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  3. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ram; Mishra, Vibhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms “prostatitis”, “chronic prostatitis” and “chronic pelvic pain syndrome”. The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option “Related Articles”. Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK). National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration. PMID:19468353

  4. Concepts of fever.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, P A

    1998-09-28

    If asked to define fever, most physicians would offer a thermal definition, such as "fever is a temperature greater than...." In offering their definition, many would ignore the importance of the anatomic site at which temperature measurements are taken, as well as the diurnal oscillations that characterize body temperature. If queried about the history of clinical thermometry, few physicians could identify the source or explain the pertinacity of the belief that 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C) has special meaning vis-à-vis normal body temperature. Fewer still could cite the origin of the thermometer or trace the evolution of modern concepts of clinical thermometry. Although many would have some knowledge of the fundamentals of thermoregulation and the role played by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in the induction of fever, few would have more than a superficial knowledge of the broad biological activities of pyrogenic cytokines or know of the existence of an equally complex and important system of endogenous cryogens. A distinct minority would appreciate the obvious paradoxes inherent in an enlarging body of data concerned with the question of fever's adaptive value. The present review considers many of these issues in the light of current data. PMID:9759682

  5. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  6. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  7. Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash.

    PubMed

    Centerbar, David B; Schnall, Simone; Clore, Gerald L; Garvin, Erika D

    2008-04-01

    In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than did affective incoherence. The authors suggest that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits and that incoherence is costly in terms of cognitive performance.

  8. A robotic framework for semantic concept learning.

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Kevin M.; Levinson, Stephen E.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2004-09-01

    This report describes work carried out under a Sandia National Laboratories Excellence in Engineering Fellowship in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our research group (at UIUC) is developing a intelligent robot, and attempting to teach it language. While there are many aspects of this research, for the purposes of this report the most important are the following ideas. Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax. To truly learn meaning, the language engine must be part of an embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those concepts symbolically. In the work described here, we explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in this capacity. HMMs are capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We describe a composite model consisting of a cascade of HMMs that can be embedded in a small mobile robot and used to learn correlations among sensory inputs to create symbolic concepts. These symbols can then be manipulated linguistically and used for decision making. This is the project final report for the University Collaboration LDRD project, 'A Robotic Framework for Semantic Concept Learning'.

  9. Concept and technology development for HOPE spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Testsuichi; Akimoto, Toshio; Miyaba, Hiroshi; Kano, Yasuomi; Suzuki, Norio

    1990-10-01

    HOPE spaceplane has been studied for several years in NASDA. The purpose of the current study is to establish the feasible concept of HOPE and to prepare the technical bases. The primary mission of HOPE is the Space Station Freedom/JEM logistics transportation complementing with U.S. Space Shuttle fleet. Besides previous concept of ten ton class orbiter launched by H-II rocket, extended size orbiter concept has been studied along with enhancement of H-II rocket, which is called H-IID (derivative) rocket. An orbiter derived from this study weighs 20t at lift off and has three to five tons of payload capability, based on the H-IID configuration of H-II first stage with six solid boosters strapped on. Subsystems design and technology development in such field as aerodynamics, structure and materials, guidance-navigation and control, and Space Station interface are in progress. In order to acquire the reentry flight data, orbital reentry experiment is planned and under development utilizing orbital flight opportunity of H-II test flight in 1993. These concepts are under review and trade off in NASDA for establishing HOPE development scenario.

  10. Privatizing Education and Educational Choice: Concepts, Plans, and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Simon, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains articles by educational researchers who examine the issues surrounding educational choice in public school systems and the voucher system for private schools. They discuss when choice should be considered, methods of implementation, and the extent to which government should be involved. Descriptions and evaluations of choice…

  11. Indigenizing the Western Concept of University: The Chinese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Modern universities are uniquely European in origin and characteristics. With the diffusion of the European model into the university throughout the world, the heritage of colonialism and the fact that contemporary universities are Western institutions without much linkage to their indigenous intellectual traditions are the fundamental reasons for…

  12. Discovery Venera surface: Atmosphere geochemistry experiments mission concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Yuri A.; Head, James W.; Kremnev, Roald; Nock, K. T.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in our understanding of Venus provided by the Magellan Mission has raised a series of focused, fundamental scientific questions about the geochemistry of the surface of Venus, the nature of the lower atmosphere, and the relationship of the lower atmosphere and surface. First, surface geochemical measurements from the Venera/Vega spacecraft showed that widely spaced regions of the venusian plains are made of basalts; thus basalts are significant and may be the only component of the venusian crust. But we lack information on the composition of several key elements of Venus geology: (1) Tessera terrain (which may be outcrops of continental-like non-basaltic crustal material) and steep-sided domes/festoons are promising candidates for non-basaltic geochemically evolved material. The composition of the lower part of the Venusian crust is unknown: however, ejecta from large venusian craters provides us with the possibility of sampling this material on the surface; (2) bulk chemistry (structure and dynamics) of the venusian atmosphere are known. The altitude profiles of water vapor content and minor admixtures relevant to redox conditions in the lower atmosphere (less than 20 km altitude) remain uncertain. Lack of that knowledge means that we do not understand the fine chemical structure of the main mass of the Venusian atmosphere; and (3) thermodynamic models predict that igneous materials on the surface of Venus should react with gases of the venusian atmosphere. But because the water vapor content and redox conditions in the lower atmosphere are not well known, we do not understand the nature of venusian weathering: oxidation, sulfatization, carbonatization, and hydration. The answers to these questions are critical to the understanding of Venus, the most Earth-like of the terrestrial planets.

  13. The Path to Fusion Energy for Concepts Currently at the Concept Exploration Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E B

    2003-01-09

    Concept Exploration (CE) experiments within the Innovative Confinement Concept Program have a unique role which impacts their contributions to the development of fusion energy. As stated in the FESAC ''Report on Alternate Concepts:'' These [CE] programs are aimed at innovation and basic understanding of relevant scientific phenomena. The emphasis on innovation motivates their application to the search for a better fusion reactor configuration. In addition, because of their unique character the CE experiments offer excellent opportunities to couple fusion-plasma physics to other sciences. A recent example of coupling is the fusion self-organized plasmas to reconnection physics and extra-terrestrial plasmas. Perhaps of even greater importance is the education of the future scientists needed for developing fusion energy. The CE experiments, both at universities and national labs, are of a size students can ''get their hands around;'' young scientists and engineers will be attracted by this intellectual challenge combined with the vision of low-pollution energy for mankind represented by a burning-plasma experiment. A CE concept showing promise for fusion energy is expected to advance to the Proof-of-Principal stage. Experience has shown that this progression may occur in several ways: NSTX followed from success in START, a CE-level experiment in England; NCSX built on a broad base of theory and a strong international stellarator data base, without a CE experiment to test quasi-axisymmetry; and MST is following an upgrade path from the CE experiment of the same name. The lesson to be learned is a highly positive one, namely that the portfolio approach--with its five stages of development--is being applied in a flexible and pragmatic manner without artificial constraints from strategic planning. This lesson also makes it clear that as we move towards the development of fusion energy we need to determine the best way forward for each promising configuration, taking

  14. Proving the Ocean Nourishment Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Vast regions of the sea are barren because of a lack of essential nutrients. Ocean Nourishment is the concept of injecting nutrients into the photic zone of the ocean to store carbon and increase the base of the marine food web. It is elaborated in Jones & Young (1997). The first step in demonstrating this concept is to see if the limiting nutrients can be recognised and provided to the oligotrophic ocean. To this end water samples from three sites were collected in ultraclean polycarbonate culture bottles and enriched with various mixtures of nutrients. They were then placed in a water bath and subjected to natural sunlight for a number of days. Fluorescence levels were measured daily. Previously Thomas (1969) carried out enrichment experiments in and out of high nutrient water in the North Pacific and again Thomas (1970) cultured on the deck of his ship nutrient poor waters in the Pacific. He found nitrogen was the most important limiting nutrient in the poor waters but that micronutrients produced growth in the nutrient rich waters. Ryther and Dunstan (1971) in the Atlantic cultured coastal water with only nitrogen and phosphorus separately. The addition of nitrogen without phosphate produced growth in all cases. To increase the geographic coverage of enrichment experiments, samples were collected off Morocco twice, in the Tasman Sea and in the Sulu Sea. The samples enriched with different concentrations of urea (typically 10 microM) and phosphorous. An increase concentration of chlorophyll is the result of growth of phytoplankton exceeding death and grazing by zooplankton. At five sites an increase of chlorophyll was observed in the macronutrient enriched bottles over that in the control. At the sixth site the control grew at much the same rate as the enriched sample possibly due to contamination by the fluorometer. The maximum chlorophyll level was observed after 4 or 5 days. Replicate samples showed different levels of chlorophyll growths. It was concluded

  15. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  16. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  17. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged f-measure for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged f-measure based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

  18. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  19. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-02-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented

  20. An Exploration of Students' Understanding of the Concepts "Force" and "Energy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, D. M.

    The naive conceptions that children develop tacitly or explicitly, outside the classroom, contribute to their interpretation of the teacher's words, paragraphs in a book, or the results of an experiment. These conceptions (or "alternative frameworks") may persist even in the face of systematic teaching of competing scientific concepts and models.…